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INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE®
FOR ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DWELLINGS

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2009 International Residential Code® for One- and Two-family Dwellings

First Printing: March 2009

ISBN: 978-1-58001-727-5 (soft-cover edition)
ISBN: 978-1-58001-726-8 (Ioose-Ieaf edition)

COPYRIGHT © 2009
by
INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2009 International Residential Code ®for One- and Two-family Dwellings is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478-5795. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233).

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Residential Code" are trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc.

PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.

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PREFACE

Introduction

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date residential code addressing the design and construction of one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses. The International Residential Code®, in this 2009 edition, is designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large and small.

This comprehensive, stand-alone residential code establishes minimum regulations for one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses using prescriptive provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new building designs. This 2009 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes® (I-Codes®) published by the International Code Council® (ICC) ®, including the International BUilding Code®, International Energy Conservation Code®, International EXisting BUilding Code®, International Fire Code®, International Fuel Gas Code®, International Mechanical Code®, ICC Performance Code@, International Plumbing Code®, International Private Sewage Disposal Code®, International Property Maintenance Code®, International Wildland-Urban Interface Code™ and International Zoning Code®.

The International Residential Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that offers an international forum for residential construction professionals to discuss prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of provisions.

Development

The first edition of the International Residential Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1996 by ICC and consisting of representatives from the three statutory members of the International Code Council at the time, including: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI), and representatives from the National Association of Home Builders (NAHB). The intent was to draft a stand-alone residential code consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of the 1998 International One- and Two-Family Dwelling Code and the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO, SBCCI and ICC was used as the basis for the development, followed by public hearings in 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed changes. This 2009 edition represents the code as originally issued, with changes reflected in the 2006 edition, and further changes developed through the ICC Code Development Process through 2008. Residential electrical provisions are based on the 2008 National Electrical Code® (NFPA 70). A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years.

Fuel gas provisions have been included through an agreement with the American Gas Association (AGA) . Electrical provisions have been included through an agreement with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) .

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a residential code that adequately protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to particular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction.

Adoption

The International Residential Code is available for adoption and use byjurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing thejurisdiction's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local information, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page xiii addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text.

Maintenance

The International Residential Code is kept up-to-date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate.

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Development Department of the International Code Council.

The maintenance process for the fuel gas provisions is based upon the process used to maintain the International Fuel Gas Code, in conjunction with the American Gas Association. The maintenance process for the electrical provisions is undertaken by the National Fire Protection Association.

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While the development procedure of the International Residential Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC, the founding members of ICC, its members and those participating in the development ofthis code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provisions because ICC and its founding members do not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority.

Marginal Markings

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements ofthe 2006 edition. Deletion indicators in the form ofan arrow (.) are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has been deleted or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted.

Italicized Terms

Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text. Such terms are not italicized where the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions which the user should read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code.

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Effective Use of the International Residential Code

The International Residential Code® (IRC®) was created to serve as a complete, comprehensive code regulating the construction of single-family houses, two-family houses (duplexes) and buildings consisting ofthree or more townhouse units. All buildings within the scope of the IRC are limited to three stories above grade plane. For example, a four-story single-family house would fall within the scope of the International BUilding Code® (IBC®), not the IRC. The benefits of devoting a separate code to residential construction include the fact that the user need not navigate through a multitude of code provisions that do not apply to residential construction in order to locate that which is applicable. A separate code also allows for residential and nonresidential code provisions to be distinct and tailored to the structures that fall within the appropriate code's scopes.

The IRC contains coverage for all components of a house or townhouse, including structural components, fireplaces and chimneys, thermal insulation, mechanical systems, fuel gas systems, plumbing systems and electrical systems.

The IRC is a prescriptive-oriented (specification) code with some examples of performance code language. It has been said that the IRC is the complete cookbook for residential construction. Section R30 1.1, for example, is written in performance language, but states that the prescriptive requirements of the code will achieve such performance.

It is important to understand that the IRC contains coverage for what is conventional and common in residential construction practice. While the IRC will provide all of the needed coverage for most residential construction, it might not address construction practices and systems that are atypical or rarely encountered in the industry. Sections such as R301.1.3, R301.2.2, R320.1, R322.1, N11 01.2, M1301.1, G240 1.1, P260 1.1 and E3401.2 refer to other codes either as an alternative to the provisions ofthe IRC or where the IRC lacks coverage for a particular type of structure, design, system, appliance or method of construction. In other words, the IRC is meant to be all inclusive for typical residential construction and it relies on other codes only where alternatives are desired or where the code lacks coverage for the uncommon aspect of residential construction. Of course, the IRC constantly evolves to address new technologies and construction practices that were once uncommon, but now common.

The IRC is unique in that much of it, including Chapters 3 through 9 and Chapters 34 through 43, is presented in an ordered format that is consistent with the normal progression of construction, starting with the design phase and continuing through the final trim-out phase. This is consistent with the"cookbook" philosophy of the IRC.

The IRC is divided into eight main parts, specifically, Part I-Administration, Part II-Definitions, Part III-Building Planning and Construction, Part IV-Energy Conservation, Part V-Mechanical, Part VI-Fuel Gas, Part VII-Plumbing and Part VIII- Electrical.

The following provides a brief description of the content of each chapter and appendix of the IRC:

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, enforcement and administration of subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establishing the scope of the code, Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and structures come under its purview. Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining"due process of law" in enforcing the building criteria contained in the body of the code. Only through careful observation ofthe administrative provisions can the building official reasonably expect to demonstrate that"equal protection under the law" has been provided.

Chapter 2 Definitions. Terms defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 2. It is important to note that two chapters have their own definitions sections: Chapter 24 for the defined terms that are unique to fuel gas and Chapter 35 containing terms that are applicable to electrical Chapters 34 through 43. In the case where Chapter 2 and another chapter both define the same term differently, the definition found in Chapter 24 and/or 35 is intended to prevail where the term is used in Chapter 24 and/or 35 and the definition contained in Chapter 2 is intended to prevail where the term is used in all other locations in the code. Except where Chapter 24 or 35 has a definition that will prevail therein, the definitions in Chapter 2 are applicable throughout the code.

Additional definitions regarding skylights that are not listed in Chapter 2 are found in Section R308.6.1.

Where understanding a term's definition is key to or necessary for understanding a particular code provision, the term is shown in italics where it appears in the code. This is true only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the generally understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning prescribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known.

Guidance regarding not only tense, gender and plurality of defined terms, but also terms not defined in this code, is provided.

Chapter 3 Building Planning. Chapter 3 provides guidelines for a minimum level of structural integrity, life safety, fire safety and livability for inhabitants of dwelling units regulated by this code. Chapter 3 is a compilation of the code requirements specific to the building planning sector of the design and construction process. This chapter sets forth code requirements dealing with light, venti1ation' sanitation, minimum room size, ceiling height and environmental comfort. Chapter 3 establishes life-safety provisions including limitations on glazing used in hazardous areas, specifications on stairways, use ofguards at elevated surfaces and rules for means ofegress. Snow, wind and seismic design and flood-resistant construction, as well as live and dead loads, are addressed in this chapter.

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Chapter 4 Foundations. Chapter 4 provides the requirements for the design and construction of foundation systems for buildings regulated by this code. Provisions for seismic load, flood load and frost protection are contained in this chapter. A foundation system consists of two interdependent components: the foundation structure itself and the supporting soil.

The prescriptive provisions of this chapter provide requirements for constructing footings and walls for foundations of wood, masonry, concrete and precast concrete. In addition to a foundation's ability to support the required design loads, this chapter addresses several other factors that can affect foundation performance. These include controlling surface water and subsurface drainage, requiring soil tests where conditions warrant and evaluating proximity to slopes and minimum depth requirements. The chapter also provides requirements to minimize adverse effects of moisture, decay and pests in basements and crawl spaces.

Chapter 5 Floors. Chapter 5 provides the requirements for the design and construction offloor systems that will be capable ofsupporting minimum required design loads. This chapter covers four different types: wood floor framing, wood floors on the ground, cold-formed steel floor framing and concrete slabs on the ground. Allowable span tables are provided that greatly simplify the determination ofjoist, girder and sheathing sizes for raised floor systems of wood framing and cold-formed steel framing. This chapter also contains prescriptive requirements for attaching a deck to the main building.

Chapter 6 Wall Construction. Chapter 6 contains provisions that regulate the design and construction ofwalls. The wall construction covered in Chapter 6 consists of five different types: wood framed, cold-formed steel framed, masonry, concrete and structural insulated panel (SIP). The primary concern of this chapter is the structural integrity of wall construction and transfer of all imposed loads to the supporting structure. This chapter provides the requirements for the design and construction of wall systems that are capable ofsupporting the minimum design vertical loads (dead, live and snow loads) and lateral loads (wind or seismic loads). This chapter contains the prescriptive requirements for wall bracing and/or shear walls to resist the imposed lateral loads due to wind and seismic. Chapter 6 also contains requirements for the use of vapor retarders for moisture control in walls.

Chapter 6 also regulates exterior windows and doors installed in walls. The chapter contains criteria for the performance of exterior windows and doors and includes provisions for window sill height, testing and labeling, vehicular access doors, wind-borne debris protection and anchorage details.

Chapter 7 Wall Covering. Chapter 7 contains provisions for the design and construction of interior and exterior wall coverings. This chapter establishes the various types of materials, materials standards and methods of application permitted for use as interior coverings, including interior plaster, gypsum board, ceramic tile, wood veneer paneling, hardboard paneling, wood shakes and wood shingles.

Exterior wall coverings provide the weather-resistant exterior envelope that protects the building's interior from the elements. Chapter 7 provides the requirements for wind resistance and water-resistive barrier for exterior wall coverings. This chapter prescribes the exterior wall coverings as well as the water-resistive barrier required beneath the exterior materials. Exterior wall coverings regulated by this section include aluminum, stone and masonry veneer, wood, hardboard, particleboard, wood structural panel siding, wood shakes and shingles, exterior plaster, steel, vinyl, fiber cement and exterior insulation finish systems.

Chapter 8 Roof-ceiling Construction. Chapter 8 regulates the design and construction of roof-ceiling systems. This chapter contains two roof-ceiling framing systems: wood framing and cold-formed steel framing. Allowable span tables are provided to simplify the selection of rafter and ceiling joist size for wood roof framing and cold-formed steel framing. Chapter 8 also provides requirements for the application of ceiling finishes, the proper ventilation of concealed spaces in roofs (e.g., enclosed attics and rafter spaces), unvented attic assemblies, attic access and the proper clearance ofcombustible insulation from heat-producing devices.

Chapter 9 RoofAssemblies. Chapter 9 regulates the design and construction of roof assemblies. A roof assembly includes the roof deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal barrier, insulation, vapor retarder and roof covering. This chapter provides the requirement for wind resistance of roof coverings.

The types of roof covering materials and installation regulated by Chapter 9 are: asphalt shingles, clay and concrete tile, metal roof shingles, mineral-surfaced roll roofing, slate and slate-type shingles, wood shakes and shingles, built-up roofs, metal roof panels, modified bitumen roofing, thermoset and thermoplastic single-ply roofing, sprayed polyurethane foam roofing and liquid applied coatings. Chapter 9 also provides requirements for roof drainage, flashing, above deck thermal insulation and recovering or replacing an existing roof covering.

Chapter 10 Chimneys and Fireplaces. Chapter 10 contains requirements for the safe construction of masonry chimneys and fireplaces and establishes the standards for the use and installation of factory-built chimneys, fireplaces and masonry heaters. Chimneys and fireplaces constructed of masonry rely on prescriptive requirements for the details of their construction; the factory-built type relies on the listing and labeling method of approval. Chapter 10 provides the requirements for seismic reinforcing and anchorage of masonry fireplaces and chimneys.

Chapter 11 Energy Efficiency. Chapter 11 contains the energy-efficiency-related requirements for the design and construction of buildings regulated under this code. The applicable portions of the building must comply with the provisions within this chapter for energy efficiency. This chapter defines requirements for the portions of the building and building systems that impact energy use in new construction and promotes the effective use ofenergy. The provisions within the chapter promote energy efficiency in the building envelope, the heating and cooling system, the service water heating system and the lighting system of the building. This chapter also provides energy efficiency requirements for snow melt systems and pool heaters.

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Chapter 12 Mechanical Administration. Chapter 12 establishes the limits of applicability of the code and describes how the code is to be applied and enforced. A mechanical code, like any other code, is intended to be adopted as a legally enforceable document and it cannot be effective without adequate provisions for its administration and enforcement. The provisions of Chapter 12 establish the authority and duties ofthe code official appointed by thejurisdiction having authority and also establish the rights and privileges of the design professional, contractor and property owner. It also relates this chapter to the administrative provisions in Chapter 1.

Chapter 13 General Mechanical System Requirements. Chapter 13 contains broadly applicable requirements related to appliance listing and labeling, appliance location and installation, appliance and systems access, protection of structural elements and clearances to combustibles, among others.

Chapter 14 Heating and Cooling Equipment. Chapter 14 is a collection of requirements for various heating and cooling appliances, dedicated to single topics by section. The common theme is that all of these types of appliances use energy in one form or another, and the improper installation of such appliances would present a hazard to the occupants of the dwellings, due to either the potential for fire or the accidental release ofrefrigerants. Both situations are undesirable in dwellings that are covered by this code.

Chapter 15 Exhaust Systems. Chapter 15 is a compilation of code requirements related to residential exhaust systems, including kitchens and bathrooms, clothes dryers and range hoods. The code regulates the materials used for constructing and installing such duct systems. Air brought into the building for ventilation, combustion or makeup purposes is protected from contamination by the provisions found in this chapter.

Chapter 16 Duct Systems. Chapter 16 provides requirements for the installation of ducts for supply, return and exhaust air systems. This chapter contains no information on the design of these systems from the standpoint of air movement, but is concerned with the structural integrity of the systems and the overall impact of the systems on the fire-safety performance of the building. This chapter regulates the materials and methods of construction which affect the performance of the entire air distribution system.

Chapter 17 Combustion Air. Complete combustion ofsolid and liquid fuel is essential for the proper operation ofappliances, control of harmful emissions and achieving maximum fuel efficiency. If insufficient quantities of oxygen are supplied, the combustion process will be incomplete, creating dangerous byproducts and wasting energy in the form of unburned fuel (hydrocarbons). The byproducts of incomplete combustion are poisonous, corrosive and combustible, and can cause serious appliance or equipment malfunctions that pose fire or explosion hazards.

The combustion air provisions in this code from previous editions have been deleted from Chapter 17 in favor of a single section that directs the user to NFPA 31 for oil-fired appliance combustion air requirements and the manufacturer's installation instructions for solid fuel-burning appliances. If fuel gas appliances are used, the provisions of Chapter 24 must be followed.

Chapter 18 Chimneys and Vents. Chapter 18 regulates the design, construction, installation, maintenance, repair and approval of chimneys, vents and their connections to fuel-burning appliances. A properly designed chimney or vent system is needed to conduct the flue gases produced by a fuel-burning appliance to the outdoors. The provisions of this chapter are intended to minimize the hazards associated with high temperatures and potentially toxic and corrosive combustion gases. This chapter addresses factory-built and masonry chimneys, vents and venting systems used to vent oil-fired and solid fuel-burning appliances.

Chapter 19 Special Fuel-burning Equipment. Chapter 19 regulates the installation of fuel-burning appliances that are not covered in other chapters, such as ranges and ovens, sauna heaters, fuel cell power plants and hydrogen systems. Because the subjects in this chapter do not contain the volume of textnecessary to warrant individual chapters, they have been combined into a single chapter. The only commonality is that the subjects use energy to perform some task or function. The intent is to provide a reasonable level of protection for the occupants of the dwelling.

Chapter 20 Boilers and Water Heaters. Chapter 20 regulates the installation of boilers and water heaters. Its purpose is to protect the occupants of the dwelling from the potential hazards associated with such appliances. A water heater is any appliance that heats potable water and supplies it to the plumbing hot water distribution system. A boiler either heats water or generates steam for space heating and is generally a closed system.

Chapter 21 Hydronic Piping. Hydronic piping includes piping, fittings and valves used in building space conditioning systems. Applications include hot water, chilled water, steam, steam condensate, brines and water/antifreeze mixtures. Chapter 21 regulates installation, alteration and repair of all hydronic piping systems to insure the reliability, serviceability, energy efficiency and safety of such systems.

Chapter 22 Special Piping and Storage Systems. Chapter 22 regulates the design and installation of fuel oil storage and piping systems. The regulations include reference to construction standards for above-ground and underground storage tanks, material standards for piping systems (both above-ground and underground) and extensive requirements for the proper assembly of system piping and components. The purpose of this chapter is to prevent fires, leaks and spills involving fuel oil storage and piping systems, whether inside or outside structures and above or underground.

Chapter 23 Solar Systems. Chapter 23 contains requirements for the construction, alteration and repair of all systems and components ofsolar energy systems used for space heating or cooling, and domestic hot water heating or processing. The provisions ofthis chapter are limited to those necessary to achieve installations that are relatively hazard free.

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A solar energy system can be designed to handle 100 percent of the energy load of a building, although this is rarely accomplished. Because solar energy is a low-intensity energy source and dependent on the weather, it is usually necessary to supplement a solar energy system with traditional energy sources.

As our world strives to find alternate means of producing power for the future, the requirements of this chapter will become more and more important over time.

Chapter 24 Fuel Gas. Chapter 24 regulates the design and installation of fuel gas distribution piping and systems, appliances, appliance venting systems and combustion air provisions. The definition of "Fuel gas" includes natural, liquefied petroleum and manufactured gases and mixtures of these gases.

The purpose of this chapter is to establish the minimum acceptable level ofsafety and to protect life and property from the potential dangers associated with the storage, distribution and use of fuel gases and the byproducts of combustion ofsuch fuels. This code also protects the personnel who install, maintain, service and replace the systems and appliances addressed herein.

Chapter 24 is composed entirely of text extracted from the IFGC; therefore, whether using the IFGC or the IRC, the fuel gas provisions will be identical. Note that to avoid the potential for confusion and conflicting definitions, Chapter 24 has its own definition section.

Chapter 25 Plumbing Administration. The requirements of Chapter 25 do not supersede the administrative provisions of Chapter 1. Rather, the administrative guidelines of Chapter 25 pertain to plumbing installations that are best referenced and located within the plumbing chapters. This chapter addresses how to apply the plumbing provisions of this code to specific types or phases of construction. This chapter also outlines the responsibilities of the applicant, installer and inspector with regard to testing plumbing installations.

Chapter 26 General Plumbing Requirements. The content of Chapter 26 is often referred to as "miscellaneous," rather than general plumbing requirements. This is the only chapter ofthe plumbing chapters ofthe code whose requirements do not interrelate. If a requirement cannot be located in another plumbing chapter, it should be located in this chapter. Chapter 26 contains safety requirements for the installation of plumbing systems and includes requirements for the identification of pipe, pipe fittings, traps, fixtures, materials and devices used in plumbing systems. Ifspecific provisions do not demand that a requirement be located in another chapter, the requirement is located in this chapter.

Chapter 27 Plumbing Fixtures. Chapter 27 requires fixtures to be of the proper type, approved for the purpose intended and installed properly to promote usability and safe, sanitary conditions. This chapter regulates the quality of fixtures and faucets by requiring those items to comply with nationally recognized standards. Because fixtures must be properly installed so that they are usable by the occupants of the building, this chapter contains the requirements for the installation of fixtures.

Chapter 28 Water Heaters. Chapter 28 regulates the design, approval and installation of water heaters and related safety devices. The intent is to minimize the hazards associated with the installation and operation of water heaters. Although this chapter does not regulate the size of a water heater, it does regulate all other aspects of the water heater installation such as temperature and pressure reliefvalves, safety drip pans and connections. Where a water heater also supplies water for space heating, this chapter regulates the maximum water temperature supplied to the water distribution system.

Chapter 29 Water Supply and Distribution. This chapter regulates the supply of potable water from both public and individual sources to every fixture and outlet so that it remains potable and uncontaminated by cross connections. Chapter 29 also regulates the design of the water distribution system, which will allow fixtures to function properly. Because it is critical that the potable water supply system remain free of actual or potential sanitary hazards, this chapter has the requirements for providing backflow protection devices.

Chapter 30 Sanitary Drainage. The purpose of Chapter 30 is to regulate the materials, design and installation ofsanitary drainage piping systems as well as the connections made to the system. The intent is to design and install sanitary drainage systems that will function reliably, are neither undersized nor oversized and are constructed from materials, fittings and connections whose quality is regulated by this section. This chapter addresses the proper use of fittings for directing the flow into and within the sanitary drain piping system. Materials and provisions necessary for servicing the drainage system are also included in this chapter.

Chapter 31 Vents. Venting protects the trap seal of each trap. The vents are designed to limit differential pressures at each trap to 1 inch of water column (249 Pa). Because waste flow in the drainage system creates pressure fluctuations that can negatively affect traps, the sanitary drainage system must have a properly designed venting system. Chapter 31 covers the requirements for vents and venting. All of the provisions set forth in this chapter are intended to limit the pressure differentials in the drainage system to a maximum of 1 inch of water column (249 Pa) above or below atmospheric pressure (Le., positive or negative pressures).

Chapter 32 Traps. Traps prevent sewer gas from escaping from the drainage piping into the building. Water seal traps are the simplest and most reliable means of preventing sewer gas from entering the interior environment. This chapter lists prohibited trap types as well as specifies the minimum trap size for each type of fixture.

Chapter 33 Storm Drainage. Rainwater infiltration into the ground adjacent to a building can cause the interior of foundation walls to become wet. The installation of a subsoil drainage system prevents the build-up of rainwater on the exterior of the foundation

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walls. This chapter provides the specifications for subsoil drain piping. Where the discharge of the subsoil drain system is to a sump, this chapter also provides coverage for for sump construction, pumps and discharge piping.

Chapter 34 General Requirements. This chapter contains broadly applicable, general and miscellaneous requirements including scope, listing and labeling, equipment locations and clearances for conductor materials and connections and conductor identification.

Chapter 35 Electrical Definitions. Chapter 35 is the repository of the definitions ofterms used in the body ofPart VIII of the code. To avoid the potential for confusion and conflicting definitions, Part VIII, Electrical, has its own definition chapter.

Codes are technical documents and every word, term and punctuation mark can impact the meaning of the code text and the intended results. The code often uses terms that have a unique meaning in the code, which can differ substantially from the ordinarily understood meaning of the term as used outside of the code.

The terms defined in Chapter 35 are deemed to be of prime importance in establishing the meaning and intent of the electrical code text that uses the terms. The user of the code should be familiar with and consult this chapter because the definitions are essential to the correct interpretation of the code and because the user may not be aware that a term is defined.

Chapter 36 Services. This chapter covers the design, sizing and installation of the building's electrical service equipment and grounding electrode system. It includes an easy-to-use load calculation method and service conductor sizing table. The electrical service is generally the first part of the electrical system to be designed and installed.

Chapter 37 Branch Circuit and Feeder Requirements. Chapter 37 addresses the requirements for designing the power distribution system which consists of feeders and branch circuits emanating from the service equipment. This chapter dictates the ratings of circuits and the allowable loads, the number and types of branch circuits required, the wire sizing for such branch circuits and feeders and the requirements for protection from overcurrent for conductors. A load calculation method specific to feeders is also included. This chapter is used to design the electrical system on the load side of the service.

Chapter 38 Wiring Methods. Chapter 38 specifies the allowable wiring methods, such as cable, conduit and raceway systems, and provides the installation requirements for the wiring methods. This chapter is primarily applicable to the "rough-in" phase of construction.

Chapter 39 Power and Lighting Distribution. This chapter mostly contains installation requirements for the wiring that serves the lighting outlets, receptacle outlets, appliances and switches located throughout the building. The required distribution and spacing of receptacle outlets and lighting outlets is prescribed in this chapter, as well as the requirements for ground-fault and arc-fault circuit interrupter protection.

Chapter 40 Devices and Luminaires. This chapter focuses on the devices, including switches and receptacles, and lighting fixtures that are typically installed during the final phase of construction.

Chapter 41 Appliance Installation. Chapter 41 addresses the installation of appliances including HVAC appliances, water heaters' fixed space-heating equipment, dishwashers, garbage disposals, range hoods and suspended paddle fans.

Chapter 42 Swimming Pools. This chapter covers the electrical installation requirements for swimming pools, storable swimming pools, wading pools, decorative pools, fountains, hot tubs, spas and hydromassage bathtubs. The allowable wiring methods are specified along with the required clearances between electrical system components and pools, spas and tubs. This chapter includes the special grounding requirements related to pools, spas and tubs, and also prescribes the equipotential bonding requirements that are unique to pools, spas and tubs.

Chapter 43 Class 2 Remote-control, Signaling and Power-limited Circuits. This chapter covers the power supplies, wiring methods and installation requirements for the Class 2 circuits found in dwellings. Such circuits include thermostat wiring, alarm systems, security systems, automated control systems and doorbell systems.

Chapter 44 Referenced Standards. The code contains numerous references to standards that are used to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 44 contains a comprehensive list of all standards that are referenced in the code. The standards are part of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard. Compliance with the referenced standard is necessary for compliance with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and installation requirements necessary for compliance with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal basis to the code official, contractor, designer and owner.

Chapter 44 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of the referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based upon the standard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) of the standard referenced; any addenda included as part of the ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this code that reference the standard.

Appendix A Sizing and Capacities of Gas Piping. This appendix is informative and not part of the code. It provides design guidance, useful facts and data and multiple examples of how to apply the sizing tables and sizing methodologies of Chapter 24.

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Appendix B Sizing of Venting Systems Serving Appliances Equipped with Draft Hoods, Category I Appliances and Appliances Listed for Use with Type B Vents. This appendix is informative and not part of the code. It contains multiple examples of how to apply the vent and chimney tables and methodologies of Chapter 24.

Appendix C Exit Terminals of Mechanical Draft and Direct-venting Systems. This appendix is informative and not part of the code. It consists of a figure and notes that visually depict code requirements from Chapter 24 for vent terminals with respect to the openings found in building exterior walls.

Appendix D Recommended Procedure for Safety Inspection ofan Existing Appliance Installation. This appendix is informative and not part ofthe code. It provides recommended procedures for testing and inspecting an appliance installation to determine if the installation is operating safely and if the appliance is in a safe condition.

Appendix E Manufactured Housing Used as Dwellings. The criteria for the construction of manufactured homes are governed by the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Act. While this act may seem to cover the bulk of the construction of manufactured housing, it does not cover those areas related to the placement of the housing on the property. The provisions of Appendix E are not applicable to the design and construction of manufactured homes. Appendix E provides a complete set of regulations in conjunction with federal law for the installation of manufactured housing. This appendix also contains provisions for existing manufactured home installations.

Appendix F Radon Control Methods. Radon comes from the natural (radioactive) decay of the element radium in soil, rock and water and finds its way into the air. Appendix F contains requirements to mitigate the transfer of radon gases from the soil into the dwelling. The provisions of this appendix regulate the design and construction of radon-resistant measures intended to reduce the entry of radon gases into the living space of residential buildings.

Appendix G Swimming Pool, Spas and Hot Tubs. Appendix G provides the regulations for swimming pools, hot tubs and spas installed in or on the lot of a one- or two-family dwelling. This appendix contains provisions for an effective barrier surrounding the water area and entrapment protection for suction outlets to reduce the potential for drowning of young children.

Appendix H Patio Covers. Appendix H sets forth the regulations and limitations for patio covers. The provisions address those uses permitted in patio cover structures, the minimum design loads to be assigned for structural purposes, and the effect of the patio cover on egress and emergency escape or rescue from sleeping rooms. This appendix also contains the special provisions for aluminum screen enclosures in hurricane-prone regions.

Appendix I Private Sewage Disposal.

Appendix J Existing Buildings and Structures. Appendix J contains the provisions for the repair, renovation, alteration and reconstruction of existing buildings and structures that are within the scope of this code. To accomplish this objective and to make the rehabilitation process more available, this appendix allows for a controlled departure from full code compliance without compromising minimum life safety, fire safety, structural and environmental features ofthe rehabilitated existing building or structure.

Appendix K Sound Transmission. Appendix K regulates the sound transmission of wall and floor-ceiling assemblies separating dwelling units and townhouse units. Air-borne sound insulation is required for walls. Air-borne sound insulation and impact sound insulation are required for floor-ceiling assemblies. The provisions in Appendix K set forth a minimum Sound Transmission Class (STC) rating for common walls and floor-ceiling assemblies between dwelling units. In addition, a minimum Impact Insulation Class (lIC) rating is also established to limit structure-borne sound through common floor-ceiling assemblies separating dwelling units.

Appendix L Permit Fees. Appendix L provides guidance tojurisdictions for setting appropriate permit fees. This appendix will aid many jurisdictions to assess permit fees that will assist to fairly and properly administer the code. This appendix can be used for informational purposes only or may be adopted when specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

Appendix M Home Day Care-R3 Occupancy. Appendix M provides means of egress and smoke detection requirements for a Group R-3 Occupancy that is to be used as a home day care for more than five children who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours. This appendix is strictly for guidance and/or adoption by thosejurisdictions that have Licensed Home Care Provider laws and statutes that allow more than five children to be cared for in a person's home. When ajurisdiction adopts this appendix, the provisions for day care and child care facilities in the IBC should be considered also.

Appendix N Venting Methods. Because venting of sanitary drainage systems is perhaps the most difficult concept to understand, and Chapter 31 uses only words to describe venting requirements, illustrations can offer greater insight into what the words mean. Appendix N has a number of illustrations for commonly installed sanitary drainage systems in order for the reader to gain a better understanding of this code's venting requirements.

Appendix 0 Gray Water Recycling Systems. Appendix 0 offers a method for utilizing gray water that is collected from certain fixtures such as lavatories, bathtubs, showers and clothes washing machines. Because many geographical areas of the world are in short supply of water resources, water that has already passed through these fixtures is an important resource that can lessen the demand for potable water. Where gray water is used for underground irrigation, no treatment other than basic filtering is required. In this application, gray water reuse offers savings in both potable water use and less wastewater to be treated. Gray water can also be reused for flushing water for water closets and urinals. In this application, the gray water requires disinfection and coloring in order

x

to be safe for use in those fixtures. This appendix provides the user with basic information to choose the necessary components, size and construct a gray water system that suits the particular application.

Appendix P Sizing ofWater Piping System. Appendix P provides two recognized methods for sizing the water service and water distribution piping for a building. The method under Section API03 provides friction loss diagrams that require the user to "plot" points and read values from the diagrams in order to perform the required calculations and necessary checks. This method is the most accurate of the two presented in this appendix. The method under Section AP20 1 is known to be conservative; however, very few calculations are necessary in order to determine a pipe size that satisfies the flow requirements of any application.

Appendix QICC International Residential Code Electrical Provisions/National Electrical Code Cross Reference. This cross reference allows the code user to trace the code sections in Chapters 34 through 43 back to their source: the National Electrical Code. See the introduction to Chapter 34 for more information on the relationship between Part VIII of this code and the NEC, NFPA 70.

xi xii

ORDINANCE

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 2009 International Residential Code as an enforceable regulation governing one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses should ensure that certain factual information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text.

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE

ORDINANCE NO.            _

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2009 edition of the International Residential Code, regulating and governing the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, location, removal and demolition of detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than threes stories in height with separate means of egress in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No.               of the [JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith.

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows:

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies ofwhich are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Residential Code, 2009 edition, including Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Residential Code Section RI02 .5, 2009 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Residential Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, location, removal and demolition of detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than threes stories in height with separate means ofegress as herein provided; providing for the issuance ofpermits and collection offees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms ofsaid Residential Code on file in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance.

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised:

Section RIO 1.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION]

Table R301.2 (1) Insert: [APPROPRIATE DESIGN CRITERIA]

Section P2603.6.1 Insert: [NUMBER OF INCHES IN TWO LOCATIONS]

Section 3. That Ordinance No.                of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all other ordinances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed.

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that anyone or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional.

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Residential Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall anyjust or legal right or remedy of any character be lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance.

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.)

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption.

xiii xiv

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Part I-Administrative 1
CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 1
PART I-SCOPE AND APPLICATION 1
Section
R101 General 1
R102 Applicability 1
PART II-ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 1
R103 Department of Building Safety 1
R104 Duties and Powers of the Building Official 2
R105 Permits 3
R106 Construction Documents 5
R107 Temporary Structures and Uses 6
R108 Fees 6
R109 Inspections 6
R110 Certificate of Occupancy 7
RI11 Service Utilities 7
R112 Board of Appeals 7
R113 Violations 8
R114 Stop Work Order 8
PartII-lJefinitions 9
CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 9
Section
R201 General 9
R202 Definitions 9
Part III-Building Planning and Construction 23
CHAPTER 3 BUILDING PLANNING 23
Section
R301 Design Criteria 23
R302 Fire-resistant Construction 49
R303 Light, Ventilation and Heating 53
R304 Minimum Room Areas 54
R305 Ceiling Height 54
R306 Sanitation 55
R307 Toilet, Bath and Shower Spaces 55
R308 Glazing 55
R309 Garages and Carports 58
R310 Emergency Escape and Rescue Openings 58
R311 Means of Egress 59
R312 Guards 62
R313 Automatic Fire Sprinkler Systems 62
R314 Smoke Alarms 62
R315 Carbon Monoxide Alarms 63
R316 Foam Plastic 63
R317 Protection of Wood and Wood Based Products Against Decay 65
R318 Protection Against Subterranean Termites 66
R319 Site Address 67
R320 Accessibility 67
R321 Elevators and Platform Lifts 67
R322 Flood-resistant Construction 67
R323 Storm Shelters 70
CHAPTER 4 FOUNDATIONS 71
Section
R401 General 71
R402 Materials 71
R403 Footings 72
R404 Foundation and Retaining Walls 86
R405 Foundation Drainage 105
R406 Foundation Waterproofing and Dampproofing 107
R407 Columns 108
R408 Under-floor Space 108
CHAPTER 5 FLOORS 111
Section
R501 General 111
R502 Wood Floor Framing 111
R503 Floor Sheathing 122
R504 Pressure Preservatively Treated-wood Floors (On Ground) 124
R505 Steel Floor Framing 124
R506 Concrete Floors (On Ground) 144
CHAPTER 6 WALL CONSTRUCTION 145
Section
R601 General 145
R602 Wood Wall Framing 146
R603 Steel Wall Framing 187 xv
R604 Wood Structural Panels 261
R605 Particleboard 261
R606 General Masonry Construction 261
R607 Unit Masonry 269
R608 Multiple Wythe Masonry 270
R609 Grouted Masonry 271
R610 Glass Unit Masonry 273
R611 Exterior Concrete Wall Construction 274
R612 Exterior Windows and Doors 345
R613 Structural Insulated Panel Wall Construction 348
CHAPTER 7 WALL COVERING 357
Section
R701 General 357
R702 Interior Covering 357
R703 Exterior Covering 360
CHAPTER 8 ROOF-CEILING CONSTRUCTION 373
Section
R801 General 373
R802 Wood Roof Framing 373
R803 Roof Sheathing 399
R804 Steel Roof Framing 399
R805 Ceiling Finishes 430
R806 Roof Ventilation 430
R807 Attic Access 431
CHAPTER 9 ROOF ASSEMBLIES 433
Section
R901 General 433
R902 Roof Classification 433
R903 Weather Protection 433
R904 Materials 433
R905 Requirements for Roof Coverings 435
R906 Roof Insulation 443
R907 Reroofing 443
CHAPTER 10 CHIMNEYS AND FIREPLACES 445
Section
RI001 Masonry Fireplaces 445
RI002 Masonry Heaters 448
RI003 Masonry Chimneys 449
RI004 Factory-built Fireplaces 454
RI005 Factory-built Chimneys 454
RI006 Exterior Air Supply 454
Part IV-Energy Conservation 455
CHAPTER 11 ENERGY EFFICIENCy 455
Section
NII01 General 455
NII02 Building Thermal Envelope 468
NII03 Systems 471
N1104 Lighting Systems 473
Part V—Mechanical 475
CHAPTER 12 MECHANICAL ADMINISTRATION 475
Section
M1201 General 475
M1202 Existing Mechanical Systems 475
CHAPTER 13 GENERAL MECHANICAL SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS 477
Section
M1301 General 477
M1302 Approval 477
M1303 Labeling of Appliances 477
M1304 Type of Fuel 477
M1305 Appliance Access 477
M1306 Clearances from Combustible Construction 478
M1307 Appliance Installation 478
M1308 Mechanical Systems Installation 481
CHAPTER 14 HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT 483
Section
M1401 General 483
M1402 Central Furnaces 483
M1403 Heat Pump Equipment. 483
M1404 Refrigeration Cooling Equipment 483
M1405 Baseboard Convectors 483
M1406 Radiant Heating Systems 483
M1407 Duct Heaters 484
M1408 Vented Floor Furnaces 484
M1409 Vented Wall Furnaces 484
M1410 Vented Room Heaters 485 xvi
M1411 Heating and Cooling Equipment 485
M1412 Absorption Cooling Equipment 486
M1413 Evaporative Cooling Equipment 486
M1414 Fireplace Stoves 486
M1415 Masonry Heaters 486
CHAPTER 15 EXHAUST SYSTEMS 487
Section
M1501 General 487
M1502 Clothes Dryer Exhaust. 487
M1503 Range Hoods 488
M1504 Installation of Microwave Ovens 488
M1505 Overhead Exhaust Hoods 488
M1506 Exhaust Ducts 488
M1507 Mechanical Ventilation 488
CHAPTER 16 DUCT SYSTEMS 491
Section
M1601 Duct Construction 491
M1602 Return Air. 493
CHAPTER 17 COMBUSTION AIR 495
Section
M1701 General 495
CHAPTER 18 CHIMNEYS AND VENTS 497
Section
M1801 General 497
M1802 Vent Components 497
M1803 Chimney and Vent Connectors 498
M1804 Vents 499
M1805 Masonry and Factory-built Chimneys 499
CHAPTER 19 SPECIAL FUEL-BURNING EQUIPMENT 501
Section
M1901 Ranges and Ovens 501
M1902 Sauna Heaters 501
M1903 Stationary Fuel Cell Power Plants 501
M1904 Gaseous Hydrogen Systems 501
CHAPTER 20 BOILERS AND WATER HEATERS 503
Section
M2001 Boilers 503
M2002 Operating and Safety Controls 503
M2003 Expansion Tanks 503
M2004 Water Heaters Used for Space Heating 503
M2005 Water Heaters 503
M2006 Pool Heaters 504
CHAPTER 21 HYDRONIC PIPING 505
Section
M2101 Hydronic Piping Systems Installation 505
M2102 Baseboard Convectors 505
M2103 Floor Heating Systems 505
M2104 Low Temperature Piping 507
M2105 Ground Source Heat Pump System Loop Piping 508
CHAPTER 22 SPECIAL PIPING AND STORAGE SYSTEMS 509
Section
M2201 Oil Tanks 509
M2202 Oil Piping, Fitting and Connections 509
M2203 Installation 509
M2204 Oil Pumps and Valves 510
CHAPTER 23 SOLAR SYSTEMS 511
Section
M2301 Solar Energy Systems 511
Part VI-Fuel Gas 513
CHAPTER 24 FUEL GAS 513
Section
G2401 General 513
G2402 General 513
G2403 General Definitions 513
G2404 General 519
G2405 Structural Safety 519
G2406 Appliance Location 519
G2407 Combustion, Ventilation and Dilution Air 520
G2408 Installation 524
G2409 Clearance Reduction 524
G2410 ElectricaL 526
G2411 Electrical Bonding 526
G2412 General 528
G2413 Pipe Sizing 528
G2414 Piping Materials 550
G2415 Piping System Installation 552
G2416 Piping Bends and Changes in Direction 553 xvii
G2417 Inspection, Testing and Purging 554
G2418 Piping Support 555
G2419 Drips and Sloped Piping 555
G2420 Gas Shutoff Valves 555
G2421 Flow Controls 556
G2422 Appliance Connections 557
G2423 CNG Gas-dispensing Systems 558
G2424 Piping Support Intervals 558
G2425 General 558
G2426 Vents 559
G2427 Venting of Appliances 560
G2428 Sizing of Category I Appliance Venting Systems 569
G2429 Direct-vent, Integral Vent, Mechanical Vent and Ventilation/Exhaust Hood Venting 581
G2430 Factory-built Chimneys 581
G2431 General 581
G2432 Decorative Appliances for Installation in Fireplaces 581
G2433 Log Lighters 581
G2434 Vented Gas Fireplaces (Decorative Fireplaces) 581
G2435 Vented Gas Fireplace Heaters 581
G2436 Vented Wall Furnaces 581
G2437 Floor Furnaces 582
G2438 Clothes Dryers 582
G2439 Clothes Dryer Exhaust. 582
G2440 Sauna Heaters 583
G2441 Pool and Spa Heaters 584
G2442 Forced-air Warm-air Furnaces 584
G2443 Conversion Burners 585
G2444 Unit Heaters 585
G2445 Unvented Room Heaters 585
G2446 Vented Room Heaters 585
G2447 Cooking Appliances 586
G2448 Water Heaters 586
G2449 Air Conditioning Appliances 586
G2450 Illuminating Appliances 586
G2451 Infrared Radiant Heaters 587
G2452 Boilers 587
G2453 Chimney Damper Opening Area 587
Part VII-Plumbing 589
CHAPTER 25 PLUMBING ADMINISTRATION 589
Section
P2501 General 589
P2502 Existing Plumbing Systems 589
P2503 Inspection and Tests 589
CHAPTER 26 GENERAL PLUMBING REQUIREMENTS 591
Section
P2601 General 591
P2602 Individual Water Supply and Sewage Disposal 591
P2603 Structural and Piping Protection 591
P2604 Trenching and Backfilling 592
P2605 Support 592
P2606 Waterproofing of Openings 592
P2607 Workmanship 592
P2608 Materials Evaluation and Listing 592
CHAPTER 27 PLUMBING FIXTURES 595
Section
P2701 Fixtures, Faucets and Fixture Fittings 595
P2702 Fixture Accessories 595
P2703 Tail Pieces 595
P2704 Access to Connections 595
P2705 Installation 595
P2706 Waste Receptors 595
P2707 Directional Fittings 597
P2708 Showers 597
P2709 Shower Receptors 597
P2710 Shower Walls 598
P2711 Lavatories 598
P2712 Water Closets 598
P2713 Bathtubs 599
P2714 Sinks 599
P2715 Laundry Tubs 599
P2716 Food Waste Grinder 599
P2717 Dishwashing Machines 599
P2718 Clothes Washing Machine 599
P2719 Floor Drains 599
P2720 Whirlpool Bathtubs 599
P2721 Bidet Installations 600 xviii
P2722 Fixture Fitting 600
P2723 Macerating Toilet Systems 600
P2724 Speciality Temperature Control Devices and Valves 600
CHAPTER 28 WATER HEATERS 601
Section
P2801 General 601
P2802 Water Heaters Used for Space Heating 601
P2803 Relief Valves 601
CHAPTER 29 WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 603
Section
P2901 General 603
P2902 Protection of Potable Water Supply 603
P2903 Water-supply System 606
P2904 Dwelling Unit Fire Sprinkler Systems 609
P2905 Materials, Joints and Connections 621
P2906 Changes in Direction 624
P2907 Support 624
P2908 Drinking Water Treatment Units 624
CHAPTER 30 SANITARY DRAINAGE 625
Section
P3001 General 625
P3002 Materials 625
P3003 Joints and Connections 625
P3004 Determining Drainage Fixture Units 630
P3005 Drainage System 630
P3006 Sizing of Drain Pipe Offsets 633
P3007 Sumps and Ejectors 633
P3008 Backwater Valves 634
CHAPTER 31 VENTS 635
Section
P3101 Vent Systems 635
P3102 Vent Stacks and Stack Vents 635
P3103 Vent Terminals 635
P3104 Vent Connections and Grades 635
P3105 Fixture Vents 636
P3106 Individual Vent 636
P3107 Common Vent. 636
P3108 Wet Venting 636
P3109 Waste Stack Vent 637
P3110 Circuit Venting 637
P3111 Combination Waste and Vent System 637
P3112 Island Fixture Venting 638
P3113 Vent Pipe Sizing 638
P3114 Air Admittance Valves 638
CHAPTER 32 TRAPS 641
Section
P3201 Fixture Traps 641
CHAPTER 33 STORM DRAINAGE 643
Section
P3301 General 643
P3302 Subsoil Drains 643
P3303 Sumps and Pumping Systems 643
Part VIII—EJectricaJ 645
CHAPTER 34 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 645
Section
E3401 General 645
E3402 Building Structure Protection 646
E3403 Inspection and Approval 646
E3404 General Equipment Requirements 646
E3405 Equipment Location and Clearances 648
E3406 Electrical Conductors and Connections 648
E3407 Conductor and Terminal Identification 650
CHAPTER 35 ELECTRICAL DEFINITIONS 653
Section
E3501 General 653
CHAPTER 36 SERVICES 657
Section
E3601 General Services 657
E3602 Service Size and Rating 657
E3603 Service, Feeder and Grounding Electrode Conductor Sizing 658
E3604 Overhead Service-drop and Service Conductor Installation 659
E3605 Service-entrance Conductors 661
E3606 Service Equipment—General 661
E3607 System Grounding 662
E3608 Grounding Electrode System 662
E3609 Bonding 664
E3610 Grounding Electrode Conductors 664
E3611 Grounding Electrode Conductor Connection to the Grounding Electrodes 665 xix
CHAPTER 37 BRANCH CIRCUIT AND FEEDER REQUIREMENTS 667
Section
E3701 General 667
E3702 Branch Circuit Ratings 667
E3703 Required Branch Circuits 668
E3704 Feeder Requirements 669
E3705 Conductor Sizing and Overcurrent Protection 670
E3706 Panelboards 673
CHAPTER 38 WIRING METHODS 675
Section
E3801 General Requirements 675
E3802 Above-ground Installation Requirements 675
E3803 Underground Installation Requirements 678
CHAPTER 39 POWER AND LIGHTING DISTRIBUTION 681
Section
E3901 Receptacle Outlets 681
E3902 Ground-fault and Arc-fault Circuit-interrupter Protection 683
E3903 Lighting Outlets 684
E3904 General Installation Requirements 684
E3905 Boxes, Conduit Bodies and Fittings 695
E3906 Installation of Boxes, Conduit Bodies and Fittings 698
E3907 Cabinets and Panelboards 699
E3908 Grounding 700
E3909 Flexible Cords 703
CHAPTER 40 DEVICES AND LUMINAIRES 705
Section
E4001 Switches 705
E4002 Receptacles 706
E4003 Fixtures 707
E4004 Luminaire Installation 708
E4005 Track Lighting 708
CHAPTER 41 APPLIANCE INSTALLATION 711
Section
E4101 General 711
CHAPTER 42 SWIMMING POOLS 713
Section
E4201 General 713
E4202 Wiring Methods for Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs and Hydromassage Bathtubs 713
E4203 Equipment Location and Clearances 715
E4204 Bonding 716
E4205 Grounding 718
E4206 Equipment Installation 719
E4207 Storable Swimming Pools 721
E4208 Spas and Hot Tubs 722
E4209 Hydromassage Bathtubs 722
CHAPTER 43 CLASS 2 REMOTE-CONTROL, SIGNALING AND POWER-LIMITED CIRCUITS 725
Section
E4301 General 725
E4302 Power Sources 725
E4303 Wiring Methods 725
E4304 Installation Requirements 725
Part IX-Referenced Standards 727
CHAPTER 44 REFERENCED STANDARDS 727
APPENDIX A SIZING AND CAPACITIES OF GAS PIPING 749
APPENDIX B SIZING OF VENTING SYSTEMS SERVING APPLIANCES EQUIPPED WITH DRAFT HOODS, CATEGORY I APPLIANCES, AND APPLIANCES LISTED FOR USE WITH TYPE B VENTS 761
APPENDIX C EXIT TERMINALS OF MECHANICAL DRAFT AND DIRECT-VENT VENTING SYSTEMS 771
APPENDIX D RECOMMENDED PROCEDURE FOR SAFETY INSPECTION OF AN EXISTING APPLIANCE INSTALLATION 773
APPENDIX E MANUFACTURED HOUSING USED AS DWELLINGS 775
Section
AE10l Scope 775
AE102 Application to Existing Manufactured Homes and Building Service Equipment 775
AE201 Definitions 776
AE301 Permits 776 xx
AE302 Application for Permit 776
AE303 Permits Issuance 777
AE304 Fees 777
AE305 Inspections 778
AE306 Special Inspections 779
AE307 Utility Service 779
AE401 Occupancy Classification 779
AE402 Location on Property 779
AE501 Design 779
AE502 Foundation Systems 780
AE503 Skirting and Perimeter Enclosures 780
AE504 Structural Additions 780
AE505 Building Service Equipment 780
AE506 Exits 781
AE507 Occupancy, Fire Safety and Energy Conservation Standards 781
AE600 Special Requirements for Foundation Systems 781
AE601 Footings and Foundations 781
AE602 Pier Construction 781
AE603 Height of Piers 781
AE604 Anchorage Installations 781
AE605 Ties, Materials and Installation 782
AE606 Referenced Standards 782
APPENDIX F RADON CONTROL METHODS 783
Section
AF101 Scope 783
AF102 Definitions 783
AF103 Requirements 783
APPENDIX G SWIMMING POOLS, SPAS AND HOT TUBS 791
Section
AG101 General 791
AG102 Definitions 791
AG103 Swimming Pools 791
AG104 Spas and Hot Tubs 791
AG105 Barrier Requirements 791
AG106 Entrapment Protection for Swimming Pool and Spa Suction Outlets 792
AG107 Abbreviations 793
AG108 Standards 793
APPENDIX H PATIO COVERS 795
Section
AH101 General 795
AH102 Definition 795
AH103 Permitted Uses 795
AH104 Design Loads 795
AH105 Light and Ventilation/Emergency Egress 795
AH106 Footings 795
AH107 Special Provisions for Aluminum Screen Enclosures in Hurricane-prone Regions 795
APPENDIX I PRIVATE SEWAGE DISPOSAL 797
Section
AI101 General 797
APPENDIX J EXISTING BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES 799
Section
Aj101 Purpose and Intent 799
Aj102 Compliance 799
Aj103 Preliminary Meeting 799
Aj104 Evaluation of an Existing Building 799
Aj105 Permit 800
Aj201 Definitions 800
Aj301 Repairs 800
Aj401 Renovations 801
Aj501 Alterations 801
Aj601 Reconstruction 802
APPENDIX K SOUND TRANSMISSION 803
Section
AK101 General 803
AK102 Air-borne Sound 803
AK103 Structural-borne Sound 803
AK104 Referenced Standards 803
APPENDIX L PERMIT FEES 805
APPENDIX M HOME DAY CARE-R-3 OCCUPANCY 807
AM101 General 807
AM102 Definitions 807
AM103 Means of Egress 807
AM104 Smoke Detection 808 xxi
APPENDIX N VENTING METHODS 809
APPENDIX 0 GRAY WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS 817
AO10l General 817
AO102 Systems for Flushing Water Closets and Urinals 817
AOI03 Subsurface Landscape Irrigation Systems 819
APPENDIX P SIZING OF WATER PIPING SYSTEM 823
API0l General 823
AP102 Information Required 823
AP103 Selection of Pipe Size 823
AP201 Selection of Pipe Size 840
APPENDIX Q ICC INTERNATIONAL RESIDENTIAL CODE ELECTRICAL PROVISIONS/NATIONAL ELECTRICAL CODE CROSS-REFERENCE 843
INDEX 857 xxii

Part I-Administrative

CHAPTER 1
SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION

PART I-SCOPE AND APPLICATION

SECTION R101
GENERAL

RIOI.I Title. These provisions shall be known as the Residential Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], and shall be cited as such and will be referred to herein as "this code."

RIOI.2 Scope. The provisions of the International Residential Code for One- and Two-family Dwellings shall apply to the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, removal and demolition of detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses not more than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and their accessory structures.

Exception: Live/work units complying with the requirements of Section 419 of the International BUilding Code shall be permitted to be built as one- and two-family dwellings or townhouses. Fire suppression required by Section 419.5 of the International BUilding Code when constructed under the International Residential Code for One- and Two-familyDwellings shall conform to Section 903.3.1.3 of the International BUilding Code.

RIOI.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish minimum requirements to safeguard the public safety, health and general welfare through affordability, structural strength, means of egress facilities, stability, sanitation, light and venti1ation' energy conservation and safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

SECTION R102
APPLICABILITY

RI02.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.

RI02.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions oflocal, state or federal law.

RI02.3 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

RI02.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this code shall apply.

Exception: Where enforcement of a code provision would violate the conditions of the listing of the equipment or appliance, the conditions of the listing and manufacturer's instructions shall apply.

RI02.5 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance.

RI02.6 Partial invalidity. In the event any part or provision of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provisions.

RI02.7 Existing structures. The legal occupancy ofany structure existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be permitted to continue without change, except as is specifically covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary by the building officialfor the general safety and welfare of the occupants and the public.

RI02.7.1 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, alterations or repairs to any structure shall conform to the requirements for a new structure without requiring the existing structure to comply with all of the requirements of this code, unless otherwise stated. Additions, alterations or repairs shall not cause an existing structure to become unsafe or adversely affect the performance ofthe building.

PART II-ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT

SECTION R103
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY

RI03.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The department of building safety is hereby created and the official in charge thereof shall be known as the building official.

RI03.2 Appointment. The building officialshall be appointed by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction.

RI03.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing authority, the building officialshall have the authority

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to appoint a deputy building official, the related technical officers, inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such employees shall have powers as delegated by the building official.

SECTION R104
DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE BUILDING OFFICIAL

RI04.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The building ofl1cial shall have the authority to render interpretations of this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and procedures shall be in conformance with the intent and purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this code.

RI04.2 Applications and permits. The building official shall receive applications, review construction documents and issue permits for the erection and alteration of buildings and structures, inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued and enforce compliance with the provisions ofthis code.

RI04.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this code.

RI04.4 Inspections. The building official is authorized to make all of the required inspections, or the building official shall have the authority to accept reports of inspection by approved agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible officer of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The building official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority.

RI04.5 Identification. The building officialshall carry proper identification when inspecting structures or premises in the performance of duties under this code.

RI04.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the building ofl1cial has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is contrary to or in violation of this code which makes the structure or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building official or designee is authorized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed by this code, provided that if such structure or premises be occupied that credentials be presented to the occupant and entry requested. If such structure or premises be unoccupied, the building official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the structure or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the building official shall have recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry.

RI04.7 Department records. The building official shall keep official records of applications received, permits and certificates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official records for the period required for the retention of public records.

RI04.8 Liability. The building official, member ofthe board of appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this code, while acting for thejurisdiction in good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer or employee because of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall be defended by legal representative of thejurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. The building official or any subordinate shall not be liable for cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code.

RI04.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equipment and devices approved by the building official shall be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval.

RI04.9.1 Used materials and equipment. Used materials, equipment and devices shall not be reused unless approved by the building official.

RI04.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the building officialshall have the authority to grant modifications for individual cases, provided the building official shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements or structural. The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files of the department of building safety.

RI04.10.1 Areas prone to flooding. The building ofl1cial shall not grant modifications to any provision related to areas prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(1) without the granting of a variance to such provisions by the board of appeals.

RI04.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of construction and equipment. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material, design or method of construction shall be approvedwhere the building ofl1cialfinds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code. Compliance with the specific performance-based provisions of the International Codes in lieu of specific requirements of this code shall also be permitted as an alternate.

RI04.11.1 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for

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alternative materials or methods, the building officialshall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the building official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building official for the period required for retention of public records.

SECTION R105
PERMITS

RI05.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish or change the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, shall first make application to the building official and obtain the required permit.

RI05.2 Work exempt from permit. Permits shall not be required for the following. Exemption from permit requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the provisions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of thisjurisdiction.

Building:

  1. One-story detached accessory structures used as tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, provided the floor area does not exceed 200 square feet (18.58 m2).
  2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high.
  3. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in height measured from the bottom of the footing to the top of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge.
  4. Water tanks supported directly upon grade if the capacity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18927 L) and the ratio of height to diameter or width does not exceed 2 to 1.
  5. Sidewalks and driveways.
  6. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, counter tops and similar finish work.
  7. Prefabricated swimming pools that are less than 24 inches (610 mm) deep.
  8. Swings and other playground equipment.
  9. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall which do not project more than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the exterior wall and do not require additional support.
  10. Decks not exceeding 200 square feet (18.58 m2) in area, that are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above grade at any point, are not attached to a dwelling and do not serve the exit door required by Section R311. 4.

Electrical:

  1. Listed cord-and-plug connected temporary decorative lighting.
  2. Reinstallation of attachment plug receptacles but not the outlets therefor.
  3. Replacement of branch circuit overcurrent devices of the required capacity in the same location.
  4. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances, apparatus or equipment operating at less than 25 volts and not capable of supplying more than 50 watts of energy.
  5. Minor repair work, including the replacement of lamps or the connection of approved portable electrical equipment to approved permanently installed receptacles.

Gas:

  1. Portable heating, cooking or clothes drying appliances.
  2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter approval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe.
  3. Portable-fuel-cell appliances that are not connected to a fixed piping system and are not interconnected to a power grid.

Mechanical:

  1. Portable heating appliances.
  2. Portable ventilation appliances.
  3. Portable cooling units.
  4. Steam, hot- or chilled-water piping within any heating or cooling equipment regulated by this code.
  5. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter approval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe.
  6. Portable evaporative coolers.
  7. Self-contained refrigeration systems containing 10 pounds (4.54 kg) or less of refrigerant or that are actuated by motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less.
  8. Portable-fuel-cell appliances that are not connected to a fixed piping system and are not interconnected to a power grid.

The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent pipe; provided, however, that if any concealed trap, drainpipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defective and it becomes necessary to remove and replace the same with new material, such work shall be considered as new work and a permit shall be obtained and inspection made as provided in this code.

The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in pipes, valves or fixtures, and the removal and reinstallation of water closets, provided such repairs do not involve or require the replacement or rearrangement of valves, pipes or fixtures.

RI05.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replacements and repairs must be performed in an emergency situation, the permit application shall be submitted within the next working business day to the building official.

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RI05.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, replacement of lamps or the connection of approved portable electrical equipment to approved permanently installed receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cutting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the removal or change of any required means of egress, or rearrangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, alteration of, replacement or relocation ofany water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, vent or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other work affecting public health or general safety.

RI05.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be required for the installation, alteration or repair of generation, transmission, distribution, metering or other related equipment that is under the ownership and control of public service agencies by established right.

RI05.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the applicant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. Such application shall:

  1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the permit for which application is made.
  2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by legal description, street address or similar description that will readily identify and definitely locate the proposed building or work.
  3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed work is intended.
  4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other information as required in Section RI06.1.
  5. State the valuation of the proposed work.
  6. Be signed by the applicant or the applicant's authorized agent.
  7. Give such other data and information as required by the building official.

