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EN 71-8

EUROPEAN STANDARD

NORME EUROPÉENNE

EUROPÄISCHE NORM

September 2011

ICS 97.200.50

Supersedes EN 71-8:2003+A4:2009

English Version

Safety of toys - Part 8: Activity toys for domestic use

Sécurité des jouets - Partie 8: Jouets d'activité à usage familial

Sicherheit von Spielzeug - Teil 8: Aktivitätsspielzeug für den häuslichen Gebrauch

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 3 September 2011.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION

COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2011 CEN

All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved worldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No. EN 71-8:2011: E

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Foreword

This document (EN 71-8:2011) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 52 “Safety of toys”, the secretariat of which is held by DS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by March 2012 and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by March 2012.

This document supersedes EN 71-8:2003+A4:2009.

Annex B provides details of significant technical changes between this European Standard and the previous edition.

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive(s).

For relationship with EU Directive(s), see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this European Standard.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This European Standard constitutes the eight part of the European Standard on safety of toys. It should be read in conjunction with Part 1.

This European Standard for safety of toys consists of the following parts:

NOTE 1 In addition to the above parts of EN 71, the following guidance documents have been published: CEN Report, CR 14379:2002, Classification of toys - Guidelines, CEN Technical Report CEN/TR 15071:2005, Safety of toys - National translations of warnings and instructions for use in EN 71, and CEN Technical Report CEN/TR 15371:2009, Safety of toys – Replies to requests for interpretation of EN 71-1, EN 71-2, and EN 71-8.

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NOTE 2 Different legal requirements may exist in non-EU countries.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organizations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

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1 Scope (see A.1)

This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for activity toys for domestic use often attached to or incorporating a crossbeam, and similar toys intended for children under 14 years to play on or in and often intended to bear the mass of one or more children.

This European Standard also specifies requirements for:

The scope of this European Standard excludes:

NOTE 1 Requirements for toy trampolines and non-aquatic inflatable toys are being elaborated.

NOTE 2 There is an enhanced risk of drowning in toy pools where the depth of water is in excess of 400 mm.

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 71-1, Safety of toys — Mechanical and physical properties

3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1 activity toy

toy for domestic use, in which the support structure remains stationary while the activity is taking place and which is intended for the performance by a child of any of the following activities: climbing, jumping, swinging, sliding, rocking, spinning, paddling, crawling and creeping, or any combination thereof

NOTE Examples of such toys are swings, slides, carousels, climbing frames, playhouses and tents, paddling pools, non-aquatic inflatable toys. In contrast, ride-on vehicles are not considered as activity toys.

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3.2 anchor

device used to fix an activity toy to the standing surface

3.3 barrier

device intended to prevent the user from falling and from passing beneath

3.4 crossbeam

bar or beam which forms a main load bearing part of certain activity toys (see Figure 2)

3.5 entrapment

hazard presented by a situation in which a body, part of a body, or clothing is entrapped

3.6 exposed edge

edge intended to be touched and/or gripped by a child during the use of an activity toy

NOTE Exposed edges are commonly found on doors, windows, shutters, ladders, steps, handrails, retaining sides for slides and seats.

3.7 forced movement

movement where the direction and the extent of the child’s movement is determined by the operation of the equipment, for example swinging, sliding, rocking and revolving

3.8 free height of fall

greatest vertical distance from the clearly intended body support to the impact area below

3.9 free space

space in, on or around the activity toy that can be occupied by a user undergoing a forced movement caused by use of the equipment (e.g. swinging, sliding, rocking, revolving)

NOTE The definition of free space does not include the three-dimensional space in which a falling movement takes place.

3.10 handrail

rail intended to assist the user to balance

3.11 platform

raised surface where one or more users can stand without the need of hand support

NOTE The classification of a platform will vary depending on its function. Surfaces where the user is only able to stand with the aid of hand supports are not classified as platforms. Exclusion of surfaces from the definition can be achieved by a number of means, e.g.:

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3.12 slide

structure with inclined surface(s) on which the user slides in a defined track (see Figure 1)

NOTE 1 Inclined planes, designed primarily for other purposes, such as roofs, do not constitute slides.

Figure 1 Diagrammatic representation of a slide. Marked sections include starting section (A), sliding section (B), run-out section (C), height of slide (D), and the slide length (B + C)

NOTE 2 The dimensions A, B, and C are taken at the centreline of the sliding surface. Each of these sizes represents one of the zones of the sliding surface. Each zone of the sliding surface is determined by the intersection of the curve of the sliding surface (taken at the bottom of the sliding surface) and the bisecting line of the angle formed by the zones of the sliding surfaces between themselves.

Figure 1 — Diagrammatic representation of a slide

3.13 suspension connector

device which forms the direct contact between a crossbeam and the means of suspension (see Figure 2)

3.14 swing

structure incorporating a crossbeam, suspension connectors and a swing device with swing element, suspension coupling and means of suspension

NOTE Examples of swings are shown in Figure 2.

8 Figure 2 Diagrammatic representation of examples of swings. The diagram has two examples. a) is an example of a flat seat and b) is an example of a gondola. For each example, there are labeled 1) swing device 2) crossbeam 3) suspension connector 4) suspension coupling 5) means of suspension and 6) swin gelement (e.g., seat, rings, bar, gondola).

