⇒ PREAMBLE—NOT PART OF THE SPECIFICATION ⇐

In order to promote public education and public safety, equal justice for all, a better informed citizenry, the rule of law, world trade and world peace, this legal document is hereby made available on a noncommercial basis, as it is the right of all humans to know and speak the laws that govern them.

The reader is advised:

Additional information and related documents may be found at the page devoted to EU-Mandated Harmonised Standards on the Safety of Toys.

⇒ END OF PREAMBLE—NOT PART OF THE SPECIFICATION ⇐

EN 71-1:2011+A3

EUROPEAN STANDARD

NORME EUROPÉENNE

EUROPÄISCHE NORM

March 2014

ICS 97.200.50

Supersedes EN 71-1:2011+A2:2013

English Version

Safety of toys - Part 1: Mechanical and physical properties

Sécurité des jouets - Partie 1: Propriétés mécaniques et physiques

Sicherheit von Spielzeug - Teil 1: Mechanische und physikalische Eigenschaften

This European Standard was approved by CEN on 25 May 2011 and includes Amendment 1 approved by CEN on 20 December 2013, Amendment 2 approved by CEN on 10 August 2013 and Amendment 3 approved by CEN on 20 December 2013.

CEN members are bound to comply with the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations which stipulate the conditions for giving this European Standard the status of a national standard without any alteration. Up-to-date lists and bibliographical references concerning such national standards may be obtained on application to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre or to any CEN member.

This European Standard exists in three official versions (English, French, German). A version in any other language made by translation under the responsibility of a CEN member into its own language and notified to the CEN-CENELEC Management Centre has the same status as the official versions.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION

COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION

EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

CEN-CENELEC Management Centre: Avenue Marnix 17, B-1000 Brussels

© 2014 CEN

All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reservedworldwide for CEN national Members.

Ref. No. EN 71-1:2011+A3:2014 E

5 6 7

Foreword

This document (EN 71-1:2011+A3:2014) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 52 “Safety of toys”, the secretariat of which is held by DS.

This European Standard shall be given the status of a national standard, either by publication of an identical text or by endorsement, at the latest by September 2014, and conflicting national standards shall be withdrawn at the latest by September 2014.

This document supersedes A3⇒ EN 71-1:2011+A2:2013. ⇐A3

This document includes Amendments 1 and 3 approved by CEN on 2013-12-20 and Amendment 2 approved by CEN on 2013-08-10.

The start and finish of text introduced or altered by amendment is indicated in the text by tags A1⇒ ⇐A1, A2⇒ ⇐A2 and A3⇒ ⇐A3.

Annex B provides details of significant technical changes between this European Standard and the previous edition.

This European Standard has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 2009/48/EC.

For relationship with EU Directive 2009/48/EC, see informative Annex ZA, which is an integral part of this European Standard.

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. CEN [and/or CENELEC] shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.

This European Standard constitutes the first part of the European Standard on safety of toys.

This European Standard for safety of toys consists of the following parts:

NOTE 1 In addition to the above parts of EN 71, the following guidance documents have been published: CEN Report, CR 14379, Classification of toys - Guidelines, CEN Technical Report CEN/TR 15071, Safety of toys - National translations of warnings and instructions for use in EN 71, 8 and CEN Technical Report CEN/TR 15371, Safety of toys – Replies to requests for interpretation of EN 71-1, EN 71-2, and EN 71-8.

NOTE 2 Different legal requirements may exist in non-EU countries.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following countries are bound to implement this European Standard: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.

9

Introduction

This European Standard aims at reducing as far as possible those hazards which are not evident to users; it does not cover inherent hazards (e.g. instability of two-wheeled scooters, sharp needles in a sewing kit etc.) that are obvious to children or the persons in charge of them. Assuming that the toys are used in the intended manner they should not present any further hazard to children for whom they are intended (according to Directive 2009/48/EC “intended for use by” means that a parent or supervisor shall reasonably be able to assume by virtue of the functions, dimensions and characteristics of a toy that it is intended for use by children of the stated age group”). Allowance should also be made for foreseeable use, bearing in mind the behaviour of children who do not generally share the same degree of care as the average adult user.

As a general rule, toys are designed and manufactured for particular ages of children. Their characteristics are related to the age and stage of development of the children, and their use presupposes certain aptitudes.

Accidents are frequently due to a toy either being given to a child for whom it is not intended, or being used for a purpose other than that for which it was designed. Great care should therefore be taken when choosing a toy or game; account should be taken of the mental and physical development of the child who will be using it.

The requirements of this European Standard do not release parents or carers from their responsibility of watching over the child while he or she is playing.

10

1 Scope (see A.2)

This European Standard specifies requirements and methods of tests for mechanical and physical properties of toys.

This European Standard applies to toys for children, toys being any product or material designed or intended, whether or not exclusively, for use in play by children of less than 14 years. It refers to new toys taking into account the period of foreseeable and normal use, and that the toys are used as intended or in a foreseeable way, bearing in mind the behaviour of children.

It includes specific requirements for toys intended for children under 36 months, children under 18 months and for children who are too young to sit up unaided. According to Directive 2009/48/EC “intended for use by” means that a parent or supervisor shall reasonably be able to assume by virtue of the functions, dimensions and characteristics of a toy that it is intended for use by children of the stated age group. Therefore, for the purpose of this European Standard, e.g. soft-filled toys with simple features intended for holding and cuddling are considered as toys intended for children under 36 months.

NOTE Information relating to the age grading of toys and, in particular, which toys are intended for children under 36 months and which toys are not, can be found in CEN Report CR 14379, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) Age determination guidelines, CEN/CENELEC Guide 11 and the European Commission’s Guidance Documents.

This European Standard also specifies requirements for packaging, marking and labelling.

This European Standard does not cover musical instruments, sports equipment or similar items but does include their toy counterparts.

This European Standard does not apply to the following toys:

Items that are propelled into free flight by a child releasing an elastic band (e.g. aeroplanes and rockets) are considered as catapults (see 5th indent above).

This European Standard does not cover electrical safety aspects of toys. These are covered by EN 62115.

Furthermore, it does not cover the following items which, for the purpose of this European Standard, are not considered as toys:

2 Normative references

The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

EN 71-8, Safety of toys — Part 8: Swings, slides and similar activity toys for indoor and outdoor family domestic use

EN 15649-3, Floating leisure articles for use on and in the water — Part 3: Additional specific safety requirements and test methods for Class A devices

A2⇒ EN 50332-1, Sound system equipment: Headphones and earphones associated with portable audio equipment – Maximum sound pressure level measurement methodology and limit considerations – Part 1: General method for “one package equipment ⇐A2

A2⇒ deleted text ⇐A2

A2⇒ EN 60318-4, Electroacoustics — Simulators of human head and ear — Part 4: Occluded ear simulator for the measurement of earphones coupled to the ear by ear inserts (IEC 60318-4) ⇐A2

A2⇒ deleted text ⇐A2

A2⇒ EN 61672-1, Electroacoustics — Sound level meters — Part 1: Specifications (IEC 61672-1) ⇐A2

A2⇒ deleted text ⇐A2

EN ISO 868, Plastics and ebonite — Determination of indentation hardness by means of a durometer (Shore hardness) (ISO 868:2003)

A2⇒ EN ISO 3744, Acoustics — Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise sources using sound pressure — Engineering methods for an essentially free field over a reflecting plane (ISO 3744:2010)

EN ISO 3745, Acoustics — Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise sources using sound pressure — Precision methods for anechoic rooms and hemi-anechoic rooms (ISO 3745) ⇐A2

A2⇒ EN ISO 3746, Acoustics — Determination of sound power levels and sound energy levels of noise sources using sound pressure — Survey method using an enveloping measurement surface over a reflecting plane (ISO 3746) ⇐A2

EN ISO 4287, Geometrical product specifications (GPS) - Surface texture: Profile method - Terms, definitions and surface texture parameters (ISO 4287:1997)

EN ISO 6508-1, Metallic materials - Rockwell hardness test - Part 1: Test method (scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, N, T) (ISO 6508-1:2005)

A2⇒ EN ISO 11201, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Determination of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions in an essentially free field over a reflecting plane with negligible environmental corrections (ISO 11201) ⇐A2

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A2⇒ EN ISO 11202, Acoustics — Noise emitted by machinery and equipment — Determination of emission sound pressure levels at a work station and at other specified positions applying approximate environmental corrections (ISO 11202) ⇐A2

A2⇒ deleted text ⇐A2

ISO 4593, Plastics — Film and sheeting — Determination of thickness by mechanical scanning

ISO 7619-2, Rubber, vulcanized or thermoplastic — Determination of indentation hardness — Part 2: IRHD pocket meter method

A2⇒ IEC/TS 60318-7, Electroacoustics — Simulators of human head and ear — Part 7: Head and torso simulator for acoustic measurement of hearing aids ⇐A2

3 Terms and definitions

For the purpose of this document, the following terms and definitions apply.

3.1 accessible

contactable under the test conditions of 8.10 (accessibility of a part or component)

3.2 aquatic toy

toy, whether inflatable or not, intended for use in shallow water and which is capable of carrying or supporting a child on the water

3.3 asphyxiation

insufficient supply of air to the airways

NOTE Insufficient supply of air could be caused e.g. by closing off the flow of air as a result of choking or suffocation or by entrapment in an unventilated, confined space.

3.4 backing

material adhering to flexible plastic sheeting

3.5 ball

spherical, ovoid or ellipsoidal object, usually but not always designed or intended to be thrown, hit, kicked, rolled, dropped or bounced

NOTE The term ball also includes any multisided object formed by at least 48 connecting planes into a generally spherical, ovoid or ellipsoidal shape.

3.6 burr

roughness, caused by not cleanly severing or finishing the material

A2⇒ 3.7 cap-firing toy

toy clearly designed to emit sound caused by discharge of a percussion cap

NOTE Examples of cap-firing toys include cap guns.⇐A2

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A2⇒ 3.8 ⇐A2 chain

connected series of links or rings

A2⇒ 3.9 ⇐A2 choking

closing off the flow of air as a result of internal asphyxiation

NOTE Choking can, for example, be caused by inhalation of an object, by an object becoming wedged in the mouth or pharynx, or by an object becoming lodged over the entrance to the lower airways.

A2⇒ 3.10 close-to-the-ear toy

toy clearly designed to emit sound, intended to be used within 2,5 cm of the ear

NOTE

Examples of close-to-the-ear toys are toy telephones and toy rifles with a loudspeaker in the stock. ⇐A2

A2⇒ 3.11 ⇐A2 collapse

sudden or unexpected folding of a structure

A2⇒ 3.12 ⇐A2 cord

length of flexible textile or non-textile material including elastic material, monofilament polymeric material, tape, ribbon, rope, strap, woven and twisted material and string as well as certain weak and long springs

NOTE Electrical cables in toys are not considered to be cords.

A2⇒ 3.13 ⇐A2 crack

fracture of a material to the full thickness of the material

A2⇒ 3.14 ⇐A2 crushing

injury to part of the body resulting from compression between two surfaces

A2⇒ 3.15 ⇐A2 driving mechanism

assembly of linked parts of a toy, at least one of which moves and is driven either electrically, by clockwork or by other mechanical means and including gears, belts and winding mechanisms

A2⇒ 3.16 ⇐A2 edge

line formed at the junction of two surfaces, the length of which exceeds 2,0 mm

A2⇒ 3.17 ⇐A2 elastic material

material or item that is stretchable when subjected to an external force and which is able to recover or nearly recover its original length or shape when the force is removed

A2⇒ 3.18 ⇐A2 electrical cable

flexible insulated conductor used for connecting a toy to a supply of electricity or to a piece of electronic equipment which is not itself a toy or part of a toy

NOTE Electronic equipment includes computers and television sets which do not have a play value on their own.

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A2⇒ 3.19 emission sound pressure level

sound pressure level at a specified position near a sound source, when the source is in operation under specified operating and mounting conditions on or above a reflecting plane surface, excluding the effects of background noise as well as the effects of reflections other than those from the plane or planes permitted for the purpose of the test ⇐A2

A2⇒ 3.20 ⇐A2 expanding material

material, the volume of which expands when exposed to water

A2⇒ 3.21 ⇐A2 fastening

mechanical device which attaches two or more components of a toy together (e.g. a screw)

A2⇒ 3.22 ⇐A2 filling

material intended to be wholly contained within a soft-filled toy or within soft-filled parts of a toy

A2⇒ 3.23 ⇐A2 fixed drive

transmission without free-wheeling mechanism

NOTE In a fixed drive the drive mechanism cannot be disengaged from the driven shaft. An example is a bicycle where the pedals are driven by the rear wheel when the bicycle is going downhill.

A2⇒ 3.24 ⇐A2 fixed loop

loop in a cord, the perimeter of which is fixed by any permanent means including a knot or knots

NOTE The fixed loop can include a part or parts of the toy (see Figure 1).

Figure 1 The diagram shows two examples of fixed loops. The first is a cord tied to itself. The second is a block to which a cord is affixed in two places.

Figure 1 — Example of fixed loops

A2⇒ 3.25 ⇐A2 free-wheeling mechanism

transmission in which the drive mechanism is disengaged from the driven shaft when the driven shaft rotates faster than the drive mechanism

NOTE An example of the use of a free-wheeling mechanism is a bicycle which is going downhill without the pedals moving. Without a free-wheeling mechanism the rear wheel would drive the pedals around.

A2⇒ 3.26 ⇐A2 functional edge or point

edge or point which is essential for the functioning of a toy (e.g. microscope slides, electrical conductors, needles)

A2⇒ 3.27 ⇐A2 functional magnet in electrical or electronic components of toys

magnet necessary for the function of motors, relays, speakers and other electrical or electronic components in a toy where the magnetic properties are not part of the play pattern of the toy

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A2⇒ 3.28 ⇐A2 functional product

product which performs and is used in the same way as a product, appliance or installation intended for use by adults, and which maybe a scale model of such product, appliance or installation

A2⇒ 3.29 ⇐A2 functional toy

toy which performs and is used in the same way as a product, an appliance or an installation intended for use by adults and which may be a scale model of a such a product (e.g. a stove with heating properties)

A2⇒ 3.30 ⇐A2 fuzz

bits of fibrous type material that can be readily removed from toys with a pile surface

A2⇒ 3.31 hand-held toy

toy clearly designed to emit sound, intended to be held in the hand but excluding close-to-the-ear toys, rattles, squeeze toys, cap-firing toys, wind toys, voice toys and percussion toys

NOTE Examples of hand-held toys are clicking toys, toy tools, and toy guns. ⇐A2

A2⇒ 3.32 ⇐A2 hinge line

line along or parallel to the line projected through the axis of rotation as shown in Figure 2

Figure 2 Definition of a hinge line. The diagram shows a box (3) with a lid (2). An inset shows a hinge in open and closed position, with the distance in the gap between the two components connected with a hinge labeled A, hing-line clearance between assembled edges.