RI05.3.1 Action on application. The building official shall examine or cause to be examined applications for permits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after filing. If the application or the construction documents do not conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the building official shall reject such application in writing stating the reasons therefor. If the building official is satisfied that the proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the building official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable.

RI05.3.1.1 Determination of substantially improved or substantially damaged existing buildings in flood hazard areas. For applications for reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition or other improvement of existing buildings or structures located in an area prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(1), the building official shall examine or cause to be examined the construction documents and shall prepare a finding with regard to the value of the proposed work. For buildings that have sustained damage of any origin, the value of the proposed work shall include the cost to repair the building or structure to its predamaged condition. If the building official finds that the value of proposed work equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the building or structure before the damage has occurred or the improvement is started, the finding shall be provided to the board of appeals for a determination of substantial improvement or substantial damage. Applications determined by the board of appeals to constitute substantial improvement or substantial damage shall require all existing portions of the entire building or structure to meet the requirements of Section R322.

RI05.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has been issued; except that the bUilding official is authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding 180 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.

RI05.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances ofthejurisdictionshall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction documents and other data shall not prevent the building official from requiring the correction of errors in the construction documents and other data. The building official is also authorized to prevent occupancy or use of a structure where in violation of this code or of any other ordinances of this jurisdiction.

RI05.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become invalid unless the work authorized by such permit is commenced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. The building official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.

RI05.6 Suspension or revocation. The building official is authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code wherever the permitis issued in error or on the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

RI05.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy thereof shall be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the project.

RI05.8 Responsibility. It shall be the duty of every person who performs work for the installation or repair of building, structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing systems, for which this code is applicable, to comply with this code.

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RI05.9 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a permit, the building official is authorized to examine or cause to be examined buildings, structures and sites for which an application has been filed.

SECTION R106
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

RI06.1 Submittal documents. Submittal documents consisting of construction documents, and other data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each application for a permit. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of thejurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the building official is authorized to require additional construction documents to be prepared by a registered design professional.

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the submission of construction documents and other data not required to be prepared by a registered design professional if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that reviewing of construction documents is not necessary to obtain compliance with this code.

RI06.1.1 Information on construction documents. Construction documents shall be drawn upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted when approvedby the building official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the building official. Where required by the building official, all braced wall lines, shall be identified on the construction documents and all pertinent information including, but not limited to, bracing methods, location and length of braced wall panels, foundation requirements of braced wall panels at top and bottom shall be provided.

RI06.1.2 Manufacturer's installation instructions. Manufacturer's installation instructions, as required by this code, shall be available on the job site at the time of inspection.

RI06.1.3 Information for construction in flood hazard areas. For buildings and structures located in whole or in part in flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), construction documents shall include:

  1. Delineation of flood hazard areas, floodway boundaries and flood zones and the design flood elevation, as appropriate;
  2. The elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including basement, in areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), the height of the proposed lowest floor, including basement, above the highest adjacent grade;
  3. The elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member in coastal high hazard areas (V Zone); and
  4. If design flood elevations are not included on the community's Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), the building official and the applicant shall obtain and reasonably utilize any design flood elevation and floodway data available from other sources.

RI06.2 Site plan or plot plan. The construction documents submitted with the application for permit shall be accompanied by a site plan showing the size and location of new construction and existing structures on the site and distances from lot lines. In the case of demolition, the site plan shall show construction to be demolished and the location and size of existing structures and construction that are to remain on the site or plot. The building official is authorized to waive or modify the requirement for a site plan when the application for permit is for alteration or repair or when otherwise warranted.

RI06.3 Examination of documents. The building official shall examine or cause to be examined construction documents for code compliance.

RI06.3.1 Approval ofconstruction documents. When the building official issues a permit, the construction documents shall be approved in writing or by a stamp which states "REVIEWED FOR CODE COMPLIANCE." One set of construction documents so reviewed shall be retained by the building official. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, shall be kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by the building official or his or her authorized representative.

RI06.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require changes in the construction documents, construction or designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the construction of which has been pursued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has not been abandoned.

RI06.3.3 Phased approval. The building official is authorized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations or any other part of a building or structure before the construction documents for the whole building or structure have been submitted, provided that adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for the foundation or other parts of a building or structure shall proceed at the holder's own risk with the building operation and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted.

RI06.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be installed in accordance with the approved construction documents, and any changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction documents.

RI06.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of approved construction documents shall be retained by the building official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws.

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SECTION R107
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES

RI07.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such permits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be permitted for more than 180 days. The building official is authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause.

RI07.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code as necessary to ensure the public health, safety and general welfare.

RI07.3 Temporary power. The building official is authorized to give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part ofan electric installation before such installation has been fully completed and the final certificate of completion has been issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, heat or power in NFPA 70.

RI07.4 Termination of approval. The building official is authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be discontinued.

SECTION R108
FEES

RI08.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the fees prescribed by law have been paid. Nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid.

RI08.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, electrical, gas, mechanical and plumbing systems or alterations requiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority.

RI08.3 Building permit valuations. Building permit valuation shall include total value of the work for which a permit is being issued, such as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing equipment and other permanent systems, including materials and labor.

RI08.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in connection with or concurrently with the work authorized by a building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law.

RI08.5 Refunds. The building official is authorized to establish a refund policy.

RI08.6 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person who commences work requiring a permit on a building, structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to a fee established by the applicable governing authority that shall be in addition to the required permit fees.

SECTION R109
INSPECTIONS

RI09.1 Types of inspections. For onsite construction, from time to time the building off1cial, upon notification from the permitholder or his agent, shall make or cause to be made any necessary inspections and shall either approve that portion of the construction as completed or shall notify the permitholder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code.

RI09.1.1 Foundation inspection. Inspection of the foundation shall be made after poles or piers are set or trenches or basement areas are excavated and any required forms erected and any required reinforcing steel is in place and supported prior to the placing of concrete. The foundation inspection shall include excavations for thickened slabs intended for the support of bearing walls, partitions, structural supports, or equipment and special requirements for wood foundations.

RI09.1.2 Plumbing, mechanical, gas and electrical systems inspection. Rough inspection of plumbing, mechanical, gas and electrical systems shall be made prior to covering or concealment, before fixtures or appliances are set or installed, and prior to framing inspection.

Exception: Back-filling of ground-source heat pump loop systems tested in accordance with Section M2105. 1 prior to inspection shall be permitted.

RI09.1.3 Floodplain inspections. For construction in areas prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(1), upon placement of the lowest floor, including basement, and prior to further vertical construction, the building official shall require submission of documentation, prepared and sealed by a registered design professional, of the elevation of the lowest floor, including basement, required in Section R322.

RI09.1.4 Frame and masonry inspection. Inspection of framing and masonry construction shall be made after the roof, masonry, all framing, firestopping, draftstopping and bracing are in place and after the plumbing, mechanical and electrical rough inspections are approved.

RI09.1.5 Other inspections. In addition to the called inspections above, the building official may make or require any other inspections to ascertain compliance with this code and other laws enforced by the building official.

R 109.1.5.1 Fire- resistance- rated construction inspection. Where fire-resistance-rated construction is required between dwelling units or due to location on property, the building official shall require an inspection of such construction after all lathing and/or wallboard is in place, but before any plaster is applied, or before wall-board joints and fasteners are taped and finished.

RI09.1.6 Final inspection. Final inspection shall be made after the permitted work is complete and prior to occupancy.

RI09.2 Inspection agencies. The building official is authorized to accept reports of approved agencies, provided such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reliability.

RI09.3 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the permit holder or their agent to notify the building official that such

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work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the person requesting any inspections required by this code to provide access to and means for inspection of such work.

RI09.4 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the building official. The building official upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or shall notify the permit holder or an agent of the permit holder wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the building official.

SECTION R110
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY

RIIO.I Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall be used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy classification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall be made until the building official has issued a certificate of occupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Certificates presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid.

Exceptions:

  1. Certificates of occupancy are not required for work exempt from permits under Section RlOS.2.
  2. Accessory buildings or structures.

RIIO.2 Change in use. Changes in the character or use of an existing structure shall not be made except as specified in Sections 3406 and 3407 of the International Building Code.

RIIO.3 Certificate issued. After the building official inspects the building or structure and finds no violations of the provisions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the department of building safety, the building official shall issue a certificate of occupancy which shall contain the following:

  1. The building permit number.
  2. The address of the structure.
  3. The name and address of the owner.
  4. A description of that portion of the structure for which the certificate is issued.
  5. A statement that the described portion of the structure has been inspected for compliance with the requirements of this code.
  6. The name of the building official.
  7. The edition of the code under which the permit was issued.
  8. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided and whether the sprinkler system is required.
  9. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building permit.

RIIO.4 Temporary occupancy. The building official is authorized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The building official shall set a time period during which the temporary certificate of occupancy is valid.

RIIO.5 Revocation. The buildingofficialshall, in writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy issued under the provisions ofthis code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

SECTION R111
SERVICE UTILITIES

RIII.I Connection ofservice utilities. No person shall make connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a permit is required, until approved by the building official.

RIII.2 Temporary connection. The building officialshall have the authority to authorize and approve the temporary connection of the building or system to the utility, source ofenergy, fuel or power.

RIII.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The building official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by this code and the referenced codes and standards set forth in Section Rl02.4 in case of emergency where necessary to eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property or when such utility connection has been made without the approval required by Section Rlll.l or Rlll.2. The building official shall notify the serving utility and whenever possible the owner and occupant of the building, structure or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such action ifnot notified prior to disconnection. The owner or occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be notified in writing as soon as practical thereafter.

SECTION R112
BOARD OF APPEALS

R112.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the building official relative to the application and interpretation ofthis code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The building official shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall have no vote on any matter before the board. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the building official.

R112.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The board shall have no authority to waive requirements ofthis code.

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Rl12.2.1 Determination of substantial improvement in areas prone to flooding. When the building ofl1cial provides a finding required in Section R10S.3.1.1, the board of appeals shall determine whether the value ofthe proposed work constitutes a substantial improvement. A substantial improvement means any repair, reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition or improvement of a building or structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds 50 percent of the market value of the building or structure before the improvement or repair is started. If the building or structure has sustained substantial damage, all repairs are considered substantial improvement regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does not include:

  1. Improvements ofa building or structure required to correct existing health, sanitary or safety code violations identified by the building official and which are the minimum necessary to assure safe living conditions; or
  2. Any alteration of an historic building or structure, provided that the alteration will not preclude the continued designation as an historic building or structure. For the purpose of this exclusion, an historic building is:

    2.1. Listed or preliminarily determined to be eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places; or

    2.2. Determined by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Interior as contributing to the historical significance of a registered historic district or a district preliminarily determined to qualify as an historic district; or

    2.3. Designated as historic under a state or local historic preservation program that is approved by the Department of Interior.

Rl12.2.2 Criteria for issuance of a variance for areas prone to flooding. A variance shall be issued only upon:

  1. A showing of good and sufficient cause that the unique characteristics of the size, configuration or topography of the site render the elevation standards in Section R322 inappropriate.
  2. A determination that failure to grant the variance would result in exceptional hardship by rendering the lot undevelopable.
  3. A determination that the granting of a variance will not result in increased flood heights, additional threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, cause fraud on or victimization of the public, or conflict with existing local laws or ordinances.
  4. A determination that the variance is the minimum necessary to afford relief, considering the flood hazard.
  5. Submission to the applicant of written notice specifying the difference between the design flood elevation and the elevation to which the building is to be built, stating that the cost of flood insurance will be commensurate with the increased risk resulting from the reduced floor elevation, and stating that construction below the design flood elevation increases risks to life and property.

Rl12.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training to pass on matters pertaining to building construction and are not employees of the jurisdiction.

Rl12.4 Administration. The building official shall take immediate action in accordance with the decision ofthe board.

SECTION R113
VIOLATIONS

Rl13.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equipment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code.

Rl13.2 Notice ofviolation. The building official is authorized to serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible for the erection, construction, alteration, extension, repair, moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in violation of a detail statement or a plan approved thereunder, or in violation of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action or condition and the abatement of the violation.

Rl13.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is not complied with in the time prescribed by such notice, the building official is authorized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto.

Rl13.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provision ofthis code or fails to comply with any of the requirements thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or structure in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of the building official, or of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law.

SECTION R114
STOP WORK ORDER

Rl14.1 Notice to owner. Upon notice from the building official that work on any building or structure is being prosecuted contrary to the provisions of this code or in an unsafe and dangerous manner, such work shall be immediately stopped. The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the owner's agent or to the person doing the work and shall state the conditions under which work will be permitted to resume.

Rl14.2 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall continue any work in or about the structure after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law.

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Part II-Definitions

CHAPTER 2
DEFINITIONS

SECTION R201
GENERAL

R201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings indicated in this chapter.

R201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense include the future; words in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural, the singular.

R201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not defined in this code such terms shall have meanings ascribed to them as in other code publications of the International Code Council.

R201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.

SECTION R202
DEFINITIONS

ACCESSIBLE. Signifies access that requires the removal of an access panel or similar removable obstruction.

ACCESSIBLE, READILY. Signifies access without the necessity for removing a panel or similar obstruction.

ACCESSORY STRUCTURE. A structure not greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in floor area, and not over two stories in height, the use of which is customarily accessory to and incidental to that of the dwelling(s) and which is located on the same lot.

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height of a building or structure.

ADHERED STONE OR MASONRY VENEER. Stone or masonry veneer secured and supported through the adhesion of an approvedbonding material applied to an approvedbacking.

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVE. A one-way valve designed to allow air into the plumbing drainage system when a negative pressure develops in the piping. This device shall close by gravity and seal the terminal under conditions of zero differential pressure (no flow conditions) and under positive internal pressure.

AIR BARRIER. Material(s) assembled andjoined together to provide a barrier to air leakage through the building envelope. An air barrier may be a single material, or a combination of materials.

AIR BREAK (DRAINAGE SYSTEM). An arrangement in which a discharge pipe from a fixture, appliance or device drains indirectly into a receptor below the flood-level rim ofthe receptor, and above the trap seal.

AIR CIRCULATION, FORCED. A means of providing space conditioning utilizing movement of air through ducts or plenums by mechanical means.

AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM. A system that consists of heat exchangers, blowers, filters, supply, exhaust and return-air systems, and shall include any apparatus installed in connection therewith.

AIR GAP, DRAINAGE SYSTEM. The unobstructed vertical distance through free atmosphere between the outlet of a waste pipe and the flood-level rim of the fixture or receptor into which it is discharging.

AIR GAP, WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. The unobstructed vertical distance through free atmosphere between the lowest opening from a water supply discharge to the flood-level rim of a plumbing fixture.

AIR-IMPERMEABLE INSULATION. An insulation having an air permanence equal to or less than 0.02 L/s-m2 at 75 Pa pressure differential tested according to ASTM E 2178 or E 283.

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit.

ANCHORED STONE OR MASONRY VENEER. Stone or masonry veneer secured with approved mechanical fasteners to an approved backing.

ANCHORS. See "Supports."

ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical devices that eliminate siphonage.

APPLIANCE. A device or apparatus that is manufactured and designed to utilize energy and for which this code provides specific requirements.

APPROVED. Acceptable to the building official.

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized agency regularly engaged in conducting tests or furnishing inspection services, when such agency has been approved by the building official.

ASPECT RATIO. The ratio oflongest to shortest perpendicular dimensions, or for wall sections, the ratio of height to length.

ATTIC. The unfinished space between the ceiling assembly of the top story and the roof assembly.

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ATTIC, HABITABLE. A finished or unfinished area, not considered a story, complying with all ofthe following requirements:

  1. The occupiable floor area is at least 70 square feet (17 m2), in accordance with Section R304,
  2. The occupiable floor area has a ceiling height in accordance with Section R305, and
  3. The occupiable space is enclosed by the roof assembly above, knee walls (if applicable) on the sides and the floor-ceiling assembly below.

BACKFLOW, DRAINAGE. A reversal of flow in the drainage system.

BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent backflow.

BACKFLOW PREVENTER, REDUCED-PRESSURE-ZONE TYPE. A backflow-prevention device consisting of two independently acting check valves, internally force loaded to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means of venting to atmosphere internally loaded to a normally open position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and with means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening of relief means.

BACKFLOW, WATER DISTRIBUTION. The flow of water or other liquids into the potable water-supply piping from any sources other than its intended source. Backsiphonage is one type of backflow.

BACKPRESSURE. Pressure created by any means in the water distribution system, which by being in excess of the pressure in the water supply mains causes a potential backflow condition.

BACKPRESSURE, LOW HEAD. A pressure less than or equal to 4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10-foot (3048 mm) column of water.

BACKSIPHONAGE. The flowing back of used or contaminated water from piping into a potable water-supply pipe due to a negative pressure in such pipe.

BACKWATER VALVE. A device installed in a drain or pipe to prevent backflow of sewage.

BASEMENT. That portion of a building that is partly or completely below grade (see "Story above grade").

BASEMENT WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that encloses one side of a basement and has an average below grade wall area that is 50 percent or more of the total opaque and non-opaque area of that enclosing side.

BASIC WIND SPEED. Three-second gust speed at 33 feet (10 058 mm) above the ground in Exposure C (see Section R301.2.1) as given in Figure R301.2(4).

BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures, including or excluding a bidet, consisting of a water closet, lavatory, and bathtub or shower. Such fixtures are located together on the same floor level.

BEND. A drainage fitting, designed to provide a change in direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line (see "Elbow" and "Sweep").

BOILER. A self-contained appliance from which hot water is circulated for heating purposes and then returned to the boiler, and which operates at water pressures not exceeding 160 pounds per square inch gage (psig) (1102 kPa gauge) and at water temperatures not exceeding 250°F (121°C).

BOND BEAM. A horizontal grouted element within masonry in which reinforcement is embedded.

BRACED WALL LINE. A straight line through the building plan that represents the location of the lateral resistance provided by the wall bracing.

BRACED WALL LINE, CONTINUOUSLY SHEATHED. A braced wall line with structural sheathing applied to all sheathable surfaces including the areas above and below openings.

BRACED WALL PANEL. A full-height section of wall constructed to resist in-plane shear loads through interaction of framing members, sheathing material and anchors. The panel's length meets the requirements of its particular bracing method, and contributes toward the total amount of bracing required along its braced wall line in accordance with Section R602.10.1.

BRANCH. Any part of the piping system other than a riser, main or stack.

BRANCH, FIXTURE. See "Fixture branch, drainage."

BRANCH, HORIZONTAL. See "Horizontal branch, drainage."

BRANCH INTERVAL. A vertical measurement of distance, 8 feet (2438 mm) or more in developed length, between the connections of horizontal branches to a drainage stack. Measurements are taken down the stack from the highest horizontal branch connection.

BRANCH, MAIN. A water-distribution pipe that extends horizontally off a main or riser to convey water to branches or fixture groups.

BRANCH, VENT. A vent connecting two or more individual vents with a vent stack or stack vent.

BTU/H. The listed maximum capacity of an appliance, absorption unit or burner expressed in British thermal units input per hour.

BUILDING. Building shall mean any one- and two-family dwelling or portion thereof, including townhouses, that is used, or designed or intended to be used for human habitation, for living, sleeping, cooking or eating purposes, or any combination thereof, and shall include accessory structures thereto.

BUILDING DRAIN. The lowest piping that collects the discharge from all other drainage piping inside the house and extends 30 inches (762 mm) in developed length of pipe, beyond the exterior walls and conveys the drainage to the building sewer.

BUILDING, EXISTING. Existing building is a building erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for which a legal building permit has been issued.

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BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by law.

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code.

BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that extends from the end of the building drain and conveys its discharge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage-diSposal system or other point of disposal.

BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, exterior walls, floor, roof and any other building element that enclose conditioned spaces.

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. Two or more layers of felt cemented together and surfaced with a cap sheet, mineral aggregate, smooth coating or similar surfacing material.

CAP PLATE. The top plate of the double top plates used in structural insulated panel (SIP) construction. The cap plate is cut to match the panel thickness such that it overlaps the wood structural panel facing on both sides.

CEILING HEIGHT. The clear vertical distance from the finished floor to the finished ceiling.

CEMENT PLASTER. A mixture of portland or blended cement, portland cement or blended cement and hydrated lime, masonry cement or plastic cement and aggregate and other approved materials as specified in this code.

CHIMNEY. A primary vertical structure containing one or more flues, for the purpose of carrying gaseous products of combustion and air from a fuel-burning appliance to the outside atmosphere.

CHIMNEY CONNECTOR. A pipe that connects a fuel-burning appliance to a chimney.

CHIMNEY TYPES.

Residential-type appliance. An approved chimney for removing the products of combustion from fuel-burning, residential-type appliances producing combustion gases not in excess of I,OOO°F (538°C) under normal operating conditions, but capable of producing combustion gases of 1,400°F (760°C) during intermittent forces firing for periods up to I hour. All temperatures shall be measured at the appliance flue outlet. Residential-type appliance chimneys include masonry and factory-built types.

CIRCUIT VENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drainage branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps or trapped fixtures connected into a battery.

CLADDING. The exterior materials that cover the surface of the building envelope that is directly loaded by the wind.

CLEANOUT. An accessible opening in the drainage system used for the removal of possible obstruction.

CLOSET. A small room or chamber used for storage.

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A specially designed system ofwaste piping embodying the horizontal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air above the flow line of the drain.

COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Any material not defined as noncombustible.

COMBUSTION AIR. The air provided to fuel-burning equipmentincluding air for fuel combustion, draft hood dilution and ventilation of the equipment enclosure.

COMMON VENT. A single pipe venting two trap arms within the same branch interval, either back-to-back or one above the other.

CONDENSATE. The liquid that separates from a gas due to a reduction in temperature, e.g., water that condenses from flue gases and water that condenses from air circulating through the cooling coil in air conditioning equipment.

CONDENSING APPLIANCE. An appliance that condenses water generated by the burning of fuels.

CONDITIONED AIR. Air treated to control its temperature, relative humidity or quality.

CONDITIONED AREA. That area within a building provided with heating and/or cooling systems or appliances capable of maintaining, through design or heat loss/gain, 68°F (20°C) during the heating season and/or 80°F (27°C) during the cooling season, or has a fixed opening directly adjacent to a conditioned area.

CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection of the floors associated with the conditioned space.

CONDITIONED SPACE. For energy purposes, space within a building that is provided with heating and/or cooling equipmentor systems capable of maintaining, through design or heat loss/gain, 50°F (IO°C) during the heating season and 85°F (29°C) during the cooling season, or communicates directly with a conditioned space. For mechanical purposes, an area, room or space being heated or cooled by any equipment or appliance.

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit. Construction drawings shall be drawn to an appropriate scale.

CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, industrial fluids or waste.

CONTINUOUS WASTE. A drain from two or more similar adjacent fixtures connected to a single trap.

CONTROL, LIMIT. An automatic control responsive to changes in liquid flow or level, pressure, or temperature for limiting the operation of an appliance.

CONTROL, PRIMARY SAFETY. A safety control responsive directly to flame properties that senses the presence or absence of flame and, in event of ignition failure or unintentional flame extinguishment, automatically causes shutdown of mechanical equipment.

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CONVECTOR. A system-incorporating heating element in an enclosure in which air enters an opening below the heating element, is heated and leaves the enclosure through an opening located above the heating element.

CORE. The light-weight middle section of the structural insulated panel composed of foam plastic insulation, which provides the link between the two facing shells.

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when exposed to its environment.

COURT. A space, open and unobstructed to the sky, located at or above grade level on a lot and bounded on three or more sides by walls or a building.

CRIPPLE WALL. A framed wall extending from the top of the foundation to the underside of the floor framing of the first story above grade plane.

CROSS CONNECTION. Any connection between two otherwise separate piping systems whereby there may be a flow from one system to the other.

DALLE GLASS. A decorative composite glazing material made of individual pieces of glass that are embedded in a cast matrix of concrete or epoxy.

DAMPER, VOLUME. A device that will restrict, retard or direct the flow of air in any duct, or the products of combustion ofheat-producing equipment, vent connector, vent or chimney.

DEAD END. A branch leading from a DWV system terminating at a developed length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more. Dead ends shall be prohibited except as an approved part of a rough-in for future connection.

DEAD LOADS. The weight of all materials of construction incorporated into the building, including but not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding, and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed service equipment.

DECORATIVE GLASS. A carved, leaded or Dalle glass or glazing material whose purpose is decorative or artistic, not functional; whose coloring, texture or other design qualities or components cannot be removed without destroying the glazing material; and whose surface, or assembly into which it is incorporated, is divided into segments.

DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. See "Registered design professionaJ."

DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured along the center line of the pipe and fittings.

DIAMETER. Unless specifically stated, the term "diameter" is the nominal diameter as designated by the approved material standard.

DIAPHRAGM. A horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements. When the term "diaphragm" is used, it includes horizontal bracing systems.

DILUTION AIR. Air that enters a draft hood or draft regulator and mixes with flue gases.

DIRECT-VENT APPLIANCE. A fuel-burning appliance with a sealed combustion system that draws all air for combustion from the outside atmosphere and discharges all flue gases to the outside atmosphere.

DRAFT. The pressure difference existing between the appliance or any component part and the atmosphere, that causes a continuous flow of air and products of combustion through the gas passages of the appliance to the atmosphere.

Induced draft. The pressure difference created by the action of a fan, blower or ejector, that is located between the appliance and the chimney or vent termination.

Natural draft. The pressure difference created by a vent or chimney because of its height, and the temperature difference between the flue gases and the atmosphere.

DRAFT HOOD. A device built into an appliance, or a part of the vent connector from an appliance, which is designed to provide for the ready escape ofthe flue gases from the appliance in the event of no draft, backdraft or stoppage beyond the draft hood; prevent a backdraft from entering the appliance; and neutralize the effect of stack action of the chimney or gas vent on the operation of the appliance.

DRAFT REGULATOR. A device that functions to maintain a desired draft in the appliance by automatically reducing the draft to the desired value.

DRAFT STOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies and attics.

DRAIN. Any pipe that carries soil and water-borne wastes in a building drainage system.

DRAINAGE FITTING. A pipe fitting designed to provide connections in the drainage system that have provisions for establishing the desired slope in the system. These fittings are made from a variety of both metals and plastics. The methods of coupling provide for required slope in the system (see "Durham fitting").

DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmission of air which, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment and appliances.

DURHAM FITTING. A special type of drainage fitting for use in the durham systems installations in which the joints are made with recessed and tapered threaded fittings, as opposed to bell and spigot lead/oakum or solvent/cemented or soldered joints. The tapping is at an angle (not 90 degrees) to provide for proper slope in otherwise rigid connections.

DURHAM SYSTEM. A term used to describe soil or waste systems where all piping is of threaded pipe, tube or other such rigid construction using recessed drainage fittings to correspond to the types of piping.

DWELLING. Any building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended, or designed to be built, used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied, or that are occupied for living purposes.

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DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

DWV. Abbreviated term for drain, waste and vent piping as used in common plumbing practice.

EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area at the point of water-supply discharge, measured or expressed in terms ofdiameter ofa circle and ifthe opening is not circular, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. (This is applicable to air gap.)

ELBOW. A pressure pipe fitting designed to provide an exact change in direction of a pipe run. An elbow provides a sharp turn in the flow path (see "Bend" and "Sweep").

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable exterior window, door or similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event of an emergency.

EQUIPMENT. All piping, ducts, vents, control devices and other components of systems other than appliances that are permanently installed and integrated to provide control ofenvironmental conditions for buildings. This definition shall also include other systems specifically regulated in this code.

EQUIVALENT LENGTH. For determining friction losses in a piping system, the effect of a particular fitting equal to the friction loss through a straight piping length of the same nominal diameter.

ESCARPMENT. With respect to topographic wind effects, a cliff or steep slope generally separating two levels or gently sloping areas.

ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Fluids having a Gosselin rating of 1, including propylene glycol; mineral oil; polydimenthyoil oxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, chlorofluorocarbon and hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants; and FDA-approved boiler water additives for steam boilers.

ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Soil, water or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 or more including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammonia refrigerants and hydrazine.

EVAPORATIVE COOLER. A device used for reducing air temperature by the process of evaporating water into an airstream.

EXCESS AIR. Air that passes through the combustion chamber and the appliance flue in excess of that which is theoretically required for complete combustion.

EXHAUST HOOD, FULL OPENING. An exhaust hood with an opening at least equal to the diameter of the connecting vent.

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS. Any plumbing system regulated by this code that was legally installed prior to the effective date of this code, or for which a permit to install has been issued.

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS). EIFS are nonstructural, nonload-bearing exterior wall cladding systems that consist of an insulation board attached either adhesively or mechanically, or both, to the substrate; an integrally reinforced base coat; and a textured protective finish coat.

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEMS (EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. An EIFS that incorporates a means of drainage applied over a water-resistive barrier.

EXTERIOR WALL. An above-grade wall that defines the exterior boundaries of a building. Includes between-floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a mansard roof and basement walls with an average below-grade wall area that is less than 50 percent of the total opaque and nonopaque area of that enclosing side.

FACING. The wood structural panel facings that form the two outmost rigid layers of the structural insulated panel.

FACTORY-BUILT CHIMNEY. A listed and labeled chimney composed of factory-made components assembled in the field in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the conditions of the listing.

FENESTRATION. Skylights, roof windows, vertical windows (whether fixed or moveable); opaque doors; glazed doors; glass block; and combination opaque/glazed doors.

FIBER-CEMENT SIDING. A manufactured, fiber-reinforcing product made with an inorganic hydraulic or calcium silicate binder formed by chemical reaction and reinforced with discrete organic or inorganic nonasbestos fibers, or both. Additives which enhance manufacturing or product performance are permitted. Fiber-cement siding products have either smooth or textured faces and are intended for exterior wall and related applications.

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials or materials approved for use as fireblocking, installed to resist the free passage of flame to other areas ofthe building through concealed spaces.

FIREPLACE. An assembly consisting of a hearth and fire chamber of noncombustible material and provided with a chimney, for use with solid fuels.

Factory-built fireplace. A listed and labeled fireplace and chimney system composed of factory-made components, and assembled in the field in accordance with manufacturer's instructions and the conditions of the listing.

Masonry chimney. A field-constructed chimney composed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete.

Masonry fireplace. A field-constructed fireplace composed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete.

FIREPLACE STOVE. A free-standing, chimney-connected solid-fuel-burning heater designed to be operated with the fire chamber doors in either the open or closed position.

FIREPLACE THROAT. The opening between the top of the firebox and the smoke chamber.

FIRE-RETARDANT-TREATED WOOD. Pressure-treated lumber and plywood that exhibit reduced surface burning characteristics and resist propagation of fire.

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Other means during manufacture. A process where the wood raw material is treated with a fire-retardant formulation while undergoing creation as a finished product.

Pressure process. A process for treating wood using an initial vacuum followed by the introduction of pressure above atmospheric.

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured from the building face to one of the following:

  1. To the closest interior lot line; or
  2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way ; or
  3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the lot.

FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture."

FIXTURE BRANCH, DRAINAGE. A drain serving two or more fixtures that discharges into another portion of the drainage system.

FIXTURE BRANCH, WATER-SUPPLY. A water-supply pipe between the fixture supply and a main water-distribution pipe or fixture group main.

FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to the junction of that drain with any other drain pipe.

FIXTURE FITTING.

Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or directional flow of water and is either attached to or accessible from a fixture or is used with an open or atmospheric discharge.

Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the connection of the sanitary drainage system.

FIXTURE GROUP, MAIN. The main water-distribution pipe (or secondary branch) serving a plumbing fixture grouping such as a bath, kitchen or laundry area to which two or more individual fixture branch pipes are connected.

FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water-supply pipe connecting a fixture or fixture fitting to a fixture branch.

FIXTURE UNIT, DRAINAGE {d.f.u.}. A measure ofprobable discharge into the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures, used to size DWV piping systems. The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the time duration of a single drainage operation and on the average time between successive operations.

FIXTURE UNIT, WATER-SUPPLY {w.s.f.u.}. A measure of the probable hydraulic demand on the water supply by various types of plumbing fixtures used to size water-piping systems. The water-supply fixture-unit value for a particular fixture depends on its volume rate of supply, on the time duration of a single supply operation and on the average time between successive operations.

FLAME SPREAD. The propagation offlame over a surface.

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads or winders or combination thereof from one landing to another.

FLOOD-LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptor or fixture from which water overflows.

FLOOR DRAIN. A plumbing fixture for recess in the floor having a floor-level strainer intended for the purpose of the collection and disposal of waste water used in cleaning the floor and for the collection and disposal of accidental spillage to the floor.

FLOOR FURNACE. A self-contained furnace suspended from the floor of the space being heated, taking air for combustion from outside such space, and with means for lighting the appliance from such space.

FLOW PRESSURE. The static pressure reading in the water-supply pipe near the faucet or water outlet while the faucet or water outlet is open and flowing at capacity.

FLUE. See " Vent."

FLUE, APPLIANCE. The passages within an appliance through which combustion products pass from the combustion chamber to the flue collar.

FLUE COLLAR. The portion of a fuel-burning appliance designed for the attachment of a draft hood, vent connector or venting system.

FLUE GASES. Products of combustion plus excess air in appliance flues or heat exchangers.

FLUSH VALVE. A device located at the bottom ofa flush tank that is operated to flush water closets.

FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes.

FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A flushometer valve is a device that discharges a predetermined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes and is actuated by direct water pressure.

FOAM BACKER BOARD. Foam plastic used in siding applications where the foam plastic is a component of the siding.

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. A plastic that is intentionally expanded by the use of a foaming agent to produce a reduced-density plastic containing voids consisting of open or closed cells distributed throughout the plastic for thermal insulating or acoustic purposes and that has a density less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3) unless it is used as interior trim.

FOAM PLASTIC INTERIOR TRIM. Exposed foam plastic used as picture molds, chair rails, crown moldings, baseboards, handrails, ceiling beams, door trim and window trim and similar decorative or protective materials used in fixed applications.

FUEL-PIPING SYSTEM. All piping, tubing, valves and fittings used to connect fuel utilization equipment to the point of fuel delivery.

FULLWAY VALVE. A valve that in the full open position has an opening cross-sectional area equal to a minimum of 85 percent of the cross-sectional area of the connecting pipe.

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FURNACE. A vented heating appliance designed or arranged to discharge heated air into a conditioned space or through a duct or ducts.

GLAZING AREA. The interior surface area of all glazed fenestration, including the area of sash, curbing or other framing elements, that enclose conditioned space. Includes the area of glazed fenestration assemblies in walls bounding conditioned basements.

GRADE. The finished ground level adjoining the building at all exterior walls.

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening.

GRADE, PIPING. See "Slope."

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of the finished ground level adjoining the building at all exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 ft (1829 mm) from the building between the structure and a point 6 ft (1829 mm) from the building.

GRIDDED WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. A water distribution system where every water distribution pipe is interconnected so as to provide two or more paths to each fixture supply pipe.

GROSS AREA OF EXTERIOR WALLS. The normal projection of all exterior walls, including the area of all windows and doors installed therein.

GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP LOOP SYSTEM. Piping buried in horizontal or vertical excavations or placed in a body of water for the purpose of transporting heat transfer liquid to and from a heat pump. Included in this definition are closed loop systems in which the liquid is recirculated and open loop systems in which the liquid is drawn from a well or other source.

GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to the lower level.

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.

HANGERS. See "Supports."

HAZARDOUS LOCATION. Any location considered to be a fire hazard for flammable vapors, dust, combustible fibers or other highly combustible substances.

HEAT PUMP. An appliance having heating or heating/cooling capability and that uses refrigerants to extract heat from air, liquid or other sources.

HEATING DEGREE DAYS (HDD). The sum, on an annual basis, of the difference between 65°P (18°C) and the mean temperature for each day as determined from "NOAA Annual Degree Days to Selected Bases Derived from the 1960-1990 Normals" or other weather data sources acceptable to the code official.

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade plane to the average height of the highest roof surface.

HEIGHT, STORY. The vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces; and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceilingjoists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.

HIGH-EFFICACY LAMPS. Compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:

  1. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts.
  2. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts.
  3. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.

HIGH-TEMPERATURE (H.T.) CHIMNEY. A high temperature chimney complying with the requirements ofUL 103. A Type H.T. chimney is identifiable by the markings "Type H.T." on each chimney pipe section.

HILL. With respect to topographic wind effects, a land surface characterized by strong relief in any horizontal direction.

HORIZONTAL BRANCH, DRAINAGE. A drain pipe extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, that receives the discharge from one or more fixture drains.

HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal.

HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 110° P (43°C).

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. Areas vulnerable to hurricanes, defined as the U.S. Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico coasts where the basic wind speed is greater than 90 miles per hour (40 m/s), and Hawaii, Puerto Rico, Guam, Virgin Islands, and America Samoa.

HYDROGEN GENERATING APPLIANCE. A self-contained package or factory-matched packages of integrated systems for generating gaseous hydrogen. Hydrogen generating appliances utilize electrolysis, reformation, chemical, or other processes to generate hydrogen.

IGNITION SOURCE. A flame, spark or hot surface capable of igniting flammable vapors or fumes. Such sources include appliance burners, burner ignitions and electrical switching devices.

INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that discharges into the drainage system through an air gap into a trap, fixture or receptor.

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system for disposal of sewage by means of a septic tank or mechanical treatment, designed for use apart from a public sewer to serve a single establishment or building.

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INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a single-fixture drain that connects with the vent system above or terminates independently outside the building.

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A supply other than an approvedpublic water supply that serves one or more families.

INSULATING CONCRETE FORM (ICF). A concrete forming system using stay-in-place forms of rigid foam plastic insulation, a hybrid of cement and foam insulation, a hybrid of cement and wood chips, or other insulating material for constructing cast-in-place concrete walls.

INSULATING SHEATHING. An insulating board having a minimum thermal resistance of R-2 of the core material.

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code under due legislative authority.

KITCHEN. Kitchen shall mean an area used, or designated to be used, for the preparation of food.

LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer which contains the name ofthe manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics of the product or material, and the name and identification ofan approved agency and that indicates that the representative sample of the product or material has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency. (See also "Manufacturer's designation" and "Mark.")

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark ofa nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type ofconstruction whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel framing members.

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LIVE LOADS. Those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the building or other structure and do not include construction or environmental loads such as wind load, snow load, rain load, earthquake load, flood load or dead load.

LIVING SPACE. Space within a dwelling unitutilized for living, sleeping, eating, cooking, bathing, washing and sanitation purposes.

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.

LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.

MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. A system comprised of a sump with macerating pump and with connections for a water closet and other plumbing fixtures, that is designed to accept, grind and pump wastes to an approved point of discharge.

MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches may be connected.

MAIN SEWER. See "Public sewer."

MANIFOLD WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS. A fabricated piping arrangement in which a large supply main is fitted with multiple branches in close proximity in which water is distributed separately to fixtures from each branch.

MANUFACTURED HOME. Manufactured home means a structure, transportable in one or more sections, which in the traveling mode is 8 body feet (2438 body mm) or more in width or 40 body feet (12 192 body mm) or more in length, or, when erected on site, is 320 square feet (30 m2) or more, and which is built on a permanent chassis and designed to be used as a dwellingwith or without a permanent foundation when connected to the required utilities, and includes the plumbing, heating, air-conditioning and electrical systems contained therein; except that such term shall include any structure that meets all the requirements ofthis paragraph except the size requirements and with respect to which the manufacturer voluntarily files a certification required by the secretary (HUD) and complies with the standards established under this title. For mobile homes built prior to June 15, 1976, a label certifying compliance to the Standard for Mobile Homes, NFPA 501, in effect at the time of manufacture is required. For the purpose of these provisions, a mobile home shall be considered a manufactured home.

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a product or material complies with a specified standard or set of rules. (See also" Mark" and "Label.")

MANUFACTURER'S INSTALLATION INSTRUCTIONS. Printed instructions included with equipment as part of the conditions of listing and labeling.

MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the function of a product or material. (See also "Manufacturer's designation" and" Label.")

MASONRY CHIMNEY. A field-constructed chimney composed of solid masonry units, bricks, stones or concrete.

MASONRY HEATER. A masonry heater is a solid fuel burning heating appliance constructed predominantly of concrete or solid masonry having a mass of at least 1,100 pounds (500 kg), excluding the chimney and foundation. It is designed to absorb and store a substantial portion of heat from a fire built in the firebox by routing exhaust gases through internal heat exchange channels in which the flow path downstream of the firebox includes at least one 180-degree (3.14-rad) change in flow direction before entering the chimney and which deliver heat by radiation through the masonry surface of the heater.

MASONRY, SOLID. Masonry consisting of solid masonry units laid contiguously with the joints between the units filled with mortar.

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MASONRY UNIT. Brick, tile, stone, glass block or concrete block conforming to the requirements specified in Section 2103 of the International BUilding Code.

Clay. A building unit larger in size than a brick, composed of burned clay, shale, fire clay or mixtures thereof.

Concrete. A building unit or block larger in size than 12 inches by 4 inches by 4 inches (305 mm by 102 mm by 102 mm) made of cement and suitable aggregates.

Glass. Nonload-bearing masonry composed of glass units bonded by mortar.

Hollow. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in any plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.

Solid. A masonry unit whose net cross-sectional area in every plane parallel to the loadbearing surface is 75 percent or more of its cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.

MASS WALL. Masonry or concrete walls having a mass greater than or equal to 30 pounds per square foot (146 kg/m2), solid wood walls having a mass greater than or equal to 20 pounds per square foot (98 kg/m2), and any other walls having a heat capacity greater than or equal to 6 Btu/ft2 · OF [266 JI (m2 · K)].

MEAN ROOF HEIGHT. The average of the roof eave height and the height to the highest point on the roof surface, except that eave height shall be used for roof angle of less than or equal to 10 degrees (0.18 rad).

MECHANICAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system designed to remove flue or vent gases by mechanical means, that consists of an induced draft portion under nonpositive static pressure or a forced draft portion under positive static pressure.

Forced-draft venting system. A portion of a venting system using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the removal offlue or vent gases under positive static pressure.

Induced draft venting system. A portion of a venting system using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the removal of flue or vent gases under nonpositive static vent pressure.

Power venting system. A portion of a venting system using a fan or other mechanical means to cause the removal offlue or vent gases under positive static vent pressure.

MECHANICAL EXHAUST SYSTEM. A system for removing air from a room or space by mechanical means.

MECHANICAL SYSTEM. A system specifically addressed and regulated in this code and composed of components, devices, appliances and equipment.

METAL ROOF PANEL. An interlocking metal sheet having a minimum installed weather exposure of at least 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per sheet.

METAL ROOF SHINGLE. An interlocking metal sheet having an installed weather exposure less than 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per sheet.

MEZZANINE, LOFT. An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story with an aggregate floor area of not more than one-third of the area of the room or space in which the level or levels are located.

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. One or more layers of polymer modified asphalt sheets. The sheet materials shall be fully adhered or mechanically attached to the substrate or held in place with an approved ballast layer.

MULTIPLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single station alarm devices that are capable of interconnection such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate.

NATURAL DRAFT SYSTEM. A venting system designed to remove flue or vent gases under nonpositive static vent pressure entirely by natural draft.

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. The heartwood of the following species with the exception that an occasional piece with corner sapwood is permitted if 90 percent or more of the width of each side on which it occurs is heartwood.

Decay resistant. Redwood, cedar, black locust and black walnut.

Termite resistant. Alaska yellow cedar, redwood, Eastern red cedar and Western red cedar including all sapwood of Western red cedar.

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL. Materials that pass the test procedure for defining noncombustibility of elementary materials set forth in ASTM E 136.

NONCONDITIONED SPACE. A space that is not a conditioned space by insulated walls, floors or ceilings.

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings at the top of stairway flights.

OCCUPIED SPACE. The total area of all buildings or structures on any lot or parcel of ground prOjected on a horizontal plane, excluding permitted projections as allowed by this code.

OFFSET. A combination of fittings that makes two changes in direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line but into a line parallel with the other section.

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a legal or equitable interest in the property.

PANEL THICKNESS. Thickness of core plus two layers of structural wood panel facings.

PELLET FUEL-BURNING APPLIANCE. A closed combustion, vented appliance equipped with a fuel feed mechanism for burning processed pellets of solid fuel of a specified size and composition.

PELLET VENT. A vent listedand labeled for use with a listed pellet fuel-burning appliance.

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the authority havingjurisdiction that authorizes performance of a specified activity.

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its

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or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.

PITCH. See "Slope."

PLATFORM CONSTRUCTION. A method of construction by which floor framing bears on load bearing walls that are not continuous through the story levels or floor framing.

PLENUM. A chamber that forms part ofan air-circulation system other than the occupied space being conditioned.

PLUMBING. For the purpose of this code, plumbing refers to those installations, repairs, maintenance and alterations regulated by Chapters 25 through 33.

PLUMBING APPLIANCE. An energized household appliance with plumbing connections, such as a dishwasher, food-waste grinder, clothes washer or water heater.

PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A device or assembly that is an adjunct to the basic plumbing system and demands no additional water supply nor adds any discharge load to the system. It is presumed that it performs some useful function in the operation, maintenance, servicing, economy or safety of the plumbing system. Examples include filters, relief valves and aerators.

PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptor or device that requires both a water-supply connection and a discharge to the drainage system, such as water closets, lavatories, bathtubs and sinks. Plumbing appliances as a special class of fixture are further defined.

PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and distribution pipes, plumbing fixtures, supports and appurtenances; soil, waste and vent pipes; sanitary drains and building sewers to an approved point of disposal.

POLLUTION. An impairment of the quality of the potable water to a degree that does not create a hazard to the public health but that does adversely and unreasonably affect the aesthetic qualities of such potable water for domestic use.

PORTABLE-FUEL-CELL APPLIANCE. A fuel cell generator of electricity, which is not fixed in place. A portable-fuel-cell appliance utilizes a cord and plug connection to a grid-isolated load and has an integral fuel supply.

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. The drainage condition in which consideration has been made for all loading deflections of the roof deck, and additional slope has been provided to ensure drainage of the roof within 48 hours of precipitation.

POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming in bacteriological and chemical quality to the requirements of the public health authority havingjurisdiction.

PRECAST CONCRETE. A structural concrete element cast elsewhere than its final position in the structure.

PRECAST CONCRETE FOUNDATION WALLS. Preengineered, precast concrete wall panels that are designed to withstand specified stresses and used to build below-grade foundations.

PRESSURE-RELIEF VALVE. A pressure-actuated valve held closed by a spring or other means and designed to automatically relieve pressure at the pressure at which it is set.

PUBLIC SEWER. A common sewer directly controlled by public authority.

PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public use controlled by public authority.

PUBLIC WAY. Any street, alley or other parcel ofland open to the outside air leading to a public street, which has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and that has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

PURGE. To clear of air, gas or other foreign substances.

QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes automatically when released manually or controlled by mechanical means for fast-action closing.

R-VALUE, THERMAL RESISTANCE. The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a building thermal envelope element from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h . ft2 • of/Btu).

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than 1 unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope).

RECEPTOR. A fixture or device that receives the discharge from indirect waste pipes.

REFRIGERANT. A substance used to produce refrigeration by its expansion or evaporation.

REFRIGERANT COMPRESSOR. A specific machine, with or without accessories, for compressing a given refrigerant vapor.

REFRIGERATING SYSTEM. A combination of interconnected parts forming a closed circuit in which refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting, then rejecting, heat. A direct refrigerating system is one in which the evaporator or condenser of the refrigerating system is in direct contact with the air or other substances to be cooled or heated. An indirect refrigerating system is one in which a secondary coolant cooled or heated by the refrigerating system is circulated to the air or other substance to be cooled or heated.

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state orjurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.

RELIEF VALVE, VACUUM. A device to prevent excessive buildup of vacuum in a pressure vessel.

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal ofany part ofan existing building for the purpose of its maintenance.

REROOFING. The process of recovering or replacing an existing roof covering. See "Roof recover."

RETURN AIR. Air removed from an approved conditioned space or location and recirculated or exhausted.

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RIDGE. With respect to topographic wind effects, an elongated crest of a hill characterized by strong relief in two directions.

RISER. A water pipe that extends vertically one full story or more to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures.

ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof deck, vapor retarder, substrate or thermal barrier, insulation, vapor retarder, and roof covering.

ROOF COVERING. The covering applied to the roof deck for weather resistance, fire classification or appearance.

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See "Roof assembly."

ROOF DECK. The flat or sloped surface not including its supporting members or vertical supports.

ROOF RECOVER. The process of installing an additional roof covering over a prepared existing roof covering without removing the existing roof covering.

ROOF REPAIR. Reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing roof for the purposes of its maintenance.

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. An enclosed structure on or above the roof of any part of a building.

ROOM HEATER. A freestanding heating appliance installed in the space being heated and not connected to ducts.

ROUGH-IN. The installation of all parts of the plumbing system that must be completed prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes DWV, water supply and built-in fixture supports.

RUNNING BOND. The placement of masonry units such that headjoints in successive courses are horizontally offset at least one-quarter the unit length.

SANITARY SEWER. A sewer that carries sewage and excludes storm, surface and groundwater.

SCUPPER. An opening in a wall or parapet that allows water to drain from a roof.

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY (SDC). A classification assigned to a structure based on its occupancy category and the severity of the design earthquake ground motion at the site.

SEPTIC TANK. A water-tight receptor that receives the discharge of a building sanitary drainage system and is constructed so as to separate solids from the liquid, digest organic matter through a period of detention, and allow the liquids to discharge into the soil outside of the tank through a system of open joint or perforated piping or a seepage pit.

SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal matter, vegetable matter or other impurity in suspension or solution.

SEWAGE PUMP. A permanently installed mechanical device for removing sewage or liquid waste from a sump.

SHALL. The term, when used in the code, is construed as mandatory.

SHEAR WALL. A general term for walls that are designed and constructed to resist racking from seismic and wind by use of masonry, concrete, cold-formed steel or wood framing in accordance with Chapter 6 of this code and the associated limitations in Section R301.2 of this code.

SIDE VENT. A vent connecting to the drain pipe through a fitting at an angle less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal.

SINGLE PLY MEMBRANE. A roofing membrane that is field applied using one layer of membrane material (either homogeneous or composite) rather than multiple layers.

SINGLE STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, control equipment and alarm sounding device in one unit that is operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.

SKYLIGHT AND SLOPED GLAZING. See Section R308.6.1.

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. See Section R308.6.1.

SLIP JOINT. A mechanical-type joint used primarily on fixture traps. The joint tightness is obtained by compressing a friction-type washer such as rubber, nylon, neoprene, lead or special packing material against the pipe by the tightening of a (slip) nut.

SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a horizontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length ofpipe.

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

SOIL STACK OR PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage containing fecal material.

SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The solar heat gain through a fenestration or glazing assembly relative to the incident solar radiation (Btu/h· ft2 • OF).

SOLID MASONRY. Load-bearing or nonload-bearing construction using masonry units where the net cross-sectional area of each unit in any plane parallel to the bearing surface is not less than 75 percent of its gross cross-sectional area. Solid masonry units shall conform to ASTM C 55, C 62, C 73, C 145 or C 216.

SPLINE. A strip of wood structural panel cut from the same material used for the panel facings, used to connect two structural insulated panels. The strip (spline) fits into a groove cut into the vertical edges of the two structural insulated panels to be joined. Splines are used behind each facing of the structural insulated panels being connected as shown in Figure R613.8.

STACK. Any main vertical DWV line, including offsets, that extends one or more stories as directly as possible to its vent terminal.

STACK BOND. The placement of masonry units in a bond pattern is such that head joints in successive courses are vertically aligned. For the purpose of this code, requirements for stack bond shall apply to all masonry laid in other than running bond.

STACK VENT. The extension of soil or waste stack above the highest horizontal drain connected.

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STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fixtures through the soil or waste stack without individual fixture vents.

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers.

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either interior or exterior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another within or attached to a building, porch or deck.

STANDARD TRUSS. Any construction that does not permit the roof/ceiling insulation to achieve the required R-value over the exterior walls.

STATIONARY FUEL CELL POWER PLANT. A self-contained package or factory-matched packages which constitute an automatically-operated assembly of integrated systems for generating useful electrical energy and recoverable thermal energy that is permanently connected and fixed in place.

STORM SEWER, DRAIN. A pipe used for conveying rain-water, surface water, subsurface water and similar liquid waste.

STORY. That portion ofa building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above.

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any storyhaving its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, except that a basement shall be considered as a story above grade plane where the finished surface of the floor above the basement meets anyone of the following:

  1. Is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane.
  2. Is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the finished ground level for more than 50 percent of the total building perimeter.
  3. Is more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.

STRUCTURAL INSULATED PANEL (SIP). A structural sandwich panel that consists ofa light-weight foam plastic core securely laminated between two thin, rigid wood structural panel facings.

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.

SUBSOIL DRAIN. A drain that collects subsurface water or seepage water and conveys such water to a place of disposal.

SUMP. A tank or pit that receives sewage or waste, located below the normal grade of the gravity system and that must be emptied by mechanical means.

SUMP PUMP. A pump installed to empty a sump. These pumps are used for removing storm water only. The pump is selected for the specific head and volume of the load and is usually operated by level controllers.

SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a dwellingwith a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the structure's exterior walls and roof.

SUPPLY AIR. Air delivered to a conditioned space through ducts or plenums from the heat exchanger of a heating, cooling or ventilating system.

SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting, hanging and securing pipes, fixtures and equipment.

SWEEP. A drainage fitting designed to provide a change in direction of a drain pipe of less than the angle specified by the amount necessary to establish the desired slope of the line. Sweeps provide a longer turning radius than bends and a less turbulent flow pattern (see "Bend" and "Elbow") .

TEMPERATURE- AND PRESSURE-RELIEF (T AND P) VALVE. A combination relief valve designed to function as both a temperature-relief and pressure-relief valve.

TEMPERATURE-RELIEF VALVE. A temperature-actuated valve designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at which it is set.

TERMITE-RESISTANT MATERIAL. Pressure-preservative treated wood in accordance with the AWPA standards in Section R318 .1, naturally durable termite-resistant wood, steel, concrete, masonry or other approved material.

THERMAL ISOLATION. Physical and space conditioning separation from conditioned spacers) consisting of existing or new walls, doors and/or windows. The conditioned spacers) shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and cooling or conditioned by separate equipment.

THERMAL RESISTANCE, R-VALUE. The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h . ft2 • of/Btu).

THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE, V-FACTOR. The coefficient ofheat transmission (air to air) through a building envelope component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h· ft2 • OF).

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit extends from foundation to roof and with a yard or public way on at least two sides.

TRAP. A fitting, either separate or built into a fixture, that provides a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the flow of sewage or waste water through it.

TRAP ARM. That portion of a fixture drain between a trap weir and the vent fitting.

TRAP PRIMER. A device or system of piping to maintain a water seal in a trap, typically installed where infrequent use of the trap would result in evaporation of the trap seal, such as floor drains.

TRAP SEAL. The trap seal is the maximum vertical depth of liquid that a trap will retain, measured between the crown weir and the top of the dip of the trap.

TRIM. Picture molds, chair rails, baseboards, handrails, door and window frames, and similar decorative or protective materials used in fixed applications.

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TRUSS DESIGN DRAWING. The graphic depiction of an individual truss, which describes the design and physical characteristics of the truss.

TYPE L VENT. A listed and labeled vent conforming to UL 641 for venting oil-burning appliances listedfor use with Type L vents or with gas appliances listedfor use with Type B vents.

V-FACTOR, THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE. The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building envelope component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h· ft2 • OF).

UNDERLAYMENT. One or more layers of felt, sheathing paper, nonbituminous saturated felt, or other approved material over which a roof covering, with a slope of 2 to 12 (17-percent slope) or greater, is applied.

VACUUM BREAKERS. A device which prevents back-siphonage of water by admitting atmospheric pressure through ports to the discharge side of the device.

VAPOR PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or covering having a permeance rating of 5 perms (2.9. 10-10 kg/Pa. s. m2) or greater, when tested in accordance with the desiccant method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor permeable material permits the passage of moisture vapor.

VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of the ability of a material or assembly to limit the amount of moisture that passes through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class shall be defined using the desiccant method with Procedure A of ASTM E 96 as follows:

Class I: 0.1 perm or less

Class II: 0.1 < perm ≤ 1.0 perm

Class III: 1.0 < perm ≤ 10 perm

VEHICULAR ACCESS DOOR. A door that is used primarily for vehicular traffic at entrances of buildings such as garages and parking lots, and that is not generally used for pedestrian traffic.

VENT. A passageway for conveying flue gases from fuel-fired appliances, or their vent connectors, to the outside atmosphere.

VENT COLLAR. See "Flue collar."

VENT CONNECTOR. That portion of a venting system which connects the flue collar or draft hood ofan appliance to a vent.

VENT DAMPER DEVICE, AUTOMATIC. A device intended for installation in the venting system, in the outlet of an individual, automatically operated fuel burning appliance and that is designed to open the venting system automatically when the appliance is in operation and to close off the venting system automatically when the appliance is in a standby or shutdown condition.

VENT GASES. Products of combustion from fuel-burning appliances, plus excess air and dilution air, in the venting system above the draft hood or draft regulator.

VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed to provide circulation of air to and from the drainage system and which extends through one or more stories.

VENT SYSTEM. Piping installed to equalize pneumatic pressure in a drainage system to prevent trap seal loss or blow-back due to siphonage or back pressure.

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.

VENTING. Removal ofcombustion products to the outdoors.

VENTING SYSTEM. A continuous open passageway from the flue collar of an appliance to the outside atmosphere for the purpose of removing flue or vent gases. A venting system is usually composed of a vent or a chimney and vent connector, if used, assembled to form the open passageway.

VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal.

VINYL SIDING. A shaped material, made principally from rigid polyvinyl chloride (PVC), that is used to cover exterior walls of buildings.

WALL, RETAINING. A wall not laterally supported at the top, that resists lateral soil load and other imposed loads.

WALLS. Walls shall be defined as follows:

Load-bearing wall is a wall supporting any vertical load in addition to its own weight.

Nonbearing wall is a wall which does not support vertical loads other than its own weight.

WASTE. Liquid-borne waste that is free of fecal matter.

WASTE PIPE OR STACK. Piping that conveys only liquid sewage not containing fecal material.

WATER-DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. Piping which conveys water from the service to the plumbing fixtures, appliances, appurtenances, equipment, devices or other systems served, including fittings and control valves.

WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot water distribution system.

WATER MAIN. A water-supply pipe for public use.

WATER OUTLET. A valved discharge opening, including a hose bibb, through which water is removed from the potable water system supplying water to a plumbing fixture or plumbing appliance that requires either an air gap or backflow prevention device for protection of the supply system.

WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. A material behind an exterior wall covering that is intended to resist liquid water that has penetrated behind the exterior covering from further intruding into the exterior wall assembly.