NOTE A swing device can include one or more footrests. Footrests are considered as parts of the swing elements.

Figure 2 — Diagrammatic representation of examples of swings

3.15 paddling pool

toy pool with a maximum depth of water of 400 mm measured between the overflow level and the deepest point within the pool

NOTE Examples of typical paddling pools can be found in the guidance document on the application of the directive on the safety of toys (2009/48/EC).

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4 Requirements1

1Words in italics are defined in Clause 3 (terms and definitions). Additional information on the background and rationale for various requirements is given in Annex A.

4.1 General (see A.2)

4.1.1 Assembly

Activity toys shall be assembled using self-locking mechanisms which, to avoid unintentional disassembling due to dynamic forces during use, may include spring washers and/or self-locking nuts.

NOTE Self-taping screws or nails are considered as self-locking devices.

4.1.2 Static strength

Activity toys other than swings and paddling pools, when tested according to 6.3.1 (strength of activity toys other than swings and paddling pools), shall not collapse such that they do not continue to comply with the relevant requirements of EN 71-1.

NOTE Static strength requirements for swings are given in 4.6.2 and for paddling pools in 4.9.1.

4.1.3 Maximum height (see A.3)

When measured from the ground, there shall be no part of the activity toy where the child is able to climb, sit or stand above a height of 2 500 mm.

4.1.4 Corners and edges (see A.4)

Exposed edges shall be rounded.

Corners and exposed edges on moving parts shall have a minimum radius of 3 mm. This requirement does not apply to swing elements with a mass of 1 000 g or less, the corners and edges of which shall be rounded.

4.1.5 Protruding parts

Protruding parts such as bolt ends, threaded bolt ends and other protrusions shall be recessed or be protected in such a way that they do not constitute a hazard to users of the equipment. This requirement is applicable when protrusions are situated on accessible moving parts and in places where the user is running, sliding, climbing, sitting or lying down.

4.1.6 Diameter of ropes and other means of suspension

When measured according to 6.8 (diameter of ropes and other means of suspension), ropes and other means of suspension shall have the following diameters:

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4.2 Barriers, handrails and ladders and similar means of access to activity toys

4.2.1 Barriers and handrails preventing a child from falling down (see A.5)

Any platform 1 000 mm or more from the ground shall be equipped with a barrier on all sides that face outwards from the toy.

Openings in the barriers to give access to slides, climbing structures and ladders are allowed.

The minimum height of the barrier shall be 600 mm.

For barriers with an uneven top design, a ruler of (200 ± 5) mm shall be used for measuring minimum height. Place the ruler horizontally on top of the barrier. Measure the vertical distance between the platform and the bottom of the ruler. The distance shall in no place be less than 600 mm.

NOTE Special requirements apply to slides (see 4.5.2 and 4.5.3).

After testing according to 6.4 (dynamic strength of barriers and handrails), no part of the barrier or handrail shall collapse so that the toy does not comply with the relevant requirements of EN 71-1.

4.2.2 Ladders and similar means of access to activity toys (see A.6)

The requirements in 4.2.2 do not apply to activity toys with a platform height of 600 mm or less.

Ladders and similar means of access to activity toys shall comply with the following requirements:

  1. any opening shall comply with 4.3.1 (head and neck entrapment);
  2. where a ladder or a stair is used, the lateral width of the tread or rung shall be 240 mm or more (see Figure 3 a));
  3. the distance between the upper surfaces of the treads or rungs shall not exceed 310 mm when measured vertically as indicated in Figure 3 b). This requirement does not apply to the vertical distance between the ground and the upper surface of the first step;
  4. the surface of the tread shall not be slippery. This can be achieved by corrugation of the steps or by the use of non slippery types of materials;
  5. when ladders are provided with rungs, the cross-sectional dimension of the rungs shall be not less than 16 mm and not more than 45 mm;
  6. the depth of treads on closed step ladders shall be 120 mm or more;
  7. the inclination for ladders that are fixed to a toy shall be between 55° and 90° to the horizontal;
  8. ladders any part of which reaches a height of 1 200 mm or more from the ground shall be provided with handrails from a height of not more than 600 mm from the ground to the top of the platform (see Figure 3 a)). This requirement does not apply to ladders with rungs.
11 Figure 3 Ladders. There are two diagrams. Dimensions are in millimetres. a) is the dimensions of ladders and shows a picture of a slide with a latter connected to the slide at an angle of ≥ 55° and ≤ 90°. It also shows that the width of the ladder is ≥ 240. Diagram b) shows the details of a step ladder, specifically that the vertical width between steps is ≤ 310.

Figure 3 — Ladders

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4.3 Entrapment (see A.7)

4.3.1 Head and neck entrapment

Activity toys shall be constructed so that no openings create head and neck entrapment hazards either by head first or feet first passage.

NOTE Hazardous situations in which this type of entrapment can be encountered include the following:

When choosing materials, the manufacturer shall take into account the entrapment hazards that can occur due to distortion of material during use.