Figure 2 — Definition of hinge line

A2⇒ 3.33 ⇐A2 large and bulky toy

toy that has a projected base area of more than 0,26 m2 or a volume of more than 0,08 m3 calculated without regard to minor appendages, or a mass of 4,5 kg or more

NOTE The base area of a toy having permanently attached legs is the area enclosed by straight lines connecting the outermost edge of each leg of the perimeter.

17

A2⇒ 3.34 ⇐A2 magnetic component

part of a toy which contains an attached or fully- or partially-enclosed magnet

A2⇒ 3.35 ⇐A2 magnetic/electrical experimental set

toy containing one or more magnets intended for carrying out educational experiments involving magnetism and electricity

A2⇒ 3.36 maximum emission sound pressure level

highest instantaneous emission sound pressure level measured during a specified time interval using specified frequency and time-weighting

NOTE In this standard frequency weighting A and time-weighting F are specified and the quantity is denoted LAFmax. ⇐A2

A2⇒ 3.37 ⇐A2 maximum saddle height

vertical distance from the ground to the top of the seat surface, measured with the seat in a horizontal position

and with the seat pillar set to the minimum insertion mark

A2⇒ 3.38 ⇐A2 noose

loop in a cord which tightens as the cord is pulled (see Figure 3)

Figure 3 Example of a noose.

Figure 3 — Example of a noose

A2⇒ 3.39 ⇐A2 overlap joint

joint in which an edge overlaps a parallel surface but is not necessarily mechanically attached to it at all points along the length

A2⇒ 3.40 ⇐A2 packaging

material accompanying the toy when purchased but having no intended play function

A3⇒ 3.41 paper

sheet formed by irregularly intervened cellulose fibres with a mass per unit area of 400 g/m2 or less ⇐A3

A3⇒ 3.42 paperboard

sheet formed by irregularly intervened cellulose fibres with a mass per unit area over 400 g/m2 excluding pressed wooden fibreboards such as medium density fibreboard (MDF), chipboard and materials with similar properties

NOTE The term paperboard also includes materials commonly referred to as card or cardboard with a mass per unit area over 400 g/m2. ⇐A3

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A2⇒ 3.43 peak emission sound pressure level

highest emission sound pressure level during a specified time interval recorded by a sound level meter using time-weighting peak

NOTE

The peak emission sound pressure level is normally C-weighted and then denoted LpCpeak.

3.44 percussion toy

toy clearly designed to emit sound when struck with a beater, such as a drumstick, or by the hand

NOTE Examples of percussion toys include drums, xylophones and tambourines. ⇐A2

A3⇒ 3.45 ⇐A3 plastic sheeting

thin section plastic sheeting which is used as part of the toy or as part of the packaging

A3⇒ 3.46 ⇐A3 projectile

object intended to be launched into free flight or a trajectory in the air

A3⇒ 3.47 ⇐A3 projectile toy with stored energy

toy with a projectile propelled by means of a discharge mechanism capable of storing and releasing energy

A3⇒ 3.48 ⇐A3 projectile toy without stored energy

toy with a projectile discharged by the energy imparted by a child

A2⇒ 3.49 pull-along or push toy

toy on which movement is imparted by the user for example by pulling it by a cord or pushing it by means of a rigid extension ⇐A2

A2⇒ 3.50 rattle

toy, intended for children who are too young to sit up unaided, that is clearly designed to emit sound when

shaken or activated by the child or another person ⇐A2

A3⇒ 3.51 ⇐A3 removable component

part or component which is intended to be removed from the toy without the use of a tool

A3⇒ 3.52 ⇐A3 ribbon

narrow piece of fabric or textile material the width of which is significantly greater than the thickness

A3⇒ 3.53 ⇐A3 soft-filled toy

toy, clothed or unclothed, with soft body surfaces and filled with soft materials, readily allowing compression of the main part of the toy with the hand

A3⇒ 3.54 ⇐A3 splinter

sharp pointed fragment

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A3⇒ 3.55 ⇐A3 spring

A3⇒ 3.55.1 ⇐A3 helical spring

spring in the form of a coil, which can be either a compression spring or an extension spring, see Figure 4

Figure 4 Diagram of a Helical spring.

Figure 4 — Helical spring

A3⇒ 3.55.2 ⇐A3 compression spring

spring which returns to its initial state after release of the compressive force

A3⇒ 3.55.3 ⇐A3 extension spring

spring which returns to its initial state after release of the tensile force

A3⇒ 3.55.4 ⇐A3 spiral spring

clockwork type spring, see Figure 5

Figure 5 Diagram of a spiral spring.

Figure 5 — Spiral spring

A2⇒ 3.56 squeeze toy

pliable toy, intended for children who are too young to sit up unaided, incorporating a sound-making feature activated by forcing air through an opening, clearly designed to emit sound when flexed or squeezed by the child or another person ⇐A2

A3⇒ 3.57 ⇐A3 strap

strip of flexible material used for fastening, securing, carrying or holding

A3⇒ 3.58 ⇐A3 suction cup

means of temporarily attaching a toy to a smooth surface made of soft, flexible, polymeric material, normally having a circular base which adheres to the surface when pressed against it, and in this way creating a vacuum

A3⇒ 3.59 ⇐A3 suffocation

closing off the flow of air as a result of airway obstruction external to the mouth and nose

20

A2⇒ 3.60 table-top or floor toy

toy clearly designed to emit sound, intended to be used on a table, floor or another large surface

NOTE Examples of table-top or floor toys are toy cars, mechanical animals, and large and bulky toys. ⇐A2

A3⇒ 3.61 ⇐A3 tangled loop

loop created by twisting or snagging a cord, or cords, with attachments, knots or fixed loops

NOTE The tangled loop can include a part or parts of the toy (see Figure 6).

Figure 6 The diagram shows a drum, to which is connected two cords that are then tied together, presumably so the child can hang the drum around their neck.

Figure 6 — Example of tangled loop

A3⇒ 3.62 ⇐A3 tape

narrow piece of non textile material the width of which is significantly greater than the thickness

A3⇒ 3.63 ⇐A3 teether

toy designed for oral use intended primarily for symptomatic relief of children’s teething discomfort

A2⇒ 3.64 time-averaged emission sound pressure level

ten times the logarithm to the base 10 of the ratio of the time average of the square of the sound pressure during a stated time interval of duration to the square of a reference sound pressure, expressed in decibels, the sound pressure being obtained with a standard frequency weighting

NOTE The time-averaged emission sound pressure level is normally A-weighted and for the purpose of this standard then denoted LpA. ⇐A2

21

A3⇒ 3.65 ⇐A3 tool

screwdriver, coin or any other object which can be used to operate a screw, clip or similar fixing device

A3⇒ 3.66 ⇐A3 toy bag

bag, clearly intended for use in play, often having features designed to encourage the child to use the bag in play activities

NOTE Bags that are packaging can be attractive to children for example if they are brightly coloured or have child appealing characteristics. Such characteristics alone are not enough to define them as toy bags

A3⇒ 3.67 ⇐A3 toy bicycle

two-wheeled vehicle, with or without stabilisers, with a maximum saddle height of 435 mm or less and which is propelled solely by the muscular energy of the person on that vehicle, in particular by means of pedals, and which has either a free-wheeling mechanism or a fixed drive

A3⇒ 3.68 ⇐A3 toy scooter

ride-on toy, not intended for sport or to be used for travel on public roads or public pathways, which is propelled by the muscular action of the user and may be foldable or not, intended for children with a body mass of 50 kg or less: comprising at least one platform for standing, at least two wheels, and a steering system equipped with an adjustable or fixed-length steering tube

A2⇒ 3.69 voice toy

toy clearly designed to emit sound by electronically amplifying or distorting the voice and where the output sound level depends on the input sound level of the voice

NOTE Examples of voice toys could include telephones, walkie-talkies, voice recording toys, sing-along microphones and electronic bull horns (toy megaphones).

3.70 wind toy

toy clearly designed to emit sound when actuated by the blowing action of the child or another person

NOTE Examples of wind toys include toy trumpets and toy whistles. ⇐A2

A3⇒ 3.71 ⇐A3 yo-yo ball

toy made from elastic material consisting of a tether usually having a loop at one end to place around a finger, and a flexible object at the other end

4 General requirements1

1 Words in italics are defined in Clause 3 (terms and definitions). Additional information on the background and rationale for various requirements is given in Annex A.

4.1 Material cleanliness (see A.3)

Toys and material used in toys shall be visually clean and free from infestation. The material shall be assessed visually by the unaided eye rather than under magnification.

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4.2 Assembly (see A.4)

If a toy is intended to be assembled by a child, the requirements in this European Standard apply to each unit made available to the child and to the assembled toy. The requirements for the assembled toy do not apply to toys where the assembling provides a significant part of the play value of the toy.

If a toy is intended to be assembled by an adult, the requirements apply to the assembled toy.

Toys intended to be assembled shall be accompanied by detailed assembly instructions, if appropriate. The instructions shall indicate whether it is necessary that an adult assemble the toy or whether the proper assembly shall be checked by an adult before use.

4.3 Flexible plastic sheeting (see A.5 and A.16)

Toys with flexible plastic sheeting shall conform to the following requirements:

Sheets without any backing and of an area greater than 100 mm × 100 mm shall:

  1. have an average thickness of 0,038 mm or more when tested according to 8.25.1 (plastic sheeting, thickness), or
  2. be perforated with defined holes so that a minimum of 1 % of the area has been removed over any area of 30 mm × 30 mm.

For plastic balloons, the requirements in 4.3 a) apply to double layers of plastic sheeting (i.e. the thickness is measured without inflating or destroying the balloon).

4.4 Toy bags

Toy bags with an opening perimeter greater than 380 mm having a drawstring as a means of closure shall either:

  1. be made of material permeable to air, or
  2. comply with requirements given in 4.14.2 a) (masks and helmets).

4.5 Glass (see 5.7 and A.6)

Accessible glass may be used in the construction of toys for children of 36 months and over where:

  1. its use is necessary to the function of the toy (e.g. optical toys, glass light bulbs, glass in experimental sets);
  2. it is textile glass used for reinforcement;
  3. it is in the form of solid glass marbles or solid glass eyes for dolls;
  4. it is in the form of other glass elements (e.g. glass beads) that after being subjected to 8.5 (drop test) and 8.7 (impact test) do not expose accessible hazardous sharp edges (see 8.11, sharpness of edges) or accessible hazardous sharp points (see 8.12, sharpness of points).

4.6 Expanding materials (see A.7)

The requirement in 4.6 does not apply to seeds in growing kits.

23

Expanding materials in toys or components of toys which fit entirely in the cylinder specified in 8.2 (small parts cylinder) before or after being tested according to 8.3 (torque test), 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general), 8.5 (drop test), 8.7 (impact test) and 8.8 (compression test) shall not expand more than 50 % in any dimension when tested according to 8.14 (expanding materials).

If the expanding material is enclosed by a material intended to break during soaking, the requirement in 4.6 shall be fulfilled also when the test is performed after removal of the breakable material.

4.7 Edges (see A.8)

Accessible edges shall not present an unreasonable risk of injury.

  1. Edges of metal or glass are considered as potentially hazardous sharp edges if they are sharp as determined according to 8.11 (sharpness of edges). If the edges fail the test, they shall be assessed to determine whether they present an unreasonable risk of injury taking into account the foreseeable use of the toy. Regardless of the manner in which the edges are finished, they shall be tested according to 8.11. NOTE Edges may be folded, rolled or spiralled in order to make them inaccessible, or protected by a coating of plastic or other similar material.
  2. In overlap joints, the edge of the sheet metal shall conform to 4.7 a) when the sheet metal has a thickness of 0,5 mm or less and the clearance to the underlying surface is greater than 0,7 mm.
  3. Edges of metal including fastenings (e.g. screw heads) and of rigid polymeric material shall be free from burr capable of causing wounds or abrasion. Flashings on pliable polymeric materials (e.g. polyolefins) are not considered as burr.
  4. Where it is essential for the functioning of the toy, hazardous sharp functional edges may be used in toys intended for children of 36 months and over. The potential danger presented by such edges shall be drawn to the attention of the user (see 7.6). However, the sharpness of edges of pieces intended to serve as electric conductors, microscope slides and cover slips do not need to be drawn to the attention of the user.

4.8 Points and metallic wires (see A.9)

Metallic wires and accessible points shall not present an unreasonable risk of injury.

  1. Points are considered as potentially hazardous sharp points if they are sharp as determined according to 8.12 (sharpness of points). If the points fail the test, they shall be assessed to determine whether they present an unreasonable risk of injury taking into account the foreseeable use of the toy (see also 5.1 c)). Points of pencils and similar writing and drawing implements are not considered as sharp points.
  2. Where it is essential for the functioning of the toy, hazardous sharp functional points may be used in toys intended for children of 36 months and over. The potential danger presented by such points shall be drawn to the attention of the user (see 7.6). However, the sharpness of points of pieces intended to serve as electrical conductors do not need to be drawn to the attention of the user.
  3. Metallic wires and other metallic components that are designed and intended to be bent, for example, in order to change the shape or position of a toy or part of a toy (e.g. in soft-filled toys), shall not break and produce hazardous sharp points, or protrude through any surface covering of the toy, when tested according to 8.13.2 (metallic wires and other metallic components intended to be bent). 24
  4. Metallic wires that are not designed to be bent but are likely to occasionally or accidentally be bent during play shall not break and produce hazardous sharp points, or protrude through any surface covering of the toy, when tested according to 8.13.3 (metallic wires likely to be bent).
  5. Splinters on surfaces and accessible edges of toys shall not present an unreasonable risk of injury taking into account the foreseeable use of the toy.

4.9 Protruding parts (see A.10)

Tubes and rigid components in the form of projections which constitute a puncture hazard to a child shall be protected. This protection shall not be removed when tested according to 8.4.2.3 (tension test, protective components).