WATER-SERVICE PIPE. The outside pipe from the water main or other source of potable water supply to the water-distribution system inside the building, terminating at the service valve.

WATER-SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water-service pipe, the water-distributing pipes and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to the building or premises.

21

WET VENT. A vent that also receives the discharge of wastes from other fixtures.

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. Areas within hurricane-prone regions within one mile of the coastal mean high water line where the basic wind speed is 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) or greater; or where the basic wind speed is equal to or greater than 120 miles per hour (54 m/s); or Hawaii.

WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges.

WOOD/PLASTIC COMPOSITE. A composite material made primarily from wood or cellulose-based materials and plastic.

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. A panel manufactured from veneers; or wood strands or wafers; bonded together with waterproof synthetic resins or other suitable bonding systems. Examples ofwood structural panels are plywood, OSB or composite panels.

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by this code, on the Jot on which a building is situated.

22

Part III-Building Planning and Construction

CHAPTER 3
BUILDING PLANNING

SECTION R301
DESIGN CRITERIA

R30l.l Application. Buildings and structures, and all parts thereof, shall be constructed to safely support all loads, including dead loads, live loads, roof loads, flood loads, snow loads, wind loads and seismic loads as prescribed by this code. The construction of buildings and structures in accordance with the provisions of this code shall result in a system that provides a complete load path that meets all requirements for the transfer of all loads from their point of origin through the load-resisting elements to the foundation. Buildings and structures constructed as prescribed by this code are deemed to comply with the requirements of this section.

R30l.l.l Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the requirements in Section R30 1.1 the following standards are permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limitations therein. Where engineered design is used in conjunction with these standards, the design shall comply with the International BUilding Code.

  1. American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) Wood Frame Construction Manual (WFCM).
  2. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing-Prescriptive Method for One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230).
  3. ICC-400 Standard on the Design and Construction of Log Structures.

R30l.l.2 Construction systems. The requirements of this code are based on platform and balloon-frame construction for light-frame buildings. The requirements for concrete and masonry buildings are based on a balloon framing system. Other framing systems must have equivalent detailing to ensure force transfer, continuity and compatible deformations.

R30l.l.3 Engineered design. When a building of otherwise conventional construction contains structural elements exceeding the limits of Section R301 or otherwise not conforming to this code, these elements shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. The extent of such design need only demonstrate compliance of nonconventional elements with other applicable provisions and shall be compatible with the performance of the conventional framed system. Engineered design in accordance with the International Building Code is permitted for all buildings and structures, and parts thereof, included in the scope of this code.

R30l.2 Climatic and geographic design criteria. Buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this code as limited by the provisions ofthis section. Additional criteria shall be established by the local jurisdiction and set forth in Table R301.2(1).

R30l.2.l Wind limitations. Buildings and portions thereof shall be limited by wind speed, as defined in Table R301.2(1) and construction methods in accordance with this code. Basic wind speeds shall be determined from Figure R301.2(4). Where different construction methods and structural materials are used for various portions of a building, the applicable requirements of this section for each portion shall apply. Where loads for wall coverings, curtain walls, roofcoverings, exterior windows, skylights, garage doors and exterior doors are not otherwise specified, the loads listed in Table R30 1.2 (2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table R301.2(3) shall be used to determine design load performance requirements for wall coverings, curtain walls, roof coverings, exterior windows, skylights, garage doors and exterior doors. Asphalt shingles shall be designed for wind speeds in accordance with Section R905.2.6.

R30l.2.l.l Design criteria. In regions where the basic wind speeds from Figure R301.2 (4) equal or exceed 100 miles per hour (45 m/s) in hurricane-prone regions, or 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) elsewhere, the design of buildings shall be in accordance with one of the following methods. The elements of design not addressed by those documents in Items 1 through 4 shall be in accordance with this code.

  1. American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and Two-Family Dwellings(WFCM); or
  2. International Code Council (ICC) Standard for Residential Construction in High Wind Regions (ICC-600); or
  3. Minimum Design Loads for BUildings and Other Structures (ASCE-7); or
  4. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), Standard for Cold-Formed Steel Framing-Prescriptive Method For One- and Two-Family Dwellings (AISI S230).
  5. Concrete construction shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of this code.
  6. Structural insulated panel (SIP) walls shall be designed in accordance with the provisions of this code.
23
TABLE R301.2(1)
CLIMATIC AND GEOGRAPHIC DESIGN CRITERIA
GROUND SNOW LOAD WIND DESIGN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORyf SUBJECT TO DAMAGE FROM WINTER DESIGN TEMpe ICE BARRIER UNDERLAYMENT REQUIREDh FLOOD HAZARDS9 AIR FREEZING INDEXi MEAN ANNUAL TEMPi
Speedd (mph) Topographic effectsk Weatheringa Frost line depthb Termitec
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Weathering may require a higher strength concrete or grade of masonry than necessary to satisfy the structural requirements of this code. The weathering column shall be filled in with the weathering index (Le., "negligible," "moderate" or "severe") for concrete as determined from the Weathering Probability Map [Figure R301.2(3)]. The grade of masonry units shall be determined from ASTM C 34, C 55, C 62, C 73, C 90, C 129, C 145, C 216 or C 652.
b. The frost line depth may require deeper footings than indicated in Figure R403.l(l). The jurisdiction shall fill in the frost line depth column with the minimum depth of footing below finish grade.
c. Thejurisdiction shall fill in this part ofthe table to indicate the need for protection depending on whether there has been a history oflocal subterranean termite damage.
d. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the wind speed from the basic wind speed map [FigureR301.2(4)].Wind exposure category shall be determined on a site-specific basis in accordance with Section R30l.2.l.4.
e. The outdoor design dry-bulb temperature shall be selected from the columns of 97 1/z-percent values for winter from Appendix D of the International Plumbing Code. Deviations from the Appendix D temperatures shall be permitted to reflect local climates or local weather experience as determined by the building official.
f. The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the seismic design category determined from Section R30l.2.2.l.
g. Thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with (a) the date of the jurisdiction's entry into the National Flood Insurance Program (date ofadoption ofthe first code or ordinance for management of flood hazard areas) , (b) the date (s) ofthe Flood Insurance Study and (c) the panel numbers and dates ofall currently effective FIRMs and FBFMs or other flood hazard map adopted by the authority having jurisdiction, as amended.
h. In accordance with Sections R905.2.7.l, R905.4.3.l, R905.5.3.l, R905.6.3.l, R905.7.3.l and R905.8.3.l, where there has been a history oflocal damage from the effects of ice damming, thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "YES." Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "NO."
L The jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the 100-year return period air freezing index (BF-days) from Figure R403.3(2) or from the 100-year (99%) value on the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index- USA Method (Base 32°)" at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/fpsf.html.
j. Thejurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with the mean annual temperature from the National Climatic Data Center data table "Air Freezing Index-USA
Method (Base 32°F)" at www.ncdc.noaa.gov/fpsf.html.
k. In accordance with Section R301.2.1.5, where there is local historical data documenting structural damage to buildings due to topographic wind speed-Up effects, the jurisdiction shall fill in this part of the table with "YES." Otherwise, the jurisdiction shall indicate "NO" in this part of the table.
24
TABLE R301.2(2)
COMPONENT AND CLADDING LOADS FOR A BUILDING WITH A MEAN ROOF HEIGHT OF 30 FEET LOCATED IN EXPOSURE B
(psf)a,b,c,d,e
  ZONE EFFECTIVE WIND AREA (feet2) BASIC WIND SPEED (mph-3-second gust)
85 90 100 105 110 120 125 130 140 145 150 170
Roof > °to 1° degrees 1 10 10.0 -13.0 10.0 -14.6 10.0 -18.0 10.0 -19.8 10.0 -21.8 10.5 -25.9 11.4 -28.1 12.4 -30.4 14.3 -35.3 15.4 -37.8 16.5 -40.5 21.1 -52.0
1 20 10.0 -12.7 10.0 -14.2 10.0 -17.5 10.0 -19.3 10.0 -21.2 10.0 -25.2 10.7 -27.4 11.6 -29.6 13.4 -34.4 14.4 -36.9 15.4 -39.4 19.8 -50.7
1 50 10.0 -12.2 10.0 -13.7 10.0 -16.9 10.0 -18.7 10.0 -20.5 10.0 -24.4 10.0 -26.4 10.6 -28.6 12.3 -33.2 13.1 -35.6 14.1 -38.1 18.1 -48.9
1 100 10.0 -11.9 10.0 -13.3 10.0 -18.5 10.0 -18.2 10.0 -19.9 10.0 -23.7 10.0 -25.7 10.0 -27.8 11.4 -32.3 12.2 -34.6 13.0 -37.0 16.7 -47.6
2 10 10.0 -21.8 10.0 -24.4 10.0 -30.2 10.0 -33.3 10.0 -36.5 10.5 -43.5 11.4 -47.2 12.4 -51.0 14.3 -59.2 15.4 -63.5 16.5 -67.9 21.1 -87.2
2 20 10.0 -19.5 10.0 -21.8 10.0 -27.0 10.0 -29.7 10.0 -32.6 10.0 -38.8 10.7 -42.1 11.6 -45.6 13.4 -52.9 14.4 -56.7 15.4 -60.7 19.8 -78.0
2 50 10.0 -16.4 10.0 -18.4 10.0 -22.7 10.0 -25.1 10.0 -27.5 10.0 -32.7 10.0 -35.5 10.6 -38.4 12.3 -44.5 13.1 -47.8 14.1 -51.1 18.1 -65.7
2 100 10.0 -14.1 10.0 -15.8 10.0 -19.5 10.0 -21.5 10.0 -23.6 10.0 -28.1 10.0 -30.5 10.0 -33.0 11.4 -38.2 12.2 -41.0 13.0 -43.9 16.7 -56.4
3 10 10.0 -32.8 10.0 -36.8 10.0 -45.4 10.0 -50.1 10.0 -55.0 10.5 -65.4 11.4 -71.0 12.4 -76.8 14.3 -89.0 15.4 -95.5 16.5 -102.2 21.1 -131.3
3 20 10.0 -27.2 10.0 -30.5 10.0 -37.6 10.0 -41.5 10.0 -45.5 10.0 -54.2 10.7 -58.8 11.6 -63.6 13.4 -73.8 14.4 -79.1 15.4 -84.7 19.8 -108.7
3 50 10.0 -19.7 10.0 -22.1 10.0 -27.3 10.0 -30.1 10.0 -33.1 10.0 -39.3 10.0 -42.7 10.6 -46.2 12.3 -53.5 13.1 -57.4 14.1 -61.5 18.1 -78.9
3 100 10.0 -14.1 10.0 -15.8 10.0 -19.5 10.0 -21.5 10.0 -23.6 10.0 -28.1 10.0 -30.5 10.0 -33.0 11.4 -38.2 12.2 -41.0 13.0 -43.9 16.7 -56.4
Roof > 1°to 3° degrees 1 10 10.0 -11.9 10.0 -13.3 10.4 -16.5 11.4 -18.2 12.5 -19.9 14.9 -23.7 16.2 -25.7 17.5 -27.8 20.3 -32.3 21.8 -34.6 23.3 -37.0 30.0 -47.6
1 20 10.0 -11.6 10.0 -13.0 10.0 -16.0 10.4 -17.6 11.4 -19.4 13.6 -23.0 14.8 -25.0 16.0 -27.0 18.5 -31.4 19.9 -33.7 21.3 -36.0 27.3 -46.3
1 50 10.0 -11.1 10.0 -12.5 10.0 -15.4 10.0 -17.0 10.0 -18.6 11.9 -22.2 12.9 -24.1 13.9 -26.0 16.1 -30.2 17.3 -32.4 18.5 -34.6 23.8 -44.5
1 100 10.0 -10.8 10.0 -12.1 10.0 -14.9 10.0 -16.5 10.0 -18.1 10.5 -21.5 11.4 -23.3 12.4 -25.2 14.3 -29.3 15.4 -31.4 16.5 -33.6 21.1 -43.2
2 10 10.0 -25.1 10.0 -28.2 10.4 -34.8 11.4 -38.3 12.5 -42.1 14.9 -50.1 16.2 -54.3 17.5 -58.7 20.3 -68.1 21.8 -73.1 23.3 -78.2 30.0 -100.5
2 20 10.0 -22.8 10.0 -25.6 10.0 -31.5 10.4 -34.8 11.4 -38.2 13.6 -45.4 14.8 -49.3 16.0 -53.3 18.5 -61.8 19.9 -66.3 21.3 -71.0 27.3 -91.2
2 50 10.0 -19.7 10.0 -22.1 10.0 -27.3 10.0 -30.1 10.0 -33.0 11.9 -39.3 12.9 -42.7 13.9 -46.1 16.1 -53.5 17.3 -57.4 18.5 -61.4 23.8 -78.9
2 100 10.0 -17.4 10.0 -19.5 10.0 -24.1 10.0 -26.6 10.0 -29.1 10.5 -34.7 11.4 -37.6 12.4 -40.7 14.3 -47.2 15.4 -50.6 16.5 -54.2 21.1 -69.6
3 10 10.0 -25.1 10.0 -28.2 10.4 -34.8 11.4 -38.3 12.5 -42.1 14.9 -50.1 16.2 -54.3 17.5 -58.7 20.3 -68.1 21.8 -73.1 23.3 -78.2 30.0 -100.5
3 20 10.0 -22.8 10.0 -25.6 10.0 -31.5 10.4 -34.8 11.4 -38.2 13.6 -45.4 14.8 -49.3 16.0 -53.3 18.5 -61.8 19.9 -66.3 21.3 -71.0 27.3 -91.2
3 50 10.0 -19.7 10.0 -22.1 10.0 -27.3 10.0 -30.1 10.0 -33.0 11.9 -39.3 12.9 -42.7 13.9 -46.1 16.1 -53.5 17.3 -57.4 18.5 -61.4 23.8 -78.9
3 100 10.0 -17.4 10.0 -19.5 10.0 -24.1 10.0 -26.6 10.0 -29.1 10.5 -34.7 11.4 -37.6 12.4 -40.7 14.3 -47.2 15.4 -50.6 16.5 -54.2 21.1 -69.6
Roof > 3°to 45° degrees 1 10 11.9 -13.0 13.3 -14.6 16.5 -18.0 18.2 -19.8 19.9 -21.8 23.7 -25.9 25.7 -28.1 27.8 -30.4 32.3 -35.3 34.6 -37.8 37.0 -40.5 47.6 -52.0
1 20 11.6 -12.3 13.0 -13.8 16.0 -17.1 17.6 -18.8 19.4 -20.7 23.0 -24.6 25.0 -26.7 27.0 -28.9 31.4 -33.5 33.7 -35.9 36.0 -38.4 46.3 -49.3
1 50 11.1 -11.5 12.5 -12.8 15.4 -15.9 17.0 -17.5 18.6 -19.2 22.2 -22.8 24.1 -24.8 26.0 -25.8 30.2 -31.1 32.4 -33.3 34.6 -35.7 44.5 -45.8
1 100 10.8 -10.8 12.1 -12.1 14.9 -14.9 16.5 -16.5 18.1 -18.1 21.5 -21.5 23.3 -23.3 25.2 -25.2 29.3 -29.3 31.4 -31.4 33.6 -33.6 43.2 -43.2
2 10 11.9 -15.2 13.3 -17.0 16.5 -21.0 18.2 -23.2 19.9 -25.5 23.7 -30.3 25.7 -32.9 27.8 -35.6 32.3 -41.2 34.6 -44.2 37.0 -47.3 47.6 -60.8
2 20 11.6 -14.5 13.0 -16.3 16.0 -20.1 17.6 -22.2 19.4 -24.3 23.0 -29.0 25.0 -31.4 27.0 -34.0 31.4 -39.4 33.7 -42.3 36.0 -45.3 46.3 -58.1
2 50 11.1 -13.7 12.5 -15.3 15.4 -18.9 17.0 -20.8 18.6 -22.9 22.2 -27.2 24.1 -29.5 26.0 -32.0 30.2 -37.1 32.4 -39.8 34.6 -42.5 44.5 -54.6
2 100 10.8 -13.0 12.1 -14.6 14.9 -18.0 16.5 -19.8 18.1 -21.8 21.5 -25.9 23.3 -28.1 25.2 -30.4 29.3 -35.3 31.4 -37.8 33.6 -40.5 43.2 -52.0
3 10 11.9 -15.2 13.3 -17.0 16.5 -21.0 18.2 -23.2 19.9 -25.5 23.7 -30.3 25.7 -32.9 27.8 -35.6 32.3 -41.2 34.6 -44.2 37.0 -47.3 47.6 -60.8
3 20 11.6 -14.5 13.0 -16.3 16.0 -20.1 17.6 -22.2 19.4 -24.3 23.0 -29.0 25.0 -31.4 27.0 -34.0 31.4 -39.4 33.7 -42.3 36.0 -45.3 46.3 -58.1
3 50 11.1 -13.7 12.5 -15.3 15.4 -18.9 17.0 -20.8 18.6 -22.9 22.2 -27.2 24.1 -29.5 26.0 -32.0 30.2 -37.1 32.4 -39.8 34.6 -42.5 44.5 -54.5
3 100 10.8 -13.0 12.1 -14.6 14.9 -18.0 16.5 -19.8 18.1 -21.8 21.5 -25.9 23.3 -28.1 25.2 -30.4 29.3 -35.3 31.4 -37.8 33.6 -40.5 43.2 -52.0
Wal 4 10 13.0 -14.1 14.6 -15.8 18.0 -19.5 19.8 -21.5 21.8 -23.6 25.9 -28.1 28.1 -30.5 30.4 -33.0 35.3 -38.2 37.8 -41.0 40.5 -43.9 52.0 -56.4
4 20 12.4 -13.5 13.9 -15.1 17.2 -18.7 18.9 -20.6 20.8 -22.6 24.7 -26.9 26.8 -29.2 29.0 -31.6 33.7 -36.7 36.1 -39.3 38.7 -42.1 49.6 -54.1
4 50 11.6 -12.7 13.0 -14.3 16.1 -17.6 17.8 -19.4 19.5 -21.3 23.2 -25.4 25.2 -27.5 27.2 -29.8 31.6 -34.6 33.9 -37.1 36.2 -39.7 46.6 -51.0
4 100 11.1 -12.2 12.4 -13.6 15.3 -16.8 16.9 -18.5 18.5 -20.4 22.0 -24.2 23.9 -26.3 25.9 -28.4 30.0 -33.0 32.2 -35.4 34.4 -37.8 44.2 -48.6
5 10 13.0 -17.4 14.6 -19.5 18.0 -24.1 19.8 -26.6 21.8 -29.1 25.9 -34.7 28.1 -37.6 30.4 -40.7 35.3 -47.2 37.8 -50.6 40.5 -54.2 52.0 -69.6
5 20 12.4 -16.2 13.9 -18.2 17.2 -22.5 18.9 -24.8 20.8 -27.2 24.7 -32.4 26.8 -35.1 29.0 -38.0 33.7 -44.0 36.1 -47.2 38.7 -50.5 49.6 -64.9
5 50 11.6 -14.7 13.0 -16.5 16.1 -20.3 17.8 -22.4 19.5 -24.6 23.2 -29.3 25.2 -31.8 27.2 -34.3 31.6 -39.8 33.9 -42.7 36.2 -45.7 46.6 -58.7
5 100 11.1 -13.5 12.4 -15.1 15.3 -18.7 16.9 -20.6 18.5 -22.6 22.0 -26.9 23.9 -29.2 25.9 -31.6 30.0 -36.7 32.2 -39.3 34.4 -42.1 44.2 -54.1
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m2 , 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
Notes:
a. The effective wind area shall be equal to the span length multiplied by an effective width. This width shall be permitted to be not be less than one-third the span length. For cladding fasteners, the effective wind area shall not be greater than the area that is tributary to an individual fastener.
b. For effective areas between those given above, the load may be interpolated; otherWise, use the load associated with the lower effective area.
c. Table values shall be adjusted for height and exposure by multiplying by the adjustment coefficient in Table R301.2(3).
d. See Figure R301.2(7) for location of zones.
e. Plus and minus signs signify pressures acting toward and away from the building surfaces.
25
TABLE R301.2(3)
HEIGHT AND EXPOSURE ADJUSTMENT COEFFICIENTS FOR TABLE R301.2(2)
MEAN ROOF HEIGHT EXPOSURE
B C D
15 1.00 1.21 1.47
20 1.00 1.29 1.55
25 1.00 1.35 1.61
30 1.00 1.40 1.66
35 1.05 1.45 1.70
40 1.09 1.49 1.74
45 1.12 1.53 1.78
50 1.16 1.56 1.81
55 1.19 1.59 1.84
60 1.22 1.62 1.87

FIGURE R301.2(1) ISOLINES OF THE 97½ PERCENT WINTER (DECEMBER, JANUARY AND FEBRUARY) DESIGN TEMPERATURES (OF)

FIGURE R301.2(1) ISOLINES OF THE 97½ PERCENT WINTER (DECEMBER, JANUARY AND FEBRUARY) DESIGN TEMPERATURES (OF)

26

FIGURE R301.2(2) SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES—SITE CLASS D (continued)

FIGURE R301.2(2) SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES–SITE CLASS D (continued)

27

FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D (continued)

FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D (continued)

28

FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D (continued)

FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D (continued)

29

FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D (continued)

FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D (continued)

30

FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D

FIGURE R301.2(2)-continued SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES-SITE CLASS D

31

FIGURE R301.2(3) WEATHERING PROBABILITY MAP FOR CONCRETE

FIGURE R301.2(3) WEATHERING PROBABILITY MAP FOR CONCRETE

32

FIGURE R301.2(4) BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL (continued)

FIGURE R301.2(4) BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL (continued)

33

FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL (continued)

FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL (continued)

34

FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL (continued)

FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL (continued)

35

FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL (continued)

FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL (continued)

36

FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

FIGURE R301.2(4)-continued BASIC WIND SPEEDS FOR 50-YEAR MEAN RECURRENCE INTERVAL

37

FIGURE R301.2(5) GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft2) (continued)

FIGURE R301.2(5) GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft2) (continued)

38

FIGURE R301.2(S)-continued GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft2)

FIGURE R301.2(S)-continued GROUND SNOW LOADS, Pg, FOR THE UNITED STATES (lb/ft2)

39

FIGURE R301.2(6) TERMITE INFESTATION PROBABILITY MAP

FIGURE R301.2(6) TERMITE INFESTATION PROBABILITY MAP

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FIGURE R301.2(7) COMPONENT AND CLADDING PRESSURE ZONES

FIGURE R301.2(7) COMPONENT AND CLADDING PRESSURE ZONES

R301.2.1.2 Protection of openings. Windows in buildings located in windborne debris regions shall have glazed openings protected from windborne debris. Glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall meet the requirements of the Large Missile Test of ASTM E 1996 and ASTM E 1886 referenced therein. Garage door glazed opening protection for windborne debris shall meet the requirements ofan approvedimpact resisting standard or ANSI/DASMA 115.

Exception: Wood structural panels with a minimum thickness of 7/16 inch (11 mm) and a maximum span of 8 feet (2438 mm) shall be permitted for opening protection in one- and two-story buildings. Panels shall be precut and attached to the framing surrounding the opening containing the product with the glazed opening. Panels shall be predrilled as required for the anchorage method and shall be secured with the attachment hardware provided. Attachments shall be designed to resist the component and cladding loads determined in accordance with either Table R301 .2(2) or ASCE 7, with the permanent corrosion-resistant attachment hardware provided and anchors permanently installed on the building. Attachment in accordance with Table R301.2.1.2 is permitted for buildings with a mean roof height of 33 feet (10 058 mm) or less where windspeeds do not exceed 130 miles per hour (58 m/s).

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TABLE R301.2.1.2
WINDBORNE DEBRIS PROTECTION FASTENING SCHEDULE FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELSa,b,c,d
FASTENER TYPE FASTENER SPACING (inches)a, b
Panel span ≤ 4 feet 4 feet < panel span ≤ 6 feet 6 feet < panel span ≤ 8 feet
No.8 wood screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length 16 10 8
No. 10 wood screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length 16 12 9
¼- inch lag screw based anchor with 2-inch embedment length 16 16 16
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N,
            1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. This table is based on 130 mph wind speeds and a 33-foot mean roofheight.
b. Fasteners shall be installed at opposing ends of the wood structural panel. Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 1 inch from the edge ofthe panel.
c. Anchors shall penetrate through the exterior wall covering with an embedment length of 2 inches minimum into the building frame. Fasteners shall be located a minimum of 2½ inches from the edge of concrete block or concrete.
d. Where panels are attached to masonry or masonry/stucco, they shall be attached using vibration-resistant anchors having a minimum ultimate withdrawal capacity of 1500 pounds.

R301.2.1.3 Wind speed conversion. When referenced documents are based on fastest mile wind speeds, the three-second gust basic wind speeds, V3S, of Figure R30 1.2(4) shall be converted to fastest mile wind speeds, Vfm, using Table R301.2.1.3.

R301.2.1.4 Exposure category. For each wind direction considered, an exposure category that adequately reflects the characteristics of ground surface irregularities shall be determined for the site at which the building or structure is to be constructed. For a site located in the transition zone between categories, the category resulting in the largest wind forces shall apply. Account shall be taken of variations in ground surface roughness that arise from natural topography and vegetation as well as from constructed features. For a site where multiple detached one- and two-family dwellings, townhouses or other structures are to be constructed as part ofa subdivision' master-planned community, or otherwise designated as a developed area by the authority having jurisdiction, the exposure category for an individual structure shall be based upon the site conditions that will exist at the time when all adjacent structures on the site have been constructed, provided their construction is expected to begin within one year ofthe start of construction for the structure for which the exposure category is determined. For any given wind direction, the exposure in which a specific building or other structure is sited shall be assessed as being one of the following categories:

  1. Exposure A. Large city centers with at least 50 percent of the buildings having a height in excess of 70 feet (21 336 mm) . Use ofthis exposure category shall be limited to those areas for which terrain representative of Exposure A prevails in the upwind direction for a distance of at least 0.5 mile (0.8 km) or 10 times the height of the building or other structure, whichever is greater. Possible channeling effects or increased velocity pressures due to the building or structure being located in the wake of adjacent buildings shall be taken into account.
  2. Exposure B. Urban and suburban areas, wooded areas, or other terrain with numerous closely spaced obstructions having the size of single-family dwellings or larger. Exposure B shall be assumed unless the site meets the definition of another type exposure.
  3. Exposure C. Open terrain with scattered obstructions, including surface undulations or other irregularities, having heights generally less than 30 feet (9144 mm) extending more than 1,500 feet (457 m) from the building site in any quadrant. This exposure shall also apply to any building located within Exposure B type terrain where the building is directly adjacent to open areas of Exposure C type terrain in any quadrant for a distance of more than 600 feet (183 m). This category includes flat open country, grasslands and shorelines in hurricane prone regions.
  4. Exposure D. Flat, unobstructed areas exposed to wind flowing over open water (excluding shorelines in hurricane prone regions) for a distance of at least 1 mile (1.61 km). Shorelines in Exposure D include inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and coastal areas of California, Oregon, Washington and Alaska. This exposure shall apply only to those buildings and other structures exposed to the wind coming from over the water. Exposure D extends inland from the shoreline a distance of 1500 feet (457 m) or 10 times the height of the building or structure, whichever is greater.
TABLE R301.2.1.3
EQUIVALENT BASIC WIND SPEEDSa
3-second gust, V3S 85 90 100 105 110 120 125 130 140 145 150 160 170
Fastest mile, Vfm 71 76 85 90 95 104 109 114 123 128 133 142 152
For 51: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Linear interpolation is permitted.
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R301.2.1.5 Topographic wind effects. In areas designated in Table R301.2(1) as having local historical data documenting structural damage to buildings caused by wind speed-up at isolated hills, ridges and escarpments that are abrupt changes from the general topography of the area, topographic wind effects shall be considered in the design of the building in accordance with Section R30 1.2.1.5.1 or in accordance with the provisions of ASCE 7. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1 (1) for topographic features for wind speed-up effect.

In these designated areas, topographic wind effects shall apply only to buildings sited on the top half of an isolated hill, ridge or escarpment where all of the following conditions exist:

  1. The average slope of the top half of the hill, ridge or escarpment is 10 percent or greater.
  2. The hill, ridge or escarpment is 60 feet (18 288 mm) or greater in height for Exposure B, 30 feet (9144 mm) or greater in height for Exposure C, and 15 feet (4572 mm) or greater in height for Exposure D.
  3. The hill, ridge or escarpment is isolated or unobstructed by other topographic features of similar height in the upwind direction for a distance measured from its high point of 100 times its height or 2 miles, whichever is less. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1 (3) for upwind obstruction.
  4. The hill, ridge or escarpment protrudes by a factor of two or more above the height of other upwind topographic features located in any quadrant within a radius of 2 miles measured from its high point.

R301.2.1.5.1 Simplified topographic wind speed-up method. As an alternative to the ASCE 7 topographic wind provisions, the provisions of Section R30 1.2.1.5.1 shall be permitted to be used to design for wind speed-up effects, where required by Section R301.2.1.5.

Structures located on the top half of isolated hills, ridges or escarpments meeting the conditions of Section R301.2.1.5 shall be designed for an increased basic wind speed as determined by Table R30 1.2.1.5.1. On the high side of an escarpment, the increased basic wind speed shall extend horizontally downwind from the edge of the escarpment 1.5 times the horizontal length of the upwind slope (1.5L) or 6 times the height of the escarpment (6H), whichever is greater. See Figure R301.2.1.5.1(2) for where wind speed increase is applied.

TABLE R301.2.1.5.1
BASIC WIND MODIFICATION FOR TOPOGRAPHIC WIND EFFECT
BASIC WIND SPEED FROM FIGURE R301.2(4)
(mph)
AVERAGE SLOPE OF THE TOP HALF OF HILL, RIDGE OR ESCARPMENT (percent)
0.10 0.125 0.15 0.175 0.20 0.23 0.25 or greater
Required basic wind speed-up, modified for topographic wind speed up (mph)
85 100 100 100 110 110 110 120
90 100 100 110 110 120 120 120
100 110 120 120 130 130 130 140
110 120 130 130 140 140 150 150
120 140 140 150 150 N/A N/A N/A
130 150 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
For SI: 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.

FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(1) TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES FOR WIND SPEED-UP EFFECT

FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(1) TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURES FOR WIND SPEED-UP EFFECT

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FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1 (2) ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED

FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1 (2) ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED

FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(3) ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED

FIGURE R301.2.1.5.1(3) ILLUSTRATION OF WHERE ON A TOPOGRAPHIC FEATURE, WIND SPEED INCREASE IS APPLIED

R301.2.2 Seismic provisions. The seismic provisions of this code shall apply to buildings constructed in Seismic Design Categories C, Do, D1 and Dz, as determined in accordance with this section.

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings located in Seismic Design Category C are exempt from the seismic requirements of this code.

R301.2.2.1 Determination ofseismic design category. Buildings shall be assigned a seismic design category in accordance with Figure R301.2(2).

R301.2.2.1.1 Alternate determination of seismic design category. The Seismic Design Categories and corresponding Short Period Design Spectral Response Accelerations, SDS shown in Figure R301.2(2) are based on soil Site Class D, as defined in Section 1613.5.2 of the International BUilding Code. Ifsoil conditions are other than Site Class D, the Short Period Design Spectral Response Accelerations, SDS' for a site can be determined according to Section 1613.5 of the International BUilding Code. The value of SDS determined according to Section 1613.5 of the International BUilding Code is permitted to be used to set the seismic design category according to Table R301.2.2.1.1, and to interpolate between values in Tables R602.10.1, R603.7 and other seismic design requirements of this code.

TABLE R301.2.2.1.1
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY DETERMINATION
CALCULATED 5DS SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY
SDS ≤ 0.17g A
0.17g < SDS ≤ 0.33g B
0.33g < SDS ≤ O.SOg C
O.SOg < SDS ≤ 0.67g D0
0.67g < SDS < 0.83g D1
0.83g < SDS ≤ 1.17g DZ
1.17g < SDs E
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R301.2.2.1.2 Alternative determination of Seismic Design Category E. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E in accordance with Figure R30 1.2(2) are permitted to be reclassified as being in Seismic Design Category Dz provided one of the following is done:

  1. A more detailed evaluation of the seismic design category is made in accordance with the provisions and maps of the International BUilding Code. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E per Table R301.2.2.1.1, but located in Seismic Design Category D per the International BUilding Code, may be designed using the Seismic Design Category Dz requirements of this code.
  2. Buildings located in Seismic Design Category E that conform to the following additional restrictions are permitted to be constructed in accordance with the provisions for Seismic Design Category Dz of this code:

2.1. All exterior shear wall lines or braced wall panels are in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost story.

2.2. Floors shall not cantilever past the exterior walls.

2.3. The building is within all of the requirements of Section R301.2.2.2.5 for being considered as regular.

R301.2.2.2 Seismic Design Category C. Structures assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall conform to the requirements of this section.

R301.2.2.2.1 Weights of materials. Average dead loads shall not exceed 15 pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for the combined roof and ceiling assemblies (on a horizontal projection) or 10 pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for floor assemblies, except as further limited by Section R301.2.2. Dead loads for walls above grade shall not exceed:

  1. Fifteen pounds per square foot (720 Pa) for exterior light-frame wood walls.
  2. Fourteen pounds per square foot (670 Pa) for exterior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.
  3. Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for interior light-frame wood walls.
  4. Five pounds per square foot (240 Pa) for interior light-frame cold-formed steel walls.
  5. Eighty pounds per square foot (3830 Pa) for 8-inch-thick (203 mm) masonry walls.
  6. Eighty-five pounds per square foot (4070 Pa) for 6-inch-thick (152 mm) concrete walls.
  7. Ten pounds per square foot (480 Pa) for SIP walls.

Exceptions:

  1. Roof and ceiling dead loads not exceeding 25 pounds per square foot (1190 Pa) shall be permitted provided the wall bracing amounts in Chapter 6 are increased in accordance with Table R301.2.2.2.1.
  2. Light-frame walls with stone or masonry veneer shall be permitted in accordance with the provisions of Sections R702.1 and R703.
  3. Fireplaces and chimneys shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 10.
TABLE R301.2.2.2.1
WALL BRACING ADJUSTMENT FACTORS BY ROOF COVERING DEAD LOADa
WALL SUPPORTING ROOF/CEILING
DEAD LOAD
15 pst or less 25 pst
Roof only 1.0 1.2
Roof plus one or two stories 1.0 1.1
For SI:       1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.

R301.2.2.2.2 Stone and masonry veneer. Anchored stone and masonry veneer shall comply with the requirements of Sections R702.1 and R703.

R301.2.2.2.3 Masonry construction. Masonry construction shall comply with the requirements of Section R606.11.2.

R301.2.2.2.4 Concrete construction. Detached one-and two-family dwellings with exterior above-grade concrete walls shall comply with the requirements ofSection R611, PCA 100 or shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318. Townhouses with above-grade exterior concrete walls shall comply with the requirements of PCA 100 or shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318.

R301.2.2.2.5 Irregular buildings. Prescriptive construction as regulated by this code shall not be used for irregular structures located in Seismic Design Categories C, Do, D1 and Dz. Irregular portions of structures shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice to the extent the irregular features affect the performance of the remaining structural system. When the forces associated with the irregularity are resisted by a structural system designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice, design of the remainder of the building shall be permitted using the provisions of this code. A building or portion of a building shall be considered to be irregular when one or more of the following conditions occur:

  1. When exterior shear wall lines or braced wall panels are not in one plane vertically from the foundation to the uppermost storyin which they are required.

    Exception: For wood light-frame construction, floors with cantilevers or setbacks not exceeding four times the nominal depth ofthe wood floor joists are permitted to support

    45

    braced wallpanels that are out of plane with braced wall panels below provided that:

    1. Floorjoists are nominal 2 inches by 10 inches (51 mm by 254 mm) or larger and spaced not more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center.
    2. The ratio of the back span to the cantilever is at least 2 to 1.
    3. Floor joists at ends of braced wall panels are doubled.
    4. For wood-frame construction, a continuous rim joist is connected to ends of all cantilever joists. When spliced, the rim joists shall be spliced using a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.058 inch (1.5 mm) (16 gage) and 1½ inches (38 mm) wide fastened with six 16d nails on each side of the splice or a block of the same size as the rim joist of sufficient length to fit securely between the joist space at which the splice occurs fastened with eight 16d nails on each side of the splice; and
    5. Gravity loads carried at the end ofcantilevered joists are limited to uniform wall and roof loads and the reactions from headers having a span of 8 feet (2438 mm) or less.
  2. When a section of floor or roof is not laterally supported by shear walls or braced wall lines on all edges.

    Exception: Portions of floors that do not support shear walls or braced wall panels above, or roofs, shall be permitted to extend no more than 6 feet (1829 mm) beyond a shear wall or braced wall line.

  3. When the end of a braced wall panel occurs over an opening in the wall below and ends at a horizontal distance greater than 1 foot (305 mm) from the edge of the opening. This provision is applicable to shear walls and braced wall panels offset in plane and to braced wall panels offset out of plane as permitted by the exception to Item 1 above.

    Exception: For wood light-frame wall construction, one end of a braced wall panel shall be permitted to extend more than 1 foot (305 mm) over an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide in the wall below provided that the opening includes a header in accordance with the following:

    1. The building width, loading condition and framing member species limitations of Table R502.5(1) shall apply; and
    2. Not less than one 2×12 or two 2×10 for an opening not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) wide; or
    3. Not less than two 2×12 or three 2×10 for an opening not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) wide; or
    4. Not less than three 2×12 or four 2×10 for an opening not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) wide; and
    5. The entire length of the braced wall panel does not occur over an opening in the wall below.
  4. When an opening in a floor or roof exceeds the lesser of 12 feet (3658 mm) or 50 percent of the least floor or roof dimension.
  5. When portions ofa floor level are vertically offset.

    Exceptions:

    1. Framing supported directly by continuous foundations at the perimeter of the building.
    2. For wood light-frame construction, floors shall be permitted to be vertically offset when the floor framing is lapped or tied together as required by Section R502.6.1.
  6. When shear walls and braced wall lines do not occur in two perpendicular directions.
  7. When stories above-grade partially or completely braced by wood wall framing in accordance with Section R602 or steel wall framing in accordance with Section R603 include masonry or concrete construction.

    Exception: Fireplaces, chimneys and masonry veneer as permitted by this code. When this irregularity applies, the entire story shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

R301.2.2.3 Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2• Structures assigned to Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2 shall conform to the requirements for Seismic Design Category C and the additional requirements of this section.

R301.2.2.3.1 Height limitations. Wood framed buildings shall be limited to three stories above grade or the limits given in Table R602.10.1.2(2). Cold-formed steel framed buildings shall be limited to less than or equal to three stories above grade in accordance with AISI S230. Mezzanines as defined in Section R202 shall not be considered as stories. Structural insulated panel buildings shall be limited to two stories above grade.

R301.2.2.3.2 Stone and masonry veneer. Anchored stone and masonry veneer shall comply with the requirements of Sections R702.1 and R703.

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R301.2.2.3.3 Masonry construction. Masonry construction in Seismic Design Categories Do and D1 shall comply with the requirements of Section R606.11.3. Masonry construction in Seismic Design Category Dz shall comply with the requirements of Section R606.11.4.

R301.2.2.3.4 Concrete construction. Buildings with exterior above-grade concrete walls shall comply with PCA 100 or shall be designed in accordance with ACI318.

R301.2.2.3.5 Cold-formed steel framing in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2• In Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and Dz in addition to the requirements of this code, cold-formed steel framing shall comply with the requirements of AISI S230.

R301.2.2.3.6 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chimneys shall be reinforced and anchored to the building in accordance with Sections R1003.3 and R1003.4.

R301.2.2.3.7 Anchorage of water heaters. Water heaters shall be anchored against movement and overturning in accordance with Section M1307.2.

R301.2.2.4 Seismic Design Category E. Buildings in Seismic Design Category E shall be designed in accordance with the International BUilding Code, except when the seismic design category is reclassified to a lower seismic design category in accordance with Section R301.2.2.1.

R301.2.3 Snow loads. Wood framed construction, cold-formed steel framed construction and masonry and concrete construction, and structural insulated panel construction in regions with ground snow loads 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa) or less, shall be in accordance with Chapters 5,6 and 8. Buildings in regions with ground snow loads greater than 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa) shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

R301.2.4 Floodplain construction. Buildings and structures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas (including A or V Zones) as established in Table R301.2(1) shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R322 .

Exception: Buildings and structures located in whole or in part in identified floodways shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ASCE 24.

R301.2.4.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the requirements in Section R322.3 for buildings and structures located in whole or in part in coastal high hazard areas (V Zones), ASCE 24 is permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limitations therein.

R301.3 Story height. Buildings constructed in accordance with these provisions shall be limited to story heights of not more than the following:

  1. For wood wall framing, the laterally unsupported bearing wall stud height permitted by Table R602.3 (5) plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).

    Exception: Forwood framed wall buildings with bracing in accordance with Tables R602.10.1 .2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2), the wall stud clear height used to determine the maximum permitted storyheightmay be increased to 12 feet (3658 mm) without requiring an engineered design for the building wind and seismic force resisting systems provided that the length of bracing required by Table R602.10.1 .2(1) is increased by multiplying by a factor of 1.10 and the length of bracing required by Table R602.10.1 .2(2) is increased by multiplying by a factor of 1.20. Wall studs are still subject to the requirements of this section.

  2. For steel wall framing, a stud height of 10 feet (3048 mm), plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).
  3. For masonry walls, a maximum bearing wall clear height of 12 feet (3658 mm) plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).

    Exception: An additional 8 feet (2438 mm) is permitted for gable end walls.

  4. For insulating concrete form walls, the maximum bearing wall height per story as permitted by Section R611 tables plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).
  5. For structural insulated panel (SIP) walls, the maximum bearing wall height per storyas permitted by Section 614 tables shall not exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) plus a height of floor framing not to exceed 16 inches (406 mm).

Individual walls or walls studs shall be permitted to exceed these limits as permitted by Chapter 6 provisions, provided story heights are not exceeded. Floor framing height shall be permitted to exceed these limits provided the storyheight does not exceed 11 feet 7 inches (3531 mm). An engineered design shall be provided for the wall or wall framing members when they exceed the limits of Chapter 6. Where the storyheightlimits are exceeded, an engineered design shall be provided in accordance with the International BUilding Code for the overall wind and seismic force resisting systems.

R301.4 Dead load. The actual weights of materials and construction shall be used for determining dead load with consideration for the dead load of fixed service equipment.

R301.5 Live load. The minimum uniformly distributed live load shall be as provided in Table R301.5.

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TABLE R301.5
MINIMUM UNIFORMLY DISTRIBUTED LIVE LOADS
(in pounds per square foot)
USE LIVE LOAD
Attics without storageb 10
Attics with limited storageb, g 20
Habitable attics and attics served with fixed stairs 30
Balconies (exterior) and deckse 40
Fire escapes 40
Guardrails and handrailsd 200h
Guardrail in-fill componentsf SOh
Passenger vehicle garagesa SOa
Rooms other than sleeping room 40
Sleeping rooms 30
Stairs 40c
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 square inch = 645 mm2,
           1 pound = 4.45 N.
a. Elevated garage floors shall be capable of supporting a 2,000-pound load applied over a 20-square-inch area.
b. Attics without storage are those where the maximum clear height between joist and rafter is less than 42 inches, or where there are not two or more adjacent trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches high by 2 feet wide, or greater, located within the plane of the truss. For attics without storage, this live load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirements.
c. Individual stair treads shall be designed for the uniformly distributed live load or a 300-pound concentrated load acting over an area of 4 square inches, whichever produces the greater stresses.
d. A single concentrated load applied in any direction at any point along the top.
e. See Section R502.2.2 for decks attached to exterior walls.
f. Guard in-fill components (all those except the handrail), balusters and panel fillers shall be designed to withstand a horizontally applied normal load of 50 pounds on an area equal to 1 square foot. This load need not be assumed to act concurrently with any other live load requirement.
g. For attics with limited storage and constructed with trusses, this live load need be applied only to those portions of the bottom chord where there are two or more adjacent trusses with the same web configuration capable of containing a rectangle 42 inches high or greater by 2 feet wide or greater, located within the plane of the truss. The rectangle shall fit between the top of the bottom chord and the bottom of any other truss member, provided that each of the following criteria is met.

1. The attic area is accessible by a pull-down stairway or framed in accordance with Section R807.1.
2. The truss has a bottom chord pitch less than 2: 12.
3. Required insulation depth is less than the bottom chord member depth.
The bottom chords of trusses meeting the above criteria for limited storage shall be deSigned for the greater of the actual imposed dead load or 10 psf, uniformly distributed over the entire span.


h. Glazing used in handrail assemblies and guards shall be designed with a safety factor of 4. The safety factor shall be applied to each of the concentrated loads applied to the top of the rail, and to the load on the in-fill components. These loads shall be determined independent of one another, and loads are assumed not to occur with any other live load.

R301.6 Roofload. The roof shall be designed for the live load indicated in Table R30 1.6 or the snow load indicated in Table R301.2(1), whichever is greater.

TABLE R301.6
MINIMUM ROOF LIVE LOADS IN POUNDS-FORCE PER SQUARE FOOT OF HORIZONTAL PROJECTION
ROOF SLOPE TRIBUTARY LOADED AREA IN SQUARE FEET FOR ANY STRUCTURAL MEMBER
0 to 200 201 to 600 Over 600
Flat or rise less than 4 inches per foot (l :3) 20 16 12
Rise 4 inches per foot (1 :3) to less than 12 inches per foot (1: 1) 16 14 12
Rise 12 inches per foot (1: 1) and greater 12 12 12
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2,
           1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa, 1 inch per foot = 83.3 mmlm.

R301.7 Deflection. The allowable deflection of any structural member under the live load listed in Sections R301.5 and R30 1.6 shall not exceed the values in Table R301.7.

TABLE R301.7
ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERSa,b,c,d,e
STRUCTURAL MEMBER ALLOWABLE DEFLECTION
Rafters having slopes greater than 3: 12 with no finished ceiling attached to rafters L/180
Interior walls and partitions H/180
Floors and plastered ceilings L/360
All other structural members L/240
Exterior walls with plaster or stucco finish H/360
Exterior walls-wind loadsa with brittle finishes H/240
Exterior walls-wind loadsa with flexible finishes L/120d
Lintels supporting masonry veneer wallse L/600
Note: L = span length, H = span height.
a. The wind load shall be permitted to be taken as 0.7 times the Component and Cladding loads for the purpose of the determining deflection limits herein.
b. For cantilever members, L shall be taken as twice the length ofthe cantilever.
c. For aluminum structural members or panels used in roofs or walls of sun-room additions or patio covers, not supporting edge of glass or sandwich panels, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/60. For continuous aluminum structural members supporting edge of glass, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/175 for each glass lite or L/60 for the entire length of the member, whichever is more stringent. For sandwich panels used in roofs or walls of sunroom additions or patio covers, the total load deflection shall not exceed L/120.
d. Deflection for exterior walls with interior gypsum board finish shall be limited to an allowable deflection of H/180.
e. Refer to Section R703.7.2.

R301.8 Nominal sizes. For the purposes of this code, where dimensions of lumber are specified, they shall be deemed to be nominal dimensions unless specifically designated as actual dimensions.

48

SECTION R302
FIRE-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION

R302.1 Exterior walls. Construction, projections, openings and penetrations of exterior walls of dwellings and accessory buildings shall comply with Table R302 .1.

Exceptions:

  1. Walls, projections, openings or penetrations in walls perpendicular to the line used to determine the fire separation distance.
  2. Walls of dwellings and accessory structures located on the same lot.
  3. Detached tool sheds and storage sheds, playhouses and similar structures exempted from permits are not required to provide wall protection based on location on the lot. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not extend over the lot line.
  4. Detached garages accessory to a dwellinglocated within 2 feet (610 mm) of a lot line are permitted to have roof eave projections not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm).
  5. Foundation vents installed in compliance with this code are permitted.

R302.2 Townhouses. Each townhouse shall be considered a separate building and shall be separated by fire-resistance-rated wall assemblies meeting the requirements of Section R302.1 for exterior walls.

Exception: A common I-hour fire-resistance-rated wall assembly tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 is permitted for townhouses if such walls do not contain plumbing or mechanical equipment, ducts or vents in the cavity of the common wall. The wall shall be rated for fire exposure from both sides and shall extend to and be tight against exterior walls and the underside of the roof sheathing. Electrical installations shall be installed in accordance with Chapters 34 through 43. Penetrations of electrical outlet boxes shall be in accordance with Section R302.4.

R302.2.1 Continuity. The fire-resistance-rated wall or assembly separating townhouses shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab. The fire-resistance rating shall extend the full length of the wall or assembly, including wall extensions through and separating attached enclosed accessory structures.

R302.2.2 Parapets. Parapets constructed in accordance with Section R302 .2.3 shall be constructed for townhouses as an extension of exterior walls or common walls in accordance with the following:

  1. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at the same elevation, the parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the roof surfaces.
  2. Where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the higher roof is not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof, the parapet shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof surface.

    Exception: A parapet is not required in the two cases above when the roof is covered with a minimum class C roof covering, and the roof decking or sheathing is of noncombustible materials or approved fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall or walls, or one layer of sis-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board is installed directly beneath the roof decking or sheathing, supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch (51 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members, for a minimum distance of 4 feet (1219 mm) on each side of the wall or walls.

  3. A parapet is not required where roof surfaces adjacent to the wall or walls are at different elevations and the higher roof is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof. The common wall construction from the lower roof to the underside of the higher roof deck shall have not less than a I-hour fire-resistance rating. The wall shall be rated for exposure from both sides.
TABLE R302.1
EXTERIOR WALLS
EXTERIOR WALL ELEMENT MINIMUM FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING MINIMUM FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE
Walls (Fire-resistance rated) 1 hour-tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 with exposure form both sides < 5 feet
(Not fire-resistance rated) Ohours ≥ 5 feet
Projections (Fire-resistance rated) 1 hour on the underside ≥ 2 feet to 5 feet
(Not fire-resistance rated) Ohours 5 feet
Openings in walls Not allowed N/A < 3 feet
25% maximum of wall area Ohours 3 feet
Unlimited Ohours 5 feet
Penetrations All Comply with Section R31 7.3 < 5 feet
None required 5 feet
For SI:        1 foot = 304.8 mm.
N/A = Not Applicable.
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R302.2.3 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the same fire-resistance rating as that required for the supporting wall or walls. On any side adjacent to a roof surface, the parapet shall have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches (457 mm), to include counterflashing and coping materials. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at slopes greater than 2 units vertical in 12 units horizontal (16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same height as any portion ofthe roofwithin a distance of3 feet (914 mm), but in no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm).

R302.2.4 Structural independence. Each individual townhouse shall be structurally independent.

Exceptions:

  1. Foundations supporting exterior walls or common walls.
  2. Structural roof and wall sheathing from each unit may fasten to the common wall framing.
  3. Nonstructural wall and roof coverings.
  4. Flashing at termination of roof covering over common wall.
  5. Townhouses separated by a common I-hour fire-resistance-rated wall as provided in Section R302.2.

R302.3 Two-family dwellings. Dwelling units in two-family dwellings shall be separated from each other by wall andlor floor assemblies having not less than a I-hour fire-resistance rating when tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263. Fire-resistance-rated floor-ceiling and wall assemblies shall extend to and be tight against the exterior wall, and wall assemblies shall extend from the foundation to the underside of the roof sheathing.

Exceptions:

  1. A fire-resistance rating of liz hour shall be permitted in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with NFPA 13.
  2. Wall assemblies need not extend through atticspaces when the ceiling is protected by not less than s/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board and an attic draft stop constructed as specified in Section R302.12.1 is provided above and along the wall assembly separating the dwellings. The structural framing supporting the ceiling shall also be protected by not less than liz-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board or equivalent.

R302.3.1 Supporting construction. When floor assemblies are required to be fire-resistance rated by Section R302.3, the supporting construction of such assemblies shall have an equal or greater fire-resistance rating.

R302.4 Dwelling unit rated penetrations. Penetrations of wall or floorlceiling assemblies required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section R302.2 or R302.3 shall be protected in accordance with this section.

R302.4.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of fire-resistance-rated wall or floor assemblies shall comply with Section R302.4.1.1 or R302.4.1.2.

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, ferrous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular space shall be protected as follows:

  1. In concrete or masonry wall or floor assemblies, concrete, grout or mortar shall be permitted where installed to the full thickness of the wall or floor assembly or the thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating, provided:

    1.1. The nominal diameter of the penetrating item is a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm); and

    1.2. The area of the opening through the wall does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mmZ).

  2. The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E 119 or UL 263 time temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire resistance rating of the construction penetrated.

R302.4.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assembly. Penetrations shall be installed as tested in the approved fire-resistance-rated assembly.

R302.4.1.2 Penetration firestop system. Penetrations shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch of water (3 Pa) and shall have an F rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall or floorlceiling assembly penetrated.

R302.4.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetrations shall comply with Section R302.4.1. Where walls are required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed so that the required fire-resistance rating will not be reduced.

Exceptions:

  1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (0.0103 mZ) in area provided the aggregate area of the openings through the membrane does not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 mZ) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m) Z of wall area. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by one of the following:

    1.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 inches (610 mm) where the wall or partition

    50

    is constructed with individual noncommunicating stud cavities;

    1.2. By a horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the wall cavity when the wall cavity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation;

    1.3. By solid fire blocking in accordance with Section R302.11 ;

    1.4. By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads; or

    1.5. By other listed materials and methods.

  2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any materials provided the boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed ⅛ inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall shall be separated by one of the following:

    2.1. By the horizontal distance specified in the listing of the electrical boxes;

    2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with Section R302.11 ;

    2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads; or

    2.4. By other listed materials and methods.

  3. The annular space created by the penetration of a fire sprinkler provided it is covered by a metal escutcheon plate.

R302.5 Dwelling/garage opening/penetration protection. Openings and penetrations through the walls or ceilings separating the dwellingfrom the garage shall be in accordance with Sections R302.5.1 through R302.5.3.

R302.5.1 Opening protection. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Other openings between the garage and residence shall be equipped with solid wood doors not less than 1⅜ inches (35 mm) in thickness, solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than 1⅜ inches (35 mm) thick, or 20-minute fire-rated doors.

R302.5.2 Duct penetration. Ducts in the garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling from the garage shall be constructed of a minimum No. 26 gage (0.48 mm) sheet steel or other approved material and shall have no openings into the garage.

R302.5.3 Other penetrations. Penetrations through the separation required in Section R309.2 shall be protected as required by Section R302.11, Item 4.

R302.6 Dwelling/garage fire separation. The garage shall be separated as required by Table R302.6. Openings in garage walls shall comply with Section R302.5. This provision does not apply to garage walls that are perpendicular to the adjacent dwelling unit wall.

R302.7 Under-stair protection. Enclosed accessible space under stairs shall have walls, under-stair surface and any soffits protected on the enclosed side with ½-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.

R302.8 Foam plastics. For requirements for foam plastics see Section R316.

R302.9 Flame spread index and smoke-developed index for wall and ceiling finishes. Flame spread and smoke index for wall and ceiling finishes shall be in accordance with Sections R302 .9.1 through R302 .9.4.

R302.9.1 Flame spread index. Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a flame spread index of not greater than 200.

Exception: Flame spread index requirements for finishes shall not apply to trim defined as picture molds, chair rails, baseboards and handrails; to doors and windows or their frames; or to materials that are less than 1/28 inch (0.91 mm) in thickness cemented to the surface of walls or ceilings if these materials exhibit flame spread index values no greater than those of paper of this thickness cemented to a noncombustible backing.

R302.9.2 Smoke-developed index. Wall and ceiling finishes shall have a smoke-developed index ofnot greater than 450.

R302.9.3 Testing. Tests shall be made in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

R302.9.4 Alternate test method. As an alternate to having a flame-spread index of not greater than 200 and a smoke developed index of not greater than 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, wall and ceiling finishes, other than textiles, shall be permitted to be tested in

TABLE R302.6
DWELLING/GARAGE SEPARATION
SEPARATION MATERIAL
From the residence and attics Not less than ½-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the garage side
From all habitable rooms above the garage Not less than s/8-inch Type X gypsum board or equivalent
Structure{s) supporting floorlceiling assemblies used for separation required by this section Not less than ½-inch gypsum board or equivalent
Garages located less than 3 feet from a dwelling unit on the same lot Not less than ½-inch gypsum board or equivalent applied to the interior side of exterior walls that are within this area
For SI:        1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
51

accordance with NFPA 286. Materials tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall meet the following criteria:

During the 40 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 1. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 2. During the entire test, the interior finish shall comply with Item 3.

  1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling.
  2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with the following:

    2.1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the sample on any wall or ceiling.

    2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not occur.

  3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 286 test shall not exceed 1,000 m2

R302.10 Flame spread index and smoke developed index for insulation. Flame spread and smoke developed index for insulation shall be in accordance with Sections R302.10.1 through R302.10.5.

R302.10.1 Insulation. Insulation materials, including facings, such as vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes installed within floor-ceiling assemblies, roof-ceiling assemblies, wall assemblies, crawl spaces and attics shall have a flame spread index not to exceed 25 with an accompanying smoke-developed index not to exceed 450 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

Exceptions:

  1. When such materials are installed in concealed spaces, the flame spread index and smoke-developed index limitations do not apply to the facings, provided that the facing is installed in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, floor or wall finish.
  2. Cellulose loose-fill insulation, which is not spray applied, complying with the requirements of Section R302.10.3, shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of not more than 450.

R302.10.2 Loose-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation materials that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 or UL 723 apparatus without a screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed limits of Section R302.10.1 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2.

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be required to be tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2, provided such insulation complies with the requirements of Section R302.10.1 and Section R302.10.3.

R302.10.3 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Parts 1209 and 1404. Each package of such insulating material shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, Parts 1209 and 1404.

R302.10.4 Exposed attic insulation. All exposed insulation materials installed on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux not less than 0.12 watt per square centimeter.

R302.10.5 Testing. Tests for critical radiant flux shall be made in accordance with ASTM E 970.

R302.11 Fireblocking. In combustible construction, fireblocking shall be provided to cut off all concealed draft openings (both vertical and horizontal) and to form an effective fire barrier between stories, and between a top story and the roof space.

Fireblocking shall be provided in wood-frame construction in the following locations:

  1. In concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, including furred spaces and parallel rows of studs or staggered studs, as follows:

    1.1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels.

    1.2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm).

  2. At all interconnections between concealed vertical and horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings and cove ceilings.
  3. In concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall comply with Section R302.7.
  4. At openings around vents, pipes, ducts, cables and wires at ceiling and floor level, with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and products of combustion. The material filling this annular space shall not be required to meet the ASTM E 136 requirements.
  5. For the fireblocking of chimneys and fireplaces, see Section R1003.19.
  6. Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family dwelling is required at the line of dwelling unit separation.