  1. All accessible completely bound openings with a lower edge of 600 mm or more above the ground, or above any other surface which is of such a size that it will support a child, shall, if they allow passage of probe C (see Figure 17), also allow passage of probe D (see Figure 18), when tested according to 6.5.1 (head and neck entrapment in accessible completely bound openings).
  2. Accessible rigid circular openings with a lower edge of 600 mm or more above the ground, or above any other surface which is of such a size that it will support a child, shall not have an internal diameter between 130 mm and 230 mm.
  3. Accessible completely bound openings, that allow the free passage of probe C, when tested according to 6.5.1, shall have no parts that converge in the downward direction at an angle of less than 60° if the lower edge is 600 mm or more above the ground (V-shaped opening).
  4. Partially bound and V-shaped openings with a lower edge of 600 mm or more above the ground, or above any other surface which is of such a size that it will support a child, shall be constructed so that either:
    1. the opening is not accessible as defined in Figure 20, when tested according to 6.5.2.3 a) (head and neck entrapment in partially bound and V-shaped openings); or
    2. the tip of template E (see Figure 19) contacts the base of the opening, when tested according to 6.5.2.3 b) (head and neck entrapment in partially bound and V-shaped openings).
  5. Non-rigid members (for example ropes) shall not overlap if by doing so they create openings that do not comply with the requirements in 4.3.1 a).
  6. Openings between flexible parts of suspended bridges and any rigid side members shall not be less than 230 mm in diameter under the most onerous condition of loading. Both loaded and unloaded situations shall be considered.

4.3.2 Entrapment of clothing and hair

  1. Slides, fireman’s poles and roofs shall be constructed so that hazardous situations in which clothing or hair can be entrapped are not created. Such situations may be created by:
    1. gaps or V-shaped openings in which parts of clothing can become entrapped while, or immediately before, the user is undergoing a forced movement;
    2. protrusions; and
    3. spindles/rotating parts.
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When tested according to 6.6 (toggle test), entrapment of the toggle or chain shall not occur.

Application of the toggle test, as described in 6.6, is restricted to the free space, as practical experience has shown that natural material and connections between different parts can vary over time.

NOTE 1 When using elements of circular cross-section, special consideration should be given to avoid clothing and hair entanglement. This can be achieved by using spacers or similar devices.

  1. Slides and fireman’s poles shall be constructed so that openings located within the free space do not entrap the toggle or chain when tested according to 6.6 (toggle test).
  2. Roofs shall be constructed so that they do not entrap the toggle or chain when tested according to 6.6 (toggle test).
  3. Spindles and rotating parts shall have means of preventing entanglement of clothing or hair.

NOTE 2 Prevention of entanglement can be achieved by use of suitable covering or shields.

4.3.3 Entrapment of feet

The requirement in 4.3.3 does not apply to nets for climbing or walking, or net bridges.

Surfaces intended for standing, running or walking shall not contain any gaps likely to cause foot or leg entrapment. There shall be no gaps greater than 30 mm measured in one direction (see Figure 4).

Figure 4 Measurement of surface gap on running and walking levels. Measurements are in millimetres. The diagram shows 3 planks with a foot positioned across two of the planks. The diagram indicates that the gap between the two planks is ≤ 30.

Figure 4 — Measurement of surface gap on running and walking levels

4.3.4 Entrapment of fingers

The requirements in 4.3.4 do not apply to weather-induced dry cracks in solid wood.

Activity toys shall be constructed so that hazardous situations in which entrapment can occur are not created.

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Holes, slots and gaps in any rigid material that are within the reach of a child during use of the toy, when the body of the child is in a forced movement, shall not allow a 7 mm diameter rod to be inserted to a depth of 10 mm or more, unless a 12 mm diameter rod can also be inserted. If an activity toy is intended for children under 36 months, the accessible holes, slots or gaps in any rigid material that are within the reach of a child during use of the toy, when the body of the child is in a forced movement, shall not allow a 5 mm diameter rod to be inserted to a depth of 10 mm or more unless a 12 mm diameter rod can also be inserted. Specific requirements for chains are given in 4.6.7 (suspension connectors and swing devices).

4.4 Stability of activity toys other than slides, swings and activity toys with crossbeams, and see-saws

4.4.1 General

NOTE Stability requirements for slides are given in 4.5.1; for swings and other activity toys with crossbeams in 4.6.1; and for see-saws in 4.7.1.

Activity toys supplied with anchors which, according to the manufacturer's instructions, are intended to be permanently fixed (e.g. in concrete) when in use, shall not be subjected to stability tests.

Activity toys supplied with removable ground anchors shall be tested with anchors fixed to the standing surface according to the manufacturer's instructions.

Activity toys not supplied with anchors shall be subjected to stability tests.

4.4.2 Stability of activity toys with a free height of fall of 600 mm or less

Activity toys with a free height of fall of 600 mm or less shall not tip over when tested according to 6.2.1 (stability of activity toys with a free height of fall of 600 mm or less).

4.4.3 Stability of activity toys with a free height of fall of more than 600 mm

Activity toys with a free height of fall of more than 600 mm shall not tip over when tested according to 6.2.2 (stability of activity toys with a free height of fall of more than 600 mm).

4.5 Slides (see A.8)

4.5.1 Stability of slides

Slides supplied with anchors and intended to be permanently fixed (e.g. in concrete) when in use according to the manufacturer’s instructions, shall not be subjected to stability tests.