The ends of spokes on toy umbrellas shall be protected. If the protection is removed when tested according to 8.4.2.3 (tension test, protective components), the ends of the spokes shall be free from hazardous sharp edges and hazardous sharp points when tested according to 8.11 (sharpness of edges) and 8.12 (sharpness of points). In addition, if the protection is removed, the spokes shall have a diameter of 2 mm or more and shall have ends with no burr and a smooth, rounded and approximately spherical finish.

4.10 Parts moving against each other

4.10.1 Folding and sliding mechanisms (see A.11)

The requirements in 4.10.1 do not apply to toys with a potential sitting surface width of less than 140 mm.

Toys with folding and sliding mechanisms shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. Toy pushchairs and perambulators incorporating a handle or other structural member which can fold down over a child, shall have at least one main locking device and at least one secondary locking device, both of which shall act directly on the folding mechanism.

    At least one of the locking devices shall automatically engage when the toy is erected.

    When tested according to 8.18.2 a) (toy pushchairs and perambulators), the toy shall not collapse nor shall either of the locking devices fail or disengage.

    Two devices of the same construction (e.g. locking rings), one on the left-hand side and one on the right-hand side of the toy, are considered to be one locking device.

    If it is possible to partially erect a toy pushchair or perambulator without one of the locking devices being engaged, the test of 8.18.2 a) (toy pushchairs and perambulators) shall be performed in this orientation. An example of a toy pushchair or perambulator covered by 4.10.1 a) is illustrated in Figure 7.

NOTE Partially erect means erected in such a way that the user might wrongly believe the toy to be fully erect.

  1. Toy pushchairs and perambulators that do not otherwise constitute a hazard of a handle or other structural member folding down over a child, shall have at least a locking device or a safety stop, which may be manual in operation.

    When tested according to 8.18.2 b) (toy pushchairs and perambulators) the toy shall not collapse nor shall the locking device or safety stop fail or disengage.

    If it is possible to partially erect a toy pushchair or perambulator without a locking device being engaged, the test of 8.18.2 b) shall be performed in this orientation (see also Note in 4.10.1 a)).
25

Examples of toy pushchairs covered by 4.10.1 b) are illustrated in Figure 8.

Figure 7 Example of toy pushchair or perambulator covered by 4.10.1 a). The diagram shows a block diagram of a chassis (2), atop of which is a handle (1). The diagram shows that the chassis can move up and down, the handle can swing forward and backward.

Figure 7 — Example of toy pushchair or perambulator covered by 4.10.1 a)

Figure 8 Examples of toy pushchairs covered by 4.10.1 b). The diagram shows two types of toy pushchairs. The first has both handle and chassis movement, as in the example of a stroller that folds up. The second only has chassis movement because it presumably does not fold up, so it can only move forward and backward on wheels.

Figure 8 — Examples of toy pushchairs covered by 4.10.1 b)

  1. Folding devices on other collapsible toys (e.g. ironing boards, folding chairs and tables etc.) which may have a scissor-like action:
    1. shall have a safety stop or locking device. When tested according to 8.18.3 (other collapsible toys), the toy shall not collapse nor shall the locking device fail or disengage, and
    2. shall have a clearance of 12 mm or more between moving parts which constitute a scissor-like action.
  2. Toys other than those covered by 4.10.1 a), b) or c), with folding or sliding mechanisms intended to bear or capable of bearing the mass of a child and capable of injuring fingers, shall be so constructed that the space between moving elements shall also allow a 12 mm diameter rod to be inserted if it allows a 5 mm diameter rod to be inserted.
26

4.10.2 Driving mechanisms (see A.12)

The requirements in 4.10.2 a) and b) do not apply to driving mechanisms with insufficient power to injure fingers or other parts of the body, nor to transmissions on toys intended to bear the mass of a child which are covered in 4.15.1.6.

Driving mechanisms and winder keys shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. Driving mechanisms shall be enclosed in such a way that they do not expose accessible hazardous sharp edges (see 8.11, sharpness of edges) or hazardous sharp points (see 8.12, sharpness of points) or otherwise present a hazard that could cause crushing of the fingers or other parts of the body when tested according to 8.5 (drop test) and 8.7 (impact test).
  2. Driving mechanisms within large and bulky toys shall be enclosed in such a way that they do not expose accessible hazardous sharp edges (see 8.11, sharpness of edges) or hazardous sharp points (see 8.12, sharpness of points) or otherwise present a hazard that could cause crushing of the fingers or other parts of the body when tested according to 8.6 (tip over test).
  3. The shape and dimensions of winder keys or starting handles shall be such that the clear space between the key or the handle and the body of the toy shall also allow a 12 mm diameter rod to be inserted if it allows a 5 mm diameter rod to be inserted. Any holes in keys or handles shall not permit the insertion of a 5 mm diameter rod.

4.10.3 Hinges (see A.13)

The requirement in 4.10.3 does not apply if any part joined by one or more hinges has a mass of less than 250 g.

Toys having two parts joined by means of one or more hinges and with a space between the assembled edges along the hinge line, shall be so constructed that this space with the parts in any position shall also allow a 12 mm diameter rod to be inserted if it allows a 5 mm diameter rod to be inserted.

4.10.4 Springs (see A.14)

Springs shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. Spiral springs shall not be accessible if the gap between two consecutive spirals is greater than 3 mm in any position of use.

    The requirement in 4.10.4 b) does not apply to springs that do not return to their original position after unloading (i.e. if the elastic limit is exceeded).
  2. Extension helical springs shall not be accessible if the gap between two consecutive turns is greater than 3 mm when the spring is subjected to a tensile force of 40 N.

    The requirement in 4.10.4 c) does not apply to springs that do not return to their original position after loading with a force of 40 N or to springs wound round a second component of the toy (for example a guiding rod) so that it is not possible to insert the accessibility probe A (see Figure 21, accessibility probe) between consecutive coils by more than 5 mm.
  3. Compression helical springs shall not be accessible if the gap between two consecutive turns is greater than 3 mm at rest, and the spring can be subjected to a force of 40 N or more when the toy is in use.
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4.11 Mouth-actuated toys and other toys intended to be put in the mouth (see A.15)

Toys or parts of toys made of materials excluded from 5.1 (general requirements) are excluded from the requirements in 4.11 a), b) and d).

Toys intended to be put in the mouth shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. Toys intended to be put in the mouth, removable mouthpieces and other removable components of toys intended to be put in the mouth shall not fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder).
  2. Mouthpieces and other components of toys intended to be put in the mouth, excluding mouth-actuated projectile toys, if detached when tested first according to 8.9 (soaking test) and then according to 8.3 (torque test) and 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general), shall not fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder).
  3. Mouth-actuated toys which contain loose components such as spheres in a whistle or reeds in a noisemaker shall not, when tested according to 8.17.2 (other mouth-actuated toys), release any objects that fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder).
  4. Mouthpieces fitted to balloons shall conform to the requirements in 4.11 a) and b).
  5. Mouth-actuated projectile toys (e.g. peashooters) shall have a mouthpiece which does not allow the intended projectiles to pass through when tested according to 8.17.1 (mouth-actuated projectile toys), and thereafter does not become detached when tested according to 8.3 (torque test) and 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general).

4.12 Balloons (see 4.3 and A.16)

The packaging of latex balloons shall carry a warning (see 7.3).

The packaging of natural rubber latex balloons shall indicate that the balloons are made of natural rubber latex (see 7.3).

4.13 Cords of toy kites and other flying toys (see A.17)

Cords of toy kites and other flying toys linking the toy to the child and with a length of more than 2 m, shall be made of material with an electric resistance exceeding 100 MΩ/cm of cord, when measured according to 8.19 (electric resistivity of cords).

The potential danger of flying a toy kite near overhead power lines and during thunderstorms shall be drawn to the attention of the user by a warning (see 7.9).

4.14 Enclosures

4.14.1 Toys which a child can enter (see A.18)

Toys which a child can enter shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. Any toy having a door, lid or similar device which encloses a continuous volume greater than 0,03 m3 and in which all internal dimensions are 150 mm or more, shall provide at least two unobstructed ventilation holes, each 650 mm2 or more, situated at least 150 mm apart. The total ventilation area shall be provided when the toy is placed on the floor in any position and adjacent to two vertical plane surfaces meeting at a 90° angle, so as to simulate the corner of a room. 28

    The ventilation area is not required if the continuous volume is effectively sub-divided into compartment(s) by a permanent partition(s) or one or more bars making at least one dimension in the compartment less than 150 mm.
  2. For such toys having a door, lid or similar device, it shall be possible to open the door, lid or similar device by applying a force of 50 N or less from the inside.

    NOTE This requirement notably precludes the use of buttons, zips and similar fastenings on doors, lids or similar devices.

  3. Toy chests with vertically opening hinged lids shall be provided with lid-support mechanisms to prevent sudden collapse or dropping of the lid. The lid-support mechanism shall support the lid so that at no position in the arc of travel of the lid from within 50 mm of the fully closed position through an arc not to exceed 60° from the fully closed position shall it drop more than 12 mm under the influence of its own mass, except in the last 50 mm of travel. The test shall be performed according to 8.31.2 (lid support).

    The lid-support mechanism shall conform to this requirement before and after being subjected to 7 000 opening and closing cycles, as described in 8.31.2 (durability test for vertically opening hinged lids).

    The lid-support mechanism shall not require adjustment by the consumer to ensure adequate lid support, nor shall it require adjustment in order to conform to the above requirement after being cycled according to 8.31.2 (durability test for vertically opening hinged lids).

    The lid and lid-support mechanism shall conform to the requirements in 4.10.3 (hinges).

    Toys chests with vertically opening hinged lids shall be accompanied by instructions for proper assembly and maintenance.

4.14.2 Masks and helmets (see A.19)

Masks and helmets shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. Masks and helmets that fully enclose the head and which are made of impermeable material shall provide a total ventilation area of 1 300 mm2 or more through at least two holes at least 150 mm apart or through any equivalent single ventilation area.

    An example of an equivalent single ventilation area is given in Figure 9.
29 Figure 9 Example of ventilation areas. The first diagram shows two holes, separated by a distance of ≥ 150 millimetres. It is labeled total ventilation area, 1 300 mm². Below that is a diagram labeled 2 which shows a single ventilation area, e.g., the entire area is ventilation.

Figure 9 — Example of ventilation areas

  1. All rigid materials that cover the face such as goggles, space helmets or face shields shall not expose hazardous sharp edges (see 8.11, sharpness of edges), hazardous sharp points (see 8.12, sharpness of points) or loose parts that could enter the eye, before and after being tested according to 8.3 (torque test), 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general), 8.5 (drop test), 8.7 (impact test) and 8.8 (compression test).

    This also applies to toys made of rigid materials with cut-out eye holes and toys that cover the eyes.
  2. Toys that are imitations of protective masks and helmets (e.g. motorcycle helmets, industrial safety helmets and firemen's helmets) shall carry a warning (see 7.8).

4.15 Toys intended to bear the mass of a child (see A.20)

4.15.1 Toys propelled by a child or by other means

4.15.1.1 General

Toys propelled by a child or by other means and intended to bear the mass of a child, e.g.:

shall conform to the requirements of the following sub-clauses of 4.15.1.

The requirements in 4.15.1.2 and 4.15.1.5 do not apply to toy bicycles, which are covered in 4.15.2, and to toy scooters, which are covered in 4.15.5.

4.15.1.2 Warnings and instructions for use

Roller skates, inline skates and skateboards for children offered for sale as toys shall carry a warning regarding protective equipment (see 7.10.1).

Mechanically-driven ride-on toys that do not have a free-wheeling mechanism or a braking device, and are either intended to bear the mass of two or more children, or have an unloaded mass of 30 kg or more, shall carry a warning regarding the lack of a brake (see 7.10.2).

30

In addition, electrically-driven ride-on toys for which a brake is not required according to 4.15.1.5, shall carry a warning regarding the lack of a brake (see 7.10.2) if they do not have a free-wheeling mechanism or a braking device, and are either intended to bear the mass of two or more children, or have an unloaded mass of 30 kg or more.

Roller skates, inline skates, skateboards and electrically-driven ride-on toys where the electrical motor itself provides sufficient braking (see 4.15.1.5 a)) are not required to carry this warning.

Electrically-driven ride-on toys and/or their packaging, and their instructions for use, shall carry a warning regarding protective equipment (see 7.10.3). This warning is not required on electrically-driven ride-on toys that are equipped with a seat, and are either covered by the requirement in 4.15.1.4 or have a maximum design speed of less than 8,2 km/h when tested according to 8.29 (determination of maximum design speed of electrically-driven ride-on toys).

Electrically-driven ride-on toys shall carry a warning regarding the intended age group (see 7.10.3).

The packaging and the instructions for use of electrically-driven ride-on toys shall be accompanied by a warning regarding safe riding areas (see 7.10.3).

Toys intended to bear the mass of a child shall be accompanied by instructions for use, assembly and maintenance. The potential dangers of using the toy and precautions to be taken shall be brought to the attention of the user (see 7.10.4).

Toys that due to their construction, strength, design or other factors are not suitable for use by children of 36 months and over shall carry a warning (see 7.16).

4.15.1.3 Strength

Toys, when tested according to 8.21 (static strength) and 8.22 (dynamic strength) shall not:

  1. produce accessible hazardous sharp edges (see 8.11, sharpness of edges);
  2. produce accessible hazardous sharp points (see 8.12, sharpness of points);
  3. make driving mechanisms accessible that present a hazard that could cause crushing of the fingers or other parts of the body;
  4. collapse so that they do not continue to conform to relevant requirements of this European Standard.
4.15.1.4 Stability

The requirement in 4.15.1.4 does not apply to:

The toy shall not tip over when tested according to 8.23.1 (stability, toys intended to bear the mass of a child).

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4.15.1.5 Braking

The requirements in 4.15.1.5 do not apply to:

  1. Mechanically- or electrically-driven ride-on toys with a free-wheeling mechanism shall have a braking device. For such toys having a mass of 30 kg or more, it shall be possible to lock at least one brake in a braking position.

    The toy shall not move more than 5 cm when tested according to 8.26.1 (brake performance for certain ride-on toys). This requirement applies to all brakes on toys covered by 4.15.1.5 regardless of whether or not a brake is required by this European Standard.