R302.11.1 Fireblocking materials. Except as provided in Section R302.11, Item 4, fireblocking shall consist of the following materials.

  1. Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber.
  2. Two thicknesses of I-inch (25.4 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints.
  3. One thickness of 23/32-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels with joints backed by 23/32-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels.
  4. One thickness of ¾-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard with joints backed by ¾-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard.
  5. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.
  6. One-quarter-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard.
  7. Batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber or other approvedmaterials installed in such a manner as to be securely retained in place.

R302.11.1.1 Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber. Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials shall be permitted for compliance with the 10-foot (3048 mm) horizontal

52

fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs.

R302.11.1.2 Unfaced fiberglass. Unfaced fiberglass batt insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire cross section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 16 inches (406 mm) measured vertically. When piping, conduit or similar obstructions are encountered, the insulation shall be packed tightly around the obstruction.

R302.11.1.3 Loose-fill insulation material. Loose-fill insulation material shall not be used as a fireblock unless specifically tested in the form and manner intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and to retard the spread of fire and hot gases.

R302.11.2 Fireblocking integrity. The integrity of all fireblocks shall be maintained.

R302.12 Draftstopping. In combustible construction where there is usable space both above and below the concealed space of a floor/ceiling assembly, draftstops shall be installed so that the area of the concealed space does not exceed 1,000 square feet (92.9 mZ). Draftstopping shall divide the concealed space into approximately equal areas. Where the assembly is enclosed by a floor membrane above and a ceiling membrane below, draftstopping shall be provided in floor/ceiling assemblies under the following circumstances:

  1. Ceiling is suspended under the floor framing.
  2. Floor framing is constructed of truss-type open-web or perforated members.

R302.12.1 Materials. Draftstopping materials shall not be less than liz-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 3/s-inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panels or other approved materials adequately supported. Draftopping shall be installed parallel to the floor framing members unless otherwise approved by the building official. The integrity of the draftstops shall be maintained.

R302.13 Combustible insulation clearance. Combustible insulation shall be separated a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) from recessed luminaires, fan motors and other heat-producing devices.

Exception: Where heat-producing devices are listed for lesser clearances, combustible insulation complying with the listing requirements shall be separated in accordance with the conditions stipulated in the listing.

Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Section NII02.4.5.

SECTION R303
LIGHT, VENTILATION AND HEATING

R303.1 Habitable rooms. All habitable rooms shall have an aggregate glazing area of not less than 8 percent of the floor area of such rooms. Natural ventilation shall be through windows, doors, louvers or other approvedopenings to the outdoor air. Such openings shall be provided with ready access or shall otherwise be readily controllable by the building occupants.

The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be 4 percent of the floor area being ventilated.

Exceptions:

  1. The glazed areas need not be openable where the opening is not required by Section R310 and an approved mechanical ventilation system capable of producing 0.35 air change per hour in the room is installed or a whole-house mechanical ventilation system is installed capable of supplying outdoor ventilation air of 15 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (78 L/s) per occupant computed on the basis of two occupants for the first bedroom and one occupant for each additional bedroom.
  2. The glazed areas need not be installed in rooms where Exception 1 above is satisfied and artificial light is provided capable of producing an average illumination of 6 footcandles (65 lux) over the area of the room at a height of 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor level.
  3. Use ofsunroom additionsand patio covers, as defined in Section R202, shall be permitted for natural ventilation if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom wa11s are open, or are enclosed only by insect screening.

R303.2 Adjoining rooms. For the purpose of determining light and ventilation requirements, any room shall be considered as a portion of an adjoining room when at least one-half of the area of the common wall is open and unobstructed and provides an opening of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room but not less than 25 square feet (2.3 mZ).

Exception: Openings required for light and/or ventilation shall be permitted to open into a thermally isolated sunroom addition or patio cover, provided that there is an openable area between the adjoining room and the sunroom addition or patio cover of not less than one-tenth of the floor area of the interior room but not less than 20 square feet (2 mZ). The minimum openable area to the outdoors shall be based upon the total floor area being ventilated.

R303.3 Bathrooms. Bathrooms, water closet compartments and other similar rooms shall be provided with aggregate glazing area in windows of not less than 3 square feet (0.3 mZ), one-half of which must be openable.

Exception: The glazed areas shall not be required where artificiallight and a mechanical ventilation system are provided. The minimum ventilation rates shall be 50 cubic feet per minute (24 L/s) for intermittent ventilation or 20 cubic feet per minute (10 L/s) for continuous ventilation. Ventilation air from the space shall be exhausted directly to the outside.

R303.4 Opening location. Outdoor intake and exhaust openings shall be located in accordance with Sections R303. 4.1 and R303.4.2.

R303.4.1 Intake openings. Mechanical and gravity outdoor air intake openings shall be located a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) from any hazardous or noxious contaminant' such as vents, chimneys, plumbing vents, streets, alleys, parking lots and loading docks, except as otherwise specified in this code. Where a source of contaminant is

53

located within 10 feet (3048 mm) ofan intake opening, such opening shall be located a minimum of 2 feet (610 mm) below the contaminant source.

For the purpose of this section, the exhaust from dwelling unit toilet rooms, bathrooms and kitchens shall not be considered as hazardous or noxious.

R303.4.2 Exhaust openings. Exhaust air shall not be directed onto walkways.

R303.5 Outside opening protection. Air exhaust and intake openings that terminate outdoors shall be protected with corrosion-resistant screens, louvers or grilles having a minimum opening size of ¼ inch (6 mm) and a maximum opening size of ½ inch (13 mm), in any dimension. Openings shall be protected against local weather conditions. Outdoor air exhaust and intake openings shall meet the provisions for exterior wall opening protectives in accordance with this code.

R303.6 Stairway illumination. All interior and exterior stairways shall be provided with a means to illuminate the stairs, including the landings and treads. Interior stairways shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of each landing of the stairway. For interior stairs the artificial light sources shall be capable of illuminating treads and landings to levels not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) measured at the center of treads and landings. Exterior stairways shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of the top landing of the stairway. Exterior stairways providing access to a basement from the outside grade level shall be provided with an artificial light source located in the immediate vicinity of the bottom landing of the stairway.

Exception: An artificial light source is not required at the top and bottom landing, provided an artificial light source is located directly over each stairway section.

R303.6.1 Light activation. Where lighting outlets are installed in interior stairways, there shall be a wall switch at each floor level to control the lighting outlet where the stairway has six or more risers. The illumination of exterior stairways shall be controlled from inside the dwellingunit.

Exception: Lights that are continuously illuminated or automatically controlled.

R303.7 Required glazed openings. Required glazed openings shall open directly onto a street or public alley, or a yard or court located on the same lot as the building.

Exceptions:

  1. Required glazed openings may face into a roofed porch where the porch abuts a street, yardor court and the longer side ofthe porch is at least 65 percent unobstructed and the ceiling height is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).
  2. Eave projections shall not be considered as obstructing the clear open space of a yard or court.
  3. Required glazed openings may face into the area under a deck, balcony, bay or floor cantilever provided a clear vertical space at least 36 inches (914 mm) in height is provided.

R303.7.1 Sunroom additions. Required glazed openings shall be permitted to open into sunroom additions or patio covers that abut a street, yard or court if in excess of 40 percent of the exterior sunroom walls are open, or are enclosed only by insect screening, and the ceiling height of the sun-room is not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).

R303.8 Required heating. When the winter design temperature in Table R301.2(1) is below 60°F (16°C), every dwelling unit shall be provided with heating facilities capable of maintaining a minimum room temperature of 68°F (20°C) at a point 3 feet (914 mm) above the floor and 2 feet (610 mm) from exterior walls in all habitable rooms at the design temperature. The installation of one or more portable space heaters shall not be used to achieve compliance with this section.

SECTION R304
MINIMUM ROOM AREAS

R304.1 Minimum area. Every dwellingunit shall have at least one habitable room that shall have not less than 120 square feet (11 m2) of gross floor area.

R304.2 Other rooms. Other habitable rooms shall have a floor area of not less than 70 square feet (6.5 m2).

Exception: Kitchens.

R304.3 Minimum dimensions. Habitable rooms shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm) in any horizontal dimension.

Exception: Kitchens.

R304.4 Height effect on room area. Portions of a room with a sloping ceiling measuring less than 5 feet (1524 mm) or a furred ceiling measuring less than 7 feet (2134 mm) from the finished floor to the finished ceiling shall not be considered as contributing to the minimum required habitable area for that room.

SECTION R305
CEILING HEIGHT

R305.1 Minimum height. Habitable space, hallways, bathrooms, toilet rooms, laundry rooms and portions of basements containing these spaces shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet (2134 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. For rooms with sloped ceilings, at least 50 percent of the required floor area of the room must have a ceiling height of at least 7 feet (2134 mm) and no portion of the required floor area may have a ceiling height of less than 5 feet (1524 mm).
  2. Bathrooms shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) at the center of the front clearance area for fixtures as shown in Figure R307.1. The ceiling height above fixtures shall be such that the fixture is capable of being used for its intended purpose. A shower or tub equipped with a showerhead shall have a minimum ceiling height of 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) above a minimum area 30 inches (762 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm) at the showerhead.
54

R305.1.1 Basements. Portions of basements that do not contain habitable space, hallways, bathrooms, toilet rooms and laundry rooms shall have a ceiling height of not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm).

Exception: Beams, girders, ducts or other obstructions may project to within 6 feet 4 inches (1931 mm) of the finished floor.

SECTION R306
SANITATION

R306.1 Toilet facilities. Every dwellingunit shall be provided with a water closet, lavatory, and a bathtub or shower.

R306.2 Kitchen. Each dwelling unit shall be provided with a kitchen area and every kitchen area shall be provided with a sink.

R306.3 Sewage disposal. All plumbing fixtures shall be connected to a sanitary sewer or to an approvedprivate sewage disposal system.

R306.4 Water supply to fixtures. All plumbing fixtures shall be connected to an approvedwater supply. Kitchen sinks, lavatories, bathtubs, showers, bidets, laundry tubs and washing machine outlets shall be provided with hot and cold water.

SECTION R307
TOILET, BATH AND SHOWER SPACES

R307.1 Space required. Fixtures shall be spaced in accordance with Figure R307.1 , and in accordance with the requirements of Section P270S.1.

R307.2 Bathtub and shower spaces. Bathtub and shower floors and walls above bathtubs with installed shower heads and in shower compartments shall be finished with a nonabsorbent surface. Such wall surfaces shall extend to a height of not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor.

SECTION R308
GLAZING

R308.1 Identification. Except as indicated in Section R308.1 .1 each pane of glazing installed in hazardous locations as defined in Section R308.4 shall be provided with a manufacturer's designation specifying who applied the designation, designating the type of glass and the safety glazing standard with which it com-plies, which is visible in the final installation. The designation shall be acid etched, sandblasted, ceramic-fired, laser etched, embossed, or be ofa type which once applied cannot be removed without being destroyed. A labelshall be permitted in lieu of the manufacturer's designation.

Exceptions:

  1. For other than tempered glass, manufacturer's designations are not required provided the building official

    FIGURE R307.1 MINIMUM FIXTURE CLEARANCES

    FIGURE R307.1 MINIMUM FIXTURE CLEARANCES

    55 approves the use ofa certificate, affidavit or other evidence confirming compliance with this code.
  2. Tempered spandrel glass is permitted to be identified by the manufacturer with a removable paper designation.

R308.1.1 Identification of multiple assemblies. Multipane assemblies having individual panes not exceeding 1 square foot (0.09 m2) in exposed area shall have at least one pane in the assembly identified in accordance with Section R308.1. All other panes in the assembly shall be labeled" CPSC 16 CFR 1201" or "ANSI Z97.1" as appropriate.

R308.2 Louvered windows orjalousies. Regular, float, wired or patterned glass in jalousies and louvered windows shall be no thinner than nominal 3/16 inch (5 mm) and no longer than 48 inches (1219 mm). Exposed glass edges shall be smooth.

R308.2.1 Wired glass prohibited. Wired glass with wire exposed on longitudinal edges shall not be used injalousies or louvered windows.

R308.3 Human impact loads. Individual glazed areas, including glass mirrors in hazardous locations such as those indicated as defined in Section R308.4 , shall pass the test requirements of Section R308.3.1.

Exceptions:

  1. Louvered windows and jalousies shall comply with Section R308.2.
  2. Mirrors and other glass panels mounted or hung on a surface that provides a continuous backing support.
  3. Glass unit masonry complying with Section R610.

R308.3.1 Impact test. Where required by other sections of the code, glazing shall be tested in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR 1201. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Category I or II as indicated in Table R308.3.1 (1).

Exception: Glazing not in doors or enclosures for hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers shall be permitted to be tested in accordance with ANSI Z97.1. Glazing shall comply with the test criteria for Class A or B as indicated in Table R308.3.1 (2).

R308.4 Hazardous locations. The following shall be considered specific hazardous locations for the purposes of glazing:

  1. Glazing in all fixed and operable panels of swinging, sliding and bifold doors.

    Exceptions:

    1. Glazed openings ofa size through which a 3-inch diameter (76 mm) sphere is unable to pass.
    2. Decorative glazing.
  2. Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel adjacent to a door where the nearest vertical edge is within a 24-inch (610 mm) arc of the door in a closed position and whose bottom edge is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the floor or walking surface.

    Exceptions:

    1. Decorative glazing.
    2. When there is an intervening wall or other permanent barrier between the door and the glazing.
    3. Glazing in walls on the latch side ofand perpendicular to the plane of the door in a closed position.
      TABLE R308.3.1 (1)
      MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING CPSC 16 CFR 1201
      EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE GLAZING IN STORM OR COMBINATION DOORS (Category Class) GLAZING IN DOORS (Category Class) GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 7 OF SECTION R308.4 (Category Class) GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 6 OF SECTION R308.4 (Category Class) GLAZING IN DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED BY ITEM 5 OF SECTION R308.4 (Category Class) SLIDING GLASS DOORS PATIO TYPE (Category Class)
      9 square feet or less I I NR I II II
      More than 9 square feet II II II II II II
      For SI:        1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
      NR means "No Requirement."

       

      TABLE R308.3.1 (2)
      MINIMUM CATEGORY CLASSIFICATION OF GLAZING USING ANSI Z97.1
      EXPOSED SURFACE AREA OF ONE SIDE OF ONE LITE GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 7 OF SECTION R308.4
      (Category Class)
      GLAZED PANELS REGULATED BY ITEM 6 OF SECTION R308.4
      (Category Class)
      DOORS AND ENCLOSURES REGULATED BY ITEM 5 OF SECTION R308.4a
      (Category Class)
      9 square feet or less No requirement B A
      More than 9 square feet A A A
      For SI:        1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
      a. Use is permitted only by the exception to Section R308.3.1.
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    4. Glazing adjacent to a door where access through the door is to a closet or storage area 3 feet (914 mm) or less in depth.
    5. Glazing that is adjacent to the fixed panel of patio doors.
  3. Glazing in an individual fixed or operable panel that meets all of the following conditions:

    3.1. The exposed area of an individual pane is larger than 9 square feet (0.836 m2); and

    3.2. The bottom edge of the glazing is less than 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor; and

    3.3. The top edge of the glazing is more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor; and

    3.4. One or more walking surfaces are within 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the glazing.

    Exceptions:

    1. Decorative glazing.
    2. When a horizontal rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be a minimum of inches (38 mm) in cross sectional height.
    3. Outboard panes in insulating glass units and other multiple glazed panels when the bottom edge of the glass is 25 feet (7620 mm) or more above grade, a roof, walking surfaces or other horizontal [within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of horizontal] surface adjacent to the glass exterior.
  4. All glazing in railings regardless of area or height above a walking surface. Included are structural baluster panels and nonstructural infill panels.
  5. Glazing in enclosures for or walls facing hot tubs, whirlpools, saunas, steam rooms, bathtubs and showers where the bottom exposed edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) measured vertically above any standing or walking surface.

    Exception: Glazing that is more than 60 inches (1524 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, from the waters edge of a hot tub, whirlpool or bathtub.

  6. Glazing in walls and fences adjacent to indoor and outdoor swimming pools, hot tubs and spas where the bottom edge of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above a walking surface and within 60 inches (1524 mm), measured horizontally and in a straight line, of the water's edge. This shall apply to single glazing and all panes in multiple glazing.
  7. Glazing adjacent to stairways, landings and ramps within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally ofa walking surface when the exposed surface of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the plane of the adjacent walking surface.

    Exceptions:

    1. When a rail is installed on the accessible side(s) of the glazing 34 to 38 inches (864 to 965 mm) above the walking surface. The rail shall be capable of withstanding a horizontal load of 50 pounds per linear foot (730 N/m) without contacting the glass and be a minimum of inches (38 mm) in cross sectional height.
    2. The side of the stairway has a guardrail or hand-rail, including balusters or in-fill panels, complying with Sections R311. 7.6 and R312 and the plane of the glazing is more than 18 inches (457 mm) from the railing; or
    3. When a solid wall or panel extends from the plane of the adjacent walking surface to 34 inches (863 mm) to 36 inches (914 mm) above the walking surface and the construction at the top of that wall or panel is capable ofwithstanding the same horizontal load as a guard.
  8. Glazing adjacent to stairways within 60 inches (1524 mm) horizontally of the bottom tread of a stairway in any direction when the exposed surface of the glazing is less than 60 inches (1524 mm) above the nose of the tread.

    Exceptions:

    1. The side of the stairway has a guardrail or hand-rail, including balusters or in-fill panels, complying with Sections R311. 7.6 and R312 and the plane of the glass is more than 18 inches (457 mm) from the railing; or
    2. When a solid wall or panel extends from the plane of the adjacent walking surface to 34 inches (864 mm) to 36 inches (914 mm) above the walking surface and the construction at the top of that wall or panel is capable ofwithstanding the same horizontalload as a guard.

R308.5 Site built windows. Site built windows shall comply with Section 2404 of the International BUilding Code.

R308.6 Skylights and sloped glazing. Skylights and sloped glazing shall comply with the following sections.

R308.6.1 Definitions.

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing materials in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls are included in this definition.

UNIT SKYLIGHT. A factory assembled, glazed fenestration unit, containing one panel of glazing material, that allows for natural daylighting through an opening in the roof assembly while preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof.

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R308.6.2 Permitted materials. The following types of glazing may be used:

  1. Laminated glass with a minimum 0.015-inch (0.38 mm) polyvinyl butyral interlayer for glass panes 16 square feet (1.5 m2) or less in area located such that the highest point of the glass is not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area; for higher or larger sizes, the minimum interlayer thickness shall be 0.030 inch (0.76 mm).
  2. Fully tempered glass.
  3. Heat-strengthened glass.
  4. Wired glass.
  5. Approved rigid plastics.

R308.6.3 Screens, general. For fully tempered or heat-strengthened glass, a retaining screen meeting the requirements of Section R308.6.7 shall be installed below the glass, except for fully tempered glass that meets either condition listed in Section R308.6.5.

R308.6.4 Screens with multiple glazing. When the inboard pane is fully tempered, heat-strengthened or wired glass, a retaining screen meeting the requirements of Section R308.6.7 shall be installed below the glass, except for either condition listed in Section R308.6.5. All other panes in the multiple glazing may be of any type listed in Section R308.6.2.

R308.6.5 Screens not required. Screens shall not be required when fully tempered glass is used as single glazing or the inboard pane in multiple glazing and either of the following conditions are met:

  1. Glass area 16 square feet (1.49 m2) or less. Highest point of glass not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area, nominal glass thickness not more than 3/16 inch (4.8 mm), and (for multiple glazing only) the other pane or panes fully tempered, laminated or wired glass.
  2. Glass area greater than 16 square feet (1.49 m2). Glass sloped 30 degrees (0.52 rad) or less from vertical, and highest point of glass not more than 10 feet (3048 mm) above a walking surface or other accessible area.

R308.6.6 Glass in greenhouses. Any glazing material is permitted to be installed without screening in the sloped areas of greenhouses, provided the greenhouse height at the ridge does not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) above grade.

R308.6.7 Screen characteristics. The screen and its fastenings shall be capable of supporting twice the weight of the glazing, be firmly and substantially fastened to the framing members, and have a mesh opening of no more than 1 inch by 1 inch (25 mm by 25 mm).

R308.6.8 Curbs for skylights. All unit skylights installed in a roof with a pitch flatter than three units vertical in 12 units horizontal (25-percent slope) shall be mounted on a curb extending at least 4 inches (102 mm) above the plane of the roof unless otherwise specified in the manufacturer's installation instructions.

R308.6.9 Testing and labeling. Unit skylights shall be tested by an approved independent laboratory, and bear a label identifying manufacturer, performance grade rating and approved inspection agency to indicate compliance with the requirements of AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440.

SECTION R309
GARAGES AND CARPORTS

R309.1 Floor surface. Garage floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

R309.2 Carports. Carports shall be open on at least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this section for garages.

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

R309.3 Flood hazard areas. For buildings located in flood hazard areas as established by Table R301.2(1), garage floors shall be:

  1. Elevated to or above the design flood elevation as determined in Section R322; or
  2. Located below the design flood elevation provided they are at or above grade on at least one side, are used solely for parking, building access or storage, meet the requirements of Section R322 and are otherwise constructed in accordance with this code.

R309.4 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic garage door openers, ifprovided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.

SECTION R310
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENINGS

R310.1 Emergency escape and rescue required. Basements, habitable attics and every sleeping room shall have at least one operable emergency escape and rescue opening. Where basements contain one or more sleeping rooms, emergency egress and rescue openings shall be required in each sleeping room. Where emergency escape and rescue openings are provided they shall have a sill height of not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above the floor. Where a door opening having a threshold below the adjacent ground elevation serves as an emergency escape and rescue opening and is provided with a bulkhead enclosure, the bulkhead enclosure shall comply with Section R310.3. The net clear opening dimensions required by this section shall be obtained by the normal operation of the emergency escape and rescue opening from the inside. Emergency escape and rescue openings with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground elevation shall be provided with a window

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well in accordance with Section R310.2. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall open directly into a public way, or to a yard or court that opens to a public way.

Exception: Basements used only to house mechanical equipment and not exceeding total floor area of 200 square feet (18.58 m2).

R310.1.1 Minimum opening area. All emergency escape and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet (0.530 m2).

Exception: Grade floor openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5 square feet (0.465 m2).

R310.1.2 Minimum opening height. The minimum net clear opening height shall be 24 inches (610 mm).

R310.1.3 Minimum opening width. The minimum net clear opening width shall be 20 inches (508 mm).

R310.1.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall be operational from the inside of the room without the use of keys, tools or special knowledge.

R310.2 Window wells. The minimum horizontal area of the window well shall be 9 square feet (0.9 m2), with a minimum horizontal projection and width of 36 inches (914 mm). The area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue opening to be fully opened.

Exception: The ladder or steps required by Section R310.2.1 shall be permitted to encroach a maximum of 6 inches (152 mm) into the required dimensions of the window well.

R310.2.1 Ladder and steps. Window wells with a vertical depth greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be equipped with a permanently affixed ladder or steps usable with the window in the fully open position. Ladders or steps required by this section shall not be required to comply with Sections R311.7 and R311.8. Ladders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 12 inches (305 mm), shall project at least 3 inches (76 mm) from the wall and shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) on center vertically for the full height of the window well.

R310.3 Bulkhead enclosures. Bulkhead enclosures shall provide direct access to the basement. The bulkhead enclosure with the door panels in the fully open position shall provide the minimum net clear opening required by Section R310.1.1. Bulkhead enclosures shall also comply with Section R311.7.8.2.

R310.4 Bars, grilles, covers and screens. Bars, grilles, covers, screens or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and rescue openings, bulkhead enclosures, or window wells that serve such openings, provided the minimum net clear opening size complies with Sections R31 0.1.1 to R31 0.1.3, and such devices shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool, special knowledge or force greater than that which is required for normal operation of the escape and rescue opening.

R310.5 Emergency escape windows under decks and porches. Emergency escape windows are allowed to be installed under decks and porches provided the location of the deck allows the emergency escape window to be fully opened and provides a path not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height to a yard or court.

SECTION R311
MEANS OF EGRESS

R311.1 Means of egress. All dwellings shall be provided with a means of egress as provided in this section. The means of egress shall provide a continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from all portions of the dwelling to the exterior of the dwelling at the required egress door without requiring travel through a garage.

R311.2 Egress door. At least one egress door shall be provided for each dwelling unit. The egress door shall be side-hinged, and shall provide a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) when measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). The minimum clear height of the door opening shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height measured from the top of the threshold to the bottom of the stop. Other doors shall not be required to comply with these minimum dimensions. Egress doors shall be readily openable from inside the dwelling without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

R311.3 Floors and landings at exterior doors. There shall be a landing or floor on each side of each exterior door. The width of each landing shall not be less than the door served. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction oftravel. Exterior landings shall be permitted to have a slope not to exceed ¼ unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent).

Exception: Exterior balconies less than 60 square feet (5.6 m2) and only accessible from a door are permitted to have a landing less than 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel.

R311.3.1 Floor elevations at the required egress doors. Landings or floors at the required egress door shall not be more than 1½ inches (38 mm) lower than the top of the threshold.

Exception: The exterior landing or floor shall not be more than 7¾ inches (196 mm) below the top of the threshold provided the door does not swing over the landing or floor.

When exterior landings or floors serving the required egress door are not at grade, they shall be provided with access to grade by means of a ramp in accordance with Section R311.8 or a stairway in accordance with Section R311.7.

R311.3.2 Floor elevations for other exterior doors. Doors other than the required egress door shall be provided with landings or floors not more than 7¾ inches (196 mm) below the top of the threshold.

Exception: A landing is not required where a stairway of two or fewer risers is located on the exterior side of the door, provided the door does not swing over the stairway.

R311.3.3 Storm and screen doors. Storm and screen doors shall be permitted to swing over all exterior stairs and landings.

R311.4 Vertical egress. Egress from habitable levels including habitable attics and basements not provided with an egress door in accordance with Section R311.2 shall be by a ramp in

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accordance with Section R311.8 or a stairway in accordance with Section R311.7.

R311.5 Construction.

R311.5.1 Attachment. Exterior landings, decks, balconies, stairs and similar facilities shall be positively anchored to the primary structure to resist both vertical and lateral forces or shall be designed to be self-supporting. Attachment shall not be accomplished by use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal.

R311.6 Hallways. The minimum width of a hallway shall be not less than 3 feet (914 mm).

R311.7 Stairways.

R311.7.1 Width. Stairways shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in clear width at all points above the permitted handrail height and below the required headroom height. Handrails shall not project more than 4.5 inches (114 mm) on either side of the stairway and the minimum clear width of the stairway at and below the handrail height, including treads and landings, shall not be less than 31 ½ inches (787 mm) where a handrail is installed on one side and 27 inches (698 mm) where handrails are provided on both sides.

Exception: The width of spiral stairways shall be in accordance with Section R311.7.9.1.

R311.7.2 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all parts of the stairway shall not be less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically from the sloped line adjoining the tread nosing or from the floor surface of the landing or platform on that portion of the stairway.

Exception: Where the nosings of treads at the side of a flight extend under the edge of a floor opening through which the stair passes, the floor opening shall be allowed to project horizontally into the required headroom a maximum of 4¾ inches (121 mm).

R311.7.3 Walkline. The walkline across winder treads shall be concentric to the curved direction of travel through the turn and located 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the winders are narrower. The 12-inch (305 mm) dimension shall be measured from the widest point of the clear stair width at the walking surface of the winder. If winders are adjacent within the flight, the point of the widest clear stair width of the adjacent winders shall be used.

R311.7.4 Stair treads and risers. Stair treads and risers shall meet the requirements of this section. For the purposes of this section all dimensions and dimensioned surfaces shall be exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners.

R311.7.4.1 Riser height. The maximum riser height shall be 7¾ inches (196 mm). The riser shall be measured vertically between leading edges of the adjacent treads. The greatest riser height within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than ⅜ inch (9.5 mm).

R311.7.4.2 Tread depth. The minimum tread depth shall be 10 inches (254 mm). The tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread's leading edge. The greatest tread depth within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than ⅜ inch (9.5 mm). Consistently shaped winders at the walkline shall be allowed within the same flight of stairs as rectangular treads and do not have to be within ⅜ inch (9.5 mm) of the rectangular tread depth.

Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) measured between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the intersections with the walkline. Winder treads shall have a minimum tread depth of 6 inches (152 mm) at any point within the clear width of the stair. Within any flight of stairs, the largest winder tread depth at the walkline shall not exceed the smallest winder tread by more than ⅜ inch (9.5 mm).

R311.7.4.3 Profile. The radius of curvature at the nosing shall be no greater than 9/16 inch (14 mm). A nosing not less than ¾ inch (19 mm) but not more than 1¼ inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with solid risers. The greatest nosing projection shall not exceed the smallest nosing projection by more than ⅜ inch (9.5 mm) between two stories, including the nosing at the level offloors and landings. Beveling ofnosings shall not exceed ½ inch (12.7 mm). Risers shall be vertical or sloped under the tread above from the underside of the nosing above at an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.51 rad) from the vertical. Open risers are permitted, provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a 4-inch diameter (102 mm) sphere.

Exceptions:

  1. A nosing is not required where the tread depth is a minimum of 11 inches (279 mm).
  2. The opening between adjacent treads is not limited on stairs with a total rise of 30 inches (762 mm) or less.

R311.7.4.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite stair treads. Wood/plastic composite stair treads shall comply with the provisions of Section R31 7.4.

R311.7.5 Landings for stairways. There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway.

Exception: A floor or landing is not required at the top of an interior flight of stairs, including stairs in an enclosed garage, provided a door does not swing over the stairs. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise larger than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or landings. The width ofeach landing shall not be less than the width ofthe stairway served. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm) measured in the direction of travel.

R311.7.6 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface of treads and landings of stairways shall be sloped no steeper than one unit vertical in 48 inches horizontal (2-percent slope).

R311.7.7 Handrails. Handrails shall be provided on at least one side of each continuous run of treads or flight with four or more risers.

R311.7.7.1 Height. Handrail height, measured vertically from the sloped plane adjoining the tread nosing, or

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finish surface of ramp slope, shall be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. The use of a volute, turnout or starting easing shall be allowed over the lowest tread.
  2. When handrail fittings or bendings are used to provide continuous transition between flights, the transition from handrail to guardrail, or used at the start of a flight, the handrail height at the fittings or bendings shall be permitted to exceed the maximum height.

R311.7.7.2 Continuity. Handrails for stairways shall be continuous for the full length of the flight, from a point directly above the top riser of the flight to a point directly above the lowest riser ofthe flight. Handrail ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space of not less than 1½ inch (38 mm) between the wall and the handrails.

Exceptions:

  1. Handrails shall be permitted to be interrupted by a newel post at the turn.
  2. The use of a volute, turnout, starting easing or starting newel shall be allowed over the lowest tread.

R311.7.7.3 Grip-size. All required handrails shall be of one of the following types or provide equivalent graspability.

  1. Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter ofat least 1¼ inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm). If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 6¼ inches (160 mm) with a maximum cross section of dimension of 2 ¼ inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).
  2. Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 6¼ inches (160 mm) shall have a graspable finger recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall begin within a distance of ¾ inch (19 mm) measured vertically from the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a depth of at least 5/16 inch (8 mm) within ⅞ inch (22 mm) below the widest portion of the profile. This required depth shall continue for at least ⅜ inch (10 mm) to a level that is not less than 1¾ inches (45 mm) below the tallest portion of the profile. The minimum width of the handrail above the recess shall be 1¼ inches (32 mm) to a maximum of 2¾ inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).

R311.7.7.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite handrails. Wood/plastic composite handrails shall comply with the provisions of Section R31 7.4.

R311.7.8 Illumination. All stairs shall be provided with illumination in accordance with Section R303.6.

R311.7.9 Special stairways. Spiral stairways and bulkhead enclosure stairways shall comply with all requirements of Section R311. 7 except as specified below.

R311.7.9.1 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted, provided the minimum clear width at and below the handrail shall be 26 inches (660 mm) with each tread having a 7½- inch (190 mm) minimum tread depth at 12 inches (914 mm) from the narrower edge. All treads shall be identical, and the rise shall be no more than 9½ inches (241 mm). A minimum headroom of 6 feet 6 inches (1982 mm) shall be provided.

R311.7.9.2 Bulkhead enclosure stairways. Stairways serving bulkhead enclosures, not part of the required building egress, providing access from the outside grade level to the basement shall be exempt from the requirements of Sections R311.3 and R311. 7 where the maximum height from the basement finished floor level to grade adjacent to the stairway does not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) and the grade level opening to the stairway is covered by a bulkhead enclosure with hinged doors or other approved means.

R311.8 Ramps.

R311.8.1 Maximum slope. Ramps shall have a maximum slope of 1 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.3 percent slope).

Exception: Where it is technically infeasible to comply because of site constraints, ramps may have a maximum slope of one unit vertical in eight horizontal (12.5 percent slope).

R311.8.2 Landings required. A minimum 3-foot-by-3-foot (914 mm by 914 mm) landing shall be provided:

  1. At the top and bottom of ramps.
  2. Where doors open onto ramps.
  3. Where ramps change direction.

R311.8.3 Handrails required. Handrails shall be provided on at least one side ofall ramps exceeding a slope of one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8.33-percent slope).

R311.8.3.1 Height. Handrail height, measured above the finished surface ofthe ramp slope, shall be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm).

R311.8.3.2 Grip size. Handrails on ramps shall comply with Section R311.7.7.3.

R311.8.3.3 Continuity. Handrails where required on ramps shall be continuous for the full length of the ramp. Handrail ends shall be returned or shall terminate in newel posts or safety terminals. Handrails adjacent to a wall shall have a space of not less than 1½ inches (38 mm) between the wall and the handrails.

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SECTION R312
GUARDS

R312.1 Where required. Guards shall be located along open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, ramps and landings, that are located more than 30 inches (762 mm) measured vertically to the floor or grade below at any point within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally to the edge of the open side. Insect screening shall not be considered as a guard.

R312.2 Height. Required guards at open-sided walking surfaces, including stairs, porches, balconies or landings, shall be not less than 36 inches (914 mm) high measured vertically above the adjacent walking surface, adjacent fixed seating or the line connecting the leading edges of the treads.

Exceptions:

  1. Guards on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges ofthe treads.
  2. Where the top of the guardalso serves as a handrail on the open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall not be not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.

R312.3 Opening limitations. Required guards shall not have openings from the walking surface to the required guardheight which allow passage ofa sphere 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter.

Exceptions:

  1. The triangular openings at the open side of a stair, formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail of a guard, shall not allow passage of a sphere 6 inches (153 mm) in diameter.
  2. Guards on the open sides ofstairs shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 4⅜ inches (111 mm) in diameter.

R312.4 Exterior woodplastic composite guards. Woodplastic composite guards shall comply with the provisions of Section R317.4.

SECTION R313
AUTOMATIC FIRE SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

R313.1 Townhouse automatic fire sprinkler systems. An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall be installed in townhouses.

Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall not be required when additions or alterations are made to existing townhouses that do not have an automatic residential fire sprinkler system installed.

R313.1.1 Design and installation. Automatic residential fire sprinkler systems for townhouses shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section P2904.

R313.2 One- and two-family dwellings automatic fire systems. Effective January 1, 2011, an automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall be installed in one- and two- family dwellings.

Exception: An automatic residential fire sprinkler system shall not be required for additions or alterations to existing buildings that are not already provided with an automatic residential sprinkler system.

R313.2.1 Design and installation. Automatic residential fire sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section P2904 or NFPA 13D.

SECTION R314
SMOKE ALARMS

R314.1 Smoke detection and notification. All smoke alarms shall be listed in accordance with UL 21 7 and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and the household fire warning equipment provisions of NFPA 72.

R314.2 Smoke detection systems. Household fire alarm systems installed in accordance with NFPA 72 that include smoke alarms, or a combination of smoke detector and audible notification device installed as required by this section for smoke alarms, shall be permitted. The household fire alarm system shall provide the same level of smoke detection and alarm as required by this section for smoke alarms. Where a household fire warning system is installed using a combination of smoke detector and audible notification device(s), it shall become a permanent fixture of the occupancy and owned by the homeowner. The system shall be monitored by an approved supervising station and be maintained in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Where smoke alarms are provided meeting the requirements of Section R314.4.

R314.3 Location. Smoke alarms shall be installed in the following locations:

  1. In each sleeping room.
  2. Outside each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms.
  3. On each additional storyof the dwelling, including basements and habitable attics but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

When more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit the alarm devices shall be interconnected in such a manner that the actuation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit.

R314.3.1 Alterations, repairs and additions. When alterations, repairs or additions requiring a permit occur, or when one or more sleeping rooms are added or created in existing dwellings, the individual dwelling unit shall be equipped with smoke alarms located as required for new dwellings.

Exceptions:

  1. Work involving the exterior surfaces of dwellings, such as the replacement of roofing or siding, or the addition or replacement of windows or doors, or 62 the addition of a porch or deck, are exempt from the requirements of this section.
  2. Installation, alteration or repairs of plumbing or mechanical systems are exempt from the requirements of this section.

R314.4 Power source. Smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring when such wiring is served from a commercial source, and when primary power is interrupted, shall receive power from a battery. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than those required for overcurrent protection. Smoke alarms shall be interconnected.

Exceptions:

  1. Smoke alarms shall be permitted to be battery operated when installed in buildings without commercial power.
  2. Interconnection and hard-wiring of smoke alarms in existing areas shall not be required where the alterations or repairs do not result in the removal of interior wall or ceiling finishes exposing the structure, unless there is an attic, crawl space or basementavailable which could provide access for hard wiring and interconnection without the removal of interior finishes.

SECTION R315
CARBON MONOXIDE ALARMS

R315.1 Carbon monoxide alarms. For new construction, an approved carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedrooms in dwelling units within which fuel-fired appliances are installed and in dwelling units that have attached garages.

R315.2 Where required in existing dwellings. Where work requiring a permit occurs in existing dwellings that have attached garages or in existing dwellings within which fuel-fired appliances exist, carbon monoxide alarms shall be provided in accordance with Section R315.1.

R315.3 Alarm requirements. Single station carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with UL 2034 and shall be installed in accordance with this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

SECTION R316
FOAM PLASTIC

R316.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern the materials, design, application, construction and installation of foam plastic materials.

R316.2 Labeling and identification. Packages and containers of foam plastic insulation and foam plastic insulation components delivered to the job site shall bear the label of an approved agencyshowing the manufacturer's name, the product listing, product identification and information sufficient to determine that the end use will comply with the requirements.

R316.3 Surface burning characteristics. Unless otherwise allowed in Section R316.5 or R316.6, all foam plastic or foam plastic cores used as a component in manufactured assemblies used in building construction shall have a flame spread index of not more than 75 and shall have a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested in the maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Loose-fill type foam plastic insulation shall be tested as board stock for the flame spread index and smoke-developed index.

Exception: Foam plastic insulation more than 4 inches (102 mm) thick shall have a maximum flame spread index of 75 and a smoke-developed index of 450 where tested at a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm), provided the end use is approved in accordance with Section R316. 6 using the thickness and density intended for use.

R316.4 Thermal barrier. Unless otherwise allowed in Section R316.5 or Section R316.6, foam plastic shall be separated from the interior of a building by an approvedthermal barrier of minimum ½ inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard or an approvedfinish material equivalent to a thermal barrier material that will limit the average temperature rise of the unexposed surface to no more than 250°F (139°C) after 15 minutes of fire exposure complying with the ASTM E 119 or UL 263 standard time temperature curve. The thermal barrier shall be installed in such a manner that it will remain in place for 15 minutes based on NFPA 286 with the acceptance criteria of Section R302.9.4, FM 4880, UL 1040 or UL 1715.

R316.5 Specific requirements. The following requirements shall apply to these uses of foam plastic unless specifically approved in accordance with Section R316.6 or by other sections of the code or the requirements of Sections R316.2 through R316.4 have been met.

R316.5.1 Masonry or concrete construction. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required in a masonry or concrete wall, floor or roof when the foam plastic insulation is separated from the interior of the building by a minimum I-inch (25 mm) thickness of masonry or concrete.

R316.5.2 Roofing. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required when the foam plastic in a roof assembly or under a roof covering is installed in accordance with the code and the manufacturer's installation instructions and is separated from the interior of the building by tongue-and-groove wood planks or wood structural panel sheathing in accordance with Section R803, not less than 15/32 inch (11.9 mm) thick bonded with exterior glue and identified as Exposure 1, with edges supported by blocking or tongue-and-groove joints or an equivalent material. The smoke-developed index for roof applications shall not be limited.

R316.5.3 Attics. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required where all of the following apply:

  1. Attic access is required by Section R807.1.
  2. The space is entered only for purposes of repairs or maintenance. 63
  3. The foam plastic insulation is protected against ignition using one of the following ignition barrier materials:

    3.1. 11/z-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation;

    3.2. ¼-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural panels;

    3.3. 3/s-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard;

    3.4. ¼-inch (6.4 mm) hardboard;

    3.5. 3/s-inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or

    3.6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm).

The above ignition barrier is not required where the foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section R316.6.

R316.5.4 Crawl spaces. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required where all of the following apply:

  1. Crawlspace access is required by Section R408.4
  2. Entry is made only for purposes of repairs or maintenance.
  3. The foam plastic insulation is protected against ignition using one of the following ignition barrier materials:

    3.1. 11/z-inch-thick (38 mm) mineral fiber insulation;

    3.2. ¼-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wood structural panels;

    3.3. 3/s-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard;

    3.4. ¼-inch (6.4 mm) hardboard;

    3.5. 3/s-inch (9.5 mm) gypsum board; or

    3.6. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.406 mm).

The above ignition barrier is not required where the foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section R316.6.

R316.5.5 Foam-filled exterior doors. Foam-filled exterior doors are exempt from the requirements of Sections R316. 3 and R316.4.

R316.5.6 Foam-filled garage doors. Foam-filled garage doors in attached or detached garages are exempt from the requirements of Sections R316.3 and R316.4.

R316.5.7 Foam backer board. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required where siding backer board foam plastic insulation has a maximum thickness of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential heat of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kJ/mZ) when tested in accordance with NFPA 259 provided that:

  1. The foam plastic insulation is separated from the interior of the building by not less than 2 inches (51 mm) of mineral fiber insulation or
  2. The foam plastic insulation is installed over existing exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding or
  3. The foam plastic insulation has been tested in accordance with Section R316.6.

R316.5.8 Re-siding. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required where the foam plastic insulation is installed over existing exterior wall finish in conjunction with re-siding provided the foam plastic has a maximum thickness of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and a potential heat of not more than 2000 Btu per square foot (22 720 kJ/mZ) when tested in accordance with NFPA 259.

R316.5.9 Interior trim. The thermal barrier specified in Section R316.4 is not required for exposed foam plastic interior trim, provided all of the following are met:

  1. The minimum density is 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3).
  2. The maximum thickness of the trim is 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) and the maximum width is 8 inches (204 mm).
  3. The interior trim shall not constitute more than 10 percent of the aggregate wall and ceiling area of any room or space.
  4. The flame spread index does not exceed 75 when tested per ASTM E 84. The smoke-developed index is not limited.

R316.5.10 Interior finish. Foam plastics shall be permitted as interior finish where approvedin accordance with Section R316.6 Foam plastics that are used as interior finish shall also meet the flame spread index and smoke-developed index requirements of Sections R302.9.1 and R302.9.2.

R316.5.11 Sill plates and headers. Foam plastic shall be permitted to be spray applied to a sill plate and header without the thermal barrier specified in Section R316. 4 subject to all of the following:

  1. The maximum thickness of the foam plastic shall be 3¼ inches (83 mm).
  2. The density of the foam plastic shall be in the range of 0.5 to 2.0 pounds per cubic foot (8 to 32 kg/m3).
  3. The foam plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and an accompanying smoke developed index of 450 or less when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

R316.5.12 Sheathing. Foam plastic insulation used as sheathing shall comply with Section R316.3 and Section R316. 4. Where the foam plastic sheathing is exposed to the attic space at a gable or kneewall, the provisions of Section R316.5.3 shall apply.

R316.6 Specific approval. Foam plastic not meeting the requirements of Sections R316.3 through R316.5 shall be specifically approved on the basis of one of the following approved tests: NFPA 286 with the acceptance criteria of Section R302.9.4, FM4880, UL 723, UL 1040 or UL 1715, or fire tests related to actual end-use configurations. The specific approval shall be based on the actual end use configuration and shall be performed on the finished foam plastic assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use. Assemblies tested shall

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include seams,joints and other typical details used in the installation of the assembly and shall be tested in the manner intended for use.

R316.7 Termite damage. The use of foam plastics in areas of "very heavy" termite infestation probability shall be in accordance with Section R318.4.

SECTION R317
PROTECTION OF WOOD AND WOOD BASED PRODUCTS AGAINST DECAY

R317.1 Location required. Protection of wood and wood based products from decay shall be provided in the following locations by the use of naturally durable wood or wood that is preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA VI for the species, product, preservative and end use. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA VI.

  1. Wood joists or the bottom of a wood structural floor when closer than 18 inches (457 mm) or wood girders when closer than 12 inches (305 mm) to the exposed ground in crawl spaces or unexcavated area located within the periphery of the building foundation.
  2. All wood framing members that rest on concrete or masonry exterior foundation walls and are less than 8 inches (203 mm) from the exposed ground.
  3. Sills and sleepers on a concrete or masonry slab that is in direct contact with the ground unless separated from such slab by an impervious moisture barrier.
  4. The ends of wood girders entering exterior masonry or concrete walls having clearances of less than ½ inch (12.7 mm) on tops, sides and ends.
  5. Wood siding, sheathing and wall framing on the exterior ofa building having a clearance ofless than 6 inches (152 mm) from the ground or less than 2 inches (51 mm) measured vertically from concrete steps, porch slabs, patio slabs, and similar horizontal surfaces exposed to the weather.
  6. Wood structural members supporting moisture-permeable floors or roofs that are exposed to the weather, such as concrete or masonry slabs, unless separated from such floors or roofs by an impervious moisture barrier.
  7. Wood furring strips or other wood framing members attached directly to the interior of exterior masonry walls or concrete walls below grade except where an approved vapor retarder is applied between the wall and the furring strips or framing members.

R317.1.1 Field treatment. Field-cut ends, notches and drilled holes of preservative-treated wood shall be treated in the field in accordance with AWPA M4.

R317.1.2 Ground contact. All wood in contact with the ground, embedded in concrete in direct contact with the ground or embedded in concrete exposed to the weather that supports permanent structures intended for human occupancy shall be approved pressure-preservative-treated wood suitable for ground contact use, except untreated wood may be used where entirely below groundwater level or continuously submerged in fresh water.

R317.1.3 Geographical areas. In geographical areas where experience has demonstrated a specific need, approvednaturally durable or pressure-preservative-treated wood shall be used for those portions of wood members that form the structural supports of buildings, balconies, porches or similar permanent building appurtenances when those members are exposed to the weather without adequate protection from a roof, eave, overhang or other covering that would prevent moisture or water accumulation on the surface or at joints between members. Depending on local experience, such members may include:

  1. Horizontal members such as girders, joists and decking.
  2. Vertical members such as posts, poles and columns.
  3. Both horizontal and vertical members.

R317.1.4 Wood columns. Wood columns shall be approved wood of natural decay resistance or approved pressure-preservative-treated wood.

Exceptions:

  1. Columns exposed to the weather or in basements when supported by concrete piers or metal pedestals projecting 1 inch (25.4 mm) above a concrete floor or 6 inches (152 mm) above exposed earth and the earth is covered by an approved impervious moisture barrier.
  2. Columns in enclosed crawl spaces or unexcavated areas located within the periphery of the building when supported by a concrete pier or metal pedestal at a height more than 8 inches (203mm) from exposed earth and the earth is covered by an impervious moisture barrier.

R317.1.5 Exposed glued-laminated timbers. The portions of glued-laminated timbers that form the structural supports of a building or other structure and are exposed to weather and not properly protected by a roof, eave or similar covering shall be pressure treated with preservative, or be manufactured from naturally durable or preservative-treated wood.

R317.2 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with Section R318.1 shall bear the quality markofan approvedinspection agency that maintains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the quality of the product and that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with the requirements of the American Lumber Standard Committee treated wood program.

R317.2.1 Required information. The required quality mark on each piece of pressure-preservative-treated lumber or plywood shall contain the following information:

  1. Identification of the treating plant.
  2. Type of preservative.
  3. The minimum preservative retention.
  4. End use for which the product was treated.
  5. Standard to which the product was treated. 65
  6. Identity of the approved inspection agency.
  7. The designation "Dry," if applicable.

Exception: Quality marks on lumber less than 1 inch (25.4 mm) nominal thickness, or lumber less than nominal 1 inch by 5 inches (25.4 mm by 127 mm) or 2 inches by 4 inches (51 mm by 102 mm) or lumber 36 inches (914 mm) or less in length shall be applied by stamping the faces of exterior pieces or by end labeling not less than 25 percent of the pieces of a bundled unit.

R317.3 Fasteners and connectors in contact with preservative-treated and fire-retardant-treated wood. Fasteners and connectors in contact with preservative-treated wood and fire-retardant-treated wood shall be in accordance with this section. The coating weights for zinc-coated fasteners shall be in accordance with ASTM A 153.

R317.3.1 Fasteners for preservative-treated wood. Fasteners for preservative-treated wood shall be of hot dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Coating types and weights for connectors in contact with preservative-treated wood shall be in accordance with the connector manufacturer's recommendations. In the absence of manufacturer's recommendations, a minimum of ASTM A 653 type G185 zinc-coated galvanized steel, or equivalent, shall be used.

Exceptions:

  1. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) diameter or greater steel bolts.
  2. Fasteners other than nails and timber rivets shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum.

R317.3.2 Fastenings for wood foundations. Fastenings for wood foundations shall be as required in AF&PA Technical Report No.7.

R317.3.3 Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in exterior applications or wet or damp locations. Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in exterior applications or wet or damp locations shall be of hot-dipped zinc-coated galvanized steel, stainless steel, silicon bronze or copper. Fasteners other than nails and timber rivets shall be permitted to be of mechanically deposited zinc-coated steel with coating weights in accordance with ASTM B 695, Class 55 minimum.

R317.3.4 Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in interior applications. Fasteners for fire-retardant-treated wood used in interior locations shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. In the absence of the manufacturer's recommendations, Section R317.3.3 shall apply.

R317.4 Wood/plastic composites. Wood/plastic composites used in exterior deck boards, stair treads, handrails and guard-rail systems shall bear a label indicating the required performance levels and demonstrating compliance with the provisions of ASTM D 7032.

R317.4.1 Wood/plastic composites shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

SECTION R318
PROTECTION AGAINST SUBTERRANEAN TERMITES

R318.1 Subterranean termite control methods. In areas subject to damage from termites as indicated by Table R301.2(1), methods of protection shall be one of the following methods or a combination of these methods:

  1. Chemical termiticide treatment, as provided in Section R318.2.
  2. Termite baiting system installed and maintained according to the label.
  3. Pressure-preservative-treated wood in accordance with the provisions of Section R31 7.1.
  4. Naturally durable termite-resistant wood.
  5. Physical barriers as provided in Section R318.3 and used in locations as specified in Section R318.1.
  6. Cold-formed steel framing in accordance with Sections R505.2.1 and R603.2.1.

R318.1.1 Quality mark. Lumber and plywood required to be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with Section R318.1 shall bear the quality mark of an approved inspection agency which maintains continuing supervision, testing and inspection over the quality of the product and which has been approvedby an accreditation body which complies with the requirements of the American Lumber Standard Committee treated wood program.

R318.1.2 Field treatment. Field-cut ends, notches, and drilled holes of pressure-preservative-treated wood shall be retreated in the field in accordance with AWPA M4.

R318.2 Chemical termiticide treatment. Chemical termiticide treatment shall include soil treatment and/or field applied wood treatment. The concentration, rate of application and method of treatment of the chemical termiticide shall be in strict accordance with the termiticide label.

R318.3 Barriers. Approvedphysical barriers, such as metal or plastic sheeting or collars specifically designed for termite prevention, shall be installed in a manner to prevent termites from entering the structure. Shields placed on top of an exterior foundation wall are permitted to be used only if in combination with another method of protection.

R318.4 Foam plastic protection. In areas where the probability of termite infestation is "very heavy" as indicated in Figure R30 1.2 (6), extruded and expanded polystyrene, polyisocyanurate and other foam plastics shall not be installed on the exterior face or under interior or exterior foundation walls or slab foundations located below grade. The clearance between foam plastics installed above grade and exposed earth shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings where the structural members of walls, floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncombustible 66 materials or pressure-preservative-treated wood.
  2. When in addition to the requirements of Section R318.1, an approved method of protecting the foam plastic and structure from subterranean termite damage is used.
  3. On the interior side of basement walls.

SECTION R319
SITE ADDRESS

R319.1 Address numbers. Buildings shall have approved address numbers, building numbers or approvedbuilding identification placed in a position that is plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting the property. These numbers shall contrast with their background. Address numbers shall be Arabic numbers or alphabetical letters. Numbers shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) high with a minimum stroke width of ½ inch (12.7 mm). Where access is by means of a private road and the building address cannot be viewed from the public way, a monument, pole or other sign or means shall be used to identify the structure.

SECTION R320
ACCESSIBILITY

R320.1 Scope. Where there are four or more dwelling units or sleeping units in a single structure, the provisions of Chapter 11 ofthe International BUilding Code for Group R-3 shall apply.

SECTION R321
ELEVATORS AND PLATFORM LIFTS

R321.1 Elevators. Where provided, passenger elevators, limited-use/limited-application elevators or private residence elevators shall comply with ASME A17.1.

R321.2 Platform lifts. Where provided, platform lifts shall comply with ASME A18.l.

R321.3 Accessibility. Elevators or platform lifts that are part of an accessible route required by Chapter 11 of the International Building Code, shall comply with ICC Al17.1.

SECTION R322
FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION

R322.1 General. Buildings and structures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas (including A or V Zones) as established in Table R30l.2(1) shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions contained in this section.

Exception: Buildings and structures located in whole or in part in identified floodways shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ASCE 24.

R322.1.1 Alternative provisions. As an alternative to the requirements in Section R322.3 for buildings and structures located in whole or in part in coastal high-hazard areas (V Zones), ASCE 24 is permitted subject to the limitations of this code and the limitations therein.

R322.1.2 Structural systems. All structural systems of all buildings and structures shall be designed, connected and anchored to resist flotation, collapse or permanent lateral movement due to structural loads and stresses from flooding equal to the design flood elevation.

R322.1.3 Flood-resistant construction. All buildings and structures erected in areas prone to flooding shall be constructed by methods and practices that minimize flood damage.

R322.1.4 Establishing the design flood elevation. The design flood elevation shall be used to define areas prone to flooding. At a minimum, the design flood elevation is the higher of:

  1. The base flood elevation at the depth of peak elevation of flooding (including wave height) which has a 1 percent (100-year flood) or greater chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year, or
  2. The elevation of the design flood associated with the area designated on a flood hazard map adopted by the community, or otherwise legally designated.

R322.1.4.1 Determination of design flood elevations. If design flood elevations are not specified, the building official is authorized to require the applicant to:

  1. Obtain and reasonably use data available from a federal, state or other source; or
  2. Determine the design flood elevation in accordance with accepted hydrologic and hydraulic engineering practices used to define special flood hazard areas. Determinations shall be undertaken by a registered design professionalwho shall document that the technical methods used reflect currently accepted engineering practice. Studies, analyses and computations shall be submitted in sufficient detail to allow thorough review and approval.

R322.1.4.2 Determination ofimpacts. In riverine flood hazard areas where design flood elevations are specified but floodways have not been designated, the applicant shall demonstrate that the effect of the proposed buildings and structures on design flood elevations, including fill, when combined with all other existing and anticipated flood hazard area encroachments, will not increase the design flood elevation more than 1 foot (305 mm) at any point within the jurisdiction.

R322.1.5 Lowest floor. The lowest floor shall be the floor ofthe lowest enclosed area, including basement, but excluding any unfinished flood-resistant enclosure that is useable solely for vehicle parking, building access or limited storage provided that such enclosure is not built so as to render the building or structure in violation of this section.

R322.1.6 Protection ofmechanical and electrical systems. Electrical systems, equipmentand components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning; plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment shall be

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located at or above the elevation required in Section R322.2 (flood hazard areas including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas including V Zones). If replaced as part of a substantial improvement, electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning and plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment shall meet the requirements of this section. Systems, fixtures, and equipment and components shall not be mounted on or penetrate through walls intended to break away under flood loads.

Exception: Locating electrical systems, equipment and components; heating, ventilating, air conditioning; plumbing appliances and plumbing fixtures; duct systems; and other service equipment is permitted below the elevation required in Section R322.2 (flood hazard areas including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas including V Zones) provided that they are designed and installed to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components and to resist hydrostatic and hydrodynamic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, during the occurrence of flooding to the design flood elevation in accordance with ASCE 24. Electrical wiring systems are permitted to be located below the required elevation provided they conform to the provisions of the electrical part of this code for wet locations.

R322.1.7 Protection of water supply and sanitary sewage systems. New and replacement water supply systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the systems in accordance with the plumbing provisions of this code. New and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of floodwaters into systems and discharges from systems into floodwaters in accordance with the plumbing provisions of this code and Chapter 3 of the International Private Sewage Disposal Code.

R322.1.8 Flood-resistant materials. Building materials used below the elevation required in Section R322.2 (flood hazard areas including A Zones) or R322.3 (coastal high-hazard areas including V Zones) shall comply with the following:

  1. All wood, including floor sheathing, shall be pressure-preservative-treated in accordance with AWPA V 1 for the species, product, preservative and end use or be the decay-resistant heartwood of redwood, black locust or cedars. Preservatives shall be listed in Section 4 of AWPA VI.
  2. Materials and installation methods used for flooring and interior and exterior walls and wall coverings shall conform to the provisions ofFEMA/FIA-TB-2.

R322.1.9 Manufactured homes. New or replacement manufactured homes shall be elevated in accordance with Section R322.2 or Section R322.3 in coastal high-hazard areas (V Zones). The anchor and tie-down requirements of Sections AE604 and AE605 of Appendix E shall apply. The foundation and anchorage of manufactured homes to be located in identified floodways shall be designed and constructed in accordance with ASCE 24.

R322.1.10 As-built elevation documentation. A registered design professionalshall prepare and seal documentation ofthe elevations specified in Section R322.2 or R322.3.

R322.2 Flood hazard areas (including A Zones). All areas that have been determined to be prone to flooding but not subject to high velocity wave action shall be designated as flood hazard areas. Flood hazard areas that have been delineated as subject to wave heights between 1½ feet (457 mm) and 3 feet (914 mm) shall be designated as Coastal A Zones. All building and structures constructed in whole or in part in flood hazard areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections R322.2.1 through R322.2.3.