Slides supplied with removable ground anchors shall be tested with anchors fixed to the standing surface according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Slides not supplied with anchors shall be subjected to stability tests.

Slides shall not tip over when tested according to 6.2.3 (stability of slides).

4.5.2 Retaining sides for slides (see A.9)

Retaining sides for slides shall comply with the following requirements (see Figure 5):

  1. for slides with a starting section height of more than 1 000 mm measured from the ground, the height (h) of the retaining sides shall be 100 mm or more;
  2. for slides with a starting section height of 1 000 mm or less measured from the ground, the height (h) of the retaining sides shall be 50 mm or more.
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Retaining sides are not required for the run-out section of slides.

Figure 5 Height of retaining sides on a slide. The diagram shows the width (w) of the slide and the height (h) of the retaining sides.

Figure 5 — Height of retaining sides

4.5.3 Starting, sliding and run-out sections on slides

NOTE For attachment slides, a platform may be regarded as the starting section.

The starting, sliding and run-out sections of slides shall comply with the following requirements (see Figure 6):

  1. the starting section for slides with a starting section height of less than 1 000 mm measured from the ground shall have at least the same width as the sliding section; a length of 150 mm or more; and an inclination of between 0° and 10° to the horizontal. The width is measured as indicated in Figure 5;
  2. the starting section for slides with a starting section height of 1 000 mm or more measured from the ground shall have at least the same width as the sliding section; a length of 250 mm or more; and an inclination of between 0° and 10° to the horizontal. The width is measured as indicated in Figure 5;
  3. the starting section shall be provided with handrails in order to provide assistance to the child coming from the stair/ladder into the sitting position:
    • for slides with a starting section height less than 600 mm, the height of the handrail shall be 100 mm or more;
    • for slides with a starting section height of 600 mm or more but less than 1 000 mm, the height of the handrail shall be 150 mm or more;
    • for slides with a starting section height of 1 000 mm or more but less than 1 800 mm, the height of the handrail shall be 350 mm or more;
    • for slides with a starting section height of 1 800 mm or more, the height of the handrail shall be 500 mm or more;
  4. the run-out section of the slide shall have a length of 150 mm or more. The inclination of the run-out section shall be between 0° and 10° to the horizontal, and the height of the end of the run-out section shall be 300 mm or less from the ground;
  5. the finishing end of the run-out section shall have a minimum radius of 25 mm. This requirement does not apply to slides where the run-out section ends 50 mm or less from the ground; 16
  6. the sliding section of the slide shall not exceed an angle of inclination of 60° to the horizontal at any point when measured according to 6.7.1 (measurement of inclination of the sliding section on slides);
  7. the minimum angle (α) between the sliding section and the run-out section shall not be less than the values given in Table 1, when measured according to 6.7.2 (measurement of the angle between the sliding section and the run-out section on slides).
Table 1 — Minimum angle (α) between the sliding section and the run-out section in relation to the height of the starting section
Height of the starting sectionMinimum angle (α) between the sliding section and the run-out section
Less than 600 mm120°
600 mm or more but less than 1 000 mm130°
1 000 mm or more but less than 1 800 mm140°
More than 1 800 mm150°
17 Figure 6 Requirements for slides. Dimensions are in millimetres. The diagram shows a slide with 3 insets. First is a curl on the bottom of the slide where the child finishes. The curl is labeled r ≤ 25. Second is an inset also at the end of the slide showing that the angle at the end is between 0° and 10°, that the height between the bottom of the end of slide and the ground is ≤ 300, and that the length of the ending section with the low slope is ≥ 150. The third inset on the diagram is the very top of the slide where the child begins the ride. The slope of this section must be between 0° and 10°

Figure 6 — Requirements for slides

4.6 Swings (see A.10)

4.6.1 Stability of swings and other activity toys with crossbeams

4.6.1.1 General

Swings and other activity toys with crossbeams supplied with anchors which, according to the manufacturer’s instructions, are intended to be permanently fixed (e.g. in concrete) when in use, shall not be subjected to stability tests.

Swings and other activity toys with crossbeams supplied with removable ground anchors shall be tested with anchors fixed to the standing surface according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

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Swings and other activity toys with crossbeams not supplied with anchors shall be subjected to stability tests.

4.6.1.2 Swings and other activity toys with crossbeams more than 1 200 mm above the ground

When tested according to 6.2.4.1 (stability of swings and other activity toys with crossbeams more than 1 200 mm above the ground), the activity toy shall not tip over.

4.6.1.3 Swings and other activity toys with crossbeams 1 200 mm or less above the ground

NOTE Swings and other activity toys with crossbeams 1 200 mm or less above the ground are intended for children of under 36 months.

When tested according to 6.2.4.2 (stability of swings and other activity toys with crossbeams 1 200 mm or less above the ground), the activity toy shall not tip over.

4.6.2 Static strength of crossbeams, swing devices and suspension connectors

When tested according to 6.3.2 (strength of swings), structures and/or crossbeams shall not collapse and swing devices and suspension connectors shall not become deformed, so that the activity toy does not comply with relevant requirements of EN 71-1.

4.6.3 Swings intended for children under 36 months

The seats of swings shall be provided with a back rest and a safety device preventing the child from falling off the seat.