    The requirement in 4.15.1.5 a) does not apply to electrically-driven ride-on toys on which the electrical motor itself supplies sufficient braking. The motor shall be considered to supply sufficient braking if:
    • the average speed of the vehicle is less than or equal to 0,36 m/s (1,3 km/h) when tested according to 8.26.1.2 (motor brake performance – ramp test), or
    • the following is fulfilled when tested according to 8.26.1.3 (motor brake performance – horizontal test):

FT1 ( M + 25 ) 1,7 (1)

or

FT2 ( M + 50 ) 1,7 (2)

where

FT1 is the maximum pull force in Newtons for a toy intended for children under 36 months;

FT2 is the maximum pull force in Newtons for a toy intended for children of 36 months and over;

M is the mass of the toy in kilograms.

  1. Electrically-driven ride-on toys shall be operated by means of a switch which cuts off the power automatically when it is released, without tilting the toy. Application of the brakes, if present, shall automatically cut power to the drive.
4.15.1.6 Transmission and wheel arrangement

Transmission and wheel arrangement shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. Power transmission chains and belts on ride-on toys shall have a shield from, and including, the driving chain- or belt-wheel to, and including, the driven chain-wheel or belt-wheel at the side(s) where the limb of the child is nearest the chain or belt (see Figure 10, side A). There shall also be a shield around the driving chain- or belt-wheel on any side where the chain or belt is separated from the limb of the child (e.g. by a frame on a bicycle), (see Figure 10, side B).

    On ride-on toys where the transmission chain or belt can be reached by the rider’s hand during use, the transmission shield(s) shall have two sides that comply with the design of side A (see Figure 10).

    32 Drainage holes in the shield(s) are permitted provided that they have a diameter of 5 mm or less. It shall not be possible to remove the shield without the use of a tool.
  2. Wheels directly propelled by pedals shall not have slots or holes with a width greater than 5 mm.
Figure 10 The diagram shows pedals, a chain, and a cover. Side A on the components is the side where the limb of the child is nearest the chain. Side B is the side where the chain or belt is separated from the limb of the child. Key1extent of cover on inside face2front chain wheel3chainAside where the limb of the child is nearest the chainBside where the chain or belt is separated from the limb of the child

Figure 10 — Transmission chain shields

  1. Spaces between the wheels and the body or parts of the body (e.g. mudguards) shall also allow a 12 mm diameter rod to be inserted if they allow a 5 mm diameter rod to be inserted. This requirement does not apply to the friction surfaces of braking mechanisms, toy skateboards or roller skates.
  2. Tricycles provided with an attached handle used for pushing the child, shall be constructed in such a way as to prevent entrapment of the child’s feet in the pedals etc. while being pushed (e.g. free-wheeling mechanism or foot rests).
4.15.1.7 Adjustable seat pillar and handlebar stem minimum insertion marks

Any adjustable seat pillar and adjustable handlebar stem shall have a permanent mark that indicates the minimum insertion depth of the part into the frame of the toy. The minimum insertion mark shall be positioned at a distance not less than two-and-a-half times the diameter of the pillar or stem from the bottom of the pillar or stem, and there shall be at least one stem diameter's length of contiguous circumferential stem material below the mark (see Figure 11).

The requirement for a minimum insertion mark does not apply if

33 Figure 11 The diagram shows a a seat or handlebar inserted in a pillar. The diameter of the pillar is labeled Ø. The permanent mark is shown as ≥ 2.5 x Ø from the bottom of the pillar and there is also ≥ 1 x Ø of space below the mark.

Figure 11 — Illustration of dimensional requirement for insertion mark

4.15.1.8 Electrically-driven ride-on toys

Electrically-driven ride-on toys intended for children under 6 years shall be equipped with a seat.

Electrically-driven ride-on toys shall have a maximum design speed which does not exceed the following values when tested according to 8.29 (determination of maximum design speed of electrically-driven ride-on toys):

4.15.2 Toy bicycles (see A.20)

4.15.2.1 General

In addition to relevant requirements in Clause 4, toy bicycles shall conform to the requirements in 4.15.2.2 and 4.15.2.3.

4.152.2 Warnings and instructions for use

Toy bicycles shall carry a warning regarding their use in traffic and the need for protective equipment to be worn. They shall also be accompanied by assembly and maintenance instructions, instructions for use and precautions to be taken. The potential dangers of riding a toy bicycle shall be brought to the attention of the parents or carers (see 7.15).

34

Toy bicycles that due to their construction, strength, design or other factors are not suitable for use by children of 36 months and over shall carry a warning (see 7.16).

4.15.2.3 Braking requirements

Toy bicycles with a free-wheeling mechanism shall be equipped with two independent braking systems, one which operates on the front wheel and one which operates on the rear wheel.

For handbrakes, the brake lever dimension d measured at the midpoint of the lever as shown in Figure 12 shall not exceed 60 mm. The range of adjustment on an adjustable lever shall permit this dimension to be attained. The lever length shall be 80 mm or more.

The toy shall not move more than 5 cm when tested according to 8.26.2 (brake performance for toy bicycles). This requirement applies also to toy bicycles with a fixed drive, if they have been equipped with a brake, although not required by this European Standard.

4.15.3 Rocking horses and similar toys (see A.21)

Rocking horses and similar toys shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. The bow rocker of any bow-mounted rocking horse or other rocking toy shall have a limit to its movement which shall at all times hold the user within the extreme of the bow. Compliance is checked by visual inspection.
  2. The toy shall not tip over when tested according to 8.23.1 (stability, toys intended to bear the mass of a child).
  3. Toys shall not collapse so that they do not continue to conform to relevant requirements of this European Standard when tested according to 8.21 (static strength).
  4. Toys that due to their construction, strength, design or other factors are not suitable for use by children of 36 months and over shall carry a warning (see 7.16).
  5. Toys where the intended sitting surface is 600 mm or more above the ground, shall carry a warning (see 7.19).
35 Figure 12 Handbrake lever dimensions. The diagram shows the brake lever dimension (d), which is measured from the top of the handle to the midpoint of the brake lever. This distance shall not exceed 60mm. 34

Figure 12 — Handbrake lever dimensions

4.15.4 Toys not propelled by a child

Toys not propelled by a child but designed to bear the mass of a child (but not toys covered by EN 71-8) shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. Toys shall not collapse so that they do not continue to conform to relevant requirements of this European Standard when tested according to 8.21 (static strength).
  2. Toys shall not tip over when tested according to 8.23.1 (stability, toys intended to bear the mass of a child). This requirement does not apply to toys which for evident reasons cannot be considered as being stable (e.g. big balls and soft-filled toy animals).
  3. Toys intended to bear the mass of a child shall, when appropriate, be accompanied by instructions for use, assembly and maintenance instructions.
  4. Toys that due to their construction, strength, design or other factors are not suitable for use by children of 36 months and over shall carry a warning (see 7.16).

4.15.5 Toy scooters (see A.49)

4.15.5.1 General

For the purpose of this European Standard, toy scooters are divided into two groups:

Toy scooters shall conform to the requirements of 4.15.5.

4.15.5.2 Warnings and instructions for use

Toy scooters shall carry a warning regarding the need for protective equipment to be worn and the maximum weight of the user. They shall also be accompanied by assembly and maintenance instructions, instructions for use and precautions to be taken. The potential dangers of riding a toy scooter shall be brought to the attention of the parents or carers (see 7.18).

4.15.5.3 Strength
  1. Toy scooters shall conform to the requirements in 4.15.1.3 (strength).
  2. When tested according to 8.27 (strength of toy scooter steering tubes):
    • steering tubes shall not collapse so that they do not continue to conform to relevant requirements of this European Standard;
    • steering tubes shall not separate into two or more parts;
    • steering tubes made of metal shall not show visible cracks;
    • locking devices shall not fail or disengage.
4.15.5.4 Adjustable and folding steering tubes
  1. Adjustable and folding steering tubes To prevent sudden changes of height, steering tubes with adjustable height shall
    • be adjustable with the use of a tool, or
    • have at least one main locking device and one secondary locking device of which at least one shall automatically be engaged when the height is adjusted.
    The separation of the steering tube shall not be possible unless intended.
  2. Steering tubes intended to be folded shall have a locking device on the folding mechanism.
  3. The space between moving elements capable of injuring fingers, shall also allow a 12 mm rod to be inserted if it allows a 5 mm rod to be inserted. Accessible openings in moving elements capable of shearing a finger shall not allow the insertion of a 5 mm rod.
4.15.5.5 Braking

Toy scooters labelled as intended for children with a body mass of 20 kg or less do not require a braking system.

Other toy scooters shall have at least one braking system which shall operate on the rear wheel and which shall effectively and smoothly reduce the speed without coming to an abrupt stop.

When tested according to 8.26.3 (brake performance for toy scooters), the force required to hold the toy scooter on the inclined plane shall be less than 50 N.

37
4.15.5.6 Wheel size

The diameter of the front wheel(s) on toy scooters shall be 120 mm or greater.

4.15.5.7 Protruding parts

The handles on toy scooters shall have an end with a diameter of 40 mm or more.

4.16 Heavy immobile toys

Immobile toys with a mass of 4,5 kg or more and intended to rest on the floor but not to bear the mass of a child, shall not tip over when tested according to 8.23.2 (stability, heavy immobile toys).

4.17 Projectiles (see A.22)

4.17.1 General

Projectiles and projectile toys shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. All rigid projectiles shall have a tip radius of 2 mm or more.
  2. Resilient materials used as impact surfaces shall not become detached when tested according to 8.4.2.3 (tension test, protective components) unless the resulting elements still conform to the relevant requirements of this European Standard.

    If the impact surface is a suction cup which passes entirely through template E when tested according to 8.32.1 (small balls and suction cups) the suction cup itself shall not become entirely detached when tested according to 8.3 (torque test) and 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general).
  3. Helicopter rotors and single propellers intended to be powered into vertical or nearly vertical free flight by a spring mechanism or similar device, shall have a ring around the perimeter in order to reduce the risk of injuries.
  4. Projectiles with a suction cup as impact area shall have a length of 57 mm or more when measured as indicated in Figure 13, and with their suction cup resting on a flat surface without being subjected to any force other than that produced by their own mass. If the projectile falls over unless supported, it is permitted to support the projectile during the measurement.

    The requirement in 4.17.1 d) applies before and after testing according to 8.3 (torque test) and 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general). The requirement in 4.17.1 d) does not apply if the suction cup does not pass entirely through template E when tested according to 8.32.1 (small balls and suction cups).

    The requirement in 4.17.1 d) applies both to projectiles where the suction cup is an integral part of the projectile and to projectiles where the suction cup is attached to the rest of the projectile.
Figure 13 Measurement of length of projectiles with suction cup are shown to be ≥ 57 millimetres.

Figure 13 — Measurement of length of projectiles with suction cup

38

4.17.2 Projectile toys without stored energy

Projectile toys without stored energy shall conform to the following requirements:

Projectiles in the form of darts shall have blunted points or points that are protected by a resilient material (e.g. rubber) having an impact area of 3 cm2 or more. Points shall not be made of metal. However, darts fitted with magnetic metal discs are permitted if the disc has an area of 3 cm2 or more.

4.17.3 Projectile toys with stored energy

Projectiles propelled from a discharge mechanism shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. The maximum kinetic energy of projectiles, when tested according to 8.24.1 (kinetic energy of projectiles) shall not exceed:
    1. 0,08 J for rigid projectiles without resilient impact surfaces;
    2. 0,5 J for resilient projectiles or projectiles with resilient impact surfaces (e.g. rubber).
  2. For projectiles in the form of arrows whose maximum kinetic energy exceeds 0,08 J, their impact surfaces shall be protected by a resilient material (e.g. rubber). The maximum kinetic energy per unit area of the resilient impact surface shall not exceed 0,16 J/cm2 when tested according to 8.24.1 (kinetic energy of projectiles).
  3. If a discharge mechanism is able to discharge an object other than that provided with the toy, the potential danger shall be drawn to the attention of the user (see 7.7.1).

    If a toy is capable of discharging a projectile with a kinetic energy greater than 0,08 J, the potential danger shall be drawn to the attention of the user by a warning (see 7.7.2).

    NOTE In order to reduce the risk of eye injuries, manufacturers are strongly recommended to design toys so that they are not able to discharge missiles other than those provided with the toy.

4.17.4 Bows and arrows

For the purpose of this European Standard, bows offered for sale with arrows are to be considered as toys. Arrows discharged from a bow shall comply with the following requirements:

  1. Points of arrows shall not be made of metal; however, points fitted with magnetic metal discs are permitted if the disc has an area of 3 cm or more.
  2. The maximum kinetic energy of arrows discharged from a bow shall not exceed the values given in 4.17.3 a) when tested according to 8.24.2 (kinetic energy of bows and arrows).
  3. Arrows whose maximum kinetic energy exceeds 0,08 J, when tested according to 8.24.2, shall conform to 4.17.3 b). The potential danger of discharging such arrows shall be drawn to the attention of the user by a warning (see 7.7.2).

4.18 Aquatic toys and inflatable toys (see A.23)

Aquatic toys, and inflatable toys provided with air-inflation inlets with stoppers, shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. Air-inflation inlets on aquatic toys shall have stoppers and all air-inflation inlets with stoppers on aquatic toys and inflatable toys shall have the stoppers permanently attached to the toy. The stopper, or any part 39 of it, if detached when tested according to 8.3 (torque test), and 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general) shall not fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder).
  2. For inflatable aquatic toys, the stopper shall be capable of being pushed into the toy so that it does not protrude more than 5 mm from the surface of the toy when inflated.
  3. The potential danger of using aquatic toys shall be drawn to the attention of the user by a warning (see 7.4).

In addition, inflatable aquatic ride-on toys with a maximum dimension larger than 1,2 meters (e.g. large inflatable animals) measured on the uninflated toy, shall fulfil the applicable requirements for floating leisure articles, Class A 2 devices in EN 15649-3.

4.19 Percussion caps specifically designed for use in toys and toys using percussion caps (see A.24)

Assuming reasonably foreseeable use, percussions caps specifically designed for use in toys shall not produce debris which could cause eye injuries, flames or glowing residues.

The packaging of percussion caps shall carry a warning regarding their use (see 7.13).

Toys intended to be used with percussion caps shall carry an indication regarding which make and model of percussion caps they can be safely used with, and a warning regarding their use (see 7.14). The warning may alternatively be placed on the packaging (see 7.14).