R322.2.1 Elevation requirements.

  1. Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas not designated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest floors elevated to or above the design flood elevation.
  2. Buildings and structures in flood hazard areas designated as Coastal A Zones shall have the lowest floors elevated to or above the base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm), or to the design flood elevation, whichever is higher.
  3. In areas of shallow flooding (AO Zones), buildings and structures shall have the lowest floor (including basement) elevated at least as high above the highest adjacent grade as the depth number specified in feet on the FIRM, or at least 2 feet (610 mm) if a depth number is not specified.
  4. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides shall be elevated to or above the design flood elevation.

Exception: Enclosed areas below the design flood elevation, including basements whose floors are not below grade on all sides, shall meet the requirements of Section R322.2.2.

R322.2.2 Enclosed area below design flood elevation. Enclosed areas, including crawl spaces, that are below the design flood elevation shall:

  1. Be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage.
  2. Be provided with flood openings that meet the following criteria:

    2.1. There shall be a minimum of two openings on different sides of each enclosed area; if a building has more than one enclosed area below the design flood elevation, each area shall have openings on exterior walls.

    2.2. The total net area of all openings shall be at least 1 square inch (645 mm2) for each square foot (0.093 m2) of enclosed area, or the openings shall be designed and the construction documents shall include a statement by a registered design professional that the design of the openings will provide for equalization of hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls by allowing for the automatic entry and exit of

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    floodwaters as specified in Section 2.6.2.2 of ASCE 24.

    2.3. The bottom of each opening shall be 1 foot (305 mm) or less above the adjacent ground level.

    2.4. Openings shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) in any direction in the plane ofthe wall.

    2.5. Any louvers, screens or other opening covers shall allow the automatic flow of floodwaters into and out of the enclosed area.

    2.6. Openings installed in doors and windows, that meet requirements 2.1 through 2.5, are acceptable; however, doors and windows without installed openings do not meet the requirements of this section.

R322.2.3 Foundation design and construction. Foundation walls for all buildings and structures erected in flood hazard areas shall meet the requirements of Chapter 4.

Exception: Unless designed in accordance with Section R404:

  1. The unsupported height of 6-inch (152 mm) plain masonry walls shall be no more than 3 feet (914 mm).
  2. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) plain masonry walls shall be no more than 4 feet (1219 mm).
  3. The unsupported height of 8-inch (203 mm) reinforced masonry walls shall be no more than 8 feet (2438 mm).

For the purpose of this exception, unsupported height is the distance from the finished grade of the under-floor space and the top of the wall.

R322.3 Coastal high-hazard areas (including V Zones). Areas that have been determined to be subject to wave heights in excess of 3 feet (914 mm) or subject to high-velocity wave action or wave-induced erosion shall be designated as coastal high-hazard areas. Buildings and structures constructed in whole or in part in coastal high-hazard areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections R322.3.1 through R322.3.6.

R322.3.1 Location and site preparation.

  1. New buildings and buildings that are determined to be substantially improved pursuant to Section R105.3.1.1, shall be located landward of the reach of mean high tide.
  2. For any alteration of sand dunes and mangrove stands the building official shall require submission of an engineering analysis which demonstrates that the proposed alteration will not increase the potential for flood damage.

R322.3.2 Elevation requirements.

  1. All buildings and structures erected within coastal high hazard areas shall be elevated so that the lowest portion of all structural members supporting the lowest floor, with the exception of mat or raft foundations' piling, pile caps, columns, grade beams and bracing, is:

    1.1. Located at or above the design flood elevation, if the lowest horizontal structural member is oriented parallel to the direction ofwave approach, where parallel shall mean less than or equal to 20 degrees (0.35 rad) from the direction of approach, or

    1.2. Located at the base flood elevation plus 1 foot (305 mm), or the design flood elevation, whichever is higher, if the lowest horizontal structural member is oriented perpendicular to the direction of wave approach, where perpendicular shall mean greater than 20 degrees (0.35 rad) from the direction of approach.

  2. Basement floors that are below grade on all sides are prohibited.
  3. The use of fill for structural support is prohibited.
  4. Minor grading, and the placement of minor quantities of fill, shall be permitted for landscaping and for drainage purposes under and around buildings and for support of parking slabs, pool decks, patios and walk-ways.

Exception: Walls and partitions enclosing areas below the design flood elevation shall meet the requirements of Sections R322.3.4 and R322.3.5.

R322.3.3 Foundations. Buildings and structures erected in coastal high-hazard areas shall be supported on pilings or columns and shall be adequately anchored to those pilings or columns. Pilings shall have adequate soil penetrations to resist the combined wave and wind loads (lateral and uplift). Water loading values used shall be those associated with the design flood. Wind loading values shall be those required by this code. Pile embedment shall include consideration of decreased resistance capacity caused by scour of soil strata surrounding the piling. Pile systems design and installation shall be certified in accordance with Section R322.3.6. Mat, raft or other foundations that support columns shall not be permitted where soil investigations that are required in accordance with Section R401.4 indicate that soil material under the mat, raft or other foundation is subject to scour or erosion from wave-velocity flow conditions. Slabs, pools, pool decks and walkways shall be located and constructed to be structurally independent of buildings and structures and their foundations to prevent transfer of flood loads to the buildings and structures during conditions of flooding, scour or erosion from wave-velocity flow conditions, unless the buildings and structures and their foundation are designed to resist the additional flood load.

R322.3.4 Walls below design flood elevation. Walls and partitions are permitted below the elevated floor, provided that such walls and partitions are not part of the structural support of the building or structure and:

  1. Electrical, mechanical, and plumbing system components are not to be mounted on or penetrate through 69 walls that are designed to break away under flood loads; and
  2. Are constructed with insect screening or open lattice; or
  3. Are designed to break away or collapse without causing collapse, displacement or other structural damage to the elevated portion of the building or supporting foundation system. Such walls, framing and connections shall have a design safe loading resistance of not less than 10 (479 Pa) and no more than 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa); or
  4. Where wind loading values of this code exceed 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), the construction documents shall include documentation prepared and sealed by a registered design professional that:

    4.1. The walls and partitions below the design flood elevation have been designed to collapse from a water load less than that which would occur during the design flood.

    4.2. The elevated portion of the building and supporting foundation system have been designed to withstand the effects ofwind and flood loads acting simultaneously on all building components (structural and nonstructural). Water loading values used shall be those associated with the design flood. Wind loading values shall be those required by this code.

R322.3.5 Enclosed areas below design flood elevation. Enclosed areas below the design flood elevation shall be used solely for parking of vehicles, building access or storage.

R322.3.6 Construction documents. The construction documents shall include documentation that is prepared and sealed by a registered design professional that the design and methods of construction to be used meet the applicable criteria of this section.

SECTION R323
STORM SHELTERS

R323.1 General. This section applies to the construction of storm shelters when constructed as separate detached buildings or when constructed as safe rooms within buildings for the purpose of providing safe refuge from storms that produce high winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. In addition to other applicable requirements in this code, storm shelters shall be constructed in accordance with ICC/NSSA-500.

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CHAPTER 4
FOUNDATIONS

SECTION R401
GENERAL

R401.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of the foundation and foundation spaces for all buildings. In addition to the provisions of this chapter, the design and construction of foundations in areas prone to flooding as established by Table R301.2(1) shall meet the provisions of Section R322. Wood foundations shall be designed and installed in accordance with AF&PA PWF.

Exception: The provisions of this chapter shall be permitted to be used for wood foundations only in the following situations:

  1. In buildings that have no more than two floors and a roof.
  2. When interior basement and foundation walls are constructed at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm).

Wood foundations in Seismic Design Category Do, D1 or D2 shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

R401.2 Requirements. Foundation construction shall be capable ofaccommodating all loads according to Section R30 1 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting soil. Fill soils that support footings and foundations shall be designed, installed and tested in accordance with accepted engineering practice. Gravel fill used as footings for wood and precast concrete foundations shall comply with Section R403.

R401.3 Drainage. Surface drainage shall be diverted to a storm sewer conveyance or other approvedpoint ofcollection that does not create a hazard. Lots shall be graded to drain surface water away from foundation walls. The grade shall fall a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm)within the first 10 feet (3048 mm).

Exception: Where lot lines, walls, slopes or other physical barriers prohibit 6 inches (152 mm) of fall within 10 feet (3048 mm), drains or swales shall be constructed to ensure drainage away from the structure. Impervious surfaces within 10 feet (3048 mm) ofthe building foundation shall be sloped a minimum of 2 percent away from the building.

R401.4 Soil tests. Where quantifiable data created by accepted soil science methodologies indicate expansive, compressible, shifting or other questionable soil characteristics are likely to be present, the building official shall determine whether to require a soil test to determine the soil's characteristics at a particular location. This test shall be done by an approved agency using an approved method.

R401.4.1 Geotechnical evaluation. In lieu of a complete geotechnical evaluation, the load-bearing values in Table R401.4.1 shall be assumed.

TABLE R401.4.1
PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING VALUES OF FOUNDATION MATERIALSa
CLASS OF MATERIAL LOAD-BEARING PRESSURE (pounds per square foot)
Crystalline bedrock 12,000
Sedimentary and foliated rock 4,000
Sandy gravel and/or gravel (GWand GP) 3,000
Sand, silty sand, clayey sand, silty gravel and clayey gravel
(SW, SP, SM, SC, GM and GC)
2,000
Clay, sandy clay, silty clay, clayey silt, silt and sandy silt
(CL, ML, MH and CH)
1,500b
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. When soil tests are required by Section R401.4, the allowable bearing capacities of the soil shall be part of the recommendations.
b. Where the building official determines that in-place soils with an allowable bearing capacity of less than 1,500 psf are likely to be present at the site, the allowable bearing capacity shall be determined by a soils iINestigation.

R401.4.2 Compressible or shifting soil. Instead of a complete geotechnical evaluation, when top or subsoils are compressible or shifting, they shall be removed to a depth and width sufficient to assure stable moisture content in each active zone and shall not be used as fill or stabilized within each active zone by chemical, dewatering or presaturation.

SECTION R402
MATERIALS

R402.1 Wood foundations. Wood foundation systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code.

R402.1.1 Fasteners. Fasteners used below grade to attach plywood to the exterior side of exterior basement or crawl-space wall studs, or fasteners used in knee wall construction, shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel. Fasteners used above grade to attach plywood and alliumber-to-Iumber fasteners except those used in knee wall construction shall be of Type 304 or 316 stainless steel, silicon bronze, copper, hot-dipped galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails, or hot-tumbled galvanized (zinc coated) steel nails. Electro-galvanized steel nails and galvanized (zinc coated) steel staples shall not be permitted.

R402.1.2 Wood treatment. All lumber and plywood shall be pressure-preservative treated and dried after treatment in accordance with AWPA Ul (Commodity Specification A, Use Category 4B and Section 5.2), and shall bear the label of an accredited agency. Where lumber and/or plywood is

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cut or drilled after treatment, the treated surface shall be field treated with copper naphthenate, the concentration of which shall contain a minimum of 2 percent copper metal, by repeated brushing, dipping or soaking until the wood absorbs no more preservative.

R402.2 Concrete. Concrete shall have a minimum specified compressive strength of f'c, as shown in Table R402.2. Concrete subject to moderate or severe weathering as indicated in Table R301.2(1) shall be air entrained as specified in Table R402.2. The maximum weight of fly ash, other pozzolans, silica fume, slag or blended cements that is included in concrete mixtures for garage floor slabs and for exterior porches, carport slabs and steps that will be exposed to deicing chemicals shall not exceed the percentages of the total weight of cementitious materials specified in Section 4.2.3 of ACI 318. Materials used to produce concrete and testing thereof shall comply with the applicable standards listed in Chapter 3 of ACI 318 or ACI 332.

R402.3 Precast concrete. Precast concrete foundations shall be designed in accordance with Section R404.5 and shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and the manufacturer's installation instructions.

R402.3.1 Precast concrete foundation materials. Materials used to produce precast concrete foundations shall meet the following requirements.

  1. All concrete used in the manufacture of precast concrete foundations shall have a minimum compressive strength of 5,000 psi (34 470 kPa) at 28 days. Concrete exposed to a freezing and thawing environment shall be air entrained with a minimum total air content of 5 percent.
  2. Structural reinforcing steel shall meet the requirements of ASTM A 615, A 706 or A 996. The minimum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). Steel reinforcement for precast concrete foundation walls shall have a minimum concrete cover of ¾ inch (19.1 mm).
  3. Panel-to-panel connections shall be made with Grade II steel fasteners.
  4. The use of nonstructural fibers shall conform to ASTM C 1116.
  5. Grout used for bedding precast foundations placed upon concrete footings shall meet ASTM C 1107.

SECTION R403
FOOTINGS

R403.1 General. All exterior walls shall be supported on continuous solid or fully grouted masonry or concrete footings, crushed stone footings, wood foundations, or other approved structural systems which shall be ofsufficient design to accommodate all loads according to Section R301 and to transmit the resulting loads to the soil within the limitations as determined from the character of the soil. Footings shall be supported on undisturbed natural soils or engineered fill. Concrete footing shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section R403 or in accordance with ACI 332.

R403.1.1 Minimum size. Minimum sizes for concrete and masonry footings shall be as set forth in Table R403.1 and Figure R403.1(1). The footing width, W, shall be based on the load-bearing value of the soil in accordance with Table R401.4.1. Spread footings shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm) in thickness, T. Footing projections, P, shall be at least 2 inches (51 mm) and shall not exceed the thickness ofthe footing. The size of footings supporting piers and columns shall be based on the tributary load and allowable soil pressure in accordance with Table R401.4.1. Footings for wood foundations shall be in accordance with the details set forth in Section R403.2, and Figures R403.1 (2) and R403.1 (3).

TABLE R402.2
MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CONCRETE
TYPE OR LOCATION OF CONCRETE CONSTRUCTION MINIMUM SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTHa (f' c)
Weathering Potentialb
Negligible Moderate Severe
Basement walls, foundations and other concrete not exposed to the weather 2,500 2,500 2,500c
Basement slabs and interior slabs on grade, except garage floor slabs 2,500 2,500 2,500c
Basement walls, foundation walls, exterior walls and other vertical concrete work exposed to the weather 2,500 3,000d 3,000d
Porches, carport slabs and steps exposed to the weather, and garage floor slabs 2,500 3,000d, e, f 3,500d,e, f
For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Strength at 28 days psi.
b. See Table R301.2(l) for weathering potential.
c. Concrete in these locations that may be subject to freezing and thawing during construction shall be air-entrained concrete in accordance with Footnote d.
d. Concrete shall be air-entrained. Total air content (percent by volume of concrete) shall be not less than 5 percent or more than 7 percent.
e. See Section R402.2 for maximum cementitious materials content.
f. For garage floors with a steel troweled finish, reduction of the total air content (percent by volume ofconcrete) to not less than 3 percent is permitted ifthe specified compressive strength of the concrete is increased to not less than 4,000 psi.
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TABLE R403.1
MINIMUM WIDTH OF CONCRETE, PRECAST OR MASONRY FOOTINGS (inches)a
  LOAD-BEARING VALUE OF SOIL (pst)
1,500 2,000 3,000 ≥ 4,000
Conventional light-frame construction
I-story 12 12 12 12
2-story 15 12 12 12
3-story 23 17 12 12
4-inch brick veneer over light frame or a-inch hollow concrete masonry
I-story 12 12 12 12
2-story 21 16 12 12
3-story 32 24 16 12
a-inch solid or fUlly grouted masonry
I-story 16 12 12 12
2-story 29 21 14 12
3-story 42 32 21 16
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Where minimum footing width is 12 inches, use ofa single wythe ofsolid or fully grouted 12-inch nominal concrete masonry units is permitted.

R403.1.2 Continuous footing in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2" The braced wallpanels at exterior walls of buildings located in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1and D2 shall be supported by continuous footings. All required interior braced wall panels in buildings with plan dimensions greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall also be supported by continuous footings.

R403.1.3 Seismic reinforcing. Concrete footings located in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2, as established in Table R30 1.2(1), shall have minimum reinforcement. Bottom reinforcement shall be located a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) clear from the bottom of the footing.

In Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2 where a construction j oint is created between a concrete footing and a stem wall, a minimum of one No.4 bar shall be installed at not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. The vertical bar shall extend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the bottom of the footing, have a standard hook and extend a minimum of 14 inches (357 mm) into the stem wall.

In Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2 where a grouted masonry stem wall is supported on a concrete footing and stem wall, a minimum of one No.4 bar shall be installed at not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. The vertical bar shall extend to 3 inches (76 mm) clear of the bottom of the footing and have a standard hook.

In Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2 masonry stem walls without solid grout and vertical reinforcing are not permitted.

Exception: In detached one- and two-family dwellings which are three stories or less in height and constructed with stud bearing walls, plain concrete footings without longitudinal reinforcement supporting walls and isolated plain concrete footings supporting columns or pedestals are permitted.

R403.1.3.1 Foundations with stemwalls. Foundations with stem walls shall have installed a minimum of one No.4 bar within 12 inches (305 mm) ofthe top ofthe wall and one No.4 bar located 3 inches (76 mm) to 4 inches (102 mm) from the bottom of the footing.

R403.1.3.2 Slabs-on-ground with turned-down footings. Slabs on ground with turned down footings shall have a minimum of one No.4 bar at the top and the bottom of the footing.

Exception: For slabs-on-ground cast monolithically with the footing, locating one No.5 bar or two No.4 bars in the middle third of the footing depth shall be permitted as an alternative to placement at the footing top and bottom.

Where the slab is not cast monolithically with the footing' No.3 or larger vertical dowels with standard hooks on each end shall be provided in accordance with Figure R403.1.3.2. Standard hooks shall comply with Section R611.5.4.5.

R403.1.4 Minimum depth. All exterior footings shall be placed at least 12 inches (305 mm) below the undisturbed ground surface. Where applicable, the depth of footings shall also conform to Sections R403.1.4.1 through R403.1.4.2.

R403.1.4.1 Frost protection. Except where otherwise protected from frost, foundation walls, piers and other permanent supports of buildings and structures shall be protected from frost by one or more ofthe following methods:

  1. Extended below the frost line specified in Table R301.2. (1);
  2. Constructing in accordance with Section R403.3;
  3. Constructing in accordance with ASCE 32; or
  4. Erected on solid rock.

Exceptions:

  1. Protection of freestanding accessory structures with an area of600 square feet (56 m2) or less, of light-frame construction, with an eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or less shall not be required.
  2. Protection of freestanding accessorystructures with an area of 400 square feet (37 m2) or less, of other than light-frame construction, with an eave height of 10 feet (3048 mm) or less shall not be required.
  3. Decks not supported by a dwelling need not be provided with footings that extend below the frost line.

Footings shall not bear on frozen soil unless the frozen condition is permanent.

R403.1.4.2 Seismic conditions. In Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2, interior footings supporting bearing or bracing walls and cast monolithically with a slab on grade shall extend to a depth of not less than 12 inches (305 mm) below the top of the slab.

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FIGURE R403.1 (1) CONCRETE AND MASONRY FOUNDATION DETAILS

FIGURE R403.1 (1) CONCRETE AND MASONRY FOUNDATION DETAILS

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FIGURE R403.1 (2) PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION BASEMENT WALL SECTION

FIGURE R403.1 (2) PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION BASEMENT WALL SECTION

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FIGURE R403.1 (3) PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION CRAWL SPACE SECTION

FIGURE R403.1 (3) PERMANENT WOOD FOUNDATION CRAWL SPACE SECTION

FIGURE R403.1.3.2 DOWELS FOR SLABS-ON-GROUND WITH TURNED-DOWN FOOTINGS

FIGURE R403.1.3.2 DOWELS FOR SLABS-ON-GROUND WITH TURNED-DOWN FOOTINGS

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R403.1.5 Slope. The top surface of footings shall be level. The bottom surface of footings shall not have a slope exceeding one unit vertical in 10 units horizontal (10-percent slope). Footings shall be stepped where it is necessary to change the elevation of the top surface of the footings or where the slope of the bottom surface of the footings will exceed one unit vertical in ten units horizontal (10-percent slope).

R403.1.6 Foundation anchorage. Sill plates and walls supported directly on continuous foundations shall be anchored to the foundation in accordance with this section.

Wood sole plates at all exterior walls on monolithic slabs, wood sole plates of braced wallpanels at building interiors on monolithic slabs and all wood sill plates shall be anchored to the foundation with anchor bolts spaced a maximum of6 feet (1829 mm) on center. Bolts shall be at least ½ inch (12.7 mm) in diameter and shall extend a minimum of 7 inches (1 78 mm) into concrete or grouted cells of concrete masonry units. A nut and washer shall be tightened on each anchor bolt. There shall be a minimum of two bolts per plate section with one bolt located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) or less than seven bolt diameters from each end of the plate section. Interior bearing wall sole plates on monolithic slab foundation that are not part of a braced wallpanelshall be positively anchored with approved fasteners. Sill plates and sole plates shall be protected against decay and termites where required by Sections R317 and R318. Cold-formed steel framing systems shall be fastened to wood sill plates or anchored directly to the foundation as required in Section R505.3.1 or R603.3.1.

Exceptions:

  1. Foundation anchorage, spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to ½ inch-diameter (12.7 mm) anchor bolts.
  2. Walls 24 inches (610 mm) total length or shorter connecting offset braced wall panels shall be anchored to the foundation with a minimum of one anchor bolt located in the center third of the plate section and shall be attached to adjacent braced wall panels at corners as shown in Figure R602.10.4.4(1).
  3. Connection of walls 12 inches (305 mm) total length or shorter connecting offset braced wall panels to the foundation without anchor bolts shall be permitted. The wall shall be attached to adjacent braced wall panels at corners as shown in Figure R602.10.4.4(1).

R403.1.6.1 Foundation anchorage in Seismic Design Categories C, Do, D1 and D2" In addition to the requirements of Section R403.1.6, the following requirements shall apply to wood light-frame structures in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2 and wood light-frame townhouses in Seismic Design Category C.

  1. Plate washers conforming to Section R602.11.1 shall be provided for all anchor bolts over the full length of required braced wall lines except where approved anchor straps are used. Properly sized cut washers shall be permitted for anchor bolts in wall lines not containing braced wall panels.
  2. Interior braced wall plates shall have anchor bolts spaced at not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on center and located within 12 inches (305 mm) of the ends of each plate section when supported on a continuous foundation.
  3. Interior bearing wall sole plates shall have anchor bolts spaced at not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) on center and located within 12 inches (305 mm) of the ends of each plate section when supported on a continuous foundation.
  4. The maximum anchor bolt spacing shall be 4 feet (1219 mm) for buildings over two stories in height.
  5. Stepped cripple walls shall conform to Section R602.11.2.
  6. Where continuous wood foundations in accordance with Section R404.2 are used, the force transfer shall have a capacity equal to or greater than the connections required by Section R602.11.1 or the braced wall panel shall be connected to the wood foundations in accordance with the braced wall panel-to-floor fastening requirements of Table R602.3(1).

R403.1.7 Footings on or adjacent to slopes. The placement of buildings and structures on or adjacent to slopes steeper than one unit vertical in three units horizontal (33.3-percent slope) shall conform to Sections R403.1.7.1 through R403.1.7.4.

R403.1. 7.1 Building clearances from ascending slopes. In general, buildings below slopes shall be set a sufficient distance from the slope to provide protection from slope drainage, erosion and shallow failures. Except as provided in Section R403.1.7.4 and Figure R403.1.7.1, the following criteria will be assumed to provide this protection. Where the existing slope is steeper than one unit vertical in one unit horizontal (100-percent slope), the toe of the slope shall be assumed to be at the intersection of a horizontal plane drawn from the top of the foundation and a plane drawn tangent to the slope at an angle of 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal. Where a retaining wall is constructed at the toe of the slope, the height of the slope shall be measured from the top of the wall to the top of the slope.

R403.1.7.2 Footing setback from descending slope surfaces. Footings on or adjacent to slope surfaces shall be founded in material with an embedment and setback from the slope surface sufficient to provide vertical and lateral support for the footing without detrimental settlement. Except as provided for in Section R403.1.7.4 and Figure R403.1.7.1, the following setback is deemed adequate to meet the criteria. Where the slope is steeper than one unit vertical in one unit horizontal (100-percent slope), the required setback shall be measured from an imaginary plane 45 degrees (0.79 rad) to the horizontal, projected upward from the toe of the slope.

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FIGURE R403.1.7.1 FOUNDATION CLEARANCE FROM SLOPES

FIGURE R403.1.7.1 FOUNDATION CLEARANCE FROM SLOPES

R403.1.7.3 Foundation elevation. On graded sites, the top ofany exterior foundation shall extend above the elevation of the street gutter at point of discharge or the inlet of an approved drainage device a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) plus 2 percent. Alternate elevations are permitted subject to the approval of the building official, provided it can be demonstrated that required drainage to the point of discharge and away from the structure is provided at all locations on the site.

R403.1.7.4 Alternate setback and clearances. Alternate setbacks and clearances are permitted, subject to the approval ofthe building official. The building officialis permitted to require an investigation and recommendation of a qualified engineer to demonstrate that the intent of this section has been satisfied. Such an investigation shall include consideration of material, height of slope, slope gradient, load intensity and erosion characteristics ofslope material.

R403.1.8 Foundations on expansive soils. Foundation and floor slabs for buildings located on expansive soils shall be designed in accordance with Section 1805.8 of the International BUilding Code.

Exception: Slab-on-ground and other foundation systems which have performed adequately in soil conditions similar to those encountered at the building site are permitted subject to the approval of the building official.

R403.1.8.1 Expansive soils classifications. Soils meeting all four of the following provisions shall be considered expansive, except that tests to show compliance with Items 1, 2 and 3 shall not be required if the test prescribed in Item 4 is conducted:

  1. Plasticity Index (PI) of 15 or greater, determined in accordance with ASTM D 4318.
  2. More than 10 percent of the soil particles pass a No. 200 sieve (75 µm), determined in accordance with ASTMD 422.
  3. More than 10 percent of the soil particles are less than 5 micrometers in size, determined in accordance with ASTM D 422.
  4. Expansion Index greater than 20, determined in accordance with ASTM D 4829.

R403.2 Footings for wood foundations. Footings for wood foundations shall be in accordance with Figures R403.1 (2) and R403.1 (3). Gravel shall be washed and well graded. The maximum size stone shall not exceed ¾ inch (19.1 mm). Gravel shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Sand shall be coarse, not smaller than 1/16-inch (1.6 mm) grains and shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Crushed stone shall have a maximum size of ½ inch (12.7 mm).

R403.3 Frost protected shallow foundations. For buildings where the monthly mean temperature of the building is maintained at a minimum of 64OF (18°C), footings are not required to extend below the frost line when protected from frost by insulation in accordance with Figure R403.3(1) and Table R403.3(1). Foundations protected from frost in accordance with Figure R403.3(1) and Table R403.3(1) shall not be used for unheated spaces such as porches, utility rooms, garages and carports, and shall not be attached to basements or crawl spaces that are not maintained at a minimum monthly mean temperature of 64°F (18°C).

Materials used below grade for the purpose ofinsulating footings against frost shall be labeled as complying with ASTM C 578.

R403.3.1 Foundations adjoining frost protected shallow foundations. Foundations that adjoin frost protected shallow foundations shall be protected from frost in accordance with Section R403.1.4.

R403.3.1.1 Attachment to unheated slab-on-ground structure. Vertical wall insulation and horizontal insulation of frost protected shallow foundations that adjoin a slab-on-ground foundation that does not have a monthly mean temperature maintained at a minimum of 64°F (18°C) shall be in accordance with Figure R403.3(3) and Table R403.3(1). Vertical wall insulation shall extend between the frost protected shallow foundation and the adjoining slab foundation. Required horizontal insulation shall be continuous under the adjoining slab foundation and through any foundation walls adjoining the frost protected shallow foundation. Where insulation passes through a foundation wall, it shall either be of a type complying with this section and having bearing capacity equal to or greater than the structural loads imposed by the building, or the building shall be designed and constructed using beams, lintels, cantilevers or other means of transferring building loads such that the structural loads of the building do not bear on the insulation.

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FIGURE R403.3(1) INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS

FIGURE R403.3(1) INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGS

TABLE R403.3(1)
MINIMUM FOOTING DEPTH AND INSULATION REQUIREMENTS FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS IN HEATED BUILDINGsa
AIR FREEZING INDEX (OF-days)b MINIMUM FOOTING DEPTH, 0 (inches) VERTICAL INSULATION R-VALUEc,d HORIZONTAL INSULATION R-VALUEc,e HORIZONTAL INSULATION DIMENSIONS PER FIGURE R403.3(1) (inches)
Along walls At corners A B C
1,500 or less 12 4.5 Not required Not required Not required Not required Not required
2,000 14 5.6 Not required Not required Not required Not required Not required
2,500 16 6.7 1.7 4.9 12 24 40
3,000 16 7.8 6.5 8.6 12 24 40
3,500 16 9.0 8.0 11.2 24 30 60
4,000 16 10.1 10.5 13.1 24 36 60
a. Insulation requirements are for protection against frost damage in heated buildings. Greater values may be required to meet energy conservation standards.
b. See Figure R403.3(2) or Table R403.3(2) for Air Freezing Index values.
c. Insulation materials shall provide the stated minimum R-values under long-term exposure to moist, below-ground conditions in freezing climates. The following R-values shall be used to determine insulation thicknesses required for this application: Type II expanded polystyrene-2.4Rper inch; Type IV extruded polystyrene- 4.5Rper inch;Type VI extruded polystyrene-4.5Rper inch;Type IX expanded polystyrene-3.2Rper inch;Type X extruded polystyrene-4.5Rper inch.
d. Vertical insulation shall be expanded polystyrene insulation or extruded polystyrene insulation.
e. Horizontal insulation shall be extruded polystyrene insulation.
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FIGURE R403.3(2) AIR-FREEZING INDEX AN ESTIMATE OF THE 100-YEAR RETURN PERIOD

FIGURE R403.3(2) AIR-FREEZING INDEX AN ESTIMATE OF THE 100-YEAR RETURN PERIOD

80
TABLE R403.3(2)
AIR-FREEZING INDEX FOR U.S. LOCATIONS BY COUNTY
STATE AIR-FREEZING INDEX
1500 or less 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000
Alabama All counties - - - - -
Alaska Ketchikan Gateway, Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan (CA), Sitka, Wrangell-Petersburg (CA) - Aleutians West (CA), Haines, Juneau, Skagway-Hoonah- Angoon (CA), Yakutat - - All counties not listed
Arizona All counties - - - - -
Arkansas All counties - - - - -
California All counties not listed Nevada, Sierra - - - -
Colorado All counties not listed Archuleta, Custer, Fremont, Huerfano, Las Animas, Ouray, Pitkin, San Miguel Clear Creek, Conejos, Costilla, Dolores, Eagle, La Plata, Park, Routt, San Juan, Summit Alamosa, Grand, Jackson, Larimer, Moffat, Rio Blanco, Rio Grande Chaffee, Gunnison, Lake, Saguache Hinsdale, Mineral
Connecticut All counties not listed Hartford, Litchfield - - - -
Delaware All counties - - - - -
District of Columbia All counties - - - - -
Florida All counties - - - - -
Georgia All counties - - - - -
Hawaii All counties - - - - -
Idaho All counties not listed Adams, Bannock, Blaine, Clearwater, Idaho, Lincoln, Oneida, Power, Valley, Washington Bingham, Bonneville, Camas, Caribou, Elmore, Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Teton Bear Lake, Butte, Custer, Fremont, Lemhi Clark -
Illinois All counties not listed Boone, Bureau, Cook, Dekalb, DuPage, Fulton, Grundy, Henderson, Henry, Iroquois, Jo Daviess, Kane, Kankakee, Kendall, Knox, La Salle, Lake, Lee, Livingston, Marshall, Mason, McHenry, McLean, Mercer, Peoria, Putnam, Rock Island, Stark Tazewell, Warren, Whiteside, Will, Woodford Carroll, Ogle, Stephenson, Winnebago - - -
Indiana All counties not listed Allen, Benton, Cass, Fountain, Fulton, Howard, Jasper, Kosciusko, La Porte, Lake, Marshall, Miami, Newton, Porter, Pulaski, Starke, Steuben, Tippecanoe, Tipton, Wabash, Warren, White - - - - 81
Iowa Appanoose, Davis, Fremont, Lee, Van Buren All counties not listed Allamakee, Black Hawk, Boone, Bremer, Buchanan, Buena Vista, Butler, Calhoun, Cerro Gordo, Cherokee, Chickasaw, Clay, Clayton, Delaware, Dubuque, Fayette, Floyd, Franklin, Grundy, Hamilton, Hancock, Hardin, Humboldt, Ida, Jackson, Jasper, Jones, Linn, Marshall, Palo Alto, Plymouth, Pocahontas, Poweshiek, Sac, Sioux, Story, Tama, Webster, Winnebago, Woodbury, Worth, Wright Dickinson, Emmet, Howard, Kossuth, Lyon, Mitchell, O'Brien, Osceola, Winneshiek - -
Kansas All counties - - - - -
Kentucky All counties - - - - -
Louisiana All counties - - - - -
Maine York Knox, Lincoln, Sagadahoc Androscoggin, Cumberland, Hancock, Kennebec, Waldo, Washington Aroostook, Franklin, Oxford, Penobscot, Piscataquis, Somerset - -
Maryland All counties - - - - -
Massachusetts All counties not listed Berkshire, Franklin, Hampden, Worcester - - - -
Michigan Berrien, Branch, Cass, Kalamazoo, Macomb, Ottawa, St. Clair, St. Joseph All counties not listed Alger, Charlevoix, Cheboygan, Chippewa, Crawford, Delta, Emmet, Iosco, Kalkaska, Lake, Luce, Mackinac, Menominee, Missaukee, Montmorency, Ogemaw, Osceola, Otsego, Roscommon, Schoolcraft, Wexford Baraga, Dickinson, Iron, Keweenaw, Marquette Gogebic, Houghton, Ontonagon -
Minnesota - - Houston, Winona All counties not listed Aitkin, Big Stone, Carlton, Crow Wing, Douglas, Itasca, Kanabec, Lake, Morrison, Pine, Pope, Stearns, Stevens, Swift, Todd, Wadena Becker, Beltrami, Cass, Clay, Clearwater, Grant, Hubbard, Kittson, Koochiching, Lake of the Woods, Mahnomen, Marshall, Norman, Otter Tail, Pennington, Polk, Red Lake, Roseau, St Louis, Traverse, Wilkin
Mississippi All counties - - - - -
Missouri All counties not listed Atchison, Mercer, Nodaway, Putnam - - - - 82
Montana Mineral Broadwater, Golden Valley, Granite, Lake, Lincoln, Missoula, Ravalli, Sanders, Sweet Grass Big Horn, Carbon, Jefferson, Judith Basin, Lewis and Clark, Meagher, Musselshell, Powder River, Powell, Silver Bow, Stillwater, Westland Carter, Cascade, Deer Lodge, Falcon, Fergus, Flathead, Gallanting, Glacier, Madison, Park, Petroleum, Ponder, Rosebud, Teton, Treasure, Yellowstone Beaverhead, Blaine, Chouteau, Custer, Dawson, Garfield, Liberty, McCone, Prairie, Toole, Wibaux Daniels, Hill, Phillips, Richland, Roosevelt, Sheridan, Valley
Nebraska Adams, Banner, Chase, Cheyenne, Clay, Deuel, Dundy, Fillmore, Franklin, Frontier, Furnas, Gage, Garden, Gasper, Harlan, Hayes, Hitchcock, Jefferson, Kimball, Morrill, Nemaha, Nuckolls, Pawnee, Perkins, Phelps, Red Willow, Richardson, Saline, Scotts Bluff, Seward, Thayer, Webster All counties not listed Boyd, Burt, Cedar, Cuming, Dakota, Dixon, Dodge, Knox, Thurston - - -
Nevada All counties not listed Elko, Eureka, Nye, Washoe, White Pine - - - -
New Hampshire - All counties not listed - - - Carroll, Coos, Grafton
New Jersey All counties - - - - -
New Mexico All counties not listed Rio Arriba Colfax, Mora, Taos - - -
New York Albany, Bronx, Cayuga, Columbia, Cortland, Dutchess, Genessee, Kings, Livingston, Monroe, Nassau, New York, Niagara, Onondaga, Ontario, Orange, Orleans, Putnam, Queens, Richmond, Rockland, Seneca, Suffolk, Wayne, Westchester, Yates All counties not listed Clinton, Essex, Franklin, Hamilton, Herkimer, Jefferson, Lewis, St. Lawrence, Warren - - -
North Carolina All counties - - - - -
North Dakota - - - Billings, Bowman Adams, Dickey, Golden Valley, Hettinger, LaMoure, Oliver, Ransom, Sargent, Sioux, Slope, Stark All counties not listed
Ohio All counties not listed Ashland, Crawford, Defiance, Holmes, Huron, Knox, Licking, Morrow, Paulding, Putnam, Richland, Seneca, Williams - - - - 83
Oklahoma All counties - - - - -
Oregon All counties not listed Baker, Crook, Grant, Harney - - - -
Pennsylvania All counties not listed Berks, Blair, Bradford, Cambria, Cameron, Centre, Clarion, Clearfield, Clinton, Crawford, Elk, Forest, Huntingdon, Indiana, Jefferson, Lackawanna, Lycoming, McKean, Pike, Potter, Susquehanna, Tioga, Venango, Warren, Wayne, Wyoming - - - -
Rhode Island All counties - - - - -
South Carolina All counties - - - - -
South Dakota - Bennett, Custer, Fall River, Lawrence, Mellette, Shannon, Todd, Tripp Bon Homme, Charles Mix, Davison, Douglas, Gregory, Jackson, Jones, Lyman All counties not listed Beadle, Brookings, Brown, Campbell, Codington, Corson, Day, Deuel, Edmunds, Faulk, Grant, Hamlin, Kingsbury, Marshall, McPherson, Perkins, Roberts, Spink, Walworth -
Tennessee All counties - - - - -
Texas All counties - - - - -
Utah All counties not listed Box Elder, Morgan, Weber Garfield, Salt Lake, Summit Carbon, Daggett, Duchesne, Rich, Sanpete, Uintah, Wasatch - -
Vermont - Bennington, Grand Isle, Rutland, Windham Addison, Chittenden, Franklin, Orange, Washington, Windsor Caledonia, Essex, Lamoille, Orleans - -
Virginia All counties - - - - -
Washington All counties not listed Chelan, Douglas, Ferry, Okanogan - - - -
West Virginia All counties - - - - -
Wisconsin - Kenosha, Kewaunee, Racine, Sheboygan, Walworth All counties not listed Ashland, Barron, Burnett, Chippewa, Clark, Dunn, Eau Claire, Florence, Forest, Iron, Jackson, La Crosse, Langlade, Marathon, Monroe, Pepin, Polk, Portage, Price, Rust, St. Croix, Taylor, Trempealeau, Vilas, Wood Bayfield, Douglas, Lincoln, Oneida, Sawyer, Washburn -
Wyoming Goshen, Platte Converse, Crook, Laramie, Niobrara Campbell, Carbon, Hot Springs, Johnson, Natrona, Sheridan, Uinta, Weston Albany, Big Horn, Park, Washakie Fremont, Teton Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater
84

FIGURE R403.3(3) INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO UNHEATED SLAB-ON-GROUND STRUCTURE

FIGURE R403.3(3) INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO UNHEATED SLAB-ON-GROUND STRUCTURE

85

R403.3.1.2 Attachment to heated structure. Where a frost protected shallow foundation abuts a structure that has a monthly mean temperature maintained at a minimum of 64of (18°C), horizontal insulation and vertical wall insulation shall not be required between the frost protected shallow foundation and the adjoining structure. Where the frost protected shallow foundation abuts the heated structure, the horizontal insulation and vertical wall insulation shall extend along the adjoining foundation in accordance with Figure R403.3(4) a distance of not less than Dimension A in Table R403.3(I).

Exception: Where the frost protected shallow foundation abuts the heated structure to form an inside corner, vertical insulation extending along the adjoining foundation is not required.

R403.3.2 Protection of horizontal insulation below ground. Horizontal insulation placed less than 12 inches (305 mm) below the ground surface or that portion of horizontal insulation extending outward more than 24 inches (610 mm) from the foundation edge shall be protected against damage by use of a concrete slab or asphalt paving on the ground surface directly above the insulation or by cementitious board, plywood rated for below-ground use, or other approved materials placed below ground, directly above the top surface of the insulation.

R403.3.3 Drainage. Final grade shall be sloped in accordance with Section R40I.3. In other than Group I Soils, as detailed in Table R405.1 , gravel or crushed stone beneath horizontal insulation below ground shall drain to daylight or into an approved sewer system.

R403.3.4 Termite damage. The use offoam plastic in areas of "very heavy" termite infestation probability shall be in accordance with Section R3I8.4.

FIGURE R403.3(4) INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO HEATED STRUCTURE

FIGURE R403.3(4) INSULATION PLACEMENT FOR FROST-PROTECTED FOOTINGS ADJACENT TO HEATED STRUCTURE

R403.4 Footings for precast concrete foundations. Footings for precast concrete foundations shall comply with Section R403.4.

R403.4.1 Crushed stone footings. Clean crushed stone shall be free from organic, clayey or silty soils. Crushed stone shall be angular in nature and meet ASTM C 33, with the maximum size stone not to exceed ½ inch (12.7 mm) and the minimum stone size not to be smaller than 1/16-inch (1 .6 mm) . Crushed stone footings for precast foundations shall be installed in accordance with Figure R403.4(I) and Table R403.4. Crushed stone footings shall be consolidated using a vibratory plate in a maximum of 8-inch lifts. Crushed stone footings shall be limited to Seismic Design Categories A, B and C.

R403.4.2 Concrete footings. Concrete footings shall be installed in accordance with Section R403.I and Figure R403 .4(2) .

SECTION R404
FOUNDATION AND RETAINING WALLS

R404.1 Concrete and masonry foundation walls. Concrete foundation walls shall be selected and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section R404.I.2. Masonry foundation walls shall be selected and constructed in accordance with the provisions of Section R404.1.1.

R404.1.1 Design of masonry foundation walls. Masonry foundation walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section or in accordance with the provisions of ACI530/ASCE 5/TMS 402 or NCMA TR68-A. When ACI530/ASCE 5/TMS 402, NCMA TR68-A or the provisions of this section are used to design masonry foundation walls, project drawings, typical details and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the architect or engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise required by the state law ofthejurisdiction having authority.

86
TABLE R403.4
MINIMUM DEPTH OF CRUSHED STONE FOOTINGS (D), (inches)
  lOAD BEARING VALUE OF SOil (pst)
1500 2000 3000 4000
MH, CH, Cl, Ml SC, GC, SM, GM, SP, SW GP,GW  
Wall width (inches) Wall width (inches) Wall width (inches) Wall width (inches)
6 a 10 12 6 a 10 12 6 a 10 12 6 a 10 12
Conventional light-frame construction
I-story 1100 plf 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
2-story 1800 plf 8 6 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
3-story 2000 plf 16 14 12 10 10 8 6 6 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
4-inch brick veneer over light-frame or a-inch hollow concrete masonry
I-story 1500 plf 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
2-story 2700 plf 14 12 10 8 10 8 6 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
3-story 4000 plf 22 22 20 18 16 14 12 10 10 8 6 4 6 4 4 4
a-inch solid or fUlly grouted masonry
I-story 2000 plf 10 8 6 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4 6 4 4 4
2-story 3600 plf 20 18 16 16 14 12 10 8 8 6 4 4 6 4 4 4
3-story 5300 plf 32 30 28 26 22 22 20 18 14 12 10 8 10 8 6 4
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.89 kPa.

FIGURE R403.4(1) BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST FOUNDATION WALL BEARING ON CRUSHED STONE

FIGURE R403.4(1) BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST FOUNDATION WALL BEARING ON CRUSHED STONE

FIGURE R403.4(2) BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST FOUNDATION WALL ON SPREAD FOOTING

FIGURE R403.4(2) BASEMENT OR CRAWL SPACE WITH PRECAST FOUNDATION WALL ON SPREAD FOOTING

87
TABLE R404.1.1 (1)
PLAIN MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS
MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHTc (feet) PLAIN MASONRya MINIMUM NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS (inches)
Soil classesb
GW,GP,SW and SP GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML SC, MH, ML-CL and inorganic CL
5 4
5
6 solidd or 8
6 solidd or 8
6 solidd or 8
8
6 solidd or 8
10
6 4
5
6
6 solidd or 8
6 solidd or 8
8
6 solidd or 8
8
10
6 solidd or 8
10
12
7 4
5
6
7
6 solidd or 8
6 solidd or 8
10
12
8
10
12
10 solidd
8
10
10 solidd
12 solidd
8 4
5
6
7
8
6 solidd or 8
6 solidd or 8
10
12
10 solidd
6 solidd or 8
10
12
12 solidd
12 solidd
8
12
12 solidd
Footnote e
Footnote e
9 4
5
6
7
8
9
6 solidd or 8
8
10
12
12 solidd
Footnote e
6 solidd or 8
10
12
12 solidd
Footnote e
Footnote e
8
12
12 solidd
Footnote e
Footnote e
Footnote e
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 Pa.
a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond. Ungrouted hollow masonry units are permitted except where otherwise indicated.
b. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
c. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top ofthe concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.
d. Solid grouted hollow units or solid masonry units.
e. Wall construction shall be in accordance with either Table R404.1.1(2) , Table R404.1.1(3) , Table R404.1.1(4) , or a design shall be provided.
88
TABLE R404.1.1 (2)
8-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE d > 5 INCHESa,c
WALL HEIGHT HEIGHT OF UNBALANCED BACKFILLe MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b, c
Soil classes and lateral soilloadd (psf per foot below grade)
GW, GP, SW and SP soils
30
GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils
45
SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils
60
6 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet 8 inches
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#6 at 48
7 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet 4 inches
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 40
8 feet 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#5 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 48
#6 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 40
#6 at 32
8 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet 8 inches
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 48
#6 at 32
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 48
#6 at 40
#6 at 24
9 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet
9 feet 4 inches
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 48
#6 at 40
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 48
#6 at 40
#6 at 24
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 48
#6 at 40
#6 at 24
#6 at 16
10 feet 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet
9 feet
10 feet
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 48
#6 at 40
#6 at 32
#4 at 48
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 48
#6 at 32
#6 at 24
#6 at 16
#4 at 48
#5 at 48
#6 at 48
#6 at 32
#6 at 24
#6 at 16
#6 at 16
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPaimm.
a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond.
b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches.
c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center ofvertical reinforcement shall be at least 5 inches.
d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer to Table R405 .1.
e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top ofthe concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface ofthe foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.
89
TABLE R404.l.l (3)
10-INCH FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE d > 6.75 INCHESa,c
WALL HEIGHT HEIGHT OF UNBALANCED BACKFILLe MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b, c
Soil classes and later soilloadd (psf per foot below grade)
GW, GP, SW and SP soils
30
GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils
45
SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils
60
6 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet 8 inches
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
7 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet 4 inches
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#6 at 56
8 feet 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#6 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#6 at 56
#6 at 48
8 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet 8 inches
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#6 at 48
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#6 at 56
#6 at 32
9 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet
9 feet 4 inches
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#6 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#5 at 56
#6 at 56
#6 at 40
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#6 at 56
#6 at 40
#6 at 24
10 feet 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet
9 feet
10 feet
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#5 at 56
#6 at 56
#6 at 48
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#6 at 56
#6 at 48
#6 at 40
#6 at 32
#4 at 56
#4 at 56
#5 at 56
#6 at 48
#6 at 40
#6 at 24
#6 at 24
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPalmm.
a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond.
b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches.
c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance , d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 6.75 inches.
d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer to Table R405.1.
e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground level. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and is in contact with the interior surface ofthe foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.
90
TABLE R404.1.1 (4)
12-INCH MASONRY FOUNDATION WALLS WITH REINFORCING WHERE d > 8.75 INCHESa,c
WALL HEIGHT HEIGHT OF UNBALANCED BACKFILLe MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT AND SPACING (INCHES)b, c
Soil classes and lateral soilloadd (psf per foot below grade)
GW, GP, SW and SP soils
30
GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML soils
45
SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL soils
60
6 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet 8 inches
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
7 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet 4 inches
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#6 at 72
8 feet 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#6 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#6 at 72
#6 at 64
8 feet 8 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet 8 inches
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#7 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#6 at 72
#6 at 48
9 feet 4 inches 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet
9 feet 4 inches
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#6 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#5 at 72
#6 at 72
#6 at 48
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#6 at 72
#6 at 56
#6 at 40
10 feet 4 feet (or less)
5 feet
6 feet
7 feet
8 feet
9 feet
10 feet
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#6 at 72
#6 at 64
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#6 at 72
#6 at 72
#6 at 56
#6 at 40
#4 at 72
#4 at 72
#5 at 72
#6 at 72
#6 at 48
#6 at 40
#6 at 32
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.157 kPalmm.
a. Mortar shall be Type M or S and masonry shall be laid in running bond.
b. Alternative reinforcing bar sizes and spacings having an equivalent cross-sectional area of reinforcement per lineal foot of wall shall be permitted provided the spacing of the reinforcement does not exceed 72 inches.
c. Vertical reinforcement shall be Grade 60 minimum. The distance, d, from the face of the soil side of the wall to the center of vertical reinforcement shall be at least 8.75 inches.
d. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System and design lateral soil loads are for moist conditions without hydrostatic pressure. Refer to Table R405.1.
e. Unbalanced backfill height is the difference in height between the exterior finish ground level and the lower of the top of the concrete footing that supports the foundation wall or the interior finish ground levels. Where an interior concrete slab-on-grade is provided and in contact with the interior surface of the foundation wall, measurement of the unbalanced backfill height is permitted to be measured from the exterior finish ground level to the top of the interior concrete slab is permitted.
91

R404.1.1.1 Masonry foundation walls. Concrete masonry and clay masonry foundation walls shall be constructed as set forth in Table R404.1.1 (1), R404.1.1 (2), R404.1.1(3) or R404.1.1 (4) and shall also comply with applicable provisions of Sections R606, R607 and R608. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2, concrete masonry and clay masonry foundation walls shall also comply with Section R404.1.4.1. Rubble stone masonry foundation walls shall be constructed in accordance with Sections R404.1.8 and R607.2.2. Rubble stone masonry walls shall not be used in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2

R404.1.2 Concrete foundation walls. Concrete foundation walls that support light-frame walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section, ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. Concrete foundation walls that support above-grade concrete walls that are within the applicability limits of Section R611.2 shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section, ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. Concrete foundation walls that support above-grade concrete walls that are not within the applicability limits of Section R611. 2 shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100. When ACI 318, ACI 332, PCA 100 or the provisions of this section are used to design concrete foundation walls, project drawings, typical details and specifications are not required to bear the seal of the architect or engineer responsible for design, unless otherwise required by the state law of the jurisdiction having authority.

R404.1.2.1 Concrete cross-section. Concrete walls constructed in accordance with this code shall comply with the shapes and minimum concrete cross-sectional dimensions required by Table R611.3. Other types of forming systems resulting in concrete walls not in compliance with this section and Table R611.3 shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318.

R404.1.2.2 Reinforcement for foundation walls. Concrete foundation walls shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom. Horizontal reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with Table R404.1.2 (1). Vertical reinforcement shall be provided in accordance with Table R404.1.2(2), R404.1.2(3), R404.1.2(4), R404.1.2(5), R404.1.2(6), R404.1.2(7) or R404.1.2(8). Vertical reinforcement for flat basement walls retaining 4 feet (1219 mm) or more of unbalanced backfill is permitted to be determined in accordance with Table R404.1.2 (9). For basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls, vertical reinforcement shall be the greater of that required by Tables R404.1.2(2) through R404.1.2(8) or by Section R611.6 for the above-grade wall. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category Do, D1 or D2, concrete foundation walls shall also comply with Section R404.1.4.2.

R404.1.2.2.1 Concrete foundation stem walls supporting above-grade concrete walls. Foundation stem walls that support above-grade concrete walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with this section.

  1. Stem walls not laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are not monolithic with slabs-on-ground or are not otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground shall comply with this section. Where unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is less than or equal to 18 inches (457 mm), the stem wall and above-grade wall it supports shall be provided with vertical reinforcement in accordance with Section R611.6 and Table R611.6(1), R611.6(2) or R611.6(3) for above-grade walls. Where unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 inches (457 mm), the stem wall and above-grade wall it supports shall be provided with vertical reinforcement in accordance with Section R611.6 and Table R611.6(4).
  2. Stem walls laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are monolithic with slabs-on-ground or are otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground shall be vertically reinforced in accordance with Section R611.6 and Table R611.6(1), R611.6(2) or R611.6(3) for above-grade walls. Where the unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 inches (457 mm), the connection between the stem wall and the slab-on-ground, and the portion of the slab-on-ground providing lateral support for the wall shall be designed in accordance with PCA 100 or in accordance with accepted engineering practice. Where the unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 18 inches (457 mm), the minimum nominal thickness of the wall shall be 6 inches (152 mm).

R404.1.2.2.2 Concrete foundation stem walls supporting light-frame above-grade walls. Concrete foundation stem walls that support light-frame above-grade walls shall be designed and constructed in accordance with this section.

  1. Stem walls not laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are not monolithic with slabs-on-ground or are not otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground and retain 48 inches (1219 mm) or less of unbalanced fill, measured from the top of the wall, shall be constructed in accordance with Section R404.1.2. Foundation stem walls that retain more than 48 inches (1219 mm) of unbalanced fill, measured from the top of the wall, shall be designed in accordance with Sections R404.1.3 and R404.4.
  2. Stem walls laterally supported at top. Concrete stem walls that are monolithic with slabs-on-ground or are otherwise laterally supported by slabs-on-ground shall be constructed in accordance with Section R404.1.2. Where the unbalanced backfill retained by the stem wall is greater than 48 inches (1219 mm), the connection between the stem wall and the slab-on- ground, and the portion of the slab-on-ground providing lateral support for the wall shall be designed in accordance with PCA 100 or in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
92
TABLE R404.1.2(1)
MINIMUM HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT FOR CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSa, b
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED HEIGHT OF BASEMENT WALL (feet) LOCATION OF HORIZONTAL REINFORCEMENT
≤8 One No.4 bar within 12 inches of the top of the wall story and one No.4 bar near mid-height of the wall story
>8 One No.4 bar within 12 inches of the top of the wall story and one No.4 bar near third points in the wall story
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Horizontal reinforcement requirements are for reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 40,000 psi and concrete with a minimum concrete compressive strength 2,500 psi.
b. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for foundation walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.

 

TABLE R404.1.2(2)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6·INCH NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, g, h, i,j
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHTf (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 6 @ 39 6 @ 48
6 5 @ 39 6 @ 48 6 @ 35
7 6 @ 48 6 @ 34 6 @ 25
8 6@ 39 6 @ 25 6 @ 18
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 37 6 @ 48
6 5 @ 36 6 @ 44 6 @ 32
7 6 @ 47 6 @ 30 6 @ 22
8 6 @ 34 6 @ 22 6 @ 16
9 6 @ 27 6 @ 17 DR
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 35 6 @ 48
6 6 @ 48 6 @ 41 6 @ 30
7 6 @ 43 6 @ 28 6 @ 20
8 6 @ 31 6 @ 20 DR
9 6 @ 24 6 @ 15 DR
10 6 @ 19 DR DR
For SI:l foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3.7.2.
c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength ofless than 60,000 psi and!or bars ofa different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. Deflection criterion is L1240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
e. Interpolation is not permitted.
f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
g. NR indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required, except for 6-inch nominal walls formed with stay-in-place forming systems in which case vertical reinforcement shall be No. 4@48 inches on center.
h. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
i. See Table R611 .3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls.
j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.
93

R404.1.2.3 Concrete, materials for concrete, and forms. Materials used in concrete, the concrete itself and forms shall conform to requirements of this section or ACI318.

R404.1.2.3.1 Compressive strength. The minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, f shall comply with Section R402 .2 and shall be not less than 2,500 psi (17.2 MPa) at 28 days in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C and 3000 psi (20.5 MPa) in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category Do, D1 or Dz.

R404.1.2.3.2 Concrete mixing and delivery. Mixing and delivery of concrete shall comply with ASTM C 94 or ASTM C 685.

R404.1.2.3.3 Maximum aggregate size. The nominal maximum size of coarse aggregate shall not exceed one-fifth the narrowest distance between sides of forms, or three-fourths the clear spacing between reinforcing bars or between a bar and the side of the form .

Exception: When approved, these limitations shall not apply where removable forms are used and workability and methods of consolidation permit concrete to be placed without honeycombs or voids.

TABLE R404.1.2(3)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR a-INCH (203 mm) NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, f, h, i
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHT9 (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR 6 @ 37
7 NR 6 @ 36 6 @ 35
8 6 @ 41 6 @ 35 6 @ 26
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR 6 @ 35
7 NR 6 @ 35 6 @ 32
8 6 @ 36 6 @ 32 6 @ 23
9 6 @ 35 6 @ 25 6 @ 18
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR 6 @ 35
7 NR 6 @ 35 6 @ 29
8 6 @ 35 6 @ 29 6 @ 21
9 6 @ 34 6 @ 22 6 @ 16
10 6 @ 27 6 @ 17 6 @ 13
For SI:l foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (420 MPa), concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3.7.2.
c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength ofless than 60,000 psi and/or bars ofa different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required.
e. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
f. Interpolation is not permitted.
g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
h. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
i. See Table R611 .3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls.
94

R404.1.2.3.4 Proportioning and slump ofconcrete. Proportions of materials for concrete shall be established to provide workability and consistency to permit concrete to be worked readily into forms and around reinforcement under conditions of placement to be employed, without segregation or excessive bleeding. Slump of concrete placed in removable forms shall not exceed 6 inches (152 mm).

Exception: When approved, the slump is permitted to exceed 6 inches (152 mm) for concrete mixtures that are resistant to segregation, and are in accordance with the form manufacturer's recommendations.

Slump of concrete placed in stay-in-place forms shall exceed 6 inches (152 mm). Slump of concrete shall be determined in accordance with ASTM C 143.

R404.1.2.3.5 Consolidation of concrete. Concrete shall be consolidated by suitable means during placement and shall be worked around embedded items and reinforcement and into corners of forms. Where stay-in-place forms are used, concrete shall be consolidated by internal vibration.

Exception: When approved for concrete to be placed in stay-in-place forms, self-consolidating concrete mixtures with slumps equal to or greater than 8 inches (203 mm) that are specifically designed for placement without internal vibration need not be internally vibrated.