4.6.4 Minimum clearance between adjacent swing elements, and adjacent structures

The requirements in 4.6.4 do not apply to single swing elements in swings with a crossbeam height of 1 200 mm or less above the ground.

The minimum clearances between adjacent swing elements and between swing elements and adjacent structures shall be as given in Table 2.

Table 2 — Minimum clearances between adjacent swing elements and adjacent structures
Clearances in millimetres between:Free-swinging elementsSemi-flexible elementsWith rigid means of suspensionAdjacent structure of swing device
Free-swinging elements450450450300
Semi-flexible elements450300300300
Elements with rigid means of suspension450300300300

For adjustable means of suspension, the measurement shall be taken with the swing element adjusted to the most onerous height unless the manufacturer specifies a maximum height in the instructions. For a flexible swing element, the fixture shown in Figure 7 shall be used to simulate a typical load.

19 Figure 7 Typical load fixture for a flexible swing element. Dimensions in millimetres. The width (L) of the load fixture is 300, the mass (b) of the load fixture shall be 12 kg, the radius (R) of the load fixture is ≥ 150, and the length of the swing element seat (a) shall not be less than the depth of the swing element.

Figure 7 — Typical load fixture for a flexible swing element

4.6.5 Lateral stability of swing elements

The requirement in 4.6.5 does not apply to swings with rigid means of suspension.

The minimum distance between the suspension points of a swing measured along the crossbeam shall be calculated as follows (see Figure 7):

A = 0,04 h + B

where

A is the distance between the suspension points along the crossbeam;

B is the distance between the junction points of the swing element and the means of suspension;

h is the distance from the ground to the lower side of the crossbeam.

20 Figure 8 Minimum distance between suspension points of swings. This diagram depicts a swing on a pole. h is the height from the ground to the top of the pole. A is the width of the swing ropes affixed on the pole, B is the width of the seat.

Figure 8 — Minimum distance between suspension points of swings

For a flexible swing element, the fixture detailed in Figure 7 shall be used to simulate normal use.

4.6.6 Minimum clearance between swing elements and the ground (see A.11)

The minimum clearance between swing elements and the ground shall be as follows:

swings with a crossbeam height of 1 200 mm or less: 200 mm;

swings with a crossbeam height exceeding 1 200 mm: 350 mm.

If a swing element has a footrest, the minimum clearance is measured between the footrest and the ground.

If the clearance between the swing elements and ground is adjustable, the minimum clearance shall be mentioned in the assembly and installation instructions.

For a flexible swing element, the fixture detailed in Figure 7 shall be used to simulate normal use.

4.6.7 Suspension connectors and swing devices

  1. The suspension coupling(s) (see Figure 2, key 4) shall be prefixed to the means of suspension when supplied. This requirement does not apply to swings with rigid means of suspensions.
  2. Methods of attachment requiring knots are not permitted. Only:
    1. non disassembling systems, a forced disassembling causing the destruction of the product, and
    2. inviolable systems, like weld or injection stop are permitted.
  3. Suspension connectors shall be of a design that will prevent unintentional disconnection.

    NOTE Examples of such hooks are hooks wound over at least 540° or of a spring-hook type. 21

  4. Chains shall have a maximum opening of 5 mm in order to prevent fingers from being trapped (see Figure 9).
Figure 9 Maximum opening in chains for swings.The diagram shows that the maximum opening is ≤ millimetres.

Figure 9 — Maximum opening in chains for swings

4.6.8 Impact, geometry and design of swing elements

4.6.8.1 General

The requirements in 4.6.8 do not apply to:

4.6.8.2 Impact from swing elements

The requirements in 4.6.8.2 do not apply to:

When tested according to 6.9 (determination of impact from swing elements), swing elements shall not impart an average peak acceleration greater than 50 g.

4.6.8.3 Geometry and design of swing elements

Potential impact surfaces shall either fulfil the geometry requirements, or be made in resilient and flexible material (e.g. plastics, textile, ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) or flexible rubber) and have a swing element that has a mass of less than 1,0 kg.

Footrests on swing elements shall be made in such a way that they have a resilient behaviour.

Potential impact surfaces of swing elements shall be designed with a repelling geometry and smooth surfaces in the direction of movement, having a width of at least 10 mm including a radius of at least 15 mm and edge radii of at least 3 mm and angles between adjacent surfaces of not less than 75° (see Figure 10).

For tubes of swing devices, the diameter shall be at least 25 mm.

22 Figure 10 This diagram is an illustration of the requirements of section 4.6.8.3 showing that the potential impact surfaces of swing elements shall be designed with a repelling geometry, specifying a width of at least 10 mm including a radius of at least 15 mm and edge radii of at least 3 mm.

Figure 10 — Geometry requirements for impact surfaces of swing elements

NOTE The footrest is part of the swing element.

4.7 See-saws

4.7.1 Stability of see-saws

The requirements in 4.7.1 do not apply to see-saws supplied with anchors that are intended to be permanently fixed (e.g. in concrete).

See-saws supplied with removable ground anchors shall be tested with anchors fixed to the standing surface according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

When tested according to 6.2.5 (stability of see-saws), see-saws supplied with removable ground anchors and see-saws not supplied with anchors shall not tip over.

4.7.2 Seat/stand height

The central point of the sitting or standing position of the see-saw shall not exceed a height of 1 200 mm. The sitting surface of the seats shall not swing out of the horizontal by more than 30°.