A2⇒

4.20 Acoustics (see A.25)

4.20.1 Exposure categories for time-averaged sound pressure levels

To take into account the fact that the effective time of sound emission from a toy under use can vary considerably, toys designed to emit sound are divided into 3 exposure categories. The toys mentioned under each category refer to the traditional versions of these toys. Toys which are not of traditional design may belong to another exposure category. For toys that do not fit clearly into a specific category, the nearest strictest (i.e. the lowest numbered) category should be used:

Exposure category 1:

Exposure category 2:

Exposure category 3:

NOTE An example of a toy for which maintaining the sound output requires a significant physical effort is an electronic toy gun firing one shot per trigger-initiation. Although a single shot would require little effort a great number of single shots at high frequency would require a significant effort if repeated during several minutes.

4.20.2 Emission sound pressure level limits

4.20.2.1 General

Toys shall be assessed against the sub-clause most relevant for their sound mode or sound function. Toys with more than one sound function may be assessed against multiple sub-clauses. Toys or sound functions of toys that do not clearly fit within any of the clauses shall be assessed as either hand-held toys or table-top or floor toys, whichever is the more appropriate.

When tested according to 8.28 (determination of emission sound pressure levels), toys which are clearly designed to emit sound shall conform to the requirements in the following sub-clauses of 4.20.2:

4.20.2.2 Close-to-the-ear toys

The A-weighted time averaged emission sound pressure level, LpA, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.1 at 50 cm by close-to-the-ear toys shall not exceed 60 dB for exposure category 1 toys, 65 dB for exposure category 2 toys and 70 dB for exposure category 3 toys. The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.1 at 50 cm shall not exceed 110 dB.

4.20.2.3 Table-top or floor toys

The A-weighted time-averaged emission sound pressure level, LpA, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.2 at 50 cm by table-top or floor toys shall not exceed 80 dB for exposure category 1 toys, 85 dB for exposure category 2 toys and 90 dB for exposure category 3 toys. The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.2 at 50 cm shall not exceed 110 dB.

4.20.2.4 Hand-held toys

The A-weighted time-averaged emission sound pressure level, LpA, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.3 at 50 cm by hand-held toys shall not exceed 80 dB for exposure category 1 toys, 85 dB for exposure category 2 toys and 90 dB for exposure category 3 toys. The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.3 at 50 cm shall not exceed 110 dB.

41
4.20.2.5 Toys using headphones or earphones

The A-weighted time-averaged emission sound pressure level, LpA, produced by toys using headphones or earphones, when tested according to 8.28.2.4, measured in an ear simulator and after correction to an equivalent free field sound pressure level, shall not exceed 85 dB. The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.4, measured in an ear simulator and after correction to an equivalent free field sound pressure level shall not exceed 135 dB.

4.20.2.6 Rattles

The A-weighted time-averaged emission sound pressure level, LpA, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.5 at 50 cm by rattles shall not exceed 85 dB. The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.5 at 50 cm shall not exceed 110 dB.

4.20.2.7 Squeeze toys

The A-Weighted time-averaged emission sound pressure level, LpA, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.6 at 50 cm by squeeze toys shall not exceed 85 dB. The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.6 at 50 cm shall not exceed 110 dB.

4.20.2.8 Pull-along or push toys

The A-Weighted maximum emission sound pressure level, measured using a meter with time-weighting F, LAFmax, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.7 at 50 cm by pull-along or push toys clearly designed to emit sound only as a result of movement imparted on the toy, shall not exceed 80 dB for exposure category 1 toys, 85 dB for exposure category 2 toys, and 90 dB for exposure category 3 toys. The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.7 at 50 cm shall not exceed 110 dB.

NOTE Examples of pull-along or push toys that emit sound only as a result of movement imparted on the toy, include toys making intentional mechanically excited sound when the axles/wheels are rotating. Pull-along or push toys that produce sound which is not dependant on the energy imparted by the user, for example electronic sound, are instead tested as hand-held toys or table-top or floor toys (see 8.28.1.3).

4.20.2.9 Percussion toys

The A-weighted time-averaged emission sound pressure level, LpA, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.8 at 50 cm by percussion toys shall not exceed 85 dB. The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.8 at 50 cm shall not exceed 130 dB. If the C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak , produced by a percussion toy exceeds 110 dB, the potential danger to hearing shall be drawn to the attention of the user by a warning (see 7.14).

4.20.2.10 Wind toys

The A-weighted time-averaged emission sound pressure level, LpA, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.9 at 50 cm by wind toys shall not exceed 85 dB for exposure category 2 toys and 90 dB for exposure category 3 toys. The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.9 at 50 cm shall not exceed 110 dB.

4.20.2.11 Cap-firing toys

The A-weighted time-averaged emission sound pressure level, LpA, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.10 at 50 cm by cap-firing toys shall not exceed 90 dB. The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.10 at 50 cm shall not exceed 125 dB.

42

Where the C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak , produced by a cap-firing toy exceeds 110 dB, the potential danger to hearing shall be drawn to the attention of the user by a warning (see 7.14).

4.20.2.12 Voice toys

The A-weighted time-averaged emission sound pressure level, LpA, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.11 at 50 cm by voice toys shall not exceed 80 dB for exposure category 1 toys, 85 dB for exposure category 2 toys and 90 dB for exposure category 3 toys. The C-weighted peak emission sound pressure level, LpCpeak, produced when tested according to 8.28.2.11 at 50 cm shall not exceed 110 dB.

An overview of the requirements is given in Table 1 and 2.

43
Table 1 - A-weighted time-averaged emission sound pressure level limit, LpA, assumed use distance
Toy TypeExposure category (number)Assumed use distance (cm)Measurement distance (cm)Limit at the measurement distance (dB)
Sub-clause 4.20.2.2 Close-to-the-ear toys12,55060
22,55065
32,55070
Sub-clause 4.20.2.3 Table-top or floor toys1255080
2255085
3255090
Sub-clause 4.20.2.4 Hand-held toys1255080
2255085
3255090
Sub-clause 4.20.2.5 Toys using headphones or earphones1aa85 a
Sub-clause 4.20.2.6 Rattles2255085
Sub-clause 4.20.2.7 Squeeze toys2255085
Sub-clause 4.20.2.8 Pull-along or push toys1255080 b
2255085 b
3255090 b
Sub-clause 4.20.2.9 Percussion toys2255085
Sub-clause 4.20.2.10 Wind toys2255085
3255090
Sub-clause 4.20.2.11 Cap-firing toys3255090
Sub-clause 4.20.2.12 voice toys1255080
2255085
3255090
a Measured using an ear simulator device and converted to a free field equivalent.
b This limit value refers to the A-weighted maximum emission sound pressure level using time-weighting F, LpAFmax.
44
Table 2 - C-weighted emission peak sound pressure level limit, worst case use distance and
Toy TypeWorst case use distance (cm)Measurement distance (cm)LpCpeak at measurement distance (dB)
Sub-clause 4.20.2.2
Close-to-the-ear toys
2,550110
Sub-clause 4.20.2.3
Table-top or floor toys
2,550110
Sub-clause 4.20.2.4
Hand-held toys
2,550110
Sub-clause 4.20.2.5
Toys using headphones or earphones
aa135 a
Sub-clause 4.20.2.6
Rattles
2,550110
Sub-clause 4.20.2.7
Squeeze toys
2,550110
Sub-clause 4.20.2.8
Pull-along or push toys
2,550110
Sub-clause 4.20.2.9
Percussion toys
2550130
Sub-clause 4.20.2.10
Wind toys
2,550110
Sub-clause 4.20.2.11
Cap-firing toys
2,550125
Sub-clause 4.20.2.12
voice toys
2,550110
a Measured using an ear simulator device and converted to a free field equivalent.
⇐A2

4.21 Toys containing a non-electrical heat source

The following requirements do not apply to burners and similar items in chemistry sets and experimental kits and similar items.

  1. Toys containing a heat source shall not ignite when used at the maximum input when tested according to 8.30 (measurement of temperature rises).
  2. The temperature rise of all handles, knobs and similar parts which are likely to be touched by hand, shall not exceed the following values when tested according to 8.30 (measurement of temperature rises):
    • parts of metal - 25 K;
    • parts of glass or porcelain - 30 K; 45
    • parts of plastics or wood - 35 K.
  3. The temperature rise of other accessible parts of the toy shall not exceed the following values when tested according to 8.30 (measurement of temperature rises):
    • parts of metal - 45 K;
    • parts of glass or porcelain - 50 K;
    • parts of other materials - 55 K.

NOTE Requirements for toys containing an electrical heat source are given in EN 62115.

4.22 Small balls (see 5.10 and A.48)

This requirement does not apply to soft-filled balls. Any ball that passes entirely through template E when tested according to 8.32.1 (small balls and suction cups) is considered to be a small ball.

Any ball attached to a toy by a cord, such that the ball is suspended freely, is considered to be a small ball if it passes through the base of template E such that the distance A is greater than 30 mm when tested according to 8.32.2 (small balls attached to a toy by a cord).

Toys that are small balls or contain removable small balls or contain small balls that become detached when tested according to 8.3 (torque test), 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general), 8.5 (drop test), 8.7 (impact test) and 8.8 (compression test) shall carry a warning (see 7.2). For large and bulky toys the drop test is substituted by 8.6 (tip over test).

4.23 Magnets (see A.51)

4.23.1 General

The requirements in 4.23.2 do not apply to functional magnets in electrical or electronic components of toys.

The requirement in 4.23.3 does not apply to magnetic/electrical experimental sets in which all magnets have a magnetic flux index less than 50 kG2mm2 (0,5 T2mm2 ) when tested according to 8.35 (magnetic flux index), or do not fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder).

4.23.2 Toys other than magnetic/electrical experimental sets intended for children over 8 years

  1. Any loose as-received magnet(s) and magnetic component(s) shall either have a magnetic flux index less than 50 kG2mm2 (0,5 T2mm2) when tested according to 8.35 (magnetic flux index), or shall not fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder).
  2. Any magnet(s) and magnetic component(s) that become(s) released from a toy, or from a loose asreceived magnetic component, when tested according to 8.3 (torque test), 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general), 8.4.2.2 a) (tension test, seams and materials), 8.5 (drop test), 8.7 (impact test), 8.8 (compression test), and finally, for magnets that are accessible but not grippable (as specified in 8.4.2.1), 8.34 (tension test for magnets), shall either have a magnetic flux index less than 50 kG2mm2 (0,5 T2mm2) when tested according to 8.35 (magnetic flux index), or shall not fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder). For large and bulky toys, the drop test is substituted by 8.6 (tip over test).

    NOTE An example of a magnet that is accessible but not grippable is a magnet that is recessed.46

  3. Wooden toys, toys intended to be used in water, and mouth-actuated toys shall be tested according to 8.9 (soaking test) before being tested according to 4.23.2 b) above.

4.23.3 Magnetic/electrical experimental sets intended for children over 8 years

Magnetic/electrical experimental sets intended for children over 8 years shall carry a warning (see 7.20).

This warning is not required for magnetic/electrical experimental sets in which all magnets have a magnetic flux index less than 50 kG2mm2 (0,5 T2mm2) when tested according to 8.35 (magnetic flux index), or do not fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder).

4.24 Yo-yo balls (see A.52)

The initial length l0 of the yo-yo ball tether, measured as described in 8.37.1 shall not be greater than 370 mm. The ratio of the mass m (in grams) to the elastic constant k of the yo-yo ball, measured as described in 8.37.2 shall be less than 2,2 (see Equation 1):

m k < 2,2 (1)

where

m is the total mass of the ball and the tether made of elastic material;

k is the elastic constant of the yo-yo ball as measured in 8.37.2.

4.25 Toys attached to food (see A.55)

Toys attached to food shall conform to the following requirements:

Prior to testing the toy to sub-clauses a) and b), the food shall be removed, in such a manner that the toy is not damaged.

  1. Toys and removable components of toys that are directly attached to a food product in such a way that the food product does not need to be consumed in order to get direct access to any part of the toy, shall not fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder) or, if the toy or removable component of the toy is a ball, pass entirely through template E when tested according to 8.32.1 (small balls and suction cups).
  2. When tested according to 8.3 (torque test), 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general), 8.5 (drop test), 8.7 (impact test) and 8.8 (compression test), toys subject to the requirements of 4.25 a) shall not produce any parts which, whatever their position, fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder) or any ball which passes entirely through template E when tested according to 8.32.1 (small balls and suction cups).

NOTE Directive 2009/48/EC includes additional specific safety requirements for toys that are firmly attached to, contained in or co-mingled with food. According to the directive, toys firmly attached to a food product in such a way that the food product needs to be consumed in order to get direct access to the toy (i.e. no part of the toy is accessible before consuming the food), are prohibited.

Furthermore, the Directive states that toys contained within food or co-mingled with food must have their own packaging. According to the Directive, this packaging, as it is supplied, in addition to other requirements must not fit entirely in the small parts cylinder. Furthermore, the outer food packaging must, according to the Directive, carry the following warning: “Warning. Toy inside. Adult supervision recommended.” This information is not exhaustive and Directive 2009/48/EC and the associated guidance documents should be consulted for further details.

47

5 Toys intended for children under 36 months

Toys intended for children under 36 months shall in addition to relevant requirements of Clause 4 conform to the following requirements, where applicable.

NOTE According to Directive 2009/48/EC the following safety requirements apply regarding cleaning and washing: "A toy intended for use by children under 36 months must be designed and manufactured in such a way that it can be cleaned. A textile toy must, to this end, be washable, except if it contains a mechanism that may be damaged if soak washed. The toy must fulfil the safety requirements also after having been cleaned in accordance with this point and the manufacturer’s instructions." The manufacturer should, if applicable, provide instructions on how the toy has to be cleaned. This information is not exhaustive and Directive 2009/48/EC and the associated guidance documents should be consulted for further details.

5.1 General requirements (see A.26)

The requirements in 5.1 do not apply to the following:

However, tightly packed stuffed components made of fabric and/or yarn are not excluded from the general requirements of 5.1.

The general requirements are as follows:

  1. Toys and removable components of toys shall not, whatever their position, fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder) (see A.26).

    A3⇒ In addition, attached paperboard components of toys, that detach after the test specified in 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general) shall not fit entirely in the small parts cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder).