TABLE R404.l.2(4)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 10-INCH NOMINAL FLAT CONCRETE BASEMENT WALLSb,c,d,e,f,h,i
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHT9 (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR
7 NR NR NR
8 6 @ 48 6 @ 35 6 @ 28
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR
7 NR NR 6 @ 31
8 NR 6 @ 31 6 @ 28
9 6 @ 37 6 @ 28 6 @ 24
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR
7 NR NR 6 @ 28
8 NR 6 @ 28 6 @ 28
9 6 @ 33 6 @ 28 6 @ 21
10 6 @ 28 6 @ 23 6 @ 17
For SI:l foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3. 7.2.
c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required.
e. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
f. Interpolation is not permitted.
g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
h. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
i. See Table R611 .3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat walls.
95

R404.1.2.3.6 Form materials and form ties. Forms shall be made ofwood, steel, aluminum, plastic, a composite of cement and foam insulation, a composite of cement and wood chips, or other approved material suitable for supporting and containing concrete. Forms shall provide sufficient strength to contain concrete during the concrete placement operation.

Form ties shall be steel, solid plastic, foam plastic, a composite of cement and wood chips, a composite of cement and foam plastic, or other suitable material capable of resisting the forces created by fluid pressure of fresh concrete.

R404.1.2.3.6.1 Stay-in-place forms. Stay-in-place concrete forms shall comply with this section.

  1. Surface burning characteristics . The flame-spread index and smoke-developed index of forming material, other than foam plastic, left exposed on the interior shall comply with Section R302. The surface burning characteristics of foam plastic used in insulating concrete forms shall comply with Section R316. 3.
  2. Interior covering. Stay-in-place forms constructed of rigid foam plastic shall be protected on the interior of the building as required by Section R316. Where gypsum board is used to protect the foam plastic, it shall be installed with a mechanical fastening system. Use of adhesives in addition to mechanical fasteners is permitted
  3. Exterior wall covering. Stay-in-place forms constructed of rigid foam plastics shall be
    TABLE R404.1.2(5)
    MINIMUM VERTICAL WALL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH WAFFLE-GRID BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, g, h, i
    MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHTf (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
    Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
    GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
    8 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 46 6 @ 39
    5 4 @ 45 5 @ 46 6 @ 47
    6 5 @ 45 6 @ 40 DR
    7 6 @ 44 DR DR
    8 6 @ 32 DR DR
    9 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 46 4 @ 37
    5 4 @ 42 5 @ 43 6 @ 44
    6 5 @ 41 6 @ 37 DR
    7 6 @ 39 DR DR
    >8 DRi DR DR
    10 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 46 4 @ 35
    5 4 @ 40 5 @ 40 6 @ 41
    6 5 @ 38 6 @ 34 DR
    7 6 @ 36 DR DR
    >8 DR DR DR
    For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
    a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
    b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3.7.2.
    c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (Le., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars ofa different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
    d. Deflection criterion is L1240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
    e. Interpolation is not permitted.
    f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
    g. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement WIlls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
    h. See Table R611 .3 for thicknesses and dimensions of waffle-grid walls.
    i. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.
    96 protected from sunlight and physical damage by the application of an approved exterior wall covering complying with this code. Exterior surfaces of other stay-in-place forming systems shall be protected in accordance with this code.
  4. Termite hazards. In areas where hazard of termite damage is very heavy in accordance with Figure R30 1.2(6), foam plastic insulation shall be permitted below grade on foundation walls in accordance with one of the following conditions:

    4.1. Where in addition to the requirements in Section R318.1, an approved method of protecting the foam plastic and structure from subterranean termite damage is provided.

    4.2. The structural members of walls, floors, ceilings and roofs are entirely of noncombustible materials or pressure-preservative-treated wood.

    4.3. On the interior side of basement walls.

TABLE R404.1.2(6)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR a-INCH WAFFLE-GRID BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, f, h, i,j
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHT9 (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP 30 GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML 45 SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL 60
8 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 48 5 @ 46
6 5 @ 48 5 @ 43 6 @ 45
7 5 @ 46 6 @ 43 6 @ 31
8 6 @ 48 6 @ 32 6 @ 23
9 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 47 5 @ 46
6 5 @ 46 5 @ 39 6 @ 41
7 5 @ 42 6 @ 38 6 @ 28
8 6 @ 44 6 @ 28 6 @ 20
9 6 @ 34 6 @ 21 DR
10 4 NR NR NR
5 NR 5 @ 46 5 @ 44
6 5 @ 46 5 @ 37 6 @38
7 5 @ 38 6 @ 35 6 @ 25
8 6 @ 39 6 @ 25 DR
9 6 @ 30 DR DR
10 6 @ 24 DR DR
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3.7.2.
c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 (420 MPa) and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (Le., 12, 24, 36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. NR indicates no vertical reinforcement is required.
e. Deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
f. Interpolation shall not be permitted.
g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
h. See Section R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
L See Table R611.3 for thicknesses and dimensions of waffle-grid walls.
j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.
97
TABLE R404.1.2(7)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-INCH (152 mm) SCREEN-GRID BASEMENT WALLSb, c, d, e, g, h, i,
MAXIMUM UNSUPPORTED WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHTf (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP
30
GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML
45
SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL
60
8 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 48 5 @ 43
5 4 @ 48 5 @ 48 5 @ 37
6 5 @ 48 6 @ 45 6 @ 32
7 6 @ 48 DR DR
8 6 @ 36 DR DR
9 4 14 @ 48 4 @ 48 4 @ 41
5 4 @ 48 5 @ 48 6 @ 48
6 5 @ 45 6 @ 41 DR
7 6 @ 43 DR DR
>8 DR DR DR
10 4 4 @ 48 4 @ 48 4 @ 39
5 4 @ 44 5 @ 44 6 @ 46
6 5 @ 42 6 @ 38 DR
7 6 @ 40 DR DR
>8 DR DR DR
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPaz/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (420 MPa), concrete with a minimum specified compressive strength of 2,500 psi and vertical reinforcement being located at the centerline of the wall. See Section R404.1.2.3.7.2.
c. Maximum spacings shown are the values calculated for the specified bar size. Where the bar used is Grade 60 and the size specified in the table, the actual spacing in the wall shall not exceed a whole-number multiple of 12 inches (Le., 12,24,36 and 48) that is less than or equal to the tabulated spacing. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. Deflection criterion is L1240, where L is the height of the basement wall in inches.
e. Interpolation is not permitted.
f. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
g. See Sections R404.1.2.2 for minimum reinforcement required for basement walls supporting above-grade concrete walls.
h. See Table R611 .3 for thicknesses and dimensions of screen-grid walls.
L DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code, in accordance with ACI 318.

R404.1.2.3.7 Reinforcement.

R404.1.2.3.7.1 Steel reinforcement. Steel reinforcement shall comply with the requirements of ASTM A 615, A 706, or A 996. ASTM A 996 bars produced from rail steel shall be Type R. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category A, B or C, the minimum yield strength of reinforcing steel shall be 40,000 psi (Grade 40) (276 MPa). In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category Do' D1 or Dz' reinforcing steel shall comply with the requirements of ASTM A 706 for low-alloy steel with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi (Grade 60) (414 MPa).

R404.1.2.3.7.2 Location of reinforcement in wall. The center of vertical reinforcement in basement walls determined from Tables R404.1.2(3) through R404.1.2 (7) shall be located at the center-line of the wall. Vertical reinforcement in basement walls determined from Tables R404 .1.2 (2) or R404.1 .2(8) shall be located to provide a maximum cover of 1.25 inches (32 mm) measured from the inside face of the wall. Regardless of the table used to determine vertical wall reinforcement, the center ofthe steel shall not vary from the specified location by more than the greater of 10 percent of the wall thickness and 3/s-inch (10 mm). Horizontal and vertical reinforcement shall be located in foundation walls to provide the minimum cover required by Section R404.1.2.3.7.4.

R404.1.2.3.7.3 Wall openings. Vertical wall reinforcement required by Section R404.1.2.2 that is interrupted by wall openings shall have additional vertical reinforcement of the same size placed within 12 inches (305 mm) of each side ofthe opening.

98
TABLE R404.l.2(8)
MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT FOR 6-, 8-, 10-INCH AND l2-INCH NOMINAL FLAT BASEMENT WALLSb,c,d,e,f,h,i,k,n
MAXIMUM WALL HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM UNBALANCED BACKFILL HEIGHT9 (feet) MINIMUM VERTICAL REINFORCEMENT-BAR SIZE AND SPACING (inches)
Soil classesa and design lateral soil (psf per foot of depth)
GW, GP, SW, SP
30
GM, GC, SM, SM-SC and ML
45
SC, ML-CL and inorganic CL
60
Minimum nominal wall thickness (inches)
6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12 6 8 10 12
5 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
6 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR NR NRI NR NR 4 @ 35 NRI NR NR
6 NR NR NR NR 5 @ 48 NR NR NR 5 @ 36 NR NR NR
7 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR 5 @ 47 NR NR NR
6 NR NR NR NR 5 @ 42 NR NR NR 6 @ 43 5 @ 48 NRI NR
7 5 @ 46 NR NR NR 6 @ 42 5 @ 46 NRI NR 6 @ 34 6 @ 48 NR NR
8 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR 4 @ 38 NRI NR NR 5 @ 43 NR NR NR
6 4 @ 37 NRI NR NR 5 @ 37 NR NR NR 6 @ 37 5 @ 43 NRI NR
7 5 @ 40 NR NR NR 6 @ 37 5 @ 41 NRI NR 6 @ 34 6 @ 43 NR NR
8 6 @ 43 5 @ 47 NRI NR 6 @ 34 6 @ 43 NR NR 6 @ 27 6 @ 32 6 @ 44 NR
9 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR 4 @ 35 NRI NR NR 5 @ 40 NR NR NR
6 4 @ 34 NRI NR NR 6 @ 48 NR NR NR 6 @ 36 6 @ 39 NRI NR
7 5 @ 36 NR NR NR 6 @ 34 5 @ 37 NR NR 6 @ 33 6 @ 38 5 @ 37 NRI
8 6 @ 38 5 @ 41 NRI NR 6 @ 33 6 @ 38 5 @ 37 NRI 6 @ 24 6 @ 29 6 @ 39 4 @ 48m
9 6 @ 34 6 @ 46 NR NR 6 @ 26 6 @ 30 6 @ 41 NR 6 @ 19 6 @ 23 6 @ 30 6@ 39
10 4 NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
5 NR NR NR NR 4 @ 33 NRI NR NR 5 @ 38 NR NR NR
6 5 @ 48 NRI NR NR 6 @ 45 NR NR NR 6 @ 34 5 @ 37 NR NR
7 6 @ 47 NR NR NR 6 @ 34 6 @ 48 NR NR 6 @ 30 6 @ 35 6 @ 48 NRI
8 6 @ 34 5 @ 38 NR NR 6 @ 30 6 @ 34 6 @ 47 NRI 6 @ 22 6 @ 26 6 @ 35 6 @ 45m
9 6 @ 34 6 @ 41 4 @ 48 NRI 6 @ 23 6 @ 27 6 @ 35 4 @ 48m DR 6 @ 22 6 @ 27 6 @ 34
10 6 @ 28 6 @ 33 6 @ 45 NR DRj 6 @ 23 6 @ 29 6 @ 38 DR 6 @ 22 6 @ 22 6 @ 28
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm; 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 pound per square foot per foot = 0.1571 kPa2/m, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. Soil classes are in accordance with the Unified Soil Classification System. Refer to Table R405.1.
b. Table values are based on reinforcing bars with a minimum yield strength of 60,000 psi.
c. Vertical reinforcement with a yield strength of less than 60,000 psi and/or bars of a different size than specified in the table are permitted in accordance with Section R404.1.2.3.7.6 and Table R404.1.2(9).
d. NR indicates no vertical wall reinforcement is required, except for 6-inch nominal walls formed with stay-in-place forming systems in which case vertical reinforcement shall be #4@48 inches on center.
e. Allowable deflection criterion is L/240, where L is the unsupported height of the basement wall in inches.
f. Interpolation is not permitted.
g. Where walls will retain 4 feet or more of unbalanced backfill, they shall be laterally supported at the top and bottom before backfilling.
h. Vertical reinforcement shall be located to provide a cover of 1.25 inches measured from the inside face of the wall. The center of the steel shall not vary from the specified location by more than the greater of 10 percent of the wall thickness or ⅜-inch.
i. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from the inside face ofthe wall shall not be less than ¾-inch. Concrete cover for reinforcement measured from the outside face of the wall shall not be less than 1½ inches for No. 5 bars and smaller, and not less than 2 inches for larger bars.
j. DR means design is required in accordance with the applicable building code, or where there is no code in accordance with ACI 318.
k. Concrete shall have a specified compressive strength, r;, of not less than 2,500 psi at 28 days, unless a higher strength is required by footnote I or m.
l. The minimum thickness is permitted to be reduced 2 inches, provided the minimum specified compressive strength of concrete, r;, is 4,000 psi.
m.A plain concrete wall with a minimum nominal thickness of 12 inches is permitted, provided minimum specified compressive strength ofconcrete, r;,is 3,500 psi.
n. See Table R611 .3 for tolerance from nominal thickness permitted for flat Walls.
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TABLE R404.1.2(9)
MINIMUM SPACING FOR ALTERNATE BAR SIZE AND/OR ALTERNATE GRADE OF STEELa,b,c
BAR SPACING FROM APPLICABLE TABLE IN SECTION R404.1.2.2 (inches) BAR SIZE FROM APPLICABLE TABLE IN SECTION R404.1.2.2
#4 #5 #6
Alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel desired
Grade 60 Grade 40 Grade 60 Grade 40 Grade 60 Grade 40
#5 #6 #4 #5 #6 #4 #6 #4 #5 #6 #4 #5 #4 #5 #6
Maximum spacing for alternate bar size and/or alternate grade of steel (inches)
8 12 18 5 8 12 5 11 3 5 8 4 6 2 4 5
9 14 20 6 9 13 6 13 4 6 9 4 6 3 4 6
10 16 22 7 10 15 6 14 4 7 9 5 7 3 5 7
11 17 24 7 11 16 7 16 5 7 10 5 8 3 5 7
12 19 26 8 12 18 8 17 5 8 11 5 8 4 6 8
13 20 29 9 13 19 8 18 6 9 12 6 9 4 6 9
14 22 31 9 14 21 9 20 6 9 13 6 10 4 7 9
15 23 33 10 16 22 10 21 6 10 14 7 11 5 7 10
16 25 35 11 17 23 10 23 7 11 15 7 11 5 8 11
17 26 37 11 18 25 11 24 7 11 16 8 12 5 8 11
18 28 40 12 19 26 12 26 8 12 17 8 13 5 8 12
19 29 42 13 20 28 12 27 8 13 18 9 13 6 9 13
20 31 44 13 21 29 13 28 9 13 19 9 14 6 9 13
21 33 46 14 22 31 14 30 9 14 20 10 15 6 10 14
22 34 48 15 23 32 14 31 9 15 21 10 16 7 10 15
23 36 48 15 24 34 15 33 10 15 22 10 16 7 11 15
24 37 48 16 25 35 15 34 10 16 23 11 17 7 11 16
25 39 48 17 26 37 16 35 11 17 24 11 18 8 12 17
26 40 48 17 27 38 17 37 11 17 25 12 18 8 12 17
27 42 48 18 28 40 17 38 12 18 26 12 19 8 13 18
28 43 48 19 29 41 18 40 12 19 26 13 20 8 13 19
29 45 48 19 30 43 19 41 12 19 27 13 20 9 14 19
30 47 48 20 31 44 19 43 13 20 28 14 21 9 14 20
31 48 48 21 32 45 20 44 13 21 29 14 22 9 15 21
32 48 48 21 33 47 21 45 14 21 30 15 23 10 15 21
33 48 48 22 34 48 21 47 14 22 31 15 23 10 16 22
34 48 48 23 35 48 22 48 15 23 32 15 24 10 16 23
35 48 48 23 36 48 23 48 15 23 33 16 25 11 16 23
36 48 48 24 37 48 23 48 15 24 34 16 25 11 17 24
37 48 48 25 38 48 24 48 16 25 35 17 26 11 17 25
38 48 48 25 39 48 25 48 16 25 36 17 27 12 18 25
39 48 48 26 40 48 25 48 17 26 37 18 27 12 18 26
40 48 48 27 41 48 26 48 17 27 38 18 28 12 19 27
41 48 48 27 42 48 26 48 18 27 39 19 29 12 19 27
42 48 48 28 43 48 27 48 18 28 40 19 30 13 20 28
43 48 48 29 44 48 28 48 18 29 41 20 30 13 20 29
44 48 48 29 45 48 28 48 19 29 42 20 31 13 21 29
45 48 48 30 47 48 29 48 19 30 43 20 32 14 21 30 100
46 48 48 31 48 48 30 48 20 31 44 21 32 14 22 31
47 48 48 31 48 48 30 48 20 31 44 21 33 14 22 31
48 48 48 32 48 48 31 48 21 32 45 22 34 15 23 32
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. This table is for use with tables in Section R404.1.2.2 that specify the minimum bar size and maximum spacing ofvertical wall reinforcement for foundation walls and above-grade walls. Reinforcement specified in tables in Sections R404.1.2.2 is based on Grade 60 steel reinforcement.
b. Bar spacing shall not exceed 48 inches on center and shall not be less than one-half the nominal wall thickness.
c. For Grade 50 steel bars (ASTM A 996, Type R) , use spacing for Grade 40 bars or interpolate between Grades 40 and 60.

R404.1.2.3.7.4 Support and cover. Reinforcement shall be secured in the proper location in the forms with tie wire or other bar support system to prevent displacement during the concrete placement operation. Steel reinforcement in concrete cast against the earth shall have a minimum cover of 3 inches (75 mm). Minimum cover for reinforcement in concrete cast in removable forms that will be exposed to the earth or weather shall be 1½ inches (38 mm) for No. 5 bars and smaller, and 2 inches (50 mm) for No.6 bars and larger. For concrete cast in removable forms that will not be exposed to the earth or weather, and for concrete cast in stay-in-place forms, minimum cover shall be ¾inch (19 mm). The minus tolerance for cover shall not exceed the smaller of one-third the required cover or ⅜inch (10 mm) .

R404.1.2.3.7.5 Lap splices. Vertical and horizontal wall reinforcement shall be the longest lengths practical. Where splices are necessary in reinforcement, the length of lap splice shall be in accordance with Table R611.5.4.(1) and Figure R611.5.4(1). The maximum gap between noncontact parallel bars at a lap splice shall not exceed the smaller of one-fifth the required lap length and 6 inches (152 mm). See Figure R611.5.4(1).

R404.1.2.3.7.6 Alternate grade of reinforcement and spacing. Where tables in Section R404.1.2.2 specify vertical wall reinforcement based on minimum bar size and maximum spacing, which are based on Grade 60 (414 MPa) steel reinforcement, different size bars and/or bars made from a different grade of steel are permitted provided an equivalent area of steel per linear foot of wall is provided. Use of Table R404.1 .2(9) is permitted to determine the maximum bar spacing for different bar sizes than specified in the tables and/or bars made from a different grade of steel. Bars shall not be spaced less than one-half the wall thickness, or more than 48 inches (1219 mm) on center.

R404.1.2.3.7.7 Standard hooks. Where reinforcement is required by this code to terminate with a standard hook, the hook shall comply with Section R611.5.4.5 and Figure R611.5.4(3).

R404.1.2.3.7.8 Construction joint reinforcement. Construction joints in foundation walls shall be made and located to not impair the strength of the wall. Construction joints in plain concrete walls, including walls required to have not less than No.4 bars at 48 inches (1219 mm) on center by Sections R404.1.2.2 and R404.1.4.2, shall be located at points of lateral support, and a minimum of one No.4 bar shall extend across the construction joint at a spacing not to exceed 24 inches (610 mm) on center. Construction joint reinforcement shall have a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) embedment on both sides of the joint. Construction joints in reinforced concrete walls shall be located in the middle third of the span between lateral supports, or located and constructed as required for joints in plain concrete walls.

Exception: Use of vertical wall reinforcement required by this code is permitted in lieu of constructionj oint reinforcement provided the spacing does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm), or the combination of wall reinforcement and No.4 bars described above does not exceed 24 inches (610 mm).

R404.1.2.3.8 Exterior wall coverings. Requirements for installation of masonry veneer, stucco and other wall coverings on the exterior of concrete walls and other construction details not covered in this section shall comply with the requirements ofthis code.

R404.1.2.4 Requirements for Seismic Design Category C. Concrete foundation walls supporting above-grade concrete walls in townhouses assigned to Seismic Design Category C shall comply with ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100 (see Section R404.1.2).

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R404.1.3 Design required. Concrete or masonry foundation walls shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice when either of the following conditions exists:

  1. Walls are subject to hydrostatic pressure from groundwater.
  2. Walls supporting more than 48 inches (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill that do not have permanent lateral support at the top or bottom.

R404.1.4 Seismic Design Category Do, D1 or D2

R404.1.4.1 Masonry foundation walls. In addition to the requirements of Table R404.1.1 (1) plain masonry foundation walls in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category Do, D1 or D2, as established in Table R30 1.2 (1), shall comply with the following.

  1. Wall height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm).
  2. Unbalanced backfill height shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm).
  3. Minimum nominal thickness for plain masonry foundation walls shall be 8 inches (203 mm).
  4. Masonry stem walls shall have a minimum vertical reinforcement of one No.3 (No. 10) bar located a maximum of 4 feet (1219 mm) on center in grouted cells. Vertical reinforcement shall be tied to the horizontal reinforcement in the footings.

Foundation walls in buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category Do, D1 or D2, as established in Table R301.2(1), supporting more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill or exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height shall be constructed in accordance with Table R404.1.1 (2), R404.1.1 (3) or R404.1.1 (4). Masonry foundation walls shall have two No.4 (No. 13) horizontal bars located in the upper 12 inches (305 mm) of the wall.

R404.1.4.2 Concrete foundation walls. In buildings assigned to Seismic Design Category Do, D1 or D2, as established in Table R301.2(1), concrete foundation walls that support light-frame walls shall comply with this section, and concrete foundation walls that support above-grade concrete walls shall comply with ACI 318, ACI 332 or PCA 100 (see Section R404.1.2). In addition to the horizontal reinforcement required by Table R404.1.2 (1), plain concrete walls supporting light-frame walls shall comply with the following.

  1. Wall height shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm).
  2. Unbalanced backfill height shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm).
  3. Minimum thickness for plain concrete foundation walls shall be 7.5 inches (191 mm) except that 6 inches (152 mm) is permitted where the maximum wall height is 4 feet, 6 inches (1372 mm).

Foundation walls less than 7.5 inches (191 mm) in thickness, supporting more than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill or exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height shall be provided with horizontal reinforcement in accordance with Table R404.1.2(1), and vertical reinforcement in accordance with Table R404.1.2 (2) , R404.1.2(3), R404.1.2(4), R404.1.2(5), R404.1.2(6), R404.1.2(7) or R404.1.2(8). Where Tables R404.1.2(2) through R404.1.2 (8) permit plain concrete walls, not less than No.4 (No. 13) vertical bars at a spacing not exceeding 48 inches (1219 mm) shall be provided.

R404.1.5 Foundation wall thickness based on walls supported. The thickness of masonry or concrete foundation walls shall not be less than that required by Section R404.1.5.1 or R404.1.5.2, respectively.

R404.1.5.1 Masonry wall thickness. Masonry foundation walls shall not be less than the thickness of the wall supported, except that masonry foundation walls of at least 8-inch (203 mm) nominal thickness shall be permitted under brick veneered frame walls and under 10-inch-wide (254 mm) cavity walls where the total height of the wall supported, including gables, is not more than 20 feet (6096 mm), provided the requirements of Section R404.1.1 are met.

R404.1.5.2 Concrete wall thickness. The thickness of concrete foundation walls shall be equal to or greater than the thickness ofthe wall in the storyabove. Concrete foundation walls with corbels, brackets or other projections built into the wall for support of masonry veneer or other purposes are not within the scope of the tables in this section.

Where a concrete foundation wall is reduced in thickness to provide a shelf for the support of masonry veneer, the reduced thickness shall be equal to or greater than the thickness of the wall in the story above. Vertical reinforcement for the foundation wall shall be based on Table R404.1.2(8) and located in the wall as required by Section R404.1.2.3.7.2 where that table is used. Vertical reinforcement shall be based on the thickness of the thinner portion of the wall.

Exception: Where the height of the reduced thickness portion measured to the underside of the floor assembly or sill plate above is less than or equal to 24 inches (610 mm) and the reduction in thickness does not exceed 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical reinforcement is permitted to be based on the thicker portion of the wall.

R404.1.5.3 Pier and curtain wall foundations. Use of pier and curtain wall foundations shall be permitted to support light-frame construction not more than two stories in height, provided the following requirements are met:

  1. All load-bearing walls shall be placed on continuous concrete footings placed integrally with the exterior wall footings.
  2. The minimum actual thickness of a load-bearing masonry wall shall be not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal or 3⅜ inches (92 mm) actual thickness, and shall be bonded integrally with piers spaced in accordance with Section R606.9.
  3. Piers shall be constructed in accordance with Section R606.6 and Section R606.6.1, and shall be 102 bonded into the load-bearing masonry wall in accordance with Section R608.1.1 or Section R608.1.1.2.
  4. The maximum height of a 4-inch (102 mm) load-bearing masonry foundation wall supporting wood-frame walls and floors shall not be more than 4 feet (1219 mm).
  5. Anchorage shall be in accordance with Section R403.1.6, Figure R404.1.5(1), or as specified by engineered design accepted by the building official.
  6. The unbalanced fill for 4-inch (102 mm) foundation walls shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for solid masonry or 12 inches (305 mm) for hollow masonry.
  7. In Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2, prescriptive reinforcement shall be provided in the horizontal and vertical direction. Provide minimum horizontal joint reinforcement of two No.9 gage wires spaced not less than 6 inches (152 mm) or one ¼ inch (6.4 mm) diameter wire at 10 inches (254 mm) on center vertically. Provide minimum vertical reinforcement of one No. 4 bar at 48 inches (1220 mm) on center horizontally grouted in place.

R404.1.6 Height above finished grade. Concrete and masonry foundation walls shall extend above the finished grade adjacent to the foundation at all points a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) where masonry veneer is used and a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) elsewhere.

R404.1.7 Backfill placement. Backfill shall not be placed against the wall until the wall has sufficient strength and has been anchored to the floor above, or has been sufficiently braced to prevent damage by the backfill.

Exception: Bracing is not required for walls supporting less than 4 feet (1219 mm) of unbalanced backfill.

R404.1.8 Rubble stone masonry. Rubble stone masonry foundation walls shall have a minimum thickness of 16 inches (406 mm), shall not support an unbalanced backfill exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm) in height, shall not support a soil pressure greater than 30 pounds per square foot per foot (4.71 kPa/m) , and shall not be constructed in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1, D2 or townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, as established in Figure R30 1.2 (2).

R404.2 Wood foundation walls. Wood foundation walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of Sections R404.2.1 through R404.2.6 and with the details shown in Figures R403.1 (2) and R403.1 (3).

R404.2.1 Identification. All load-bearing lumber shall be identified by the grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency which has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu ofa grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted. Wood structural panels shall conform to DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2 and shall be identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.

R404.2.2 Stud size. The studs used in foundation walls shall be 2-inch by 6-inch (51 mm by 152 mm) members. When spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center, a wood species with an Fbvalue of not less than 1,250 pounds per square inch (8619 kPa) as listed in AF&PA/NDS shall be used. When spaced 12 inches (305 mm) on center, an Fb ofnot less than 875 psi (6033 kPa) shall be required.

R404.2.3 Height of backfill. For wood foundations that are not designed and installed in accordance with AF&PA PWF, the height of backfill against a foundation wall shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm). When the height of fill is more than 12 inches (305 mm) above the interior grade ofa crawl space or floor ofa basement, the thickness of the plywood sheathing shall meet the requirements of Table R404.2.3.

R404.2.4 Backfilling. Wood foundation walls shall not be backfilled until the basementfloor and first floor have been constructed or the walls have been braced. For crawl space construction, backfill or bracing shall be installed on the interior ofthe walls prior to placing backfill on the exterior.

R404.2.5 Drainage and dampproofing. Wood foundation basements shall be drained and dampproofed in accordance with Sections R405 and R406, respectively.

R404.2.6 Fastening. Wood structural panel foundation wall sheathing shall be attached to framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and Section R402. 1. 1.

R404.3 Wood sill plates. Wood sill plates shall be a minimum of 2-inch by 4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) nominal lumber. Sill plate anchorage shall be in accordance with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.

R404.4 Retaining walls. Retaining walls that are not laterally supported at the top and that retain in excess of 24 inches (610 mm) of unbalanced fill shall be designed to ensure stability against overturning, sliding, excessive foundation pressure and water uplift. Retaining walls shall be designed for a safety factor of 1.5 against lateral sliding and overturning.

404.5 Precast concrete foundation walls.

R404.5.1 Design. Precast concrete foundation walls shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. The design and manufacture of precast concrete foundation wall panels shall comply with the materials requirements of Section R402.3 or ACI 318. The panel design drawings shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed in accordance with Section RI06.1.

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FIGURE R404.1.5(1) FOUNDATION WALL CLAY MASONRY CURTAIN WALL WITH CONCRETE MASONRY PIERS

FIGURE R404.1.5(1) FOUNDATION WALL CLAY MASONRY CURTAIN WALL WITH CONCRETE MASONRY PIERS

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TABLE R404.2.3
PLYWOOD GRADE AND THICKNESS FOR WOOD FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION
(30 pef equivalent-fluid weight soil pressure)
HEIGHT OF FILL
(inches)
STUD SPACING
(inches)
FACE GRAIN ACROSS STUDS FACE GRAIN PARALLEL TO STUDS
Gradea Minimum thickness (inches) Span rating Gradea Minimum thickness (inches)b, c Span rating
24 12 B 15/32 32/16 A 15/32 32/16
B 15/32c 32/16
16 B 15/32 32/16 A 15/32c 32/16
B 19/32c (4, 5 ply) 40/20
36 12 B 15/32 32/16 A 15/32 32/16
B 15/32c (4, 5 ply) 32/16
B 19/32 (4, 5 ply) 40/20
16 B 15/32c 32/16 A 19/32 40/20
B 23/32 48/24
48 12 B 15/32 32/16 A 15/32c 32/16
B 19/32c (4, 5 ply) 40/20
16 B 19/32 40/20 A 19/32c 40/20
A 23/32 48/24
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 0.1572kN/m3.
a. Plywood shall be of the following minimum grades in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2:
     1. DOC PS 1 Plywood grades marked:
               1.1. Structural I C-D (Exposure 1)
               1.2. C-D (Exposure 1)
     2. DOC PS 2 Plywood grades marked:
               2.1. Structural I Sheathing (Exposure 1)
               2.2. Sheathing (Exposure 1)
     3. Where a major portion ofthe wall is exposed above ground and a better appearance is desired, the following plywood grades marked exterior are suitable:
               3.1. Structural I A-C, Structural I B-C or Structural I C-C (Plugged) in accordance with DOC PS 1
               3.2. A-C Group 1, B-C Group 1, C-C (Plugged) Group 1 or MOO Group 1 in accordance with DOC PS 1
               3.3. Single Floor in accordance with DOC PS 1 or DOC PS 2
b. Minimum thickness 15/32 inch, except crawl space sheathing may be ⅜ inch for face grain across studs 16 inches on center and maximum 2-foot depth of unequal fill.
c. For this fill height, thickness and grade combination, panels that are continuous over less than three spans (across less than three stud spacings) require blocking 16 inches above the bottom plate. Offset adjacent blocks and fasten through studs with two 16d corrosion-resistant nails at each end.

R404.5.2 Precast concrete foundation design drawings. Precast concrete foundation wall design drawings shall be submitted to the building official and approved prior to installation. Drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified below:

  1. Design loading as applicable;
  2. Footing design and material;
  3. Concentrated loads and their points of application;
  4. Soil bearing capacity;
  5. Maximum allowable total uniform load;
  6. Seismic design category; and
  7. Basic wind speed.

R404.5.3 Identification. Precast concrete foundation wall panels shall be identified by a certificate of inspection label issued by an approved third party inspection agency.

SECTION R405
FOUNDATION DRAINAGE

R405.1 Concrete or masonry foundations. Drains shall be provided around all concrete or masonry foundations that retain earth and enclose habitable or usable spaces located below grade. Drainage tiles, gravel or crushed stone drains, perforated pipe or other approvedsystems or materials shall be installed at or below the area to be protected and shall discharge by gravity or mechanical means into an approveddrainage systern.

105

Gravel or crushed stone drains shall extend at least 1 foot (305 mm) beyond the outside edge of the footing and 6 inches (152 mm) above the top of the footing and be covered with an approved filter membrane material. The top of open joints of drain tiles shall be protected with strips of building paper, and the drainage tiles or perforated pipe shall be placed on a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) of washed gravel or crushed rock at least one sieve size larger than the tile j oint opening or perforation and covered with not less than 6 inches (152 mm) of the same material.

Exception: A drainage system is not required when the foundation is installed on well-drained ground or sand-gravel mixture soils according to the Unified Soil Classification System, Group I Soils, as detailed in Table R405.1.

R405.1.1 Precast concrete foundation. Precast concrete walls that retain earth and enclose habitable or useable space located below-grade that rest on crushed stone footings shall have a perforated drainage pipe installed below the base of the wall on either the interior or exterior side of the wall, at least one foot (305 mm) beyond the edge of the wall. If the exterior drainage pipe is used, an approved filter membrane material shall cover the pipe. The drainage system shall discharge into an approved sewer system or to daylight.

R405.2 Wood foundations. Wood foundations enclosing habitable or usable spaces located below grade shall be adequately drained in accordance with Sections R405.2.1 through R405.2.3.

R405.2.1 Base. A porous layer of gravel, crushed stone or coarse sand shall be placed to a minimum thickness of 4 inches (102 mm) under the basement floor. Provision shall be made for automatic draining of this layer and the gravel or crushed stone wall footings.

R405.2.2 Vapor retarder. A 6-mil-thick (0.15 mm) POlY- I ethylene vapor retarder shall be applied over the porous layer with the basement floor constructed over the polyethylene.

TABLE R405.1
PROPERTIES OF SOILS CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO THE UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM
SOIL GROUP UNIFIED SOIL CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM SYMBOL SOIL DESCRIPTION DRAINAGE CHARACTERISTICsa FROST HEAVE POTENTIAL VOLUME CHANGE POTENTIAL EXPANSIONb
Group I GW Well-graded gravels, gravel sand mixtures, little or no fines Good Low Low
GP Poorly graded gravels or gravel sand mixtures, little or no fines Good Low Low
SW Well-graded sands, gravelly sands, little or no fines Good Low Low
SP Poorly graded sands or gravelly sands, little or no fines Good Low Low
GM Silty gravels, gravel-sand-silt mixtures Good Medium Low
SM Silty sand, sand-silt mixtures Good Medium Low
Group II GC Clayey gravels, gravel-sand-clay mixtures Medium Medium Low
SC Clayey sands, sand-clay mixture Medium Medium Low
ML Inorganic silts and very fine sands, rock flour, silty or clayey fine sands or clayey silts with slight plasticity Medium High Low
CL Inorganic clays of low to medium plasticity, gravelly clays, sandy clays, silty clays, lean clays Medium Medium Medium to Low
Group III CH Inorganic clays of high plasticity, fat clays Poor Medium High
MH Inorganic silts, micaceous or diatomaceous fine sandy or silty soils, elastic silts Poor High High
Group IV OL Organic silts and organic silty clays of low plasticity Poor Medium Medium
OH Organic clays of medium to high plasticity, organic silts Unsatisfactory Medium High
Pt Peat and other highly organic soils Unsatisfactory Medium High
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. The percolation rate for good drainage is over 4 inches per hour, medium drainage is 2 inches to 4 inches per hour, and poor is less than 2 inches per hour.
b. Soils with a low potential expansion typically have a plasticity index (PI) of 0 to 15, soils with a medium potential expansion have a PI of 10 to 35 and soils with a high potential expansion have a PI greater than 20.
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R405.2.3 Drainage system. In other than Group I soils, a sump shall be provided to drain the porous layer and footings. The sump shall be at least 24 inches (610 mm) in diameter or 20 inches square (0.0129 m2), shall extend at least 24 inches (610 mm) below the bottom of the basement floor and shall be capable of positive gravity or mechanical drainage to remove any accumulated water. The drainage system shall discharge into an approved sewer system or to daylight.

SECTION R406
FOUNDATION WATERPROOFING AND DAMPPROOFING

R406.1 Concrete and masonry foundation dampproofing. Except where required by Section R406.2 to be waterproofed, foundation walls that retain earth and enclose interior spaces and floors below grade shall be dampproofed from the top of the footing to the finished grade. Masonry walls shall have not less than ⅜ inch (9.5 mm) portland cement parging applied to the exterior of the wall. The parging shall be dampproofed in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Bituminous coating.
  2. Three pounds per square yard (1.63 kg/m2) of acrylic modified cement.
  3. One-eighth inch (3.2 mm) coat of surface-bonding cement complying with ASTM C 887.
  4. Any material permitted for waterproofing in Section R406.2.
  5. Other approved methods or materials.

    Exception: Parging of unit masonry walls is not required where a material is approvedfor direct application to the masonry.

Concrete walls shall be dampproofed by applying anyone of the above listed dampproofing materials or anyone of the waterproofing materials listed in Section R406.2 to the exterior of the wall.

R406.2 Concrete and masonry foundation waterproofing. In areas where a high water table or other severe soil-water conditions are known to exist, exterior foundation walls that retain earth and enclose interior spaces and floors below grade shall be waterproofed from the top of the footing to the finished grade. Walls shall be waterproofed in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Two-ply hot-mopped felts.
  2. Fifty five pound (25 kg) roll roofing.
  3. Six-mil (0.15 mm) polyvinyl chloride.
  4. Six-mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene.
  5. Forty-mil (1 mm) polymer-modified asphalt.
  6. Sixty-mil (1.5 mm) flexible polymer cement.
  7. One-eighth inch (3 mm) cement-based, fiber-reinforced, waterproof coating.
  8. Sixty-mil (0.22 mm) solvent-free liquid-applied synthetic rubber.

    Exception: Organic-solvent-based products such as hydro-carbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, ketones and esters shall not be used for ICF walls with expanded polystyrene form material. Use of plastic roofing cements, acrylic coatings, latex coatings, mortars and pargings to seal ICF walls is permitted. Cold-setting asphalt or hot asphalt shall conform to type C of ASTM D 449. Hot asphalt shall be applied at a temperature of less than 200°F (93°C).

All joints in membrane waterproofing shall be lapped and sealed with an adhesive compatible with the membrane.

R406.3 Dampproofing for wood foundations. Wood foundations enclosing habitable or usable spaces located below grade shall be dampproofed in accordance with Sections R406.3.1 through R406.3.4.

R406.3.1 Panel joint sealed. Plywood panel joints in the foundation walls shall be sealed full length with a caulking compound capable of producing a mOisture-proof seal under the conditions of temperature and moisture content at which it will be applied and used.

R406.3.2 Below-grade moisture barrier. A 6-mil-thick (0.15 mm) polyethylene film shall be applied over the below-grade portion of exterior foundation walls prior to backfilling. Joints in the polyethylene film shall be lapped 6 inches (152 mm) and sealed with adhesive. The top edge of the polyethylene film shall be bonded to the sheathing to form a seal. Film areas at grade level shall be protected from mechanical damage and exposure by a pressure preservatively treated lumber or plywood strip attached to the wall several inches above finish grade level and extending approximately 9 inches (229 mm) below grade. The joint between the strip and the wall shall be caulked full length prior to fastening the strip to the wall. Other coverings appropriate to the architectural treatment may also be used. The polyethylene film shall extend down to the bottom of the wood footing plate but shall not overlap or extend into the gravel or crushed stone footing.

R406.3.3 Porous fill. The space between the excavation and the foundation wall shall be backfilled with the same material used for footings, up to a height of 1 foot (305 mm) above the footing for well-drained sites, or one-half the total back-fill height for poorly drained sites. The porous fill shall be covered with strips of 30-pound (13.6 kg) asphalt paper or 6-mil (0.15 mm) polyethylene to permit water seepage while avoiding infiltration of fine soils.

R406.3.4 Backfill. The remainder of the excavated area shall be backfilled with the same type ofsoil as was removed during the excavation.

R406.4 Precast concrete foundation system dampproofing. Except where required by Section R406.2 to be waterproofed, precast concrete foundation walls enclosing habitable or useable spaces located below grade shall be dampproofed in accordance with Section R406.1.

107

R406.4.1 Paneljoints sealed. Precast concrete foundation paneljoints shall be sealed full height with a sealant meeting ASTM C 920, Type S or M, Grade NS, Class 25, Use NT, M or A. Joint sealant shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.

SECTION R407
COLUMNS

R407.1 Wood column protection. Wood columns shall be protected against decay as set forth in Section R31 7.

R407.2 Steel column protection. All surfaces (inside and outside) of steel columns shall be given a shop coat of rust-inhibitive paint, except for corrosion-resistant steel and steel treated with coatings to provide corrosion resistance.

R407.3 Structural requirements. The columns shall be restrained to prevent lateral displacement at the bottom end. Wood columns shall not be less in nominal size than 4 inches by 4 inches (102 mm by 102 mm). Steel columns shall not be less than 3-inch-diameter (76 mm) Schedule 40 pipe manufactured in accordance with ASTM A 53 Grade B or approved equivalent.

Exception: In Seismic Design Categories A, Band C, columns no more than 48 inches (1219 mm) in height on a pier or footing are exempt from the bottom end lateral displacement requirement within under-floor areas enclosed by a continuous foundation.

SECTION R408
UNDER-FLOOR SPACE

R408.1 Ventilation. The under-floor space between the bottom of the floor joists and the earth under any building (except space occupied by a basement) shall have ventilation openings through foundation walls or exterior walls. The minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot (0.0929 m2) for each 150 square feet (14 m2) of under-floor space area, unless the ground surface is covered by a Class 1 vapor retarder material. When a Class 1 vapor retarder material is used, the minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot (0.0929 m2) for each 1,500 square feet (140 m2) of under-floor space area. One such ventilating opening shall be within 3 feet (914 mm) of each corner of the building.

R408.2 Openings for under-floor ventilation. The minimum net area of ventilation openings shall not be less than 1 square foot (0.0929 m2) for each 150 square feet (14 m2) of under-floor area. One ventilation opening shall be within 3 feet (915 mm) of each corner of the building. Ventilation openings shall be covered for their height and width with any of the following materials provided that the least dimension of the covering shall not exceed ¼ inch (6.4 mm):

  1. Perforated sheet metal plates not less than 0.070 inch (1 .8 mm) thick.
  2. Expanded sheet metal plates not less than 0.047 inch (1.2 mm) thick.
  3. Cast-iron grill or grating.
  4. Extruded load-bearing brick vents.
  5. Hardware cloth of0.035 inch (0.89 mm) wire or heavier.
  6. Corrosion-resistant wire mesh, with the least dimension being ⅛ inch (3.2 mm) thick.

Exception: The total area of ventilation openings shall be permitted to be reduced to 1/1,500 of the under-floor area where the ground surface is covered with an approvedClass I vapor retarder material and the required openings are placed to provide cross ventilation of the space. The installation of operable louvers shall not be prohibited.

R408.3 Unvented crawl space. Ventilation openings in under-floor spaces specified in Sections R408.1 and R408.2 shall not be required where:

  1. Exposed earth is covered with a continuous Class I vapor retarder. Joints of the vapor retarder shall overlap by 6 inches (152 mm) and shall be sealed or taped. The edges of the vapor retarder shall extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) up the stem wall and shall be attached and sealed to the stem wall; and
  2. One of the following is provided for the under-floor space:

    2.1. Continuously operated mechanical exhaust ventilation at a rate equal to 1 cubic foot per minute (0 .47 Lis) for each 50 square feet (4.7m2) of crawlspace floor area, including an air pathway to the common area (such as a duct or transfer grille) , and perimeter walls insulated in accordance with Section N1102.2.9;

    2.2. Conditioned air supply sized to deliver at a rate equal to 1 cubic foot per minute (0.47 Lis) for each 50 square feet (4.7 m2) of under-floor area, including a return air pathway to the common area (such as a duct or transfer grille), and perimeter walls insulated in accordance with Section N1102.2.9;

    2.3. Plenum in existing structures complying with Section M1601.5, if under-floor space is used as a plenum.

R408.4 Access. Access shall be provided to all under-floor spaces. Access openings through the floor shall be a minimum of 18 inches by 24 inches (457 mm by 610 mm). Openings through a perimeter wall shall be not less than 16 inches by 24 inches (407 mm by 610 mm). When any portion of the through-wall access is below grade, an areaway not less than 16 inches by 24 inches (407 mm by 610 mm) shall be provided. The bottom of the areaway shall be below the threshold of the access opening. Through wall access openings shall not be located under a door to the residence. See Section M1305.1.4 for access requirements where mechanical equipment is located under floors.

R408.5 Removal of debris. The under-floor grade shall be cleaned of all vegetation and organic material. All wood forms used for placing concrete shall be removed before a building is occupied or used for any purpose. All construction materials shall be removed before a building is occupied or used for any purpose.

108

R408.6 Finished grade. The finished grade of under-floor surface may be located at the bottom of the footings; however, where there is evidence that the groundwater table can rise to within 6 inches (152 mm) of the finished floor at the building perimeter or where there is evidence that the surface water does not readily drain from the building site, the grade in the under-floor space shall be as high as the outside finished grade, unless an approved drainage system is provided.

R408.7 Flood resistance. For buildings located in areas prone to flooding as established in Table R301.2(1):

  1. Walls enclosing the under-floor space shall be provided with flood openings in accordance with Section R322.2.2.
  2. The finished ground level of the under-floor space shall be equal to or higher than the outside finished ground level on at least one side.

Exception: Under-floor spaces that meet the requirements of FEMA/FIA TB 11-1.

109 110

CHAPTER 5
FLOORS

SECTION R501
GENERAL

R501.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of the floors for all buildings including the floors of atticspaces used to house mechanical or plumbing fixtures and equipment.

R501.2 Requirements. Floor construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads according to Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.

SECTION R502
WOOD FLOOR FRAMING

R502.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for joists, beams and girders shall be identified by a grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu of a grade mark, a certificate of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.

R502.1.1 Preservative-treated lumber. Preservative treated dimension lumber shall also be identified as required by Section R319.1.

R502.1.2 Blocking and subflooring. Blocking shall be a minimum ofutility grade lumber. Subflooring may be a minimum ofutility grade lumber or No.4 common grade boards.

R502.1.3 End-jointed lumber. Approvedend-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R502.1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade.

R502.1.4 Prefabricated wood I-joists. Structural capacities and design provisions for prefabricated wood I-joists shall be established and monitored in accordance with ASTMD 5055.

R502.1.5 Structural glued laminated timbers. Glued laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737.

R502.1.6 Structural log members. Stress grading ofstructural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade issued by a lumber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be permitted to be accepted.

IR502.1.7 Exterior wood/plastic composite deck boards. Wood/plastic composites used in exterior deck boards shall comply with the provisions of Section R317.4.

R502.2 Design and construction. Floors shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, Figure R502.2 and Sections R317 and R318 or in accordance with AF&PA/NDS.

R502.2.1 Framing at braced wall lines. A load path for lateral forces shall be provided between floor framing and braced wallpanels located above or below a floor, as specified in Section R602.1 0.6.

R502.2.2 Decks. Where supported by attachment to an exterior wall, decks shall be positively anchored to the primary structure and designed for both vertical and lateral loads as applicable. Such attachment shall not be accomplished by the use of toenails or nails subject to withdrawal. Where positive connection to the primary building structure cannot be verified during inspection, decks shall be self- supporting. For decks with cantilevered framing members, connections to exterior walls or other framing members, shall be designed and constructed to resist uplift resulting from the full live load specified in Table R301.5 acting on the cantilevered portion ofthe deck.

R502.2.2.1 Deck ledger connection to band joist. For decks supporting a total design load of 50 pounds per square foot (2394 Pa) [40 pounds per square foot (1915 Pa) live load plus 10 pounds per square foot (479 Pa) dead load], the connection between a deck ledger of pressure-preservative-treated Southern Pine, incised pressure-preservative-treated Hem-Fir or approved decay- resistant species, and a 2-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber bandjoist bearing on a sill plate or wall plate shall be constructed with ½-inch (12.7 m) lag screws or bolts with washers in accordance with Table R502.2.2.1. Lag screws, bolts and washers shall be hot-dipped galvanized or stainless steel.

R502.2.2.1.1 Placement of lag screws or bolts in deck ledgers. The lag screws or bolts shall be placed 2 inches (51 mm) in from the bottom or top ofthe deck ledgers and between 2 and 5 inches (51 and 127 mm) in from the ends. The lag screws or bolts shall be staggered from the top to the bottom along the horizontal run of the deck ledger.

R502.2.2.2 Alternate deck ledger connections. Deck ledger connections not conforming to Table R502.2.2.1 shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice. Girders supporting deck joists shall not be supported on deck ledgers or band joists. Deck ledgers shall not be supported on stone or masonry veneer.

R502.2.2.3 Deck lateral load connection. The lateral load connection required by Section R502.2.2 shall be permitted to be in accordance with Figure R502.2.2.3. Hold-down tension devices shall be installed in not less than two locations per deck, and each device shall have an allowable stress design capacity of not less than 1500 pounds (6672 N).

R502.2.2.4 Exterior wood/plastic composite deck boards. Wood/plastic composite deck boards shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

111

FIGURE RS02.2 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

FIGURE RS02.2 FLOOR CONSTRUCTION

112
TABLE R502.2.2.1
FASTENER SPACING FOR A SOUTHERN PINE OR HEM-FIR DECK LEDGER
AND A 2-INCH NOMINAL SOLID-SAWN SPRUCE-PINE-FIR BAND JOISTc,f,g
(Deck live load = 40 psf, deck dead load = 10 pst)
JOIST SPAN 6' and less 6'1" to 8' 8'1" to 10' 10'1" to 12' 12'1" to 14' 14'1" to 16' 16'1" to 18'
Connection details On-center spacing of fastenersd, e
½ inch diameter lag screw with 15/32 inch maximum sheathinga 30 23 18 15 13 11 10
½ inch diameter bolt with 15/32 inch maximum sheathing 36 36 34 29 24 21 19
½ inch diameter bolt with 15/32 inch maximum sheathing and ½ inch stacked washersb.h 36 36 29 24 21 18 16
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
a. The tip of the lag screw shall fully extend beyond the inside face of the band joist.
b. The maximum gap between the face of the ledger board and face of the wall sheathing shall be ½″.
c. Ledgers shall be flashed to prevent water from contacting the house band joist.
d. Lag screws and bolts shall be staggered in accordance with Section R502.2.2.1.1.
e. Deck ledger shall be minimum 2 × 8 pressure-preservative-treated No.2 grade lumber, or other approved materials as established by standard engineering practice.
f. When solid-sawn pressure-preservative-treated deck ledgers are attached to a minimum 1 inch thick engineered wood product (structural composite lumber, laminated veneer lumber or wood structural panel band joist), the ledger attachment shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
g. A minimum 1 × 9½ Douglas Fir laminated veneer lumber rimboard shall be permitted in lieu of the 2-inch nominal band joist.
h. Wood structural panel sheathing, gypsum board sheathing or foam sheathing not exceeding 1 inch in thickness shall be permitted. The maximum distance between the face of the ledger board and the face of the band joist shall be 1 inch.

FIGURE 502.2.2.3 DECK ATTACHMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS

FIGURE 502.2.2.3 DECK ATTACHMENT FOR LATERAL LOADS

R502.3 Allowablejoist spans. Spans for floor joists shall be in accordance with Tables R502 .3.1(1) and R502 .3.1(2). For other grades and species and for other loading conditions, refer to the AF&PA Span Tables for Joists and Rafters.

R502.3.1 Sleeping areas and attic joists. Table R502.3.1 (1) shall be used to determine the maximum allowable span of floor joists that support sleeping areas and attics that are accessed by means of a fixed stairway in accordance with Section R311.7 provided that the design live load does not exceed 30 pounds per square foot (1.44 kPa) and the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds per square foot (0.96 kPa). The allowable span of ceiling joists that support attics used for limited storage or no storage shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.4.

113

R502.3.2 Other floor joists. Table R502.3.1 (2) shall be used to determine the maximum allowable span of floor joists that support all other areas of the building, other than sleeping rooms and attics, provided that the design live load does not exceed 40 pounds per square foot (1.92 kPa) and the design dead load does not exceed 20 pounds per square foot (0.96 kPa).

R502.3.3 Floor cantilevers. Floor cantilever spans shall not exceed the nominal depth of the wood floor joist. Floor cantilevers constructed in accordance with Table R502.3.3(1) shall be permitted when supporting alight-frame bearing wall and roof only. Floor cantilevers supporting an exterior balcony are permitted to be constructed in accordance with Table R502.3.3(2).

R502.4 Joists under bearing partitions. Joists under parallel bearing partitions shall be of adequate size to support the load. Doublejoists, sized to adequately support the load, that are separated to permit the installation of piping or vents shall be full depth solid blocked with lumber not less than 2 inches (51 mm) in nominal thickness spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) on center. Bearing partitions perpendicular to joists shall not be offset from supporting girders, walls or partitions more than the joist depth unless such joists are of sufficient size to carry the additional load.

R502.5 Allowable girder spans. The allowable spans of girders fabricated of dimension lumber shall not exceed the values set forth in Tables R502.5(1) and R502.5(2).

R502.6 Bearing. The ends of each joist, beam or girder shall have not less than 1.5 inches (38 mm) of bearing on wood or metal and not less than 3 inches (76 mm) on masonry or concrete except where supported on a 1-inch-by-4-inch (25.4 mm by 102 mm) ribbon strip and nailed to the adjacent stud or by the use of approvedjoist hangers.

R502.6.1 Floor systems. Joists framing from opposite sides over a bearing support shall lap a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) and shall be nailed together with a minimum three 1Od face nails. A wood or metal splice with strength equal to or greater than that provided by the nailed lap is permitted.

R502.6.2 Joist framing. Joists framing into the side of a wood girder shall be supported by approved framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than nominal 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).

R502.7 Lateral restraint at supports. Joists shall be supported laterally at the ends by full-depth solid blocking not less than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness; or by attachment to a full-depth header, band or rimjoist, or to an adjoining stud or shall be otherwise provided with lateral support to prevent rotation.

Exceptions:

  1. Trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glued-laminated members and I-joists shall be supported laterally as required by the manufacturer's recommendations.
  2. In Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and Dz, lateral restraint shall also be provided at each intermediate support.

R502.7.1 Bridging. Joists exceeding a nominal 2 inches by 12 inches (51 mm by 305 mm) shall be supported laterally by solid blocking, diagonal bridging (wood or metal), or a continuous 1-inch-by-3-inch (25.4 mm by 76 mm) strip nailed across the bottom ofjoists perpendicular to joists at intervals not exceeding 8 feet (2438 mm).

Exception: Trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glued-laminated members and I-jOists shall be supported laterally as required by the manufacturer's recommendations.

R502.8 Drilling and notching. Structural floor members shall not be cut, bored or notched in excess of the limitations specified in this section. See Figure R502.8.

R502.8.1 Sawn lumber. Notches in solid lumberjoists, rafters and beams shall not exceed one-sixth of the depth of the member, shall not be longer than one-third of the depth of the member and shall not be located in the middle one-third of the span. Notches at the ends of the member shall not exceed one-fourth the depth of the member. The tension side of members 4 inches (102 mm) or greater in nominal thickness shall not be notched except at the ends of the members. The diameter of holes bored or cut into members shall not exceed one-third the depth of the member. Holes shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the top or bottom of the member, or to any other hole located in the member. Where the member is also notched, the hole shall not be closer than 2 inches (51 mm) to the notch.

R502.8.2 Engineered wood products. Cuts, notches and holes bored in trusses, structural composite lumber, structural glue-laminated members or I-joists are prohibited except where permitted by the manufacturer's recommendations or where the effects of such alterations are specifically considered in the design of the member by a registered design professional.

R502.9 Fastening. Floor framing shall be nailed in accordance with Table R602. 3(1). Where posts and beam or girder construction is used to support floor framing, positive connections shall be provided to ensure against uplift and lateral displacement.

R502.10 Framing of openings. Openings in floor framing shall be framed with a header and trimmer joists. When the headerjoist span does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm), the header joist may be a single member the same size as the floor joist. Single trimmerjoists may be used to carry a single headerjoist that is located within 3 feet (914 mm) of the trimmerjoist bearing. When the header joist span exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm), the trimmerjoists and the headerjoist shall be doubled and ofsufficient cross section to support the floor joists framing into the header. Approved hangers shall be used for the header joist to trimmerjoist connections when the headerjoist span exceeds 6 feet (1829 mm). Tailjoistsover 12 feet (3658 mm) long shall be supported at the header by framing anchors or on ledger strips not less than 2 inches by 2 inches (51 mm by 51 mm).