4.7.3 Restraint of motion

For see-saws where the central point of the sitting or standing position can reach a height of 1 000 mm or more, each end of the see-saw shall be provided with dampening material on the part that touches the ground or have a dampening device incorporated in the centre of the see-saw.

4.7.4 Pinching and crushing of fingers and toes

When one end of the beam is touching the ground, the space between the underside of the beam and its central pivot shall admit a 12 mm diameter rod.

4.7.5 Hand supports

Each seating position shall be provided with one hand support at least.

4.8 Carousels and rocking activity toys (see A.12)

The requirements in 4.8 do not apply to bow-mounted rocking horses and similar toys.

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Carousels, rocking activity toys and similar toys shall comply with the following requirements:

  1. when tested according to 6.2.1 (stability of activity toys with a free height of fall of 600 mm or less), activity toys shall not tip over;
  2. when tested according to 6.3.1 (strength of activity toys other than swings and paddling pools), activity toys shall not collapse;
  3. when measured from the ground and surface to any sitting or standing position, the free height of fall for carousels and rocking activity toys shall not exceed 600 mm.

4.9 Paddling pools

4.9.1 Static strength of paddling pools with non-inflatable walls

When tested according to 6.10 (static load test for paddling pools with non-inflatable walls), the structure shall not present any hazardous sharp edges or hazardous sharp points, or any small parts which fit entirely in the small parts cylinder specified in EN 71-1.

4.9.2 Paddling pools with inflatable walls

All air-inflation inlets on paddling pools with inflatable walls shall comply with the requirements for inflatable toys specified in EN 71-1.

5 Warnings, markings, and instructions

5.1 Warnings and markings

5.1.1 General

The activity toy or its packaging shall, where appropriate, carry warnings regarding the minimum and/or maximum user age, and minimum and/or maximum user weight, and whether the activity toy is intended for indoor or outdoor use.

These warnings shall be preceded by the word: “Warning” or “Warnings”, as appropriate, and be clearly visible to the consumer before the purchase.

The activity toy or its packaging shall carry the following warning to be marked on the toy or its packaging. The warning shall be clearly visible at the time of purchase:

"Warning. Only for domestic use.”

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5.1.2 Paddling pools

Paddling pools shall bear the following warning pictograms and warning text (see Figures 11 a) and b)).

Figure 11 The diagram has two pieces. a) is the Mandatory action pictogram in blue. It shows an icon of a child on water and of an adult. There is an arrow pointing from the head of the adult to the child, implying that the adult is watching. b) is the prohibition pictogram. It is a large red circle with a line through it. Inside is a child on his knees and there is an adult facing the other way and with an arrow from the adult's head looking away from the child. Below the two diagrams is the phrase "Warning. Never leave your child unattended - drowning hazard"

Figure 11 — Warning pictograms and text

The height of the pictograms shall be not less than 40 mm.

The warning text of the pictograms on the paddling pool shall be indelible and easily legible and in a colour which contrasts with the body of the paddling pool. The warning text shall be placed below or to the side of the pictograms.

The colours of the pictogram on the activity toy shall be respected including the background white colour (see Figures 11 a) and b)).

The warning shall be clearly visible by the supervising adult during use of the paddling pool.

The packaging of paddling pools shall carry the following information:

5.2 Assembly and installation instructions

The warnings, markings and information specified in 5.1 shall be repeated in the assembly and installation instructions.

Any other purchase information or information provided on the labels of the activity toys shall be given in the installation instructions.

Activity toys that require assembly by the consumer shall be accompanied by appropriate assembly instructions including drawings which shall enable a consumer to correctly assemble the activity toy.

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The assembly and installation instructions shall also, when appropriate, include the following:

  1. a recommendation to place the activity toy on a level surface at least 2 m from any structure or obstruction such as a fence, garage, house, overhanging branches, laundry lines or electrical wires;
  2. detailed instructions on how anchors are to be installed to prevent overturning or lifting of the support members when they are used as intended or in a foreseeable way, taking into account the condition of the soil normally encountered;
  3. instructions that anchors shall be placed level with or under the ground in order to reduce tipping hazards;
  4. the minimum clearance that needs to exist between the swing element(s) and the ground, and, where this is adjustable, instructions on how to achieve this minimum clearance;
  5. instructions that activity toys (for example paddling pools, swings, slides, climbing frames) shall not be installed over concrete, asphalt or any other hard surface;
  6. a recommendation on the orientation of the activity toy (e.g. slides) in relation to its exposure to the sun;
  7. information to keep the assembly and installation instructions for further reference;
  8. instructions that modifications made by the consumer to the original activity toy (for example the adding of an accessory) shall be carried out according to the instructions of the manufacturer. In particular, instructions shall be provided with a kit/accessory about the installation of rope/nets concerning the minimum diameter, the need for fixation at both ends, overall length, and positioning in relation to other structures.

5.3 Maintenance

Activity toys shall be accompanied by maintenance instructions drawing attention to the need of carrying out checks and maintenance of the main parts (crossbeams, suspensions, anchors, etc.) at regular intervals, pointing out that if these checks are not carried out the activity toy could overturn or otherwise become a hazard. Whenever practical, the instructions shall also be affixed to the activity toy.