    The requirement in 5.1 b) does not apply to paperboard toys or to paperboard parts of toys. ⇐A3
  2. When tested according to 8.3 (torque test), 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general), 8.5 (drop test), 8.7 (impact test) and 8.8 (compression test), toys shall not produce any parts which, whatever their position, fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder), or exhibit accessible hazardous sharp edges (see 8.11, sharpness of edges), or accessible hazardous sharp points (see 8.12, sharpness of points), and toys with springs shall continue to conform to the requirements in 4.10.4 (springs). Toys that contain magnets or magnetic components shall also fulfil the requirements given in 4.23.2 b) and c) with the addition that release of magnets or magnetic components with a magnetic flux index less than 50 kG2mm2 (0,5 T2mm2) is not permitted if the released magnets fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder).
  3. Metal points and wires with a cross section of 2 mm or less that do not necessarily present a sharp point according to 8.12 (sharpness of points) are considered to be potentially hazardous sharp points. They shall therefore be assessed to determine whether they present an unreasonable risk of injury taking into account the foreseeable use of the toy (see also A.9).
  4. Large and bulky toys shall be tested according to 5.1 b) above with the exclusion of 8.5 (drop test) and with the inclusion of a test according to 8.6 (tip over test). 48

    A3⇒ The requirement in 5.1 e) does not apply to large and bulky toys and to toys and components of toys made of paperboard. ⇐A3
  5. Glued wooden toys and toys with glued-on plastic decals shall be tested according to 8.9 (soaking test) before being tested according to 5.1 b). Flakes of paint that have come loose from painted toys are exempt from being tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder). Thick surface coatings such as varnish are not exempt.
  6. The casing of toys intended for children too young to sit up unaided, shall not crack when tested according to 5.1 b). A crack may be accepted if it clearly does not create a hazard (see also A.26).
  7. For foam toys and toys containing accessible foam components, clamps and test fixtures used to perform the tests shall not damage the toy or component such as to affect the results when tested according to 8.3 (torque test) and 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general).

5.2 Soft-filled toys and soft-filled parts of a toy (see A.27)

  1. Fillings shall not contain any hard and sharp contaminants such as pieces of metal, nails, needles and splinters.
  2. Soft-filled toys and soft-filled parts of a toy containing small parts (e.g. rattling components, bells, shredded foam) or with filling from which pieces can be bitten or torn thereby producing small parts, which fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder), shall have at least one covering so that, after being tested according to 8.4.2.2 a) (tension test, seams and materials), it shall not be possible to insert the front part of probe A, as specified in 8.10 (accessibility of part or component), through any one opening in the seam or cover material. An opening may be accepted if it clearly does not create a hazard.

    NOTE Filling from which pieces can be bitten or torn off include, for example, plastic foam but exclude paper, fabric, elastics, yarn, strings and fuzz.

  3. Soft-filled toys and soft-filled parts of a toy, containing fibrous filling material shall have at least one covering such that, after being tested according to 8.4.2.2 b) (tension test, seams and materials), it shall not be possible to insert the front part of a 12 mm diameter rod with a fully radiused end through any one opening in the seam or cover material by more than 6 mm.

5.3 Plastic sheeting (see A.28)

Plastic sheeting which becomes detached when tested according to 8.25.2 (plastic sheeting, adhesion) and 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general) and has an area greater than 100 mm ⨉ 100 mm, shall have an average thickness of 0,038 mm or more when tested according to 8.25.1 (plastic sheeting, thickness).

5.4 Cords, chains and electrical cables in toys (see A.29)

The requirements in this clause do not apply to ropes and chains that are covered by the diameter requirements of EN 71-8 (e.g. climbing and swinging ropes).

The requirements in this clause do not apply to straps intended to be worn fully or partially around the neck (see 5.14), to straps in toy safety harnesses, toy-backpack shoulder straps or to toy bag/bucket/box handles. Requirements from 5.4 a) to 5.4 e) do not apply to:

  1. Cords connected to a self-retraction mechanism and cords in pull-along toys shall have an average crosssectional dimension of 1,5 mm or more when measured according to 8.20 (cords cross-sectional dimension).
  2. Cords and chains that can form a tangled loop or a noose shall either:
    • have a length not exceeding 220 mm (for toys intended for children under 18 months) or have a length not exceeding 300 mm (for other toys) when measured according to 8.40 (length of cords, chains and electrical cables), or
    • separate into parts with a length not exceeding 220 mm (for toys intended for children under 18 months) or with a length not exceeding 300 mm (for other toys) when tested according to 8.38 (breakaway feature separation test). It shall be possible to join the parts after they have been separated without altering the characteristics of the joints (see Figure 14). The length of the separated parts shall be measured according to 8.40 (length of cords, chains and electrical cables).
    Toys intended for children of 18 months and over, but under 36 months, and having cords or chains with a length exceeding 220 mm (which do not separate into one or more parts with a length not exceeding 220 mm) that can form a tangled loop or a noose, shall be accompanied by a warning (see 7.22), visible at the point of sale, on the toy itself or on its packaging.
Figure 14 Example of a joint on cords

Figure 14 — Example of a joint on cords

  1. Fixed loops of cords or chains shall either:
    • have a perimeter not exceeding 380 mm when measured according to 8.36.2.1 (cords and chains with a single fixing point or with fixing points less than 94 mm apart), or a distance “d” not exceeding 96 mm when measured according to 8.36.2.2 (cords and chains fixed to a toy at points of 94 mm or more apart), or
    • separate into parts with a length not exceeding 220 mm (for toys intended for children under 18 months) or with a length not exceeding 300 mm (for other toys) when tested according to 8.38 (breakaway feature separation test). The length of the separated parts shall be measured according to 8.40 (length of cords, chains and electrical cables).

Toys intended for children of 18 months and over, but under 36 months, having a fixed loop that separates into one or more parts with a length exceeding 220 mm, shall be accompanied by a warning (see 7.22), visible in the point of sale, on the toy itself or on its packaging.

Where the distance between fixing points of cords and chains can change during play due to the flexibility of the toy (e.g. cords on soft filled toys or on textile toys without rigid parts) the perimeter shall be determined according to 8.36.2.1 regardless of the at-rest distance between the fixing points.

  1. The perimeter of nooses:
    • shall not exceed 380 mm when measured according to 8.36.2.1, or
    • the distance d shall not exceed 96 mm when measured according to 8.36.2.2. 50
  2. The force of self-retraction mechanisms for cords in toys shall not retract the cord under any of the testing-conditions specified in 8.39 (self-retracting cords).
  3. Toys with cords intended to be strung across a cradle, cot or perambulator shall carry a warning (see 7.11). This requirement applies also to toys with cords intended to be attached to a cradle, cot or perambulator where the cords of such toys are intended to be out of reach of the children if they have cords longer than 220 mm that can form a tangled loop or a noose.
  4. Cords and chains with a free end (i.e. with no attachments) on toys (excluding pull-along toys) intended for children under 18 months shall have a free length not exceeding 300 mm when measured according to 8.40 (length of cords, chains and electrical cables).

    Toys (excluding pull-along toys) intended for children over 18 months, but under 36 months, having cords or chains with a free end and a free length exceeding 300 mm, shall carry a warning (see 7.22).
  5. Cords and chains with a free end (i.e. with no attachments) on pull-along toys intended for children under 36 months shall have a free length not exceeding 800 mm when measured according to 8.40 (length of cords, chains and electrical cables).
  6. Toys with electrical cables longer than 300 mm when measured according to 8.40 (length of cords chains and electrical cables) shall carry a warning (see 7.21).

5.5 Liquid-filled toys (see A.30)

Upon completion of relevant tests according to Clauses 4 and 5, toys with non-accessible liquid shall be tested according to 8.15 (leakage of liquid-filled toys) and there shall be no leakage of the contents nor any splitting or cracking which could lead to leakage of the contents.

Liquid-filled teethers shall carry a warning that the teether is not to be placed in a freezer compartment (see 7.12).

5.6 Speed limitation of electrically-driven ride-on toys

Electrically-driven ride-on toys shall have a maximum design speed of 6 km/h or less when tested according to 8.29 (determination of maximum design speed of electrically-driven ride-on toys).

5.7 Glass and porcelain (see 4.5 and A.6)

Accessible glass and accessible porcelain shall not be used in the construction of toys intended for children under 36 months.

5.8 Shape and size of certain toys (see A.31)

The requirements in 5.8 a) and b) do not apply to soft-filled parts of a toy or parts of fabric. They do not apply to rigid elements having a major dimension equal to 30 mm or less.

The shape and size of toys intended for children who are too young to sit up unaided, shall conform to the requirements in 5.8 a) and b), as supplied.

Toys that are clearly marketed for such children include, but are not limited to:

  1. For such toys having a mass of 0,5 kg or less, no part of the toy shall protrude past the base of template A when tested according to 8.16 (geometric shape of certain toys).
  2. For such toys with nearly spherical, hemispherical or circular flared ends having a mass of 0,5 kg or less, no part of the toy shall protrude past the base of template B when tested according to 8.16 (geometric shape of certain toys).

5.9 Toys comprising monofilament fibres (see A.32)

Toys comprising monofilament fibres of straightened length greater than 50 mm and attached to a fabric base shall carry a warning (see 7.17).

5.10 Small balls (see also 4.22 and A.48)

This requirement does not apply to soft-filled balls.

Any ball that passes entirely through template E when tested according to 8.32.1 (small balls and suction cups) is considered to be a small ball.

Any ball attached to a toy by a cord, such that the ball is suspended freely, is considered to be a small ball if it passes through the base of template E such that the distance A is greater than 30 mm when tested according to 8.32.2 (small balls attached to a toy by a cord).

  1. Toys shall not be small balls or contain removable small balls.
  2. Small balls shall not become detached when tested according to 8.3 (torque test), 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general), 8.5 (drop test), 8.7 (impact test) and 8.8 (compression test), and for glued wooden toys 8.9 (soaking test). For large and bulky toys, the drop test is substituted by 8.6 (tip over test).

NOTE See also the requirement in 6 c) regarding packaging which is a small ball.

5.11 Play figures

This requirement does not apply to soft-filled toys.

Play figures having:

  1. a rounded, spherical or hemispherical end with tapered neck attached to a cylindrical shape without appendages, and
  2. an overall length not exceeding 64 mm (see examples in Figure 15),

shall be designed so that when tested according to 8.33 (test for play figures), the rounded end shall not protrude past the base of template B. The requirement applies to figures with added or moulded features such as hats or hair which retain the rounded shape of the end.

52 Figure 15 Examples of play figures. One is wearing a baseball cap.

Figure 15 — Examples of play figures

5.12 Hemispheric-shaped toys (see A.50)

These requirements apply to cup-shaped toys, bowl-shaped toys and one half of egg-shaped toys having a nearly round, oval or elliptical opening with the minor and major inner dimensions between 64 mm and 102 mm, a volume of less than 177 ml and a depth greater than 13 mm.

The following toys are exempt from these requirements:

Cup-shaped toys, bowl-shaped toys and one half of egg-shaped toys shall comply with one or more of the requirements in items 5.12 a), b), c) or d):

  1. the object shall have two or more openings that are 13 mm or more from the rim as measured along the outside contour:
    • if the openings are placed in the base of the object, two or more of the openings shall be 13 mm or more apart (see Figure 16 a));
    • if the openings are not placed in the base of the object, two or more of the openings shall be placed at least 30° but not more than 150° apart (see Figure 16 b));
  2. the plane of the open end of the cup shape shall be interrupted at the centre by some type of divider that extends 6 mm or less from the plane of the opening. An example of an interruption includes a rib through the centre of the opening (see Figure 16 c));
  3. the object shall have three openings located between 6 mm and 13 mm from the rim and 100° or more apart as measured along the outside contour;
  4. the object shall have a repeating scalloped-edge pattern around the entire rim. The distance between centrelines of adjacent peaks shall be 25 mm or less and the depth shall be 6 mm or more (see Figure 16 d)).

For the purpose of these requirements, an opening is defined as a hole of any shape with a dimension of 2 mm or more.

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The requirements above apply before and after testing according to 8.3 (torque test), 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general), 8.5 (drop test), 8.7 (impact test) and 8.8 (compression test) and for glued wooden toys 8.9 (soaking test). For large and bulky toys the drop test is substituted by 8.6 (tip over test).

NOTE See also the requirement in 6 e) regarding packaging which is hemispheric-shaped.

Figure 16 This diagram contains the first 3 of 4 images. Diagram a) shows the openings in the base of a bowl, which must be ≥ 13 mm apart. Diagram b) shows the opening placement if the openings are not in the base of the object. In that case, the openings shall be at least 30° but not more than 150° apart. Diagram c) shows a rib through a cup center that extends 6 mm or less from the plane of the opening. 54 Figure 16d This diagram is the 4th of 4 images. Diagram d) shows a scalloped edge pattern, in which the centrelines of adjacent peaks shall be 25 mm or less and the depth shall be 6 mm or more.

Figure 16 — Examples of hemispheric-shaped toys

5.13 Suction cups (see A.54)

  1. Loose suction cups, removable suction cups and suction cups that become detached from a toy when tested according to 8.3 (torque test), 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general), 8.5 (drop test), 8.7 (impact test) and 8.8 (compression test) shall not pass entirely through template E when tested according to 8.32.1 (small balls and suction cups) and shall continue to conform to relevant requirements in this European Standard. For large and bulky toys, the drop test is substituted by 8.6 (tip over test).
  2. A toy with an attached suction cup shall not pass entirely through template E when tested according to 8.32.1 (small balls and suction cups).

    NOTE A suction cup that, together with a piece of cord, has become detached from a toy fails the requirement in 5.13 a) if it, and its attachment, pass through template E.

5.14 Straps intended to be worn fully or partially around the neck (see A.53)

Toys with straps intended to be worn fully or partially around the neck and which create a fixed loop shall have a breakaway feature which breaks when tested according to 8.38 (breakaway feature separation test).

6 Packaging (see A.56)

The requirement in Clause 6 a) does not apply to:

The packaging of toys shall conform to the following requirements:

  1. A3⇒ Plastic sheeting and bags made of flexible plastics used for external or internal packaging, shall have an average sheet thickness of 0,038 mm or more when tested according to 8.25.1 (plastic sheeting, thickness). ⇐A3
  2. Bags made of flexible plastics with an opening perimeter greater than 380 mm shall not have a drawstring or cord as a means of closing.
  3. The requirements in 5.10 (small balls) apply to packaging and packaging components that are small balls regardless of the intended age group of the toy.
  4. Regardless of the intended age group of the toy, any separable part of its packaging, which is a small ball or that has a cylindrical shape with a rounded end shall not pass entirely through template E when tested according to 8.32.1 (small balls and suction cups). This requirement does not apply to parts with a major dimension of 64 mm or more, or parts that are attached to another part of the packaging with an attachment that does not break when tested according to 8.3 (torque test) and 8.4.2.1 (tension test, general).
  5. The requirements in 5.12 (hemispheric shaped toys) apply to hemispheric-shaped containers that are part of the packaging for toys intended for children under three.