114
TABLE R502.3.1
(1) FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential sleeping areas, live load =30 psf, L/Δ =360)3
JOIST SPACING (inches) SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD =10 pst DEAD LOAD =20 pst
2×6 2×8 2×l0 2×12 2×6 2×8 2×l0 2×12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.) (ft - in.)
12 Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
12-6
12-0
11-10
9-8
11-10
11-7
11-0
9-8
12-3
12-0
11-10
10-5
11-7
11-3
11-3
9-8
16-6
15-10
15-7
12-4
15-7
15-3
14-6
12-4
16-2
15-10
15-7
13-3
15-3
14-11
14-11
12-4
21-0
20-3
19-10
15-0
19-10
19-5
18-6
15-0
20-8
20-3
19-10
15-8
19-5
19-0
19-0
15-0
25-7
24-8
23-0
17-5
24-2
23-7
22-6
17-5
25-1
24-8
24-2
18-8
23-7
23-0
23-0
17-5
12-6
12-0
11-6
8-8
11-10
11-7
11-0
8-8
12-3
12-0
11-10
9-4
11-7
11-3
11-3
8-8
16-6
15-7
14-7
11-0
15-7
15-2
14-4
11-0
16-2
15-10
15-7
11-11
15-3
14-7
14-7
11-0
21-0
19-0
17-9
13-5
19-10
18-6
17-6
13-5
20-8
20-3
18-7
14-0
19-5
17-9
17-9
13-5
25-7
22-0
20-7
15-7
24-2
21-6
20-4
15-7
25-1
24-8
21-9
16-8
23-7
20-7
20-7
15-7
16 Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
11-4
10-11
10-9
8-5
10-9
10-6
10-0
8-5
11-2
10-11
10-9
9-0
10-6
10-3
10-3
8-5
15-0
14-5
14-1
10-8
14-2
13-10
13-2
10-8
14-8
14-5
14-2
11-6
13-10
13-6
13-6
10-8
19-1
18-5
17-2
13-0
18-0
17-8
16-10
13-0
18-9
18-5
18-0
13-7
17-8
17-2
17-2
13-0
23-3
21-4
19-11
15-1
21-11
20-9
19-8
15-1
22-10
22-5
21-1
16-2
21-6
19-11
19-11
15-1
11-4
10-8
9-11
7-6
10-9
10-4
9-10
7-6
11-2
10-11
10-5
8-1
10-6
9-11
9-11
7-6
15-0
13-6
12-7
9-6
14-2
13-1
12-5
9-6
14-8
14-5
13-6
10-3
13-10
12-7
12-7
9-6
19-1
16-5
15-5
11-8
18-0
16-0
15-2
11-8
18-9
17-11
16-1
12-2
17-8
15-5
15-5
11-8
23-0
19-1
17-10
13-6
21-11
18-7
17-7
13-6
22-10
21-4
18-10
14-6
21-4
17-10
17-10
13-6
19.2 Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
10-8
10-4
10-1
7-8
10-1
9-10
9-5
7-8
10-6
10-4
10-1
8-3
9-10
9-8
9-8
7-8
14-1
13-7
12-10
9-9
13-4
13-0
12-5
9-9
13-10
13-7
13-4
10-6
13-0
12-9
12-9
9-9
18-0
16-9
15-8
11-10
17-0
16-4
15-6
11-10
17-8
17-4
16-5
12-5
16-7
15-8
15-8
11-10
21-10
19-6
18-3
13-9
20-8
19-0
17-1
13-9
21-6
21-1
19-3
14-9
20-2
18-3
18-3
13-9
10-8
9-8
9-1
6-10
10-1
9-6
8-11
6-10
10-6
10-4
9-6
7-4
9-10
9-1
9-1
6-10
14-1
12-4
11-6
8-8
13-4
12-0
11-4
8-8
13-10
13-7
12-4
9-5
13-0
11-6
11-6
8-8
18-0
15-0
14-1
10-7
17-0
14-8
13-10
10-7
17-8
16-4
14-8
11-1
16-7
14-1
14-1
10-7
21-0
17-5
16-3
12-4
20-7
17-0
16-1
12-4
21-6
19-6
17-2
13-2
19-6
16-3
16-3
12-4
24 Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-11
9-7
9-1
6-10
9-4
9-2
8-9
6-10
9-9
9-7
9-4
7-4
9-2
8-11
8-11
6-10
13-1
12-4
11-6
8-8
12-4
12-0
11-4
8-8
12-10
12-7
12-4
9-5
12-1
11-6
11-6
8-8
16-8
15-0
14-1
10-7
15-9
14-8
13-10
10-7
16-5
16-1
14-8
11-1
15-5
14-1
14-1
10-7
20-3
17-5
16-3
12-4
19-2
17-0
16-1
12-4
19-11
19-6
17-2
13-2
18-9
16-3
16-3
12-4
9-11
8-8
8-1
6-2
9-4
8-6
8-0
6-2
9-9
9-7
8-6
6-7
9-2
8-1
8-1
6-2
13-1
11-0
10-3
7-9
12-4
10-9
10-2
7-9
12-10
12-4
11-0
8-5
12-1
10-3
10-3
7-9
16-2
13-5
12-7
9-6
15-9
13-1
12-5
9-6
16-5
14-7
13-1
9-11
15-0
12-7
12-7
9-6
18-9
15-7
14-7
11-0
18-5
15-2
14-4
11-0
19-11
17-5
15-5
11-10
17-5
14-7
14-7
11-0
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.
a. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures in Seismic Design Categories O0,O1 and O2 shall be determined in accordance with Section R301.2.2.2.1.
115
TABLE R502.3.1 (2)
FLOOR JOIST SPANS FOR COMMON LUMBER SPECIES (Residential living areas, live load =40 psf, L/Δ =360)b
JOIST SPACING (inches) SPECIES AND GRADE DEAD LOAD =10 pst DEAD LOAD =20 pst
2×6 2×8 2×l0 2×12 2×6 2×8 2×l0 2×12
Maximum floor joist spans
(ft· in.) (ft· in.) (ft· in.) (ft· in.) (ft· in.) (ft· in.) (ft· in.) (ft· in.)
12 Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
11-4
10-11
10-9
8-8
10-9
10-6
10-0
8-8
11-2
10-11
10-9
9-4
10-6
10-3
10-3
8-8
15-0
14-5
14-2
11-0
14-2
13-10
13-2
11-0
14-8
14-5
14-2
11-11
13-10
13-6
13-6
11-0
19-1
18-5
17-9
13-5
18-0
17-8
16-10
13-5
18-9
18-5
18-0
14-0
17-8
17-3
17-3
13-5
23-3
22-0
20-7
15-7
21-11
21-6
20-4
15-7
22-10
22-5
21-9
16-8
21-6
20-7
20-7
15-7
11-4
10-11
10-6
7-11
10-9
10-6
10-0
7-11
11-2
10-11
10-9
8-6
10-6
10-3
10-3
7-11
15-0
14-2
13-3
10-0
14-2
13-10
13-1
10-0
14-8
14-5
14-2
10-10
13-10
13-3
13-3
10-0
19-1
17-4
16-3
12-3
18-0
16-11
16-0
12-3
18-9
18-5
16-11
12-10
17-8
16-3
16-3
12-3
23-3
20-1
18-10
14-3
21-11
19-7
18-6
14-3
22-10
22-5
19-10
15-3
21-6
18-10
18-10
14-3
16 Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
10-4
9-11
9-9
7-6
9-9
9-6
9-1
7-6
10-2
9-11
9-9
8-1
9-6
9-4
9-4
7-6
13-7
13-1
12-7
9-6
12-10
12-7
12-0
9-6
13-4
13-1
12-10
10-3
12-7
12-3
12-3
9-6
17-4
16-5
15-5
11-8
16-5
16-0
15-2
11-8
17-0
16-9
16-1
12-2
16-0
15-5
15-5
11-8
21-1
19-1
17-10
13-6
19-11
18-7
17-7
13-6
20-9
20-4
18-10
14-6
19-6
17-10
17-10
13-6
10-4
9-8
9-1
6-10
9-9
9-6
8-11
6-10
10-2
9-11
9-6
7-4
9-6
9-1
9-1
6-10
13-7
12-4
11-6
8-8
12-10
12-0
11-4
8-8
13-4
13-1
12-4
9-5
12-7
11-6
11-6
8-8
17-4
15-0
14-1
10-7
16-5
14-8
13-10
10-7
17-0
16-4
14-8
11-1
16-0
14-1
14-1
10-7
21-0
17-5
16-3
12-4
19-11
17-0
16-1
12-4
20-9
19-6
17-2
13-2
19-6
16-3
16-3
12-4
19.2 Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#
#2
#3
9-8
9-4
9-1
6-10
9-2
9-0
8-7
6-10
9-6
9-4
9-2
7-4
9-0
8-9
8-9
6-10
12-10
12-4
11-6
8-8
12-1
11-10
11-3
8-8
12-7
12-4
12-1
9-5
11-10
11-6
11-6
8-8
16-4
15-0
14-1
10-7
15-5
14-8
13-10
10-7
16-0
15-9
14-8
11-1
15-1
14-1
14-1
10-7
19-10
17-5
16-3
12-4
18-9
17-0
16-1
12-4
19-6
19-2
17-2
13-2
18-4
16-3
16-3
12-4
9-8
8-10
8-3
6-3
9-2
8-8
8-2
6-3
9-6
9-4
8-8
6-9
9-0
8-3
8-3
6-3
12-10
11-3
10-6
7-11
12-1
10-11
10-4
7-11
12-7
12-4
11-3
8-7
11-10
10-6
10-6
7-11
16-4
13-8
12-10
9-8
15-5
13-4
12-8
9-8
16-0
14-11
13-5
10-1
15-1
12-10
12-10
9-8
19-2
15-11
14-10
11-3
18-9
15-6
14-8
11-3
19-6
17-9
15-8
12-1
17-9
14-10
14-10
11-3
24 Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Douglas fir-larch
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Hem-fir
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Southern pine
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
Spruce-pine-fir
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
SS
#1
#2
#3
9-0
8-8
8-1
6-2
8-6
8-4
7-11
6-2
8-10
8-8
8-6
6-7
8-4
8-1
8-1
6-2
11-11
11-0
10-3
7-9
11-3
10-9
10-2
7-9
11-8
11-5
11-0
8-5
11-0
10-3
10-3
7-9
15-2
13-5
12-7
9-6
14-4
13-1
12-5
9-6
14-11
14-7
13-1
9-11
14-0
12-7
12-7
9-6
18-5
15-7
14-7
11-0
17-5
15-2
14-4
11-0
18-1
17-5
15-5
11-10
17-0
14-7
14-7
11-0
9-0
7-11
7-5
5-7
8-6
7-9
7-4
5-7
8-10
8-8
7-9
6-0
8-4
7-5
7-5
5-7
11-11
10-0
9-5
7-1
11-3
9-9
9-3
7-1
11-8
11-3
10-0
7-8
11-0
9-5
9-5
7-1
14-9
12-3
11-6
8-8
14-4
11-11
11-4
8-8
14-11
13-4
12-0
9-1
13-8
11-6
11-6
8-8
17-1
14-3
13-4
10-1
16-10a
13-10
13-1
10-1
18-1
15-11
14-0
10-9
15-11
13-4
13-4
10-1
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
Note: Check sources for availability of lumber in lengths greater than 20 feet.
a. End bearing length shall be increased to 2 inches.
b. Dead load limits for townhouses in Seismic Design Category C and all structures in Seismic Design Categories O0,O1, and O2 shall be determined in accordance with Section R301.2.2.2.1.
116
TABLE R502.3.3(1)
CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING LIGHT-FRAME EXTERIOR BEARING WALL AND ROOF ONLya, b, c, f, g, h (Floor Live Load ≤ 40 pst, Root Live Load ≤ 20 pst)
Member & Spacing Maximum Cantilever Span (Uplift Force at Backspan Support in Lbs.)d, e
Ground Snow Load
≤ 20 pSf 30 pSf 50 pSf 70 pSf
Roof Width Roof Width Roof Width Roof Width
24 ft 32 ft 40 ft 24 ft 32 ft 40 ft 24 ft 32 ft 40 ft 24 ft 32 ft 40 ft
2 x 8 @ 12" 20"
(177)
15"
(227)
- 18"
(209)
- - - - - - - -
2 x 10 @ 16" 29"
(228)
21"
(297)
16"
(364)
26"
(271)
18"
(354)
- 20"
(375)
- - - - -
2 x 10 @ 12" 36"
(166)
26"
(219)
20"
(270)
34"
(198)
22"
(263)
16"
(324)
26"
(277)
- - 19"
(356)
- -
2 x 12 @ 16" - 32"
(287)
25"
(356)
36"
(263)
29"
(345)
21"
(428)
29"
(367)
20"
(484)
- 23"
(471)
- -
2 x 12 @ 12" - 42"
(209)
31"
(263)
- 37"
(253)
27"
(317)
36"
(271)
27"
(358)
17"
(447)
31"
(348)
19"
(462)
-
2 x 12 @ 8" - 48"
(136)
45"
(169)
- 48"
(164)
38"
(206)
- 40"
(233)
26"
(294)
36"
(230)
29"
(304)
18"
(379)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
a. Tabulated values are for clear-span roof supported solely by exterior bearing walls.
b. Spans are based on No.2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (3 or more) members.
c. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be at least 3:1.
d. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support.
e. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of3:1. Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 3 divided by the actual backspan ratio provided (3/backspan ratio).
f. See Section R30 1.2.2.2.5, Item 1, for additional limitations on cantilevered floor joists for detached one- and two-family dwellings in Seismic DeSign Category Do, D1, or Dz and townhouses in Seismic Design Category C, Do, D1, or Dz.
g. A full-depth rimjoist shall be prOVided at the unsupported end of the cantilever joists. Solid blocking shall be prOVided at the supported end.
h. Linear interpolation shall be permitted for building widths and ground snow loads other than shown.

 

TABLE R502.3.3(2)
CANTILEVER SPANS FOR FLOOR JOISTS SUPPORTING EXTERIOR BALCONya, b, e, f
Member Size Spacing Maximum Cantilever Span
(Uplift Force at Backspan Support in Ib)C, d
Ground Snow Load
≤ 30 psf 50 psf 70 psf
2x8 12" 42" (139) 39" (156) 34" (165)
2x8 16" 36" (151) 34" (171) 29" (180)
2 x 10 12" 61" (164) 57" (189) 49" (201)
2 x 10 16" 53" (180) 49" (208) 42" (220)
2 x 10 24" 43" (212) 40" (241) 34" (255)
2 x 12 16" 72" (228) 67" (260) 57" (268)
2 x 12 24" 58" (279) 54" (319) 47" (330)
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
a. Spans are based on No.2 Grade lumber of Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine, and spruce-pine-fir for repetitive (3 or more) members.
b. Ratio of backspan to cantilever span shall be at least 2: 1.
c. Connections capable of resisting the indicated uplift force shall be provided at the backspan support.
d. Uplift force is for a backspan to cantilever span ratio of 2:1. Tabulated uplift values are permitted to be reduced by multiplying by a factor equal to 2 divided by the actual backspan ratio provided (2/backspan ratio).
e. A full-depth rim joist shall be provided at the unsupported end of the cantilever joists. Solid blocking shall be provided at the supported end.
f. Linear interpolation shall be permitted for ground snow loads other than shown.
117
TABLE R502.5(1)
GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR EXTERIOR BEARING WALLS
(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number ofjack studs)
GIRDERS AND HEADERS SUPPORTING SIZE GROUND SNOW LOAD (psf)e
30 50 70
Building widthc (feet)
20 28 36 20 28 36 20 28 36
Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd
Roof and ceiling 2-2x4 3-6 1 3-2 1 2-10 1 3-2 1 2-9 1 2-6 1 2-10 1 2-6 1 2-3 1
2-2x6 5-5 1 4-8 1 4-2 1 4-8 1 4-1 1 3-8 2 4-2 1 3-8 2 3-3 2
2-2x8 6-10 1 5-11 2 5-4 2 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-7 2 5-4 2 4-7 2 4-1 2
2-2x10 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2 7-3 2 6-3 2 5-7 2 6-6 2 5-7 2 5-0 2
2-2x12 9-9 2 8-5 2 7-6 2 8-5 2 7-3 2 6-6 2 7-6 2 6-6 2 5-10 3
3-2x8 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1 7-5 1 6-5 2 5-9 2 6-8 1 5-9 2 5-2 2
3-2x10 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2 9-1 2 7-10 2 7-0 2 8-2 2 7-0 2 6-4 2
3-2x12 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2 10-7 2 9-2 2 8-2 2 9-5 2 8-2 2 7-4 2
4-2x8 9-2 1 8-4 1 7-8 1 8-4 1 7-5 1 6-8 1 7-8 1 6-8 1 5-11 2
4-2x10 11-8 1 10-6 1 9-5 2 10-6 1 9-1 2 8-2 2 9-5 2 8-2 2 7-3 2
4-2x12 14-1 1 12-2 2 10-11 2 12-2 2 10-7 2 9-5 2 10-11 2 9-5 2 8-5 2
Roof, ceiling and one center-bearing floor 2-2x4 3-1 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-9 1 2-5 1 2-2 1 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1
2-2x6 4-6 1 4-0 1 3-7 2 4-1 1 3-7 2 3-3 2 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 2
2-2x8 5-9 2 5-0 2 4-6 2 5-2 2 4-6 2 4-1 2 4-9 2 4-2 2 3-9 2
2-2x10 7-0 2 6-2 2 5-6 2 6-4 2 5-6 2 5-0 2 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 3
2-2x12 8-1 2 7-1 2 6-5 2 7-4 2 6-5 2 5-9 3 6-8 2 5-10 3 5-3 3
3-2x8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-8 2 6-5 2 5-8 2 5-1 2 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-8 2
3-2x10 8-9 2 7-8 2 6-11 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-3 2 7-3 2 6-4 2 5-8 2
3-2x12 10-2 2 8-11 2 8-0 2 9-2 2 8-0 2 7-3 2 8-5 2 7-4 2 6-7 2
4-2x8 8-1 1 7-3 1 6-7 1 7-5 1 6-6 1 5-11 2 6-10 1 6-0 2 5-5 2
4-2x10 10-1 1 8-10 2 8-0 2 9-1 2 8-0 2 7-2 2 8-4 2 7-4 2 6-7 2
4-2x12 11-9 2 10-3 2 9-3 2 10-7 2 9-3 2 8-4 2 9-8 2 8-6 2 7-7 2
Roof, ceiling and one clear span floor 2-2x4 2-8 1 2-4 1 2-1 1 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1 2-5 1 2-1 1 1-10 1
2-2x6 3-11 1 3-5 2 3-0 2 3-10 2 3-4 2 3-0 2 3-6 2 3-1 2 2-9 2
2-2x8 5-0 2 4-4 2 3-10 2 4-10 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-6 2 3-11 2 3-6 2
2-2x10 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2 5-11 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-6 2 4-9 2 4-3 3
2-2x12 7-1 2 6-1 3 5-5 3 6-10 2 5-11 3 5-4 3 6-4 2 5-6 3 5-0 3
3-2x8 6-3 2 5-5 2 4-10 2 6-1 2 5-3 2 4-8 2 5-7 2 4-11 2 4-5 2
3-2x10 7-7 2 6-7 2 5-11 2 7-5 2 6-5 2 5-9 2 6-10 2 6-0 2 5-4 2
3-2x12 8-10 2 7-8 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-8 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-3 2
4-2x8 7-2 1 6-3 2 5-7 2 7-0 1 6-1 2 5-5 2 6-6 1 5-8 2 5-1 2
4-2x10 8-9 2 7-7 2 6-10 2 8-7 2 7-5 2 6-7 2 7-11 2 6-11 2 6-2 2
4-2x12 10-2 2 8-10 2 7-11 2 9-11 2 8-7 2 7-8 2 9-2 2 8-0 2 7-2 2
Roof, ceiling and two center-bearing floors 2-2x4 2-7 1 2-3 1 2-0 1 2-6 1 2-2 1 1-11 1 2-4 1 2-0 1 1-9 1
2-2x6 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 2 3-8 2 3-2 2 2-10 2 3-5 2 3-0 2 2-8 2
2-2x8 4-9 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-7 2 4-0 2 3-8 2 4-4 2 3-9 2 3-5 2
2-2x10 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-8 2 4-11 2 4-5 3 5-3 2 4-7 3 4-2 3
2-2x12 6-8 2 5-10 3 5-3 3 6-6 2 5-9 3 5-2 3 6-1 3 5-4 3 4-10 3
3-2x8 5-11 2 5-2 2 4-8 2 5-9 2 5-1 2 4-7 2 5-5 2 4-9 2 4-3 2
3-2x10 7-3 2 6-4 2 5-8 2 7-1 2 6-2 2 5-7 2 6-7 2 5-9 2 5-3 2
3-2x12 8-5 2 7-4 2 6-7 2 8-2 2 7-2 2 6-5 3 7-8 2 6-9 2 6-1 3
4-2x8 6-10 1 6-0 2 5-5 2 6-8 1 5-10 2 5-3 2 6-3 2 5-6 2 4-11 2
4-2x10 8-4 2 7-4 2 6-7 2 8-2 2 7-2 2 6-5 2 7-7 2 6-8 2 6-0 2
4-2x12 9-8 2 8-6 2 7-8 2 9-5 2 8-3 2 7-5 2 8-10 2 7-9 2 7-0 2 118
Roof, ceiling, and two clear span floors 2-2x4 2-1 1 1-8 1 1-6 2 2-0 1 1-8 1 1-5 2 2-0 1 1-8 1 1-5 2
2-2x6 3-1 2 2-8 2 2-4 2 3-0 2 2-7 2 2-3 2 2-11 2 2-7 2 2-3 2
2-2x8 3-10 2 3-4 2 3-0 3 3-10 2 3-4 2 2-11 3 3-9 2 3-3 2 2-11 3
2-2x10 4-9 2 4-1 3 3-8 3 4-8 2 4-0 3 3-7 3 4-7 3 4-0 3 3-6 3
2-2x12 5-6 3 4-9 3 4-3 3 5-5 3 4-8 3 4-2 3 5-4 3 4-7 3 4-1 4
3-2x8 4-10 2 4-2 2 3-9 2 4-9 2 4-1 2 3-8 2 4-8 2 4-1 2 3-8 2
3-2x10 5-11 2 5-1 2 4-7 3 5-10 2 5-0 2 4-6 3 5-9 2 4-11 2 4-5 3
3-2x12 6-10 2 5-11 3 5-4 3 6-9 2 5-10 3 5-3 3 6-8 2 5-9 3 5-2 3
4-2x8 5-7 2 4-10 2 4-4 2 5-6 2 4-9 2 4-3 2 5-5 2 4-8 2 4-2 2
4-2x10 6-10 2 5-11 2 5-3 2 6-9 2 5-10 2 5-2 2 6-7 2 5-9 2 5-1 2
4-2x12 7-11 2 6-10 2 6-2 3 7-9 2 6-9 2 6-0 3 7-8 2 6-8 2 5-11 3
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Spans are given in feet and inches.
b. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber.
c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
d. N] - Number ofjack studs required to support each end. Where the number ofrequiredjack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
e. Use 30 psf ground snow load for cases in which ground snow load is less than 30 psf and the roof live load is equal to or less than 20 psf.
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TABLE R502.5(2)
GIRDER SPANSa AND HEADER SPANSa FOR INTERIOR BEARING WALLS
(Maximum spans for Douglas fir-larch, hem-fir, southern pine and spruce-pine-firb and required number ofjack studs)
HEADERS AND GIRDERS SUPPORTING SIZE BUILDING WIDTHc (feet)
20 28 36
Span NJd Span NJd Span NJd
One floor only 2-2x4 3-1 1 2-8 1 2-5 1
2-2x6 4-6 1 3-11 1 3-6 1
2-2x8 5-9 1 5-0 2 4-5 2
2-2x10 7-0 2 6-1 2 5-5 2
2-2x12 8-1 2 7-0 2 6-3 2
3-2x8 7-2 1 6-3 1 5-7 2
3-2x10 8-9 1 7-7 2 6-9 2
3-2x12 10-2 2 8-10 2 7-10 2
4-2x8 9-0 1 7-8 1 6-9 1
4-2x10 10-1 1 8-9 1 7-10 2
4-2x12 11-9 1 10-2 2 9-1 2
Two floors 2-2x4 2-2 1 1-10 1 1-7 1
2-2x6 3-2 2 2-9 2 2-5 2
2-2x8 4-1 2 3-6 2 3-2 2
2-2x10 4-11 2 4-3 2 3-10 3
2-2x12 5-9 2 5-0 3 4-5 3
3-2x8 5-1 2 4-5 2 3-11 2
3-2x10 6-2 2 5-4 2 4-10 2
3-2x12 7-2 2 6-3 2 5-7 3
4-2x8 6-1 1 5-3 2 4-8 2
4-2x10 7-2 2 6-2 2 5-6 2
4-2x12 8-4 2 7-2 2 6-5 2
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Spans are given in feet and inches.
b. Tabulated values assume #2 grade lumber.
c. Building width is measured perpendicular to the ridge. For widths between those shown, spans are permitted to be interpolated.
d. N] - Number ofjack studs required to support each end. Where the number of requiredjack studs equals one, the header is permitted to be supported by an approved framing anchor attached to the full-height wall stud and to the header.
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FIGURE R502.8 CUTTING, NOTCHING AND DRILLING

FIGURE R502.8 CUTTING, NOTCHING AND DRILLING

R502.11 Wood trusses.

R502.11.1 Design. Wood trusses shall be designed in accordance with approved engineering practice. The design and manufacture of metal plate connected wood trusses shall comply with ANSI/TPI 1. The truss design drawings shall be prepared by a registered professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed in accordance with Section RI06.1.

R502.11.2 Bracing. Trusses shall be braced to prevent rotation and provide lateral stability in accordance with the requirements specified in the construction documents for the building and on the individual truss design drawings. In the absence of specific bracing requirements, trusses shall be braced in accordance with the Building Component Safety Information (BCSI 1-03) Guide to Good Practice for Handling, Installing & Bracing of Metal Plate Connected Wood Trusses.

R502.11.3 Alterations to trusses. Truss members and components shall not be cut, notched, spliced or otherwise altered in any way without the approval ofa registered design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition of load (e.g., HVAC equipment, water heater, etc.), that exceed the design load for the truss, shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capable ofsupporting the additional loading.

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R502.11.4 Truss design drawings. Truss design drawings, prepared in compliance with Section R502.11.1 , shall be submitted to the building official and approved prior to installation. Truss design drawings shall be provided with the shipment oftrusses delivered to thejob site. Truss design drawings shall include, at a minimum, the information specified below:

  1. Slope or depth, span and spacing.
  2. Location of all joints.
  3. Required bearing widths.
  4. Design loads as applicable:

    4.1. Top chord live load;
    4.2. Top chord dead load;
    4.3. Bottom chord live load;
    4.4. Bottom chord dead load;
    4.5. Concentrated loads and their points of application; and
    4.6. Controlling wind and earthquake loads.

  5. Adjustments to lumber and joint connector design values for conditions of use.
  6. Each reaction force and direction.
  7. Joint connector type and description, e.g., size, thickness or gauge, and the dimensioned location of each joint connector except where symmetrically located relative to the joint interface.
  8. Lumber size, species and grade for each member.
  9. Connection requirements for:

    9.1. Truss-to-girder-truss;
    9.2. Truss ply-to-ply; and
    9.3. Field splices.

  10. Calculated deflection ratio and/or maximum description for live and total load.
  11. Maximum axial compression forces in the truss members to enable the building designer to design the size, connections and anchorage of the permanent continuous lateral bracing. Forces shall be shown on the truss drawing or on supplemental documents.
  12. Required permanent truss member bracing location.

R502.12 Draftstopping required. Draftstopping shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.12.

R502.13 Fireblocking required. Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.

SECTION R503
FLOOR SHEATHING

R503.1 Lumber sheathing. Maximum allowable spans for lumber used as floor sheathing shall conform to Tables R503.1 , R503.2.1.1 (1) and R503.2.1.1 (2).

R503.1.1 End joints. End joints in lumber used as subflooring shall occur over supports unless end-matched lumber is used, in which case each piece shall bear on at least two joists. Subflooring may be omitted when joist spacing does not exceed 16 inches (406 mm) and a I-inch (25.4 mm) nominal tongue-and-groove wood strip flooring is applied perpendicular to the joists.

TABLE R503.1
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF LUMBER FLOOR SHEATHING
JOIST OR BEAM SPACING (inches) MINIMUM NET THICKNESS
Perpendicular to joist Diagonal to joist
24 11/16 ¾
16 5/s 5/s
48a T & G N/A
54b
60c
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa.
a. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 675 and minimum E of 1,100,000 (see AF&PA/NDS).
b. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 765 and minimum E of 1,400,000 (see AF&PA/NDS).
c. For this support spacing, lumber sheathing shall have a minimum Fb of 855 and minimum E of 1,700,000 (see AF&PA/NDS).

R503.2 Wood structural panel sheathing.

R503.2.1 Identification and grade. Wood structural panel sheathing used for structural purposes shall conform to DOC PS 1, DOC PS 2 or, when manufactured in Canada, CSA 0437 or CSA 0325. All panels shall be identified by a grade mark of certificate or inspection issued by an approved agency.

R503.2.1.1 Subfloor and combined subfloor underlayment. Where used as subflooring or combination subfloor underlayment, wood structural panels shall be of one of the grades specified in Table R503.2.1.1 (1). When sanded plywood is used as combination subfloor underlayment, the grade shall be as specified in Table R503.2.1.1 (2).

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TABLE R503.2.1.1 (1)
ALLOWABLE SPANS AND LOADS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANELS FOR ROOF AND SUBFLOOR SHEATHING AND COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENTa,b,c
SPAN RATING MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS (inch) ALLOWABLE LIVE LOAD (psf)h,1 MAXIMUM SPAN (inches) LOAD (pounds per square foot, at maximum span) MAXIMUM SPAN (inches)
SPAN @ 16″ o.c. SPAN @ 24″ o.c. With edge supportd Without edge support Total load Live load
Sheathinge     Roorf Subfloorj
16/0 30 - 16 16 40 30 0
20/0 50 - 20 20 40 30 0
24/0 100 30 24 20g 40 30 0
24/16 7/16 100 40 24 24 50 40 16
32/16 15/32, ½ 180 70 32 28 40 30 16h
40/20 19/32, ⅝ 305 130 40 32 40 30 20h, i
48/24 23/32, 3/48 - 175 48 36 45 35 24
60/32 - 305 60 48 45 35 32
Underlayment, C-C plugged, single floore     Rooff Combination subfloor underlaymentk
16 D.C. 19/32, ⅝ 100 40 24 24 50 40 16i
20 D.C. 19/32, ⅝ 150 60 32 32 40 30 20i ,j
24 D.C. 23/32. ¾ 240 100 48 36 35 25 24
32 D.C. - 185 48 40 50 40 32
48 D.C. 13/32, 1⅛ - 290 60 48 50 40 48
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa
a. The allowable total loads were determined using a dead load of 10 psf. If the dead load exceeds 10 psf, then the live load shall be reduced accordingly.
b. Panels continuous over two or more spans with long dimension (strength axis) perpendicular to supports. Spans shall be limited to values shown because ofpossible effect of concentrated loads.

c. Applies to panels 24 inches or wider.
d. Lumber blocking, panel edge clips (one midway between each support, except two equally spaced between supports when span is 48 inches), tongue-and-groove panel edges, or other approved type of edge support.
e. Includes Structural 1 panels in these grades.
f. Uniform load deflection limitation: 1/180 of span under live load plus dead load, 1/z40 of span under live load only.
g. Maximum span 24 inches for 15/3Z-and liz-inch panels
h. Maximum span 24 inches where ¾-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to joists.
i. Maximum span 24 inches where 1.5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor.
j. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groovejoints or shall be supported with blocking unless minimum nominal ¼-inch thick underlayment with end and edgejoints offset at least 2 inches or 1.5 inches of lightweight concrete or approved cellular concrete is placed over the subfloor, or ¾-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection of 1/360 of span, is 100 psf.
k. Unsupported edges shall have tongue-and-groovejoints or shall be supported by blocking unless nominal ¼-inch-thick underlayment with end and edgejoints offset at least 2 inches or ¾-inch wood finish flooring is installed at right angles to the supports. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span, based on deflection of 1/360 of span, is 100 psf, except panels with a span rating of 48 on center are limited to 65 psf total uniform load at maximum span.
l. Allowable live load values at spans of 16" o.c. and 24" o.c taken from reference standard APA E30, APA Engineered Wood Construction Guide. Refer to reference standard for allowable spans not listed in the table.
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TABLE R503.2.1.1 (2)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR SANDED PLYWOOD
COMBINATION SUBFLOOR UNDERLAYMENTa
IDENTIFICATION SPACING OF JOISTS (inches)
16 20 24
Species groupb - - -
1 ½ ¾
2,3 ¾
4 ¾ 1
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479 kPa.
a. Plywood continuous over two or more spans and face grain perpendicular to supports. Unsupported edges shall be tongue-and-groove or blocked except where nominaI ¼-inch-thick underlayment or ¾-inch wood finish floor is used. Allowable uniform live load at maximum span based on deflection of 1/360 of span is 100 psf.
b. Applicable to all grades of sanded exterior-type plywood.

R503.2.2 Allowable spans. The maximum allowable span for wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table R503.2.1.1 (1), or APA E30. The maximum span for sanded plywood combination subfloor underlayment shall be as set forth in Table R503.2.1.1(2).

R503.2.3 Installation. Wood structural panels used as subfloor or combination subfloor underlayment shall be attached to wood framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and shall be attached to cold-formed steel framing in accordance with Table R505.3.1 (2).

R503.3 Particleboard.

R503.3.1 Identification and grade. Particleboard shall conform to ANSI A208.1 and shall be so identified by a grade mark or certificate of inspection issued by an approved agency.

R503.3.2 Floor underlayment. Particleboard floor underlayment shall conform to Type PBU and shall not be less than ¼ inch (6.4 mm) in thickness.

R503.3.3 Installation. Particleboard underlayment shall be installed in accordance with the recommendations of the manufacturer and attached to framing in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

SECTION R504
PRESSURE PRESERVATIVELY TREATED-WOOD FLOORS (ON GROUND)

R504.1 General. Pressure preservatively treated-wood base-mentfloors and floors on ground shall be designed to withstand axial forces and bending moments resulting from lateral soil pressures at the base of the exterior walls and floor live and dead loads. Floor framing shall be designed to meet joist deflection requirements in accordance with Section R301.

R504.1.1 Unbalanced soil loads. Unless special provision is made to resist sliding caused by unbalanced lateral soil loads, wood basement floors shall be limited to applications where the differential depth of fill on opposite exterior foundation walls is 2 feet (610 mm) or less.

R504.1.2 Construction. Joists in wood basement floors shall bear tightly against the narrow face of studs in the foundation wall or directly against a bandjoist that bears on the studs. Plywood subfloor shall be continuous over lapped joists or over butt joints between in-line joists. Sufficient blocking shall be provided betweenjoists to transfer lateral forces at the base of the end walls into the floor system.

R504.1.3 Uplift and buckling. Where required, resistance to uplift or restraint against buckling shall be provided by interior bearing walls or properly designed stub walls anchored in the supporting soil below.

R504.2 Site preparation. The area within the foundation walls shall have all vegetation, topsoil and foreign material removed, and any fill material that is added shall be free of vegetation and foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to assure uniform support of the pressure preservatively treated-wood floor sleepers.

R504.2.1 Base. A minimum 4-inch-thick (102 mm) granular base of gravel having a maximum size of ¾ inch (19.1mm) or crushed stone having a maximum size of ½ inch (12.7 mm) shall be placed over the compacted earth.

R504.2.2 Moisture barrier. Polyethylene sheeting of minimum 6-mil (0.15 mm) thickness shall be placed over the granular base. Joints shall be lapped 6 inches (152 mm) and left unsealed. The polyethylene membrane shall be placed over the pressure preservatively treated-wood sleepers and shall not extend beneath the footing plates of the exterior walls.

R504.3 Materials. All framing materials, including sleepers, joists, blocking and plywood subflooring, shall be pressure-preservative treated and dried after treatment in accordance with AWPA U1 (Commodity Specification A, Use Category 4B and section 5.2), and shall bear the label of an accredited agency.

SECTION R505
STEEL FLOOR FRAMING

R505.1 Cold-formed steel floor framing. Elements shall be straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect structural performance. Cold-formed steel floor framing members shall comply with the requirements of this section.

R505.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this section shall control the construction ofcold-formed steel floor framing for buildings not greater than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length perpendicular to thejoist span, not greater than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width parallel to the joist span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade plane. Cold-formed steel floor framing constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) , Exposure B or C, and a maximum ground snow load of 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa).

R505.1.2 In-line framing. When supported by cold-formed steel framed walls in accordance with Section R603, cold-formed steel floor framing shall be constructed with floor joists located in-line with load-bearing studs located

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below the joists in accordance with Figure R505.1.2 and the tolerances specified as follows:

  1. The maximum tolerance shall be ¾ inch (19.1 mm) between the centerline of the horizontal framing member and the centerline of the vertical framing member.
  2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing member and bearing stiffener are located to one side of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the maximum tolerance shall be l/S inch (3 mm) between the web of the horizontal framing member and the edge of the vertical framing member.

R505.1.3 Floor trusses. Cold-formed steel trusses shall be designed, braced and installed in accordance with AISI S100, Section D4. Truss members shall not be notched, cut or altered in any manner without an approved design.

R505.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing cold-formed steel floor framing members shall comply with Figure R505.2(1) and with the dimensional and minimum thickness requirements specified in Tables R505.2(1) and R505.2(2). Tracks shall comply with Figure R505.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of 1¼ inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend radius for members shall be the greater of 3/32 inch (2.4 mm) minus half the base steel thickness or 1.5 times the base steel thickness.

R505.2.1 Material. Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be cold-formed to shape from structural quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of one of the following:

  1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33 and 50 (Class 1 and 3).
  2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33 and 50A.
  3. ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type Hand 50 Type H.

R505.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment with the following information as a minimum:

  1. Manufacturer's identification.
  2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm).
  3. Minimum coating designation.
  4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) (MPa).

R505.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with ASTM A 1003 and one of the following:

  1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 653.
  2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 792.

FIGURE R505.1.2 IN-LINE FRAMING

FIGURE R505.1.2 IN-LINE FRAMING

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FIGURE R505.2(1) C-SHAPED SECTION

FIGURE R505.2(1) C-SHAPED SECTION

FIGURE R505.2(2) TRACK SECTION

FIGURE R505.2(2) TRACK SECTION

TABLE R505.2(1)
COLD-FORMED STEEL JOIST SIZES
MEMBER DESIGNATIONa WEB DEPTH (inches) MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH (inches) MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH (inches) MINIMUM LIP SIZE (inches)
5505162-t 5.5 1.625 2 0.5
8005162-t 8 1.625 2 0.5
10005162-t 10 1.625 2 0.5
12005162-t 12 1.625 2 0.5
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in 0.01 inch, the letter"S" representing a stud orjoist member, the second number representing the flange width in 0.01 inch, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See Table R505.2(2)].

 

TABLE R505.2(2)
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS
DESIGNATION THICKNESS
(mils)
MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS
(inches)
33 0.0329
43 0.0428
54 0.0538
68 0.0677
97 0.0966
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
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R505.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel-to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance and center-to-center spacing of ½ inch (12.7 mm), shall be self-drilling tapping, and shall conform to ASTM C 1513. Floor sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel joists with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws attaching floor-sheathing to cold-formed steel joists shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board ceilings shall be attached to cold-formed steel joists with minimum No.6 screws conforming to ASTM C 954 or ASTM C 1513 with a bugle head style and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. For all connections, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of three exposed threads. All fasteners shall have rust inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured from material not susceptible to corrosion.

Where No.8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel connection, the required number of screws in the connection is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction factors in Table R505.2.4 when larger screws are used or when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying the reduction factor, the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up.

TABLE R505.2.4
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR
SCREW SIZE THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils)
33 43
#8 1.0 0.67
#10 0.93 0.62
#12 0.86 0.56
For 51: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.

R505.2.5 Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole patching. Web holes, web hole reinforcing, and web hole patching shall be in accordance with this section.

R505.2.5.1 Web holes. Web holes in floor joists shall comply with all of the following conditions:

  1. Holes shall conform to Figure R505.2.5.1;
  2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the web of the framing member;
  3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less than 24 inches (610 mm);
  4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 0.5 times the member depth, or inches (64.5 mm);
  5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 4½ inches (114 mm); and
  6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge of the bearing surface and the edge of the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm).

Framing members with web holes not conforming to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R505.2.5.2, patched in accordance with Section R505.2.5.3 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practices.

R505.2.5.2 Web hole reinforcing. Reinforcement of web holes in floor joists not conforming to the requirements of Section R505.2.5.1 shall be permitted if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the span and the depth and length of the hole does not exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limitations of Section R505.2.5.1 for the member being reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No.8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of ½ inch (12.7 mm).

FIGURE R505.2.5.1 FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLES

FIGURE R505.2.5.1 FLOOR JOIST WEB HOLES

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R505.2.5.3 Hole patching. Patching of web holes in floor joists not conforming to the requirements in Section R505.2.5.1 shall be permitted in accordance with either of the following methods:

  1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practices where web holes exceed the following size limits:

    1.1. The depth of the hole, measured across the web, exceeds 70 percent ofthe flat width of the web; or

    1.2. The length of the hole measured along the web, exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth of the web, whichever is greater.

  2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional requirements in Section R505.2.5.3, Item 1, shall be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section, or track section in accordance with Figure R505.2.5.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, be of the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No.8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of ½ inch (13 mm).

R505.3 Floor construction. Cold-formed steel floors shall be constructed in accordance with this section.

R505.3.1 Floor to foundation or load-bearing wall connections. Cold-formed steel framed floors shall be anchored to foundations, wood sills or load-bearing walls in accordance with Table R505.3.1 (1) and Figure R505.3.1 (1), R505.3.1 (2), R505.3.1 (3), R505.3.1 (4), R505.3.1 (5) or R505.3.1 (6). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom

FIGURE R505.2.5.3 WEB HOLE PATCH

FIGURE R505.2.5.3 WEB HOLE PATCH

tracks. Continuous cold-formed steel joists supported by interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R505.3.1 (7). Lapped cold-formed steel joists shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R505.3.1 (8). End floor joists constructed on foundation walls parallel to the joist span shall be doubled unless a C-shaped bearing stiffener, sized in accordance with Section R505.3.4, is installed web-to-web with the floor joist beneath each supported wall stud, as shown in Figure R505.3.1 (9). Fastening of cold-formed steeljoists to other framing members shall be in accordance with Section R505.2.4 and Table R505.3.1 (2).

R505.3.2 Minimum floor joist sizes. Floor joist size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Table R505.3.2(1) for single spans, and Tables R505.3.2 (2) and R505.3.2 (3) for multiple spans. When continuous joist members are used, the interior bearing supports shall be located within 2 feet (610 mm) of mid-span of the cold-formed steel joists, and the individual spans shall not exceed the spans in Table R505.3.2(2) or R505.3.2(3), as applicable. Floor joists shall have a bearing support length of not less than 1½ inches (38 mm) for exterior wall supports and 3½ inches (89 mm) for interior wall supports. Tracks shall be a minimum of 33 mils (0.84 mm) thick except when used as part of a floor header or trimmer in accordance with Section R505.3.8. Bearing stiffeners shall be installed in accordance with Section R505.3.4.

R505.3.3 joist bracing and blocking. Joist bracing and blocking shall be in accordance with this section.

R505.3.3.1 joist top flange bracing. The top flanges of cold-formed steel joists shall be laterally braced by the application of floor sheathing fastened to the joists in accordance with Section R505. 2.4 and Table R505.3.1 (2).

R505.3.3.2 joist bottom flange bracing/blocking. Floor joists with spans that exceed 12 feet (3658 mm) shall have the bottom flanges laterally braced in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Gypsum board installed with minimum No.6 screws in accordance with Section R702.
  2. Continuous steel straps installed in accordance with Figure R505.3.3.2(1). Steel straps shall be spaced at a maximum of 12 feet (3658 mm) on center and shall be at least 1½ inches (38 mm) in width and 33 mils (0.84 mm) in thickness. Straps shall be fastened to the bottom flange of eachjoist with one No.8 screw, fastened to blocking with two No.8 screws, and fastened at each end (of strap) with two No.8 screws. Blocking in accordance with Figure R505.3.3.2 (1) or Figure R505.3.3.2 (2) shall be installed between joists at each end of the continuous strapping and at a maximum spacing of 12 feet (3658 mm) measured along the continuous strapping (perpendicular to thejoist run). Blocking shall also be located at the termination of all straps. As an alternative to blocking at the ends, anchoring the strap to a stable building component with two No.8 screws shall be permitted.
128
TABLE R505.3.1 (1)
FLOOR TO FOUNDATION OR BEARING WALL CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa, b
FRAMING CONDITION BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE
85 mph Exposure C or less than 110 mph Exposure B Less than 110 mph Exposure C
Floor joist to wall track of exterior wall per Figure R505.3.1 (1) 2-No. 8 screws 3-No. 8 screws
Rim track or end joist to load-bearing wall top track per Figure R505.3.1 (1) I-No.8 screw at 24 inches o.c. I-No.8 screw at 24 inches o.c.
Rim track or endjoist to wood sill per Figure R505.3.1(2) Steel plate spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 2 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails
Rim track or endjoist to foundation per Figure R505.3.1(3) ½ inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 6 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws ½ inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws
Cantilevered joist to foundation per Figure R505.3.1(4) ½ inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 6 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws ½ inch minimum diameter anchor bolt and clip angle spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 8-No. 8 screws
Cantilevered joist to wood sill per Figure R505.3.1 (5) Steel plate spaced at 4 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 2 feet o.c. with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-10d or 6-8d common nails
Cantilevered joist to exterior load- bearing wall track per Figure R505.3.1 (6) 2-No. 8 screws 3-No. 8 screws
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination of bottom tracks (e.g., at door openings or corners). Bolts extend a minimum of 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete. Anchor bolts connecting cold-formed steel framing to the foundation structure are to be installed so that the distance from the center of the bolt hole to the edge of the connected member is not less than one and one-half bolt diameters.
b. All screw sizes shown are minimum.

FIGURE 505.3.1 (1) FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL STUD CONNECTION

FIGURE 505.3.1 (1) FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL STUD CONNECTION

129
TABLE R505.3.1 (2)
FLOOR FASTENING SCHEDULEa
DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS NUMBER AND SIZE OF FASTENERS SPACING OF FASTENERS
Floor joist to track of an interior load-bearing wall per Figures R505.3.1(7) and R505.3.1 (8) 2 No. 8 screws Each joist
Floor joist to track at end ofjoist 2 No.8 screws One per flange or two per bearing stiffener
Subfloor to floor joists No.8 screws 6 in. o.c. on edges and 12 in. o.c. at intermediate supports
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. All screw sizes shown are minimum.

FIGURE R505.3.1 (2)FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1 (2) FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

130

FIGURE R505.3.1 (3) FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1 (3) FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1 (4) CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1 (4) CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

131

FIGURE R505.3.1 (5) CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1 (5) CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1 (6) CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL CONNECTION

FIGURE R505.3.1 (6) CANTILEVERED FLOOR TO EXTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL CONNECTION

132

FIGURE R505.3.1 (7) CONTINUOUS SPAN JOIST SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

FIGURE R505.3.1 (7) CONTINUOUS SPAN JOIST SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

133

FIGURE R505.3.1 (8) LAPPED JOISTS SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

FIGURE R505.3.1 (8) LAPPED JOISTS SUPPORTED ON INTERIOR LOAD-BEARING WALL

FIGURE R505.3.1 (9) BEARING STIFFENERS FOR END JOISTS

FIGURE R505.3.1 (9) BEARING STIFFENERS FOR END JOISTS

134
TABLE R505.3.2(1)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS-SINGLE SPANSa,b,c,d 33 ksi STEEL
JOIST
DESIGNATION
30 PSF LIVE LOAD 40 PSF LIVE LOAD
Spacing (inches) Spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
5505162-33 11'-7" 10'-7" 9'-6" 8'-6" 10'-7" 9'-3" 8'-6" 7'-6"
5505162-43 12'-8" 11'-6" 10'-10" 10'-2" 11'-6" 10'-5" 9'-10" 9'-1"
5505162-54 13'-7" 12'-4" 11'-7" 10'-9" 12'-4" 11'-2" 10'-6" 9'-9"
5505162-68 14'-7" 13'-3" 12'-6" 11'-7" 13'-3" 12'-0" 11'-4" 10'-6"
5505162-97 16'-2" 14'-9" 13'-10" 12'-10" 14'-9" 13'-4" 12'-7" 11'-8"
8005162-33 15'-8" 13'-11" 12'-9" 11'-5" 14'-3" 12'-5" 11'-3" 9'-0"
8005162-43 17'-1" 15'-6" 14'-7" 13'-7" 15'-6" 14'-1" 13'-3" 12'-4"
8005162-54 18'-4" 16'-8" 15'-8" 14'-7" 16'-8" 15'-2" 14'-3" 13'-3"
8005162-68 19'-9" 17'-11" 16'-10" 15'-8" 17'-11" 16'-3" 15'-4" 14'-2"
8005162-97 22'-0" 20'-0" 16'-10" 17'-5" 20'-0" 18'-2" 17'-1" 15'-10"
10005162-43 20'-6" 18'-8" 17'-6" 15'-8" 18'-8" 16'-11" 15'-6" 13'-11"
10005162-54 22'-1" 20'-0" 18'-10" 17'-6" 20'-0" 18'-2" 17'-2" 15'-11"
10005162-68 23'- 9" 21'-7" 20'-3" 18'-10" 21'-7" 19'-7" 18'-5" 17'-1"
10005162-97 26'-6" 24'-1" 22'-8" 21'-0" 24'-1" 21'-10" 20'-7" 19'-1"
12005162-43 23'-9" 20'-10" 19'-0" 16'-8" 21'-5" 18'-6" 16'-6" 13'-2"
12005162-54 25'-9" 23'-4" 22'-0" 20'-1" 23'-4" 21'-3" 20'-0" 17'-10"
12005162-68 27'-8" 25'-1" 23'-8" 21'-11" 25'-1" 22'-10" 21'-6" 21'-1"
12005162-97 30'-11" 28'-1" 26'-5" 24'-6" 28'-1" 25'-6" 24'-0" 22'-3"
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
a. Deflection criteria: LI480 for live loads, LI240 for total loads.
b. Floor dead load = 10 psf.
c. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches.
d. Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads.

FIGURE R505.3.3.2(1) JOIST BLOCKING (SOLID)

FIGURE R505.3.3.2(1) JOIST BLOCKING (SOLID)

135
TABLE R505.3.2(2)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS-MULTIPLE SPANsa,b,c,d,e,f 33 ksi STEEL
JOIST DESIGNATION 30 PSF LIVE LOAD 40 PSF LIVE LOAD
Spacing (inches) Spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
5505162-33 12'-1" 10'-5" 9'-6" 8'-6" 10'-9" 9'-3" 8'-6" 7'-6"
5505162-43 14'-5" 12'-5" 11'-4" 10'-2" 12'-9" 11'-11" 10'-1" 9'-0"
5505162-54 16'-3" 14'-1" 12'-10" 11'-6" 14'-5" 12'-6" 11'-5" 10'-2"
5505162-68 19'-7" 17'-9" 16'-9" 15'-6" 17'-9" 16'-2" 15'-2" 14'-1"
5505162-97 21'-9" 19'-9" 18'-7" 17'-3" 19'-9" 17'-11" 16'-10" 15'-4"
8005162-33 14'-8" 11'-10" 10'-4" 8'-8" 12'-4" 9'-11" 8'-7" 7'-2"
8005162-43 20'-0" 17'-4" 15'-9" 14'-1" 17'-9" 15'-4" 14'-0" 12'-0"
8005162-54 23'-7" 20'-5" 18'-8" 16'-8" 21'-0" 18'-2" 16'-7" 14'-10"
8005162-68 26'-5" 23'-1" 21'-0" 18'-10" 23'-8" 20'-6" 18'-8" 16'-9"
8005162-97 29'-6" 26'-10" 25'-3" 22'-8" 26'-10" 24'-4" 22'-6" 20'-2"
10005162-43 22'-2" 18'-3" 16'-0" 13'-7" 18'-11" 15'-5" 13'-6" 11'-5"
10005162-54 26'-2" 22'-8" 20'-8" 18'-6" 23'-3" 20'-2" 18'-5" 16'-5"
10005162-68 31'- 5" 27'-2" 24'-10" 22'-2" 27'-11" 24'-2" 22'-1" 19'-9"
10005162-97 35'-6" 32'-3" 29'-11" 26'-9" 32'-3" 29'-2" 26'-7" 23'-9"
12005162-43 21'-8" 17'-6" 15'-3" 12'-10" 18'-3" 14'-8" 12'-8" 10'-62
12005162-54 28'-5" 24'-8" 22'-6" 19'-6" 25'-3" 21'-11" 19'-4" 16'-6"
12005162-68 33'-7" 29'-1" 26'-6" 23'-9" 29'-10" 25'-10" 23'-7" 21'-1"
12005162-97 41'-5" 37'-8" 34'-6" 30'-10" 37'-8" 33'-6" 30'-7" 27'-5"
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
a. Deflection criteria: LI480 for live loads, LI240 for total loads.
b. Floor dead load = 10 psf.
e. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches to either side of the interior support.
d. Interior bearing supports for multiple span joists consist of structural (bearing) Wills or beams.
e. Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads.
f. Interior supports shall be located within 2 feet of mid-span provided that each of the resulting spans does not exceed the appropriate maximum span shown in the table above.

FIGURE R505.3.3.2(2) JOIST BLOCKING (STRAP)

FIGURE R505.3.3.2(2) JOIST BLOCKING (STRAP)

136
TABLE R505.3.2(3)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR COLD-FORMED STEEL JOISTS-MULTIPLE SPANSa, b, c, d, e, f 50 ksi STEEL
JOIST DESIGNATION 30 PSF LIVE LOAD 40 PSF LIVE LOAD
Spacing (inches) Spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
5505162-33 13'-11" 12'-0" 11'-0" 9'-3" 12'-3" 10'-8" 9'-7" 8'-4"
5505162-43 16'-3" 14'-1" 12'-10" 11'-6" 14'-6" 12'-6" 11'-5" 10'-3"
5505162-54 18'-2" 16'-6" 15'-4" 13'-8" 16'-6" 14'-11" 13'-7" 12'-2"
5505162-68 19'-6" 17'-9" 16'-8" 15'-6" 17'-9" 16'-1" 15'-2" 14'-0"
5505162-97 21'-9" 19'-9" 18'-6" 17'-2" 19'-8" 17'-10" 16'-8" 15'-8"
8005162-33 15'-6" 12'-6" 10'-10" 9'-1" 13'-0" 10'-5" 8'-11" 6'-9"
8005162-43 22'-0" 19'-1" 17'-5" 15'-0" 19'-7" 16'-11" 14'-10" 12'-8"
8005162-54 24'-6" 22'-4" 20'-6" 17'-11" 22'-5" 19'-9" 17'-11" 15'-10"
8005162-68 26'-6" 24'-1" 22'-8" 21'-0" 24'-1" 21'-10" 20'-7" 19'-2"
8005162-97 29'-9" 26'-8" 25'-2" 23'-5" 26'-8" 24'-3" 22'-11" 21'-4"
10005162-43 23'-6" 19'-2" 16'-9" 14'-2" 19'-11" 16'-2" 14'-0" 11'-9"
10005162-54 28'-2" 23'-10" 21'-7" 18'-11" 24'-8" 20'-11" 18'-9" 18'-4"
10005162-68 31'- 10" 28'-11" 27'-2" 25'-3" 28'-11" 26'-3" 24'-9" 22'-9"
10005162-97 35'-4" 32'-1" 30'-3" 28'-1" 32'-1" 29'-2" 27'-6" 25'-6"
12005162-43 22'-11" 18'-5" 16'-0" 13'-4" 19'-2" 15'-4" 13'-2" 10'-6"
12005162-54 32'-8" 28'-1" 24'-9" 21'-2" 29'-0" 23'-10" 20'-11" 17'-9"
12005162-68 37'-1" 32'-5" 29'-4" 25'-10" 33'-4" 28'-6" 25'-9" 22'-7"
12005162-97 41'-2" 37'-6" 35'-3" 32'-9" 37'-6" 34'-1" 32'-1" 29'-9"
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
a. Deflection criteria: LI480 for live loads, LI240 for total loads.
b. Floor dead load = 10 psf.
c. Table provides the maximum clear span in feet and inches to either side of the interior support.

d. Interior bearing supports for multiple span joists consist of structural (bearing) walls or beams.
e. Bearing stiffeners are to be installed at all support points and concentrated loads.
f. Interior supports shall be located within 2 feet of mid-span provided that each of the resulting spans does not exceed the appropriate maximum span shown in the table above.

R505.3.3.3 Blocking at interior bearing supports. Blocking is not required for continuous back-to-back floorjoists at bearing supports. Blocking shall be installed between every otherjoist for single continuous floorjoists across bearing supports in accordance with Figure R505.3.1 (7). Blocking shall consist of C-shape or track section with a minimum thickness of 33 mils (0.84 mm). Blocking shall be fastened to each adjacentjoist through a 33-mil (0.84 mm) clip angle, bent web of blocking or flanges of web stiffeners with two No. 8 screws on each side. The minimum depth of the blocking shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 inches (51 mm). The minimum length of the angle shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 inches (51 mm).

R505.3.3.4 Blocking at cantilevers. Blocking shall be installed between every other joist over cantilever bearing supports in accordance with Figure R505.3.1 (4), R505.3.1 (5) or R505.3.1 (6). Blocking shall consist of C-shape or track section with minimum thickness of 33 mils (0.84 mm). Blocking shall be fastened to each adjacentjoist through bent web of blocking, 33 mil clip angle or flange of web stiffener with two No.8 screws at each end. The depth of the blocking shall be equal to the depth of the joist. The minimum length of the angle shall be equal to the depth of the joist minus 2 inches (51 mm). Blocking shall be fastened through the floor sheathing and to the support with three No.8 screws (top and bottom).

R505.3.4 Bearing stiffeners. Bearing stiffeners shall be installed at each joist bearing location in accordance with this section, except for joists lapped over an interior support not carrying a load-bearing wall above. Floorjoists supportingjamb studs with multiple members shall have two bearing stiffeners in accordance with Figure R505.3.4(1). Bearing stiffeners shall be fabricated from a C-shaped, track or clip angle member in accordance with the one of following:

  1. C-shaped bearing stiffeners:

    1.1. Where the joist is not carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be a minimum 33 mil (0.84 mm) thickness.

    137

    1.2. Where thejoist is carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be at least the same designation thickness as the wall stud above.

  2. Track bearing stiffeners:

    2.1. Where the joist is not carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be a minimum 43 mil (1.09 mm) thickness.

    2.2. Where thejoist is carrying a load-bearing wall above, the bearing stiffener shall be at least one designation thickness greater than the wall stud above.

  3. Clip angle bearing stiffeners: Where the clip angle bearing stiffener is fastened to both the web of the member it is stiffening and an adjacent rim track using the fastener pattern shown in Figure R505.3.4(2), the bearing stiffener shall be a minimum 2-inch by 2-inch (51 mm by 51 mm) angle sized in accordance with Tables R505.3.4 (1), R505.3.4(2), R505.3.4(3), and R505.3.4(4).

The minimum length of a bearing stiffener shall be the depth of member being stiffened minus 3/8 inch (9.5 mm). Each bearing stiffener shall be fastened to the web of the member it is stiffening as shown in Figure R505.3.4(2). Each clip angle bearing stiffener shall also be fastened to the web of the adjacent rim track using the fastener pattern shown in Figure R505.3.4(2). No.8 screws shall be used for C-shaped and track members of any thickness and for clip angle members with a designation thickness less than or equal to 54. No.1 0 screws shall be used for clip angle members with a designation thickness greater than 54.