The maintenance instructions shall, when appropriate, also include the following recommendations pointing out that it is of particular importance that they be followed at the beginning of each season as well as at regular intervals during the usage season:

  1. to check all nuts and bolts for tightness and tighten when required;
  2. to oil all metallic moving parts;
  3. to check all coverings for bolts and sharp edges and replace when required;
  4. to check swing seats, chains, ropes and other means of attachments for evidence of deterioration;
  5. to replace defective parts in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions;
  6. to change the water of paddling pools frequently (particularly in hot weather) or when noticeably contaminated.
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6 Test methods

6.1 General

Except where otherwise specified, the stability and strength tests shall be performed with the number of users determined according to Table 3, unless the manufacturer indicates more users than this table. If the manufacturer indicates more users than Table 3, load accordingly.

Table 3 — Number of users on activity toys
PositionNumber of users
Swing device1 per position
Slide with overall length ≤ 2 m1 at the top
Slide with overall length > 2 m For slides where the starting section is a platform the overall length does not include the platform The overall length is measured along and over the surface the slide1 at the top and 1 at midpoint of slide
Pole or rope1 per pole or rope
Platform with a slope ≤ 60°2 per m2 For areas of less than 0,6 m2 assume 1 user
Platforms and playing surfaces (see Figure 14) with a slope > 60°1 per 2 m2 This includes climbing walls, climbing nets and other means of access (See also Figure 14)
Areas of platforms with a slope ≤ 60° (see Figure 15) and where the headroom is less than 600 mm1 per m2 (See also Figure 15)
Where values above 1 including decimals (e.g. 1,2, 1,8 or 2,1) are obtained in the calculation of each position, all values are to be rounded down to the previous whole number (e.g. 1,2 = 1, 1,8 = 1 and 2,1 = 2).

Where values under 1 including decimals (e.g. 0,8 or 0,3) are obtained in the calculation of each position, all answers are to be rounded up to 1 (e.g. 0,8 = 1, 0,3 = 1).

6.2 Stability

6.2.1 Stability of activity toys with a free height of fall of 600 mm or less (see 4.4.2 and 4.8)

Place the activity toy on a (10 ± 1)° slope in the most onerous position with respect to stability.

If the activity toy is intended to bear the mass of more than one child at a time, test every sitting or standing surface in the most onerous situation, calculating the number of users according to Table 3, based on a minimum surface for a child of 0,36 m2.

For activity toys that are suitable for children of 36 months and over, load the activity toy in the most onerous position(s) with a mass of (50 ± 0,5) kg per user on each of its sitting or standing surface.

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For activity toys that, due to their construction, strength, design or other factors, are not suitable for children of 36 months and over (see EN 71-1), load the toy in the most onerous position(s) with a mass of (25 ± 0,2) kg per user on each of its sitting or standing surfaces.

The dimensions of the load are given in Figure 12.

Figure 12 Load for determination of strength and stability. Dimensions in millimetres. The diagram indicates that for < 36 months, the mass should be 25 kg and for s≥ 6 months, the mass should be 50 kg. 1 2 mass. < 36 months, 25 kg mass. ≥ 36 months, 50 kg centre of gravity Key Dimensions in millimetres

Figure 12 — Load for determination of strength and stability

When the activity toy is completely loaded, maintain the load for 5 min.

Observe whether the toy tips over.

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6.2.2 Stability of activity toys with a free height of fall of more than 600 mm (see 4.4.3)

6.2.2.1 Principle

A horizontal force is applied at the top of the activity toy to simulate a child climbing on the activity toy.

6.2.2.2 Apparatus
6.2.2.3 Procedure

Assemble the activity toy according to the manufacturer's instructions and place the toy on a rigid horizontal flat surface.

For a free-standing activity toy, stops may be used to prevent its slipping on the surface. However, stops shall not prevent the activity toy from overturning.

Activity toys supplied with removable ground anchors shall be tested with the anchors fixed to the standing surface according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Apply a force of (120 ± 5) N per user, calculating the number of users according to Table 3 (based on a minimum surface for a child of 0,36 m2), in the direction most likely to cause the activity toy to tip over. The force shall be applied at the outermost and highest gripable point(s). The highest gripable point is, however, limited to 1 500 mm above the highest surface of such a size that it will always support a child.

NOTE 1 1 500 mm is the maximum shoulder height of 95 % of children aged up to 14.

NOTE 2 The most onerous stability condition can occur when less than the maximum numbers of forces are applied on the activity toy.

Observe whether the toy tips over.

6.2.3 Stability of slides (see 4.5.1)

Place the activity toy on a (10 ± 1)° slope in the most onerous position with respect to stability.

Slides supplied with removable ground anchors shall be tested with the anchors fixed to the standing surface according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

Load the geometric centre of every sitting or standing surface simultaneously with a mass of (50 ± 0,5) kg per user, calculating the number of users according to Table 3, based on a minimum surface for a child of 0,36 m2.

Observe whether the toy tips over.

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6.2.4 Stability of swings and other activity toys with crossbeams (see 4.6.1)

6.2.4.1 Stability of swings and other activity toys with crossbeams more than 1 200 mm above the ground (see 4.6.1.2)
6.2.4.1.1 Principle (see A.13)

A horizontal force is simultaneously applied at each suspension point to simulate horizontal force created by pendulum effect.