7 Warnings, markings and instructions for use (see A.33)

NOTE The text of this note is for information only and the indents do not constitute requirements of this European Standard. The information is not exhaustive and Directive 2009/48/EC and the associated guidance documents should be consulted for further details.

2 A manufacturer is any natural or legal person who manufactures a toy or has a toy designed or manufactured, and markets that toy under his name or trademark.

3 An importer is any natural or legal person established within the Community who places a toy from a third country on the Community market.

7.1 General

Warnings on toys shall not be misleading or incorrect. Toys intended for children under 36 months shall comply with the requirements in Clause 5. A warning on a toy or its packaging does not release the manufacturer or his authorized representative from the obligation to meet these requirements.

A toy shall not bear a warning that conflicts with the intended use of the toy, as determined by virtue of its function, dimension and characteristics.

The warnings shall be preceded by the words "Warning" or "Warnings", as appropriate (i.e. instead of repeating the word “Warning” before each warning when several of the warnings in Clause 7 are present, the word “Warnings” may be used once). The word “Warning” or “Warnings” may be followed by punctuation, e.g. an exclamation mark.

The manufacturer shall mark the warnings in a clearly visible, easily legible and understandable and accurate manner on the toy, on an affixed label or on the packaging A1⇒ >and, if appropriate, include the warnings in the instructions for use.

Manufacturers shall for that purpose consider the good practice given in A.33. ⇐A1

In the following clauses, the location of the warnings is therefore indicated (on the toy itself, on the packaging, in the instructions for use, on an accompanying leaflet). Warnings which determine the decision to purchase the toy shall appear on the consumer packaging or be otherwise clearly visible to the consumer before the purchase.

Small toys that are sold without packaging (for example from a display box or from a vending machine) shall have the appropriate warnings affixed to them. In all cases the warning shall be clearly legible at the point of sale. It is not sufficient to place the warning(s) only on a display box.

NOTE The requirement that warnings must be clearly visible to the consumer at the time of purchase applies also in cases where the purchase is made on-line (e.g. internet) or by catalogue or by other means where the buyer does not have access to the toy at the time of purchase.

In the following sub-clauses a requirement, that a toy shall carry a warning shall mean that the warning shall appear on the toy itself.

7.2 Toys not intended for children under 36 months (see 4.22 and A.34)

The provisions in 7.2 do not apply to toys which, on account of their function, dimensions, characteristics, properties or other cogent grounds, are clearly unsuitable for children under 36 months. Toys which are not intended for but might be dangerous for children under 36 months shall be accompanied by a warning, such as:

“Warning. Not suitable for children under 36 months" or "Warning. Not suitable for children under three years”

together with a brief indication of the specific hazard calling for this restriction. The hazard is the potential source of harm. Harm means physical injury or any other damage to health, including long term health effect.

When more than one hazard is present, at least one of the principal hazards shall be indicated.

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If the hazard (the potential source of harm) cannot be considered to be obvious to consumers, the hazard indication shall be supplemented by a clear description of the harm in order to explain the warning as a whole (e.g. “Long cord. Strangulation hazard” or “Small ball. Choking hazard”).

The harm may be referred to using e.g. the terms “Choking hazard” and “Strangulation hazard” since this is well established. However, it is never sufficient to indicate the harm alone (choking, strangulation etc.). In cases where it is well known which harm a product characteristic can cause (for example that “small parts” can cause choking) it is sufficient to indicate the hazard alone. It is, however, always permitted to mention both the hazard and the harm (e.g. “Small parts. Choking hazard”).

Examples of acceptable warnings, together with brief indications of the specific hazard and, in the second example, a clear description of the harm, are:

“Warning. Not suitable for children under 36 months. Small parts”

“Warning. Not suitable for children under 36 months. Long cord. Strangulation hazard”

The manufacturer shall provide appropriate information about the hazard(s) through the examples mentioned above or through other sentences that achieve the same result.

The age warning shall be clearly legible at the point of sale of the product and shall appear either on the toy itself or on its packaging.

The indication of the specific hazard may appear in a leaflet or in the instructions for use, instead of on the toy or on the packaging.

The phrase: "Not suitable for children under 36 months" or "Not suitable for children under three years" may be substituted by the symbol as specified in Figure 17.

Figure 17 The age warning symbol is a red circle with a red line drawn through it. Underneath, this symbol it says 0-3 for the ages and there is an icon of a child frowning.

Figure 17 — Age-warning symbol

The age warning symbol shall be accompanied by the word “Warning”.

The details of the design shall be as follows:

The symbol shall be used to indicate only “0 to 3” years and not for any other age-grade warning to avoid misinterpretation of the symbol.

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7.3 Latex balloons (see 4.12 and A.16)

The packaging of latex balloons shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Children under eight years can choke or suffocate on uninflated or broken balloons. Adult supervision required. Keep uninflated balloons from children. Discard broken balloons at once.".

The packaging of natural rubber latex balloons shall indicate "Made of natural rubber latex".

If there is no packaging, the information shall be on the balloons and/or on a leaflet accompanying the balloons.

7.4 Aquatic toys (see 4.18 and A.23)

Aquatic toys and their packaging shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Only to be used in water in which the child is within its depth and under adult supervision.".

The warning on the toy shall be visible, indelible and in a colour which contrasts with the body of the toy. The height of letters shall be 3 mm or more and the marking on inflatable aquatic toys shall be 100 mm or less from one of the air inflation inlets.

No advertising copy or graphics shall state or imply that the child will be safe with such a toy if left unsupervised.

7.5 Functional toys (see A.35)

Functional toys and their packaging shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. To be used under the direct supervision of an adult.".

In addition, these toys shall be accompanied by directions giving working instructions and precautions to be taken by the user, with the warning that failure to take these precautions would expose the user to the hazards—to be specified—normally associated with the appliance or product of which the toy is a scale model or an imitation. It shall also be indicated that the toy shall be kept out of the reach of children under a certain age which shall be specified by the manufacturer.

7.6 Hazardous sharp functional edges and points (see 4.7 and 4.8)

For toys that incorporate hazardous sharp functional edges (see 8.11, sharpness of edges) or hazardous sharp functional points (see 8.12, sharpness of points), attention shall be drawn to the potential hazards of such points and edges on the packaging and in the instructions for use accompanying the toy, if appropriate.

7.7 Projectiles (see 4.17.3 c) and 4.17.4 c))

7.7.1 Toys with projectiles which are able to discharge an object other than that provided with the toy

Toys with projectiles which are able to discharge an object other than that provided with the toy shall be accompanied by instructions for use which draw attention to the hazards of using missiles other than those supplied or recommended by the manufacturer.

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7.7.2 Toys capable of discharging a projectile with a kinetic energy greater than 0,08 J

Toys capable of discharging a projectile with a kinetic energy greater than 0,08 J shall carry the following warning on the toy and/or its packaging and in the instructions for use:

“Warning. Do not aim at eyes or face.".

7.8 Imitation protective masks and helmets (see 4.14.2 and A.19)

Toys that are imitations of protective masks and helmets (for example motorcycle helmets, industrial safety helmets and fireman’s helmets) and their packaging shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. This toy does not provide protection.".

7.9 Toy kites (see 4.13)

Toy kites and other flying toys with cords exceeding 2 m linking the toy to the child shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Do not use near overhead power lines or during thunderstorms.”

7.10 Roller skates, inline skates, skateboards and certain other ride-on toys (see 4.15.1.2 and A.20)

7.10.1 Roller skates, inline skates and skateboards

Roller skates, inline skates and skateboards for children offered for sale as toys, and their packaging, shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Protective equipment should be worn. Not to be used in traffic. 20 kg max.”.

7.10.2 Ride-on toys without a braking device

Where required according to 4.15.1.2, ride-on toys without a braking device shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. This toy has no brake.”.

7.10.3 Electrically-driven ride-on toys

Where required according to 4.15.1.2, electrically-driven ride-on toys and/or their packaging, and the accompanying instructions for use, shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Protective equipment should be worn. Not to be used in traffic.”.

In addition, electrically-driven ride-on toys and/or their packaging, and the accompanying instructions for use, shall carry the following warnings which shall be clearly visible to the consumer at the point of sale:

“Warning. This toy is unsuitable for children under 3 years due to its maximum speed.”, or

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“Warning. This toy is unsuitable for children under 6 years due to its maximum speed.”.

7.10.4 Instructions for use

Apart from the information and warning required by 4.15.1.2, the instructions for use of toys intended to bear the mass of a child, other than toy bicycles and toy scooters, shall contain:

If the toy carries a warning regarding protective equipment, some indication shall also be given in the instructions for use with regard to recommended protective equipment (helmet, gloves, knee-pads, elbowpads etc.).

7.11 Toys intended to be attached to or strung across a cradle, cot, or perambulator (see 5.4 f))

Toys covered by the requirement in 5.4 f) and their packaging shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. To prevent possible injury by entanglement, remove this toy when the child starts trying to get up on its hands and knees in a crawling position.”.

7.12 Liquid-filled teethers (see 5.5)

Liquid-filled teethers or their packaging shall carry the following instruction:

“Cool only in a refrigerator. Do not place in the freezer compartment.".

7.13 Percussion caps specifically designed for use in toys (see 4.19)

The packaging of percussion caps shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Do not fire indoors or near eyes and ears. Do not carry caps loose in a pocket.".

A2⇒

7.14 Acoustics (see 4.19 and 4.20)

Percussion toys and cap-firing toys which produce high impulse sound levels, or their packaging, shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Do not use close to the ear! Misuse may cause damage to hearing.".

For toys using percussion caps add adjacent to the text above:

“Do not fire indoors! Use only percussion caps recommended by the manufacturer.”⇐A2

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7.15 Toy bicycles (see 4.15.2.2)

Toy bicycles and their packaging shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Protective equipment should be worn. Not to be used in traffic.".

The instructions for use shall contain a reminder that the toy shall be used with caution, since skill is required to avoid falls or collisions causing injury to the user or third parties. The instructions for use shall also give an indication as to recommended protective equipment, and shall provide the following information that should be explained to the child:

7.16 Toys intended to bear the mass of a child (see 4.15.1.2, 4.15.2.2, 4.15.3 and 4.15.4)

Toys that due to their construction, strength, design or other factors are not suitable for children of 36 months and over shall carry the following warning on the toy and its packaging:

”Warning. Not to be used by children over 36 months.”.

together with a brief indication of the specific reason for this restriction (e.g. insufficient strength).

The age warning shall be clearly legible at the point of sale of the product.

7.17 Toys comprising monofilament fibres (see 5.9)

Toys comprising monofilament fibres of straightened length greater than 50 mm attached to a fabric base, or their packaging, shall carry the following warning:

”Warning. Not suitable for children under 10 months due to long hair.”.

7.18 Toy scooters (see 4.15.5.2)

Toy scooters intended for children with a body mass of 20 kg or less and their packaging shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Protective equipment should be worn. Not to be used in traffic. 20 kg max.”.

Toy scooters intended for children with a body mass of 50 kg or less and their packaging shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Protective equipment should be worn. Not to be used in traffic. 50 kg max.".

The instructions for use shall contain a reminder that the toy shall be used with caution, since skill is required to avoid falls or collisions causing injury to the user or third parties. The instructions for use shall also, as appropriate, include information such as:

7.19 Rocking horses and similar toys (see 4.15.3 and A.21)

Rocking horses and similar toys, where the intended sitting surface is 600 mm or more above the ground, shall carry the following warning:

”Warning. Risk of falling. Do not leave children under 36 months sitting or playing unattended.”.

The warning shall be clearly legible at the point of sale of the product.

7.20 Magnetic/electrical experimental sets (see 4.23.3 and A.51)

The packaging and the instructions for use of magnetic/electrical experimental sets intended for children over 8 years shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Not suitable for children under 8 years. This product contains (a) small magnet(s). Swallowed magnets can stick together across intestines causing serious injuries. Seek immediate medical attention if magnet(s) are swallowed.”.

This warning is not required for magnetic/electrical experimental sets in which all magnets have a magnetic flux index less than 50 kG2mm2 (0,5 T2mm2) when tested according to 8.35 (magnetic flux index), or do not fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder).

7.21 Toys with electrical cables exceeding 300 mm in length (see 5.4 i))

Toys intended for children under 36 months, with electrical cables longer than 300 mm and their packaging shall carry the following warning:

“Warning. Long cable. Strangulation hazard.”.

7.22 Toys with cords or chains intended for children of 18 months and over but under 36 months (see 5.4 b), 5.4 c) and 5.4 g))

Toys intended for children of 18 months and over but under 36 months shall, when required by 5.4 carry the following warning on the toy or its packaging:

“Warning. Not suitable for children under 18 months. Long cord/Long chain. Strangulation hazard.”.

The age warning shall be clearly legible at the point of sale of the product.

8 Test methods

8.1 General requirements for testing

This European Standard specifies different forces and/or loads to be used when testing toys intended for children of different age groups. If no age group is specified, or a toy spans over more than one age group, or there is reasonable doubt as to which age group the toy is intended for, the toy shall be subjected to the more severe test.

The tests shall be performed in the order specified in the requirements. If a toy during a test has been materially affected by a clamp or similar test equipment, the following test(s) shall be performed on a new toy.

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8.2 Small parts cylinder (see 4.6, 4.11, 4.18, 4.23.2, 4.23.3, 4.25, 5.1, 5.2 and A.36)

Place the toy or component without compressing it and in any orientation in a cylinder having dimensions as indicated in Figure 18.

Determine whether the toy or component fits entirely within the cylinder.

Figure 18 The small parts cylinder has a width of 31,7mm. The cylinder has a sloped bottom. The highest part of the bottom is 25,4mm deep, the deepest part of the bottom is 57,1mm deep.

Figure 18 — Small parts cylinder

8.3 Torque test (see 4.6, 4.11, 4.14.2, 4.17, 4.18, 4.22, 4.23.2, 4.25, 5.1, 5.10, 5.12, 5.13 and Clause 6)

If a component can be gripped between thumb and forefinger, gradually apply a torque to the component over a period of approximately 5 s in a clockwise direction until either

  1. a rotation of 180° from the original position has been attained, or
  2. a torque of 0,34 Nm is reached.

Maintain the maximum rotation or required torque for 10 s. Permit the test component to return to a relaxed condition. Repeat this procedure in a counter-clockwise direction.

To prevent rotation, projections, parts, or assemblies that are rigidly mounted on an accessible rod or shaft designed to rotate along with the projections, parts, or assemblies, shall be tested with the rod or shaft clamped.

If a component which is attached by a screw thread becomes loosened during application of the required torque, continue to apply the torque until the required torque is exceeded or the part disassembles, or until it becomes apparent that the part will not disassemble.

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8.4 Tension test (see A.37)

8.4.1 Apparatus

8.4.1.1 Tensile testing machine or dead-weight arrangement
with means of applying forces up to at least 90 N with an accuracy of 2 N
8.4.1.2 Clamps and straps
8.4.1.3 Feeler gauge
with a thickness of (0,4 ± 0,02) mm and an insertion edge radius of approximately 3 mm (see Figure 19)
Figure 19 The diagram shows a feeler gauge with a rounded tip. The thickness of the feeler gauge is 0,4 ± 0,02 and the radius of the rounded tip is approximately 3 mm.

Figure 19 — Feeler gauge

8.4.2 Procedure

8.4.2.1 General (see 4.6, 4.11, 4.14.2, 4.17, 4.18, 4.22, 4.23, 4.25, 5.1, 5.3, 5.10, 5.12, 5.13 and Clause 6)

If a requirement indicates that 8.3 (torque test) and 8.4 (tension test) shall be performed, the tension test shall follow after the torque test and be performed on the same component of the toy.

If the component to be tested cannot be gripped between thumb and forefinger, establish whether it is grippable by inserting the feeler gauge between the component and the underlying layer or body of the toy at an angle between 0° and 10° from the toy surface using a force of (10 ± 1) N. If the gauge can be inserted more than 2 mm, the component shall be considered as grippable.

If the component is grippable, affix a suitable clamp behind the component taking care not to damage the attachment mechanism or the body of the toy.

Fasten the toy in the test apparatus and apply a tensile force to the component by means of a clamp or by other means.

In the case of projectiles with a suction cup as impact area, one suitable clamp or other device shall be attached around the suction cup and one at the other end of the projectile (see Figure 20). The distance from the end of the suction cup to the front edge of the clamp shall be (57 ± 1) mm or, if the projectile is too short to allow this, the clamps shall be placed such that the distance is maximized. This distance shall be measured with the suction cup in an uncompressed state. The distance will allow the clamps to be attached to projectiles 65 with the shortest permissible length (57 mm) and will also ensure that any weak points of the shaft are detected (i.e. weak points that, when subjected to a tension force, could result in a shaft-part with a suction cup that has a total length of less than 57 mm). In the case of projectiles where the projectile is not moulded in one piece, it shall be ensured that the suction cup is not clamped to the shaft during the test.

Figure 20 A projectile with a sunction cup is clamped on each side of the bottom (where the suction cup is) and 57 mm up the shaft of the projectile.

Figure 20 — Example of attachment of clamps when testing suction cups on projectiles

Apply a force of:

Apply the force gradually over a period of approximately 5 s. Maintain the force for 10 s.

Determine whether the component or suction cup has become detached or if the shaft of the projectile has broken.

Determine whether the projectile continues to conform to the relevant requirements of this European Standard.

If the clamp or other device causes any damage to the projectile, either clamp the suction cup only and apply the torque and the tension force to it (for example by attaching a weight to the clamp while holding the shaft between the thumb and the forefinger), or glue the suction cup to an even surface by means of a suitable glue and subsequently carry out the torque test and tension test as described above. Care shall then be taken that the solvents, which can possibly be set free from the glue, do not influence the material properties of the suction cup or its fastening to the shaft such that the test results in incorrect failures.

8.4.2.2 Seams and materials (see 4.23.2 and 5.2)
  1. Soft-filled toys containing small parts
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Use clamps with jaws to which discs with a diameter of 19 mm are affixed.

Remove any clothing supplied with the toy. Attach the clamps at the most onerous position of the casing (e.g. seam joint between the leg and body) not less than 30 mm apart and equidistant to the seam.

If there is insufficient material to fully attach the 19 mm disc jaws, the tension test below shall be performed on another appropriate part (e.g. a limb), instead of across the seam.

Gradually apply a force of (70 ± 2) N between the two clamps over a period of approximately 5 s. Maintain the force for 10 s.

Apply the test to this area of casing or seam only once.

Determine whether it is possible to insert the front part of accessibility probe A (see Figure 21) under a force of 10 N or less.

  1. Other soft-filled toys

Follow the procedure described in the first four paragraphs of 8.4.2.2 a). Determine whether the front part of a 120+0,1 mm diameter rod, with a fully radiused end, can be inserted through any one opening in the seam or cover material, using a maximum force of 10 N.

8.4.2.3 Protective components (see 4.9 and 4.17.1)

Gradually apply a force of (60 ± 2) N over a period of approximately 5 s. Maintain the force for 10 s.

Determine whether the component has become detached.

8.5 Drop test (see 4.5, 4.6, 4.10.2, 4.14.2, 4.22, 4.23.2, 4.25, 5.1, 5.10, 5.12 and 5.13)

Drop the toy, or the relevant toy component, five times through a height of (850 ± 50) mm on to a 4 mm thick steel plate with a 2 mm thick coating of Shore A hardness (75 ± 5) as measured according to EN ISO 868 or ISO 7619-2 and which is placed on a non-flexible horizontal surface.

Prior to release, orientate the toy in a position that allows the most onerous impact onto the coated surface of the steel plate.

Determine whether the casing of toys intended for children too young to sit up unaided has separated into parts or cracked. Determine whether small parts (8.2, small parts cylinder), hazardous sharp edges (8.11, sharpness of edges), hazardous sharp points (8.12, sharpness of points) or hazardous driving mechanisms (4.10.2, driving mechanisms) have become accessible.

8.6 Tip over test (see 4.10.2, 4.22, 4.23.2, 5.1, 5.10, 5.12 and 5.13)

Place the toy on a horizontal surface as prescribed in 8.5 (drop test) and attempt to tip it over by pushing the toy slowly past its centre of balance three times, one of which shall be in its most onerous position, by gradually applying a force, which is not to exceed 120 N, in a horizontal direction and 1 500 mm above the horizontal surface or at the top edge of the toy for toys less than 1 500 mm in height. A non-resilient step with a height of (25 ± 2) mm shall be positioned such that it prevents sliding or rolling of the toy during the test.

The original point of application relative to the toy shall be maintained, and the force shall remain horizontal, throughout the test. The vertical position of the point of application relative to the horizontal surface is permitted to increase during the test. The test shall also be stopped if the toy slides or rolls over the nonresilient step without tipping over.

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If a force greater than 120 N is required to bring the toy beyond its centre of balance, or if the vertical position of the point of application, relative to the horizontal surface, exceeds 1 800 mm, the tip-over test shall be stopped.

NOTE 1 800 mm corresponds to the length (95th percentile) of a 14-year-old child.

Toys supplied with anchors and intended to be permanently fixed (e.g. in concrete) when in use according to the manufacturer's instructions, shall not be subjected to the tip-over test.

Determine whether small parts (8.2, small parts cylinder), hazardous sharp edges (8.11, sharpness of edges), hazardous sharp points (8.12, sharpness of points) or hazardous driving mechanisms (4.10.2, driving mechanisms) have become accessible and whether small balls (4.22 and 5.10, small balls) or hemisphericshaped toys (5.12, hemispheric-shaped toys) have become detached.

8.7 Impact test (see 4.5, 4.6, 4.10.2, 4.14.2, 4.22, 4.23.2, 4.25, 5.1, 5.10, 5.12, 5.13 and A.38)

Place the toy, or the relevant toy component, in its most onerous position on a plane horizontal steel surface and drop a metallic weight with a mass of (1 ± 0,02) kg, distributed over an area with a diameter of (80 ± 2) mm, through a distance of (100 ± 2) mm on to the toy.

Perform the test once.

Determine whether the casing of toys intended for children too young to sit up unaided has separated into parts or cracked. Determine whether small parts (8.2, small parts cylinder), hazardous sharp edges (8.11, sharpness of edges), hazardous sharp points (8.12, sharpness of points) or hazardous driving mechanisms (4.10.2, driving mechanisms) have become accessible.

8.8 Compression test (see 4.6, 4.14.2, 4.22, 4.23.2, 4.25, 5.1, 5.10, 5.12, 5.13 and A.39)

Any accessible area on the surface of a toy that is inaccessible to flat surface contact during the drop test (8.5) or tip over test (8.6) shall be subjected to a compression test.

Place the toy on a horizontal rigid surface with the part of the toy to be tested uppermost. Apply a compression force of (110 ± 5) N through a rigid metal disc with a diameter of (30 ± 1,5) mm to the area to be tested. The perimeter of the disc shall be rounded.

Apply the force gradually over a period of approximately 5 s. Maintain the force for 10 s.

Determine whether the casing of toys intended for children too young to sit up unaided has separated into parts or cracked. Determine whether small parts (8.2, small parts cylinder), hazardous sharp edges (8.11, sharpness of edges), hazardous sharp points (8.12, sharpness of points) or hazardous driving mechanisms (4.10.2, driving mechanisms) have become accessible.

8.9 Soaking test (see 4.11, 4.23.2, 5.1, 5.10 and 5.12)

Submerge the toy or the component completely in a container of demineralised water at a temperature of (20 ± 5) °C for 4 min. Remove the toy, shake off excess water and keep the toy at room temperature for 10 min.

Perform the test cycle four times.

Immediately after the last cycle, determine whether any components released fit entirely in the cylinder when tested according to 8.2 (small parts cylinder).

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8.10 Accessibility of a part or component (see 4.5, 4.7, 4.8, 4.10.2, 4.10.4, 4.15.1.3, 4.21, 5.2 and 5.7)

8.10.1 Principle

An articulated probe is manoeuvred to the part or component being tested. If the probe contacts the part or component, the part or component is considered to be accessible.

8.10.2 Apparatus

Articulated accessibility probes illustrated in Figure 21, manufactured from rigid material, and with dimensions as specified in A2⇒ Table 3 ⇐A2. The tolerance on the dimensions shall be ± 0,1 mm except for f and g which shall have a tolerance of ± 1 mm.

8.10.3 Procedure

Remove all components that are intended to be removed without the use of a tool.

NOTE 1 Where a tool is intended to be used in conjunction with the toy during play, all the components on the toy that are capable of being removed by that tool should be removed.

Manoeuvre, as described in a), b) and c), the appropriate articulated accessibility probe in any convenient attitude towards the part or component to be tested and, if necessary, pivot the probe at any of its joints in an attempt to contact that part or component.

NOTE 2 Each probe joint may be rotated up to 90° to simulate knuckle movement.

NOTE 3 Where the part is a sharp point that lies adjacent to a plane surface so that the gap between the point and the surface is 0,5 mm or less, the point is considered to be inaccessible and the procedure specified in b) need not be performed.

Figure 21 The accessibility probe is a rod to which are attached a thiner rod with articulated joints (equivalent to a finger). The length for different age groups are shown in table 3. The rod has an extension (g). The rod itself is 101,6 ± 1mm. The rod has a diamter (f) for the extension and (c) for the rod itself. The articulated finger has a diameter (b). Each join of the articulated finger has a length (d) and the end of the articulated finger has a spherical radius of Ra.

Figure 21 — Accessibility probe

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A2⇒

Table 3 ⇐A2 — Dimensions of accessibility probes
Age groupProbeDimensions
(mm)
Rabcdefg
Under 36 monthsA2,85,625,914,744,025,4464,3
36 months and overB4,38,638,419,357,938,1451,6
Toys intended for children of both age groupsA and B
(both probes shall be used)
According to specifications above.
  1. For any hole, recess, or other opening having a minor dimension (see Note 4) smaller than the collar diameter of the appropriate probe, insert the probe so that the total insertion depth for accessibility is up to the collar;

    NOTE 4 The minor dimension of an opening is the diameter of the largest sphere that will pass through the opening.

  2. for any hole, recess, or other opening having:
    • a minor dimension larger than the diameter of the collar of probe A but less than 187 mm when probe A is used, or
    • a minor dimension larger than the diameter of the collar of probe B but less than 230 mm when probe B is used,
    • determine the total insertion depth for accessibility by inserting the appropriate probe, with the extension shown in Figure 21 in any direction for up to 2,25 times the minor dimension of the hole, recess, or opening, measured from any point in the plane of the opening;
  3. for any hole, recess, or other opening having:
    • a minor dimension of 187 mm or larger when probe A is used, or
    • a minor dimension of 230 mm or larger when probe B is used,

    the total insertion depth for accessibility is unrestricted unless other holes, recesses, or openings within the original hole, recess, or opening are encountered that have dimensions conforming to a) or b) of this sub-clause; in such instances, follow the procedure in a) or b) as appropriate. If both probes shall be used, a minor dimension of 187 mm or larger shall determine the unrestricted access.

Determine whether a tested part or component can be contacted by any portion forward of the collar of the accessibility probe.

8.11 Sharpness of edges (see 4.5, 4.7, 4.9, 4.10.2, 4.14.2, 4.15.1.3 and 5.1)

8.11.1 Principle

A self-adhesive tape is attached to a mandrel which is then rotated for a single 360° revolution along the accessible edge being tested. The tape is then examined for the length of cut.

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8.11.2 Apparatus

8.11.2.1 General

The apparatus shall be as illustrated in Figure 22.

Figure 22 Edge test apparatus. The apparatus consist of the portable or non-portable power source (1) which can apply a known force and rotation to the mandrel. The mandrel is marked (2) in the middle, indicating that (6 ± 0,5) N is applied to the mandrel axis. The end of the mandrel is marked (3), indicating a single wrap of self-adhesive tape. The edge being tested is marked (4), indicating a (90 ± 5)° test edge relationship to the mandrel, a mark (5) indicates that the test edge can be moved to a variable angle to seek a worst case situation. The mark (6) on the diagram indicates that during the test, the mandrel rotates one full revolution.