6.2.4.1.2 Apparatus
6.2.4.1.3 Procedure

Assemble the activity toy according to the manufacturer's instructions and place or fix the toy on a rigid horizontal surface.

For a free-standing activity toy, stops may be used to prevent its slipping on the surface. However, stops shall not prevent the activity toy from overturning.

Swings and other activity toys with crossbeams supplied with the anchors shall be tested with anchors fixed to the standing surface according to the manufacturer’s instructions.

On the suspension point(s), apply gradually and simultaneously horizontal forces of (500 ± 20) N per user in the swinging direction. Where a swing element has multiple suspension points, distribute the forces equally between the points using Table 4 as a guide.

Observe whether the toy tips over.

Table 4 — Examples of horizontal forces
Number of childrenNumber of suspension pointsForce in N (newton)
per suspension point
1
1
1
1
2
4
500
250
125
2
2
2
1
2
4
1 000
500
250
3
3
3
1
2
4
1 500
750
375
4
4
4
1
2
4
2 000
1 000
500
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6.2.4.2 Stability of swings and other activity toys with crossbeams 1 200 mm or less above the ground (see 4.6.1.3)

Place the activity toy on a horizontal surface. Stops shall be used to prevent the front legs from slipping on the surface. They shall, however, not prevent the activity toy from overturning.

Load the seat (or swing element) with a mass of (25 ± 0,2) kg and secure it. The dimensions of the load are given in Figure 12 (load for determination of strength and stability).

Raise the seat backwards to a position 45° from the vertical and release it (see Figure 13).

For swings where the seat cannot reach a position of 45° or more from the vertical, the seat shall instead be raised to the maximum possible angle from the vertical before it is released.

Observe whether the toy tips over.

Figure 13 Testing stability of swings and other activity toys with crossbeams 1 200 mm or less above the ground. A stop is placed on the front legs of the swing to prevent it from slipping but not from overturning. A weight of a mass of 25 kg is secured on the swing and it is then raised 45° back (or more if it can) and released.

Figure 13 — Testing stability of swings and other activity toys with crossbeams 1 200 mm or less above the ground

6.2.5 Stability of see-saws (see 4.7.1)

For see-saws that, due to their construction, strength, design or other factors, are not suitable for children of 36 months and over (see EN 71-1), load each seat, simultaneously, with a mass of (25 ± 0,2) kg. For all other see-saws, load each seat, simultaneously, with a mass of (50 ± 0,5) kg.

The dimensions of the load are given in Figure 12 (load for determination of strength and stability).

Fix the test mass vertically on the seating surface with straps or other negligible means in such a way it cannot slip.

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Place the see-saw on a (10 ± 1)° slope in the most onerous position with respect to stability, and with the angle of the beam in the most onerous position.

Observe whether the see-saw tips over.

6.3 Static strength

6.3.1 Strength of activity toys other than swings and paddling pools (see 4.1.2 and 4.8)

The test method of 6.3.1 does not apply to activity toys that have only swing elements, refer to 6.3.2.

If the activity toy is intended to bear the mass of more than one child at a time, test every sitting or standing area or centre of a crossbeam simultaneously calculating the number of users according to Table 3, based on a minimum surface for a child of 0,36 m2. For activity toys that are suitable for children of 36 months and over, load the activity toy in the most onerous position(s) with a mass of (50 ± 0,5) kg per user on each of its standing or sitting surfaces, including any swing device, and at the centre of a crossbeam, if present.

It is acceptable to use sandbags or similar or smaller masses to make up this load, and the most appropriate method to ensure health and safety shall be used.

NOTE 1 Furthermore loading should take place form the lowest to highest points for safety reasons.

For activity toys that, due to their construction, strength, design or other factors, not suitable for children of 36 months and over (see EN 71-1), load the toy with a mass of (25 ± 0,2) kg per user on each of its sitting or standing surfaces, including any swing device, and at the centre of a crossbeam, if present.

NOTE 2 The test masses are evenly distributed on each tested surface.

NOTE 3 When calculating the number of users on playing surfaces with a slope > 60° (e.g. climbing walls), only the width that enables play activity should be used to calculate the area.

32 Figure 14 Examples of playing surface. There are two pieces to this diagram. a) is an example of a playing surface with holes. X is the width of the holes and H is the hieght of the playing surface from the top of the surface down to the bottom of the lowest hole. The playing surface area (S) is eaual to the width (X) times the height (H). Diagram b) is an example of a playing surface with climbing grips. The height H is measured from the very top of the playing surface down to the lowest of the grips. The width X is the width betwen the left-most and right-most grips. X is the width of playing surface H is the height of playing surface S is the playing surface area a) Example of playing surface with holes S = X x H b) Example of playing surface with climbing grips where

Figure 14 — Examples of playing surface

33 Figure 15 Example of varying headroom above a platform with a slope ≤ 60°. The diagram shows a play area with a sloped roof. The area near the bottom of the sloped roof where the hieght is 600 mm or less is labeled A on both the left and the right and is indicated that his may only have one user per square metre. The area in the middle of the area where the headroom is 600 mm or more is indicated for two users per square metre.