FIGURE R505.3.4(1) BEARING STIFFENERS UNDER JAMB STUDS

FIGURE R505.3.4(1) BEARING STIFFENERS UNDER JAMB STUDS

TABLE R505.3.4(1)
CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS (20 psf equivalent snow load)
JOIST DESIGNATION MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2-INCH × 2-INCH (51 mm × 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE
Top floor Bottom floor in 2 story
Middle floor in 3 story
Bottom floor in 3 story
Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
8005162-33 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 68 68 97 97 -
8005162-43 43 43 43 43 54 54 68 68 97 97 97 97
8005162-54 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 68 68 97 97 -
8005162-68 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 54 97 97 -
8005162-97 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 97
10005162-43 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 97 97 - - -
10005162-54 43 43 43 43 54 68 68 97 97 97 - -
10005162-68 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 97 97 - - -
10005162-97 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 43 68 97 -
12005162-43 43 54 54 54 97 97 97 97 - - - -
12005162-54 54 54 54 54 97 97 97 97 - - - -
12005162-68 43 43 54 54 68 97 97 97 - - - -
12005162-97 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 97 - - -
For SI: 1 mil = 0.254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
138
TABLE R505.3.4(2)
CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS (30 psf equivalent snow load)
JOIST DESIGNATION MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2·INCH × 2 INCH (51 mm × 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE
Top floor Bottom floor in 2 story
Middle floor in 3 story
Bottom floor in 3 story
Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
8005162-33 43 43 43 43 54 68 68 97 97 97 97 -
8005162-43 43 43 43 54 68 68 68 97 97 97 97 -
8005162-54 43 43 43 43 54 68 68 97 97 97 - -
8005162-68 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 68 97 97 -
8005162-97 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 68 97
10005162-43 54 54 54 54 68 97 97 97 97 - - -
10005162-54 54 54 54 54 68 97 97 97 97 - - -
10005162-68 43 43 54 68 68 97 97 - 97 - - -
10005162-97 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 54 97 - -
12005162-43 54 68 68 68 97 97 97 - - - - -
12005162-54 68 68 68 68 97 97 - - - - - -
12005162-68 68 68 68 68 97 97 97 - - - - -
12005162-97 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 - 97 - - -
For 51: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, Ipound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.

FIGURE R505.3.4(2) BEARING STIFFENER

FIGURE R505.3.4(2) BEARING STIFFENER

139
TABLE R505.3.4(3)
CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS (50 pst equivalent snow load)
JOIST DESIGNATION MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2·INCH × 2·INCH (51 mm × 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE
Top floor Bottom floor in 2 story
Middle floor in 3 story
Bottom floor in 3 story
Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
8005162-33 54 54 54 54 68 97 97 97 97 - - -
8005162-43 68 68 68 68 97 97 97 97 - - - -
8005162-54 54 68 68 68 97 97 97 97 - - - -
8005162-68 43 43 54 54 68 97 97 97 97 - - -
8005162-97 43 43 43 43 43 43 43 54 54 68 97 -
10005162-43 97 68 68 68 97 97 97 97 - - - -
10005162-54 97 97 68 68 97 97 97 - - - - -
10005162-68 68 97 97 97 97 - - - - - - -
10005162-97 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 97 - - - -
12005162-43 97 97 97 97 - - - - - - - -
12005162-54 - 97 97 97 - - - - - - - -
12005162-68 97 97 97 97 - - - - - - - -
12005162-97 54 68 68 97 97 - - - - - - -
For 51: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.

 

TABLE R505.3.4(4)
CLIP ANGLE BEARING STIFFENERS (70 pst equivalent snow load)
JOIST DESIGNATION MINIMUM THICKNESS (mils) OF 2·INCH × 2·INCH (51 mm × 51 mm) CLIP ANGLE
Top floor Bottom floor in 2 story
Middle floor in 3 story
Bottom floor in 3 story
Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches) Joist spacing (inches)
12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24 12 16 19.2 24
8005162-33 68 68 68 68 97 97 97 97 - - - -
8005162-43 97 97 97 97 97 97 97 - - - - -
8005162-54 97 97 97 97 97 - - - - - - -
8005162-68 68 68 68 97 97 97 97 - - - - -
8005162-97 43 43 43 43 43 54 68 97 97 97 - -
10005162-43 97 97 97 97 - - - - - - - -
10005162-54 - 97 97 97 - - - - - - - -
10005162-68 97 97 - - - - - - - - - -
10005162-97 68 68 68 68 97 97 - - - - - -
12005162-43 97 97 97 97 - - - - - - - -
12005162-54 - - - - - - - - - - - -
12005162-68 - - - - - - - - - - - -
12005162-97 97 97 97 - - - - - - - - -
For 51: 1 mil 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa.
140

R505.3.5 Cutting and notching. Flanges and lips of load-bearing cold-formed steel floor framing members shall not be cut or notched.

R505.3.6 Floor cantilevers. Floor cantilevers for the top floor of a two- or three-story building or the first floor of a one-story building shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). Cantilevers, not exceeding 24 inches (610 mm) and supporting two stories and roof (Le., first floor of a two-story building), shall also be permitted provided that all cantilevered joists are doubled (nested or back-to-back). The doubled cantilevered joists shall extend a minimum of 6 feet (1829 mm) toward the inside and shall be fastened with a minimum of two No.8 screws spaced at 24 inches (610 mm) on center through the webs (for back-to-back) or flanges (for nested joists).

R505.3.7 Splicing. Joists and other structural members shall not be spliced. Splicing of tracks shall conform to Figure R505.3.7.

R505.3.8 Framing of floor openings. Openings in floors shall be framed with header and trimmerjoists. Headerjoist spans shall not exceed 6 feet (1829 mm) or 8 feet (2438 mm) in length in accordance with Figure R505.3.8(1) or R505.3.8(2), respectively. Header and trimmer joists shall be fabricated fromjoist and track members, having a minimum size and thickness at least equivalent to the adjacent floor joists and shall be installed in accordance with Figures R505.3.8(1), R505.3.8(2), R505.3.8(3), and R505.3.8(4). Each header joist shall be connected to trimmer joists with four 2-inch-by-2-inch (51mm by 51 mm) clip angles. Each clip angle shall be fastened to both the header and trimmer joists with four No.8 screws, evenly spaced, through each leg of the clip angle. The clip angles shall have a thickness not less than that of the floor joist. Each track section for a built-up header or trimmer joist shall extend the full length of the joist (continuous).

FIGURE R505.3.7 TRACK SPLICE

FIGURE R505.3.7 TRACK SPLICE

141

FIGURE R505.3.8(1) COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 6-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(1) COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 6-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(2) COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 8-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(2) COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: 8-FOOT FLOOR OPENING

142

FIGURE R505.3.8(3) COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION-6-FOOT OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(3) COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION-6-FOOT OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(4) COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION-8-FOOT OPENING

FIGURE R505.3.8(4) COLD-FORMED STEEL FLOOR CONSTRUCTION: FLOOR HEADER TO TRIMMER CONNECTION-8-FOOT OPENING

143

SECTION R506
CONCRETE FLOORS (ON GROUND)

R506.1 General. Concrete slab-on-ground floors shall be a minimum 3.5 inches (89 mm) thick (for expansive soils, see Section R403.1.8). The specified compressive strength of concrete shall be as set forth in Section R402.2.

R506.2 Site preparation. The area within the foundation walls shall have all vegetation, top soil and foreign material removed.

R506.2.1 Fill. Fill material shall be free of vegetation and foreign material. The fill shall be compacted to assure uniform support ofthe slab, and except where approved, the fill depths shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) for clean sand or gravel and 8 inches (203 mm) for earth.

R506.2.2 Base. A 4-inch-thick (102 mm) base course consisting of clean graded sand, gravel, crushed stone or crushed blast-furnace slag passing a 2-inch (51 mm) sieve shall be placed on the prepared subgrade when the slab is below grade.

Exception: A base course is not required when the concrete slab is installed on well-drained or sand-gravel mixture soils classified as Group I according to the United Soil Classification System in accordance with Table R405.1.

R506.2.3 Vapor retarder. A 6 mil (0.006 inch; 152 μm) polyethylene or approvedvapor retarder with joints lapped not less than 6 inches (152 mm) shall be placed between the concrete floor slab and the base course or the prepared subgrade where no base course exists.

Exception: The vapor retarder may be omitted:

  1. From detached garages, utility buildings and other unheated accessory structures.
  2. For unheated storage rooms having an area of less than 70 square feet (6.5 m2) and carports.
  3. From driveways, walks, patios and other flatwork not likely to be enclosed and heated at a later date.
  4. Where approved by the building official, based on local site conditions.

R506.2.4 Reinforcement support. Where provided in slabs on ground, reinforcement shall be supported to remain in place from the center to upper one third of the slab for the duration of the concrete placement.

144

CHAPTER 6
WALL CONSTRUCTION

SECTION R601
GENERAL

R601.1 Application. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design and construction of all walls and partitions for all buildings.

R601.2 Requirements. Wall construction shall be capable of accommodating all loads imposed according to Section R301 and of transmitting the resulting loads to the supporting structural elements.

R601.2.1 Compressible floor-covering materials. Compressible floor-covering materials that compress more than 1/32 inch (0.8 mm) when subjected to 50 pounds (23 kg) applied over 1 inch square (645 mm) of material and are greater than ⅛ inch (3 mm) in thickness in the uncompressed state shall not extend beneath walls, partitions or columns, which are fastened to the floor.

R601.3 Vapor retarders. Class I or II vapor retarders are required on the interior side of frame walls in Zones 5,6, 7, 8 and Marine 4.

Exceptions:

  1. Basement walls.
  2. Below grade portion of any wall.
  3. Construction where moisture or its freezing will not damage the materials.

R601.3.1 Class III vapor retarders. Class III vapor retarders shall be permitted where anyone of the conditions in Table R601.3.1 is met.

R601.3.2 Material vapor retarder class. The vapor retarder class shall be based on the manufacturer's certified testing or a tested assembly.

The following shall be deemed to meet the class specified:

Class I: Sheet polyethylene, unperforated aluminum foil.

Class II: Kraft-faced fiberglass batts.

Class III: Latex or enamel paint.

R601.3.3 Minimum clear air spaces and vented openings for vented cladding. For the purposes of this section, vented cladding shall include the following minimum clear air spaces. Other openings with the equivalent vent area shall be permitted.

  1. Vinyl lap or horizontal aluminum siding applied over a weather resistive barrier as specified in Table R703.4.
  2. Brick veneer with a clear airspace as specified in Section R703.7.4.2.
  3. Other approved vented claddings.
TABLE R601.3.1
CLASS III VAPOR RETARDERS
ZONE CLASS III VAPOR RETARDERS PERMITTED FOR:a
Marine 4 Vented cladding over OSB
Vented cladding over plywood
Vented cladding over fiberboard
Vented cladding over gypsum
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 2 2.5 over 2 x 4 wall
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 2 3.75 over 2 x 6 wall
5 Vented cladding over OSB
Vented cladding over plywood
Vented cladding over fiberboard
Vented cladding over gypsum
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 2 5 over 2 x 4 wall
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 2 7.5 over 2 x 6 wall
6 Vented cladding over fiberboard
Vented cladding over gypsum
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 2 7.5 over 2 x 4 wall
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 2 11.25 over 2 x 6 wall
7 and 8 Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 2 10 over 2 x 4 wall
Insulated sheathing with R-value ≥ 2 15 over 2 x 6 wall
For SI: 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m3.
a. Spray foam with a minimum density of 2 Ib/ft3 applied to the interior cavity side of OSB, plywood, fiberboard, insulating sheathing or gypsum is deemed to meet the insulating sheathing requirement where the spray foam R-value meets or exceeds the specified insulating sheathing R-value.
145

SECTION R602
WOOD WALL FRAMING

R602.1 Identification. Load-bearing dimension lumber for studs, plates and headers shall be identified by a grade mark of a lumber grading or inspection agency that has been approved by an accreditation body that complies with DOC PS 20. In lieu ofa grade mark, a certification of inspection issued by a lumber grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section shall be accepted.

R602.1.1 End-jointed lumber. Approvedend-jointed lumber identified by a grade mark conforming to Section R602.1 may be used interchangeably with solid-sawn members of the same species and grade.

R602.1.2 Structural glued laminated timbers. Glued laminated timbers shall be manufactured and identified as required in ANSI/AITC A190.1 and ASTM D 3737.

R602.1.3 Structural log members. Stress grading ofstructural log members of nonrectangular shape, as typically used in log buildings, shall be in accordance with ASTM D 3957. Such structural log members shall be identified by the grade mark of an approved lumber grading or inspection agency. In lieu of a grade mark on the material, a certificate of inspection as to species and grade, issued by a lumber-grading or inspection agency meeting the requirements of this section, shall be permitted to be accepted.

R602.2 Grade. Studs shall be a minimum No.3, standard or stud grade lumber.

Exception: Bearing studs not supporting floors and nonbearing studs may be utility grade lumber, provided the studs are spaced in accordance with Table R602.3(5).

R602.3 Design and construction. Exterior walls of wood-frame construction shall be designed and constructed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Figures R602.3(1) and R602.3.(2) or in accordance with AF&PA's NDS. Components of exterior walls shall be fastened in accordance with Tables R602.3(1) through R602.3(4). Structural wall sheathing shall be fastened directly to structural framing members. Exterior wall coverings shall be capable of resisting the wind pressures listed in Table R30 1.2 (2) adjusted for height and exposure using Table R301.2(3). Wood structural panel sheathing used for exterior walls shall conform to the requirements of Table R602.3(3).

Studs shall be continuous from support at the sole plate to a support at the top plate to resist loads perpendicular to the wall. The support shall be a foundation or floor, ceiling or roof diaphragm or shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

Exception: Jack studs, trimmer studs and cripple studs at openings in walls that comply with Tables R502.5(1) and R502.5(2).

R602.3.1 Stud size, height and spacing. The size, height and spacing ofstuds shall be in accordance with Table R602.3. (5).

Exceptions:

  1. Utility grade studs shall not be spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center, shall not support more than a roof and ceiling, and shall not exceed 8 feet (2438 mm) in height for exterior walls and load-bearing walls or 10 feet (3048 mm) for interior nonload-bearing walls.
  2. Studs more than 10 feet (3048 mm) in height which are in accordance with Table R602.3.1.

R602.3.2 Top plate. Wood stud walls shall be capped with a double top plate installed to provide overlapping at corners and intersections with bearing partitions. End joints in top plates shall be offset at least 24 inches (610 mm). Joints in plates need not occur over studs. Plates shall be not less than 2-inches (51 mm) nominal thickness and have a width at least equal to the width of the studs.

Exception: A single top plate may be installed in stud walls, provided the plate is adequately tied at joints, corners and intersecting walls by a minimum 3-inch-by-6-inch by a 0.036-inch-thick (76 mm by 152 mm by 0.914 mm) galvanized steel plate that is nailed to each wall or segment of wall by six 8d nails on each side, provided the rafters orjoists are centered over the studs with a tolerance of no more than 1 inch (25 mm). The top plate may be omitted over lintels that are adequately tied to adjacent wall sections with steel plates or equivalent as previously described.

R602.3.3 Bearing studs. Wherejoists, trusses or rafters are spaced more than 16 inches (406 mm) on center and the bearing studs below are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center, such members shall bear within 5 inches (127 mm) of the studs beneath.

Exceptions:

  1. The top plates are two 2-inch by 6-inch (38 mm by 140 mm) or two 3-inch by 4-inch (64 mm by 89 mm) members.
  2. A third top plate is installed.
  3. Solid blocking equal in size to the studs is installed to reinforce the double top plate.

R602.3.4 Bottom (sole) plate. Studs shall have full bearing on a nominal 2-by (51 mm) or larger plate or sill having a width at least equal to the width of the studs.

R602.4 Interior load-bearing walls. Interior load-bearing walls shall be constructed, framed and fireblocked as specified for exterior walls.

R602.5 Interior nonbearing walls. Interior nonbearing walls shall be permitted to be constructed with 2-inch-by-3-inch (51 mm by 76 mm) studs spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center or, when not part of a braced wa]]]ine, 2-inch-by-4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) flat studs spaced at 16 inches (406 mm) on center. Interior nonbearing walls shall be capped with at least a single top plate. Interior nonbearing walls shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section R602.8.

146
TABLE R602.3(1)
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
ITEM DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING ELEMENTS NUMBER AND TYPE OF FASTENERa, b, c SPACING OF FASTENERS
Roof
1 Blocking between joists or rafters to top plate, toe nail 3-8d (2½" x 0.113") -
2 Ceiling joists to plate, toe nail 3-8d (2½" x 0.113") -
3 Ceilingjoists not attached to parallel rafter, laps over partitions, face nail 3-10d -
4 Collar tie rafter, face nail or 1¼" X 20 gage ridge strap 3-10d (3" x 0.128") -
5 Rafter to plate, toe nail 2-16d (3½" x 0.135") -
6 Roof rafters to ridge, valley or hip rafters:
   toe nail
   face nail
4-16d (3½" x 0.135")
3-16d (3½" x 0.135")
-
-
Wall
7 Built-up corner studs 10d (3" x 0.128") 24" o.c.
8 Built-up header, two pieces with ½" spacer 16d (3½" x 0.135") 16" o.c. along each edge
9 Continued header, two pieces 16d (3½" x 0.135") 16" o.c. along each edge
10 Continuous header to stud, toe nail 4-8d (2½" x 0.113") -
11 Double studs, face nail 10d (3" x 0.128") 24" o.c.
12 Double top plates, face nail 10d (3" x 0.128") 24" o.c.
13 Double top plates, minimum 48-inch offset of end joints, face nail in lapped area 8-16d (3½" x 0.135") -
14 Sole plate to joist or blocking, face nail 16d (3½" x 0.135") 16" o.c.
15 Sole plate to joist or blocking at braced wall panels 3-16d (3½" x 0.135") 16" o.c.
16 Stud to sole plate, toe nail 3-8d (2½" x 0.113")
or
2-16d 3½" x 0.135")
-
-
17 Top or sole plate to stud, end nail 2-16d (3½" x 0.135") -
18 Top plates, laps at corners and intersections, face nail 2-10d (3" x 0.128") -
19 1" brace to each stud and plate, face nail 2-8d (2½" x 0.113")
2 staples 1¾"
-
-
20 1" x 6" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 2-8d (2½" x 0.113")
2 staples 1¾"
-
-
21 1" x 8" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 2-8d (2½" x 0.113")
3 staples 1¾"
-
-
22 Wider than 1" x 8" sheathing to each bearing, face nail 3-8d (2 ½" x 0.113")
4 staples 1¾"
-
-
Floor
23 Joist to sill or girder, toe nail 3-8d (2½" x 0.113") -
24 1" x 6" subfloor or less to each joist, face nail 2-8d (2½" x 0.113")
2 staples 1¾"
-
-
25 2" subfloor to joist or girder, blind and face nail 2-16d (3½" x 0.135") -
26 Rim joist to top plate, toe nail (roof applications also) 8d (2 ½" x 0.113") 6" o.c.
27 2" planks (plank & beam - floor & roof) 2-16d (3½" x 0.135") at each bearing
28 Built-up girders and beams, 2-inch lumber layers 10d (3" x 0.128") Nail each layer as follows: 32" o.c. at top and bottom and staggered. Two nails at ends and at each splice.
29 Ledger strip supporting joists or rafters 3-16d (3½" x 0.135") At each joist or rafter
147
TABLE R602.3(1)-continued
FASTENER SCHEDULE FOR STRUCTURAL MEMBERS
ITEM DESCRIPTION OF BUILDING
MATERIALS
DESCRIPTION OF FASTENERb, c, e SPACING OF FASTENERS
Edges.
inches)'
Intermediate
supportsC, e
(inches)
Wood structural panels, subfloor, roof and interior wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing
30 ⅜" - ½" 6d common (2" x 0.113") nail (subfloor wall)j
8d common (2½" x 0.131") nail (roof)
6 12g
31 5/16" - ½" 6d common (2" x 0.113") nail (subfloor, wall)
8d common (2½" x 0.131") nail (roof)f
6 12g
32 19/32" - 1" 8d common nail (2 ½" x 0.131") 6 12g
33 1⅛" - 1¼" 10d common (3" x 0.148") nail or
8d (2½" x 0.131") deformed nail
6 12
Other wall sheathingh
34 ½" structural cellulosic fiberboard sheathing ½" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" crown or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 1¼" long 3 6
35 25/32" structural cellulosic fiberboard sheathing 1¾" galvanized roofing nail, 7/16" crown or 1" crown staple 16 ga., 1½" long 3 6
36 ½" gypsum sheathingd 1½" galvanized roofing nail; staple galvanized, 1½" long; 1¼ screws, Type W or S 7 7
37 ⅝" gypsum sheathingd 1¾" glavanized roofing nail; staple galvanized, 1⅝" long; 1⅝" screws, Type W or S 7 7
Wood structural panels, combination subfloor underlayment to framing
38 ¾" and less 6d deformed (2" x 0.120") nail or
8d common (2½" x 0.131") nail
6 12
39 ⅞" - 1" 8d common (2½" x 0.131") nail or
8d deformed (2 ½" x 0.120") nail
6 12
40 1⅛" - 1¼" 10d common (3" x 0.148") nail or
8d deformed (2 ½" x 0.120") nail
6 12
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mfs; lksi = 6.895 MPa.
a. All nails are smooth-common, box or deformed shanks except where otherwise stated. Nails used for framing and sheathing connections shall have minimum average bending yield strengths as shown: 80 ksi for shank diameter of 0.192 inch (20d common nail), 90 ksi for shank diameters larger than 0.142 inch but not larger than 0.177 inch, and 100 ksi for shank diameters of 0.142 inch or less.
b. Staples are 16 gage wire and have a minimum 7f 16-inch on diameter crown width.
c. Nails shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater.
d. Four-foot-by-8-foot or 4-foot-by-9-foot panels shall be applied Vertically.
e. Spacing of fasteners not included in this table shall be based on Table R602.3(2).
f. For regions having basic wind speed of 110 mph or greater, 8d deformed (2½" x 0.120) nails shall be used for attaching plywood and wood structural panel roof sheathing to framing within minimum 48-inch distance from gable end walls, if mean roof height is more than 25 feet, up to 35 feet maximum.
g. For regions having basic wind speed of 100 mph or less, nails for attaching wood structural panel roof sheathing to gable end wall framing shall be spaced 6 inches on center. When basic wind speed is greater than 100 mph, nails for attaching panel roof sheathing to intermediate supports shall be spaced 6 inches on center for minimum 48-inch distance from ridges, eaves and gable end walls; and 4 inches on center to gable end wall framing.
h. Gypsum sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 1396 and shall be installed in accordance with GA 253. Fiberboard sheathing shall conform to ASTM C 208.
i. Spacing of fasteners on floor sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking and at all floor perimeters only. Spacing of fasteners on roof sheathing panel edges applies to panel edges supported by framing members and required blocking. Blocking of roof or floor sheathing panel edges perpendicular to the framing members need not be provided except as required by other provisions of this code. Floor perimeter shall be supported by framing members or solid blocking.
148
TABLE R602.3(2)
ALTERNATE ATTACHMENTS
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa,b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACING OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Intermediate supports
(inches)
Wood structural panels subfloor, roof and wall sheathing to framing and particleboard wall sheathing to framing
up to ½ Staple 15 gao 1¾ 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2¼ 3 6
Staple 16 gao 1¾ 3 6
19/32 and 5/s 0.113 Nail 2 3 6
Staple 15 and 16 gao 2 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2¼ 4 8
23/32 and ¾ Staple 14 gao2 4 8
Staple 15 gao 1¾ 3 6
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2¼ 4 8
Staple 16 gao 2 4 8
1 Staple 14 gao 2¼ 4 8
0.113 Nail 2¼ 3 6
Staple 15 gao 2¼ 4 8
0.097 - 0.099 Nail 2½ 4 8
NOMINAL MATERIAL THICKNESS
(inches)
DESCRIPTIONa,b OF FASTENER AND LENGTH
(inches)
SPACINGc OF FASTENERS
Edges
(inches)
Body of paneld
(inches)
Floor underlayment; plywood-hardboard-particleboard
Plywood
¼ and 5/16 1¼ ring or screw shank nail-minimum
12½ gao (0.099") shank diameter
3 6
Staple 18 ga., ⅞ 3/16 crown width 2 5
11/32 , 3/S' 15/32, and ½ 1¼ ring or screw shank nail-minimum
12½ gao (0.099") shank diameter
6 8e
19/32 , 5/S' 23/32 and ¾ 1½ ring or screw shank nail-minimum
12½ gao (0.099") shank diameter
6 8
Staple 16 gao 1½ 6 8
Hardboardf
0.200 1 1/z long ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 6
4d cement-coated sinker nail 6 6
Staple 18 ga., 7/s long (plastic coated) 3 6
Particleboard
¼ 4d ring-grooved underlayment nail 3 6
Staple 18 ga., ⅞, long, 3/16 crown 3 6
3/S 6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 1⅛, long, ⅜, crown 3 6
½,5/S 6d ring-grooved underlayment nail 6 10
Staple 16 ga., 1 5/s long, 3/S crown 3 6
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Nail is a general description and may be T-head, modified round head or round head.
b. Staples shall have a minimum crown width of 7/16-inch on diameter except as noted.
c. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 6 inches on center at all supports where spans are 48 inches or greater. Nails or staples shall be spaced at not more than 12 inches on center at intermediate supports for floors.
d. Fasteners shall be placed in a grid pattern throughout the body of the panel.
e. For 5-ply panels, intermediate nails shall be spaced not more than 12 inches on center each Way.
f. Hardboard underlayment shall conform to ANSI/AHA AI35.4.
149
TABLE R602.3(3)
REQUIREMENTS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL WALL SHEATHING USED TO RESIST WIND PRESSURESa,b,c
MINIMUM NAIL MINIMUM WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL SPAN RATING MINIMUM NOMINAL PANEL THICKNESS
(inches)
MAXIMUM WALL STUD SPACING
(inches)
PANEL NAIL SPACING MAXIMUM WIND SPEED
(mph)
Size Penetration
(inches)
Edges
(inches o.c.)
Field
(inches o.c.)
Wind exposure category
B C D
6d Common (2.0" x 0.113") 1.5 24/0 318 16 6 12 110 90 85
8d Common (2.5" x 0.131") 1.75 24/16 7116 16 6 12 130 110 105
24 6 12 110 90 85
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 m/s.
a. Panel strength axis parallel or perpendicular to supports. Three-ply plywood sheathing with studs spaced more than 16 inches on center shall be applied with panel strength axis perpendicular to supports.
b. Table is based on wind pressures acting toward and away from building surfaces per Section R30 1.2. Lateral bracing requirements shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.
c. Wood Structural Panels with span ratings ofWall-16 or Wall-24 shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/0 span rating. Plywood siding rated 16 oc or 24 oc shall be permitted as an alternate to panels with a 24/16 span rating. Wall-16 and Plywood siding 16 oc shall be used with studs spaced a maximum of 16 inches on center.

 

TABLE R602.3(4)
ALLOWABLE SPANS FOR PARTICLEBOARD WALL SHEATHINGa
THICKNESS
(inch)
GRADE STUD SPACING
(inches)
When siding is nailed to studs When siding is nailed to sheathing
M-1 Exterior glue 16 -
½ M-2 Exterior glue 16 16
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Wall sheathing not exposed to the weather. If the panels are applied horizontally, the endjoints of the panel shall be offset so that four panels corners will not meet. All panel edges must be supported. Leave a 1/16-inch gap between panels and nail no closer than inch from panel edges.

 

TABLE R602.3(5)
SIZE, HEIGHT AND SPACING OF WOOD STUDsa
STUD SIZE
(inches)
BEARING WALLS NONBEARING WALLS
Laterally unsupported stud heighta
(feet)
Maximum spacing when supporting a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly, only
(inches)
Maximum spacing when supporting one floor, plus a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly
(inches)
Maximum spacing when supporting two floors, plus a roof-ceiling assembly or a habitable attic assembly
(inches)
Maximum spacing when supporting one floor heighta
(feet)
Laterally unsupported stud heighta
(feet)
Maximum spacing
(inches)
    image image image image    
2 X 3b - - - - - 10 16
2x4 10 24c 16c - 24 14 24
3x4 10 24 24 16 24 14 24
2x5 10 24 24 - 24 16 24
2x6 10 24 24 16 24 20 24
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.093m2.
a. Listed heights are distances between points of lateral support placed perpendicular to the plane of the wall. Increases in unsupported height are permitted where justified by analysis.
b. Shall not be used in exterior walls.
c. A habitable attic assembly supported by 2 x 4 studs is limited to a roofspan of 32 feet. Where the roof span exceeds 32 feet, the wall studs shall be increased to 2 x 6 or the studs shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
150

FIGURE R602.3(1) TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING

FIGURE R602.3(1) TYPICAL WALL, FLOOR AND ROOF FRAMING

151

FIGURE R602.3(2) FRAMING DETAILS

FIGURE R602.3(2) FRAMING DETAILS

152
TABLE R602.3.1
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE LENGTH OF WOOD WALL STUDS EXPOSED TO WIND SPEEDS OF 100 mph OR LESS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, B, C, Do' D1 and D2b,c
HEIGHT
(feet)
ON-CENTER SPACING
(inches)
24 16 12 8
Supporting a roof only
>10 2x4 2x4 2x4 2x4
12 2x6 2x4 2x4 2x4
14 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x4
16 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x4
18 NAa 2x6 2x6 2x6
20 NAa NAa 2x6 2x6
24 NAa NAa NAa 2x6
Supporting one floor and a roof
>10 2x6 2x4 2x4 2x4
12 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x4
14 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x6
16 NAa 2x6 2x6 2x6
18 NAa 2x6 2x6 2x6
20 NAa NAa 2x6 2x6
24 NAa NAa NAa 2x6
Supporting two floors and a roof
>10 2x6 2x6 2x4 2x4
12 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x6
14 2x6 2x6 2x6 2x6
16 NAa NAa 2x6 2x6
18 NAa NAa 2x6 2x6
20 NAa NAa NAa 2x6
22 NAa NAa NAa NAa
24 NAa NAa NAa NAa
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.0479kPa,
            1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mls.
a. Design required.
b. Applicability of this table assumes the following: Snow load not exceeding 25 psf, fb not less than 1310 psi determined by multiplying the AF&PA NOS tabular base design value by the repetitive use factor, and by the size factor for all species except southern pine, E not less than 1.6 x 106 psi, tributary dimensions for floors and roofs not exceeding 6 feet, maximum span for floors and roof not exceeding 12 feet, eaves not over 2 feet in dimension and exterior sheathing.Where the conditions are not within these parameters, design is required.
c. Utility, standard, stud and No.3 grade lumber of any species are not permitted. 153
Image
154

R602.6 Drilling and notching-studs. Drilling and notching of studs shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. Notching. Any stud in an exterior wall or bearing partition may be cut or notched to a depth not exceeding 25 percent of its width. Studs in nonbearing partitions may be notched to a depth not to exceed 40 percent of a single stud width.
  2. Drilling. Any stud may be bored or drilled, provided that the diameter of the resulting hole is no more than 60 percent of the stud width, the edge of the hole is no more than ⅝ inch (16 mm) to the edge of the stud, and the hole is not located in the same section as a cut or notch. Studs located in exterior walls or bearing partitions drilled over 40 percent and up to 60 percent shall also be doubled with no more than two successive doubled studs bored. See Figures R602.6(1) and R602.6(2).

Exception: Use of approved stud shoes is permitted when they are installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

R602.6.1 Drilling and notching oftop plate. When piping or ductwork is placed in or partly in an exterior wall or interior load-bearing wall, necessitating cutting, drilling or notching of the top plate by more than 50 percent of its width, a galvanized metal tie not less than 0.054 inch thick (1.37 mm) (16 ga) and 1½ inches (38 mm) wide shall be fastened across and to the plate at each side of the opening with not less than eight 10d (0.148 inch diameter) having a minimum length of 1½ inches (38 mm) at each side or equivalent. The metal tie must extend a minimum of 6 inches past the opening. See Figure R602.6.1.

Exception: When the entire side ofthe wall with the notch or cut is covered by wood structural panel sheathing.

FIGURE R602.6(1) NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS

FIGURE R602.6(1) NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS AND BEARING WALLS

155

FIGURE R602.6(2) NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS

FIGURE R602.6(2) NOTCHING AND BORED HOLE LIMITATIONS FOR INTERIOR NONBEARING WALLS

156

FIGURE R602.6.1 TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING

FIGURE R602.6.1 TOP PLATE FRAMING TO ACCOMMODATE PIPING

R602.7 Headers. For header spans see Tables R502.5(1) and R502.5(2).

R602.7.1 Wood structural panel box headers. Wood structural panel box headers shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.7.2 and Table R602.7.2.

R602.7.2 Nonbearing walls. Load-bearing headers are not required in interior or exterior nonbearing walls. A single flat 2-inch-by-4-inch (51 mm by 102 mm) member may be used as a header in interior or exterior nonbearing walls for openings up to 8 feet (2438 mm) in width if the vertical distance to the parallel nailing surface above is not more than 24 inches (610 mm). For such nonbearing headers, no cripples or blocking are required above the header.

R602.8 Fireblocking required. Fireblocking shall be provided in accordance with Section R302.11.

R602.9 Cripple walls. Foundation cripple walls shall be framed of studs not smaller than the studding above. When exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in height, such walls shall be framed ofstuds having the size required for an additional story.

Cripple walls with a stud height less than 14 inches (356 mm) shall be sheathed on at least one side with a wood structural panel that is fastened to both the top and bottom plates in accordance with Table R602.3(1), or the cripple walls shall be constructed of solid blocking. Cripple walls shall be supported on continuous foundations.

157
TABLE R602.7.2
MAXIMUM SPANS FOR WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADERSa
HEADER
CONSTRUCTIONb
HEADER DEPTH
(inches)
HOUSE DEPTH (feet)
24 26 28 30 32
Wood structural panel-one side 9
15
4
5
4
5
3
4
3
3
-   
3
Wood structural panel-both sides 9
15
7
8
5
8
5
7
4
7
3
6
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Spans are based on single story with clear-span trussed roof or two-story with floor and roof supported by interior-bearing walls.
b. See Figure R602.7.2 for construction details.

FIGURE R602.7.2 TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION

FIGURE R602.7.2 TYPICAL WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL BOX HEADER CONSTRUCTION

158

R602.10 Wall bracing. Buildings shall be braced in accordance with this section. Where a building, or portion thereof, does not comply with one or more of the bracing requirements in this section, those portions shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section R301.1.

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings located in Seismic Design Category C are exempt from the seismic bracing requirements of this section. Wind speed provisions for bracing shall be applicable to detached one- and two-family dwellings.

R602.10.1 Braced wall lines. Braced wall lines shall be provided in accordance with this section. The length of a braced wall line shall be measured as the distance between the ends of the wall line. The end of a braced wall line shall be considered to be either:

  1. The intersection with perpendicular exterior walls or projection thereof,
  2. The intersection with perpendicular braced wall lines.

The end of the braced wall line shall be chosen such that the maximum length results.

R602.10.1.1 Braced wall panels. Braced wallpanels shall be constructed in accordance with the intermittent bracing methods specified in Section R602.10.2, or the continuous sheathing methods specified in Sections R602.10.4 and R602.10.5. Mixing of bracing method shall be permitted as follows:

  1. Mixing bracing methods from storyto storyis permitted.
  2. Mixing bracing methods from braced wall line to braced wall line within a storyis permitted, except that continuous sheathing methods shall conform to the additional requirements of Sections R602.10.4 and R602.10.5.
  3. Mixing bracing methods within a braced wall line is permitted only in Seismic Design Categories A and B, and detached dwellings in Seismic Design Category C. The length of required bracing for the braced wall line with mixed sheathing types shall have the higher bracing length requirement, in accordance with Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2), of all types of bracing used.

R602.10.1.2 Length of bracing. The length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be the greater of that required by the design wind speed and braced wall line spacing in accordance with Table R602.10.1.2(1) as adjusted by the factors in the footnotes or the Seismic Design Category and braced wall line length in accordance with Table R602.10.1.2(2) as adjusted by the factors in Table R602.10.1.2(3) or braced wall panel location requirements of Section R602.10.1.4. Only walls that are parallel to the braced wall line shall be counted toward the bracing requirement of that line, except angled walls shall be counted in accordance with Section R602.10.1.3. In no case shall the minimum total length of bracing in a braced wall line, after all adjustments have been taken, be less than 48 inches (1219 mm) total.

R602.10.1.2.1 Braced wall panel uplift load path. Braced wallpanels located at exterior walls that support roof rafters or trusses (including stories below top story) shall have the framing members connected in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Fastening in accordance with Table R602.3(1) where:

    1.1. The basic wind speed does not exceed 90 mph (40 m/s), the wind exposure category is B, the roof pitch is 5: 12 or greater, and the roof span is 32 feet (9754 mm) or less, or

    1.2. The net uplift value at the top of a wall does not exceed 100 plf. The net uplift value shall be determined in accordance with Section R802.11 and shall be permitted to be reduced by 60 plf (86 N/mm) for each full wall above.

  2. Where the net uplift value at the top of a wall exceeds 100 plf (146 N/mm), installing approved uplift framing connectors to provide a continuous load path from the top ofthe wall to the foundation. The net uplift value shall be as determined in Item 1.2 above.
  3. Bracing and fasteners designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice to resist combined uplift and shear forces.

R602.10.1.3 Angled corners. At corners, braced wall lines shall be permitted to angle out of plane up to 45 degrees with a maximum diagonal length of 8 feet (2438 mm). When determining the length of bracing required, the length of each braced wall line shall be determined as shown in Figure R602.10.1.3. The placement of bracing for the braced wall lines shall begin at the point where the braced wall line, which contains the angled wall adjoins the adjacent braced wall line (Point A as shown in Figure R602.1 0.1.3). Where an angled corner is constructed at an angle equal to 45 degrees (0.79 rad) and the diagonal length is no more than 8 feet (2438 mm), the angled wall may be considered as part ofeither ofthe adjoining braced wall lines, but not both. Where the diagonal length is greater than 8 feet (2438 mm), it shall be considered its own braced wall line and be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.1 and methods in Section R602.10.2.

159
TABLE R602.1 0.1.2(1)3, b, c, d, e
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON WIND SPEED (as a function of braced wall line spacing)
EXPOSURE CATEGORY B, 30 FT MEAN ROOF HEIGHT, 10 FT EAVE TO RIDGE HEIGHT, 10 FT WALL HEIGHT, 2 BRACED WALL LINES MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE
Basic Wind Speed (mph) Story Location Braced Wall Line Spacing (feet) Method LlBf, h Method GB (double sided)9 Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PCP, HPSf,i Continuous Sheathing
≤ 85 (mph) Image 10 3.5 3.5 2.0 1.5
20 6.0 6.0 3.5 3.0
30 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.5
40 11.5 11.5 6.5 5.5
50 14.0 14.0 8.0 7.0
60 16.5 16.5 9.5 8.0
Image 10 6.5 6.5 3.5 3.0
20 11.5 11.5 6.5 5.5
30 16.5 16.5 9.5 8.0
40 21.5 21.5 12.5 10.5
50 26.5 26.5 15.0 13.0
60 31.5 31.5 18.0 15.5
Image 10 NP 9.0 5.5 4.5
20 NP 17.0 10.0 8.5
30 NP 24.5 14.0 12.0
40 NP 32.0 18.0 15.5
50 NP 39.0 22.5 19.0
60 NP 46.5 26.5 22.5
≤ 90 (mph) Image 10 3.5 3.5 2.0 2.0
20 7.0 7.0 4.0 3.5
30 9.5 9.5 5.5 5.0
40 12.5 12.5 7.5 6.0
50 15.5 15.5 9.0 7.5
60 18.5 18.5 10.5 9.0
Image 10 7.0 7.0 4.0 3.5
20 13.0 13.0 7.5 6.5
30 18.5 18.5 10.5 9.0
40 24.0 24.0 14.0 12.0
50 29.5 29.5 17.0 14.5
60 35.0 35.0 20.0 17.0
Image 10 NP 10.5 6.0 5.0
20 NP 19.0 11.0 9.5
30 NP 27.5 15.5 13.5
40 NP 35.5 20.5 17.5
50 NP 44.0 25.0 21.5
60 NP 52.0 30.0 25.5 160
≤ 100 (mph) Image 10 4.5 4.5 2.5 2.5
20 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.0
30 12.0 12.0 7.0 6.0
40 15.5 15.5 9.0 7.5
50 19.0 19.0 11.0 9.5
60 22.5 22.5 13.0 11.0
Image 10 8.5 8.5 5.0 4.5
20 16.0 16.0 9.0 8.0
30 23.0 23.0 13.0 11.0
40 29.5 29.5 17.0 14.5
50 36.5 36.5 21.0 18.0
60 43.5 43.5 25.0 21.0
Image 10 NP 12.5 7.5 6.0
20 NP 23.5 13.5 11.5
30 NP 34.0 19.5 16.5
40 NP 44.0 25.0 21.5
50 NP 54.0 31.0 26.5
60 NP 64.0 36.5 31.0
≤ 110 (mph) Image 10 5.5 5.5 3.0 3.0
20 10.0 10.0 6.0 5.0
30 14.5 14.5 8.5 7.0
40 18.5 18.5 11.0 9.0
50 23.0 23.0 13.0 11.5
60 27.5 27.5 15.5 13.5
Image 10 10.5 10.5 6.0 5.0
20 19.0 19.0 11.0 9.5
30 27.5 27.5 16.0 13.5
40 36.0 36.0 20.5 17.5
50 44.0 44.0 25.5 21.5
60 52.5 52.5 30.0 25.5
Image 10 NP 15.5 9.0 7.5
20 NP 28.5 16.5 14.0
30 NP 41.0 23.5 20.0
40 NP 53.0 30.5 26.0
50 NP 65.5 37.5 32.0
60 NP 77.5 44.5 37.5 161
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.
a. Tabulated bracing lengths are based on Wind Exposure Category B, a 30-ft mean roof height, a 10-ft eave to ridge height, a 10-ft wall height, and two braced wall lines sharing load in a given plan direction on a given story level. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Sections R602.10.2, R602.10.4 and R602.10.5. Interpolation shall be permitted.
NUMBER OF STORIES EXPOSURE/HEIGHT FACTORS
Exposure B Exposure C Exposure D
1 1.0 1.2 1.5
2 1.0 1.3 1.6
3 1.0 1.4 1.7
b. For other mean roof heights and exposure categories, the required bracing length shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from the following table:
c. For other roof-to-eave ridge heights, the required bracing length shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from the folloWing table: interpolation shall be permitted.
SUPPORT CONDITION ROOF EAVE-TO-RIDGE HEIGHT
5 ft or less 10 ft 15 ft 20 ft
Roof only 0.7 1.0 1.3 1.6
Roof + floor 0.85 1.0 1.15 1.3
Roof + 2 floors 0.9 1.0 1.1 NP
d. For a maximum 9-foot wall height, multiplying the table values by 0.95 shall be permitted. For a maximum 8-foot wall height, multiplying, the table values by 0.90 shall be permitted. For a maximum 12-foot wall height, the table values shall be multiplied by 1.1.
e. For three or more braced wall lines in a given plan direction, the required bracing length on each braced wall line shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from the folloWing table:
NUMBER OF BRACED WALL LINES ADJUSTMENT FACTOR
3 1.30
4 1.45
≥5 1.60
f. Bracing lengths are based on the application of gypsum board finish (or equivalent) applied to the inside face ofa braced wall panel. When gypsum board finish (or equivalent) is not applied to the inside face of braced wall panels, the tabulated lengths shall be multiplied by the appropriate factor from the folloWing table:
BRACING METHOD ADJUSTMENT FACTOR
Method LIB 1.8
Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS 1.4
g. Bracing lengths for Method GB are based on the application ofgypsum board on both faces ofa braced wall panel. When Method GB is provided on only one side of the wall, the required bracing amounts shall be doubled. When Method GB braced wall panels installed in accordance with Section R602.1 0.2 are fastened at 4 inches on center at panel edges, including top and bottom plates, and are blocked at all horizontaljoints, multiplying the required bracing percentage for wind loading by 0.7 shall be permitted.
h. Method LIB bracing shall have gypsum board attached to at least one side according to the Section R602.10.2 Method GB requirements.
i. Required bracing length for Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS in braced wall lines located in one-story buildings and in the top story of two or three story buildings shall be permitted to be multiplied by 0.80 when an approved hold-down device with a minimum uplift design value of800 pounds is fastened to the end studs of each braced wall panel in the braced wall line and to the foundation or framing below.
162
TABLE R602.1 0.1.2(2)a, b, c
BRACING REQUIREMENTS BASED ON SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY (AS A FUNCTION OF BRACED WALL LINE LENGTH)
SOIL CLASS Da
WALL HEIGHT =10 FT
10 PSF FLOOR DEAD LOAD
15 PSF ROOF/CEILING DEAD LOAD
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING ≤ 25 FT
MINIMUM TOTAL LENGTH (feet) OF BRACED WALL PANELS REQUIRED ALONG EACH BRACED WALL LINE
Seismic Design Category (SDC) Story Location Braced Wall Line Length Method LIB Methods DWB, SFB, GB, PBS, PCP, HPS Method WSP Continuous Sheathing
SDCAand B and Detached Dwellings in C Exempt from Seismic Requirements
Use Table R602.10.1.2(1) for Bracing Requirements
SDCC Image 10 2.5 2.5 1.6 1.4
20 5.0 5.0 3.2 2.7
30 7.5 7.5 4.8 4.1
40 10.0 10.0 6.4 5.4
50 12.5 12.5 8.0 6.8
Image 10 NP 4.5 3.0 2.6
20 NP 9.0 6.0 5.1
30 NP 13.5 9.0 7.7
40 NP 18.0 12.0 10.2
50 NP 22.5 15.0 12.8
Image 10 NP 6.0 4.5 3.8
20 NP 12.0 9.0 7.7
30 NP 18.0 13.5 11.5
40 NP 24.0 18.0 15.3
50 NP 30.0 22.5 19.1
SDC Do or D1 Image 10 NP 3.0 2.0 1.7
20 NP 6.0 4.0 3.4
30 NP 9.0 6.0 5.1
40 NP 12.0 8.0 6.8
50 NP 15.0 10.0 8.5
Image 10 NP 6.0 4.5 3.8
20 NP 12.0 9.0 7.7
30 NP 18.0 13.5 11.5
40 NP 24.0 18.0 15.3
50 NP 30.0 22.5 19.1
Image 10 NP 8.5 6.0 5.1
20 NP 17.0 12.0 10.2
30 NP 25.5 18.0 15.3
40 NP 34.0 24.0 20.4
50 NP 42.5 30.0 25.5 163
SDCDz Image 10 NP 4.0 2.5 2.1
20 NP 8.0 5.0 4.3
30 NP 12.0 7.5 6.4
40 NP 16.0 10.0 8.5
50 NP 20.0 12.5 10.6
Image 10 NP 7.5 5.5 4.7
20 NP 15.0 11.0 9.4
30 NP 22.5 16.5 14.0
40 NP 30.0 22.0 18.7
50 NP 37.5 27.5 23.4
Image 10 NP NP NP NP
20 NP NP NP NP
30 NP NP NP NP
40 NP NP NP NP
50 NP NP NP NP
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.89 Pa.
a. Wall bracing lengths are based on a soil site class "D." Interpolation of bracing length between the Sds values associated with the seismic design categories shall be permitted when a site-specific Sds value is determined in accordance with Section 1613.5 of the International Building Code.
b. Foundation cripple wall panels shall be braced in accordance with Section R602.10.9.
c. Methods of bracing shall be as described in Sections R602.10.2 , R602.10.4 and R602.10.5.

 

TABLE R602.10.1.2(3)
ADJUSTMENT FACTORS TO THE LENGTH OF REQUIRED SEISMIC WALL BRACINGa
ADJUSTMENT BASED ON: MULTIPLY LENGTH OF BRACING PER WALL LINE BY: APPLIES TO:
Story heightb (Section R301.3) ≤ 10 ft 1.0 All bracing methods - Sections R602.10.2, R602.10.4 and R602.10.5
> 10 ≤ 12 ft 1.2
Braced wall line spacing townhouses in SDC A-Cb,c ≤ 35 ft 1.0
> 35 ≤ 50 ft 1.43
Wall dead load > 8 ≤ 15 psf 1.0
≤ 8 psf 0.85
Roof/ceiling dead load for wall supportingb roof only or roof plus one story ≤ 15 psf 1.0
roof only < 15 psf ≤ 25 psf 1.1
roof plus one story < 15 psf ≤ 25 psf 1.2
Walls with stone or masonry veneer in SDC C-Dz See Section R703.7
Cripple walls See Section R602.10.9
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.89 Pa.
a. The total length of bracing required for a given wall line is the product of all applicable adjustment factors.
b. Linear interpolation shall be permitted.
c. Braced wall line spacing and adjustment to bracing length in SDC Do, D1, and Dz shall comply with Section R602.10.1.5.
164

FIGURE R602.10.1.3 ANGLED CORNERS

FIGURE R602.10.1.3 ANGLED CORNERS

R602.10.1.4 Braced wall panel location. Braced wall panels shall be located in accordance with Figure R602.1 0.1.4 (1). Braced wall panels shall be located not more than 25 feet (7620 mm) on center and shall be permitted to begin no more than 12.5 feet (3810 mm) from the end of a braced wall line in accordance with Section R602.10.1 and Figure R602.10.1.4(2). The total combined distance from each end of a braced wall line to the outermost braced wall panel or panels in the line shall not exceed 12.5 feet (3810 mm). Braced wallpanels may be offset out-of-plane up to 4 feet (1219 mm) from the designated braced wall line provided that the total out-to-out offset of braced wall panels in a braced wall line is not more than 8 feet (2438 mm) in accordance with Figures R602.10.1.4(3) and R602.10.1.4(4). All braced wall panels within a braced wall line shall be permitted to be offset from the designated braced wall line.

R602.10.1.4.1 Braced wall panel location in Seismic Design Categories D0, D1 and D2. Braced wall lines at exterior walls shall have a braced wall panel located at each end of the braced wall line.

Exception: For braced wall panel construction Method WSP of Section R602.10.2 , the braced wallpanelshall be permitted to begin no more than 8 feet (2438 mm) from each end of the braced wall line provided one of the following is satisfied in accordance with Figure R602.10.1.4.1 :

  1. A minimum 24-inch-wide (610 mm) panel is applied to each side of the building corner and the two 24-inch-wide (610 mm) panels at the corner are attached to framing in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(1), or
  2. The end of each braced wallpanel closest to the corner shall have a hold-down device fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wall panel closest to the corner and to the foundation or framing below. The hold-down device shall be capable of providing an uplift allowable design value of at least 1,800 pounds (8 kN). The hold-down device shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

R602.10.1.5 Braced wall line spacing for Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2. Spacing between braced wall lines in each story shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) on center in both the longitudinal and trans-verse directions.

Exception: In one- and two-story buildings, spacing between two adjacent braced wall lines shall not exceed 35 feet (10 668 mm) on center in order to accommodate one single room not exceeding 900 square feet (84 m2) in each dwelling unit. Spacing between all other braced wall lines shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm). A spacing of 35 feet (10 668 mm) or less shall be permitted between braced wall lines where the length of wall bracing required by Table R602.10.1.2(2) is multiplied by the appropriate adjustment factor from Table R602. 10. 1. 5, the length-to-width ratio for the floor/roof diaphragm does not exceed 3: 1, and the top plate lap splice face nailing is twelve 16d nails on each side of the splice.

165

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(1) BRACED WALL PANELS AND BRACED WALL LINES

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(1) BRACED WALL PANELS AND BRACED WALL LINES

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(2) BRACED WALL PANEL END DISTANCE REQUIREMENTS (SDC A, B AND C)

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(2) BRACED WALL PANEL END DISTANCE REQUIREMENTS (SDC A, B AND C)

R602.10.2 Intermittent braced wall panel construction methods. The construction of intermittent braced wallpanels shall be in accordance with one of the methods listed in Table R602.10.2.

R602.10.2.1 Intermittent braced wall panel interior finish material. Intermittent braced wall panels shall have gypsum wall board installed on the side of the wall opposite the bracing material. Gypsum wall board shall be not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in thickness and be fastened in accordance with Table R702.3.5 for interior gypsum wall board.

Exceptions:

  1. Wall panels that are braced in accordance with Methods GB, ABW, PFG and PFH.
  2. When an approved interior finish material with an in-plane shear resistance equivalent to gypsum board is installed.
  3. For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS, omitting gypsum wall board is permitted provided the length of bracing in Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2) is multiplied by a factor of 1.5.
166

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(3) OFFSETS PERMITTED FOR BRACED WALL LINES

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(3) OFFSETS PERMITTED FOR BRACED WALL LINES

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(4) BRACED WALL LINE SPACING

FIGURE R602.10.1.4(4) BRACED WALL LINE SPACING

R602.10.2.2 Adhesive attachment of sheathing in Seismic Design Categories C, Do, D1 and D2. Adhesive attachment of wall sheathing shall not be permitted in Seismic Design Categories C, Do, D1 and D2.

R602.10.3 Minimum length of braced panels. For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS, each braced wall panelshall be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) in length, covering a minimum of three stud spaces where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center and covering a minimum of two stud spaces where studs are spaced 24 inches (610 mm) on center. For Method GB, each braced wallpaneland shall be at least 96 inches (2438 mm) in length where applied to one face of a braced wallpaneland at least 48 inches (1219 mm) where applied to both faces. For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS, for purposes of computing the length of panel bracing required in Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2), the effective length of the braced wall

167

panel shall be equal to the actual length of the panel. When Method GB panels are applied to only one face of a braced wall panel, bracing lengths required in Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2) for Method GB shall be doubled.

Exceptions:

  1. Lengths of braced wall panels for continuous sheathing methods shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.4.2.
  2. Lengths of Method ABW panels shall be in accordance with Sections R602.10.3.2.
  3. Length of Methods PFH and PFG panels shall be in accordance with Section R602.10.3.3 and R602.10.3.4 respectively.
  4. For Methods DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP and HPS in Seismic Design Categories A, B, and C: Panels between 36 inches (914 mm) and 48 inches (1219 mm) in length shall be permitted to count towards the required length of bracing in Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2), and the effective contribution shall comply with Table R602.10.3.

R602.10.3.1 Adjustment of length of braced panels. When storyheight (H), measured in feet, exceeds 10 feet (3048 mm), in accordance with Section R301.3, the minimum length of braced wall panels specified in Section R602.10.3 shall be increased by a factor H/10. See Table R602.10.3.1. Interpolation is permitted.

R602.10.3.2 Method ABW: Alternate braced wall panels. Method ABW braced wallpanels constructed in accordance with one of the following provisions shall be permitted to replace each 4 feet (1219 mm) of braced wallpanel as required by Section R602.10.3. The maximum height and minimum length and hold-down force of each panel shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.3.2:

  1. In one-story buildings, each panel shall be installed in accordance with Figure R602.10.3.2. The hold-down device shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The panels shall be supported directly on a foundation or on floor framing supported directly on a foundation which is continuous across the entire length of the braced wall line.
  2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each braced wallpanelshall be in accordance with Item 1 above, except that the wood structural panel sheathing edge nailing spacing shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm) on center.

FIGURE R602.10.1.4.1 BRACED WALL PANELS AT ENDS OF BRACED WALL LINES IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D0, D1 AND D2

FIGURE R602.10.1.4.1 BRACED WALL PANELS AT ENDS OF BRACED WALL LINES IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES D0, D1 AND D2

TABLE R602.10.1.5
ADJUSTMENTS OF BRACING LENGTH FOR BRACED WALL LINES GREATER THAN 25 FEETa,b
BRACED WALL LINE SPACING (feet) MULTIPLY BRACING LENGTH IN TABLE R602.10.1.2(2) BY:
25
30
35
1.0
1.2
1.4
For 51: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Linear interpolation is permitted.
b. When a braced wall line has a parallel braced wall line on both sides, the larger adjustment factor shall be used.
168
TABLE R602.10.2
INTERMITTENT BRACING METHODS
METHOD MATERIAL MINIMUM THICKNESS FIGURE CONNECTION CRITERIA
LIB Let-in-bracing 1 x 4 wood or approved metal straps at 45° to 60° angles for maximum 16" stud spacing ___________
___________
Wood: 2-8d nails per stud including top and bottom plate metal: per manufacturer
DWB Diagonal wood boards ¾″ (1" nominal) for maximum 24" stud spacing ___________
___________
2-8d (2½″ x 0.113") nails or 2 staples, 1¾″ per stud
WSP Wood structural panel (see Section R604) 3/8″ Image For exterior sheathing see Table R602.3(3)
For interior sheathing see Table R602.3(l)
SFB Structural fiberboard sheathing ½″ or 25/32″ for maximum 16" stud spacing Image 1½″ galvanized roofing nails or 8d common (2½″ x 0.131) nails at 3" spacing (panel edges) at 6" spacing (intermediate supports)
GB Gypsum board ½″ Image Nails or screws at 7" spacing at panel edges including top and bottom plates; for all braced wall panel locations for exterior sheathing nail or screw size, see Table R602.3(l); for interior gypsum board nail or screw size, see Table R702.3.5
PBS Particleboard sheathing (see Section R605) 3/8″ or ½″ for maximum 16" stud spacing Image 1½″ galvanized roofing nails or 8d common (2½″ x 0.131) nails at 3" spacing (panel edges) at 6 spacing (intermediate supports)
PCP Portland cement plaster See Section R703.6
For maximum 16" stud spacing
Image 1½″, 11 gage, 7/16″ head nails at 6" spacing or 7/8″, 16 gage staples at 6" spacing
HPS Hardboard panel siding 7/16″
For maximum 16" stud spacing
Image 0.092" dia., 0.225" head nails with length to accommodate 1½″ penetration into studs at 4" spacing (panel edges), at 8" spacing (intermediate supports)
ABW Alternate braced wall See Section R602.10.3.2 Image See Section R602.10.3.2
PFH Intermittent portal frame See Section R602.10.3.3 Image See Section R602.10.3.3
PFG Intermittent portal frame at garage See Section R602.10.3.4 Image See Section R602.10.3.4
169

R602.10.3.3 Method PFH : Portal frame with hold-downs. Method PFH braced wall panels constructed in accordance with one of the following provisions are also permitted to replace each 4 feet (1219 mm) of braced wall panel as required by Section R602.10.3 for use adjacent to a window or door opening with a full-length header:

  1. Each panel shall be fabricated in accordance with Figure R602.10.3.3. The wood structural panel sheathing shall extend up over the solid sawn or glued-laminated header and shall be nailed in accordance with Figure R602.10.3.3. A spacer, if used with a built-up header, shall be placed on the side of the built-up beam opposite the wood structural panel sheathing. The header shall extend between the inside faces of the fIrst full-length outer studs of each panel. One anchor bolt not less than 5/s-inch-diameter (16 mm) and installed in accordance with Section R403.1.6 shall be provided in the center of each sill plate. The hold-down devices shall be an embedded-strap type, installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. The panels shall be supported directly on a foundation which is continuous across the entire length of the braced wall line. The foundation shall be reinforced as shown on Figure R602.10.3.2. This reinforcement shall be lapped not less than 15 inches (381 mm) with the reinforcement required in the continuous foundation located directly under the braced wall line.
    TABLE R602.10.3
    EFFECTIVE LENGTHS FOR BRACED WALL PANELS LESS THAN 48 INCHES IN ACTUAL LENGTH (BRACE METHODS DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP AND HPSa)
    ACTUAL LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL (inches) EFFECTIVE LENGTH OF BRACED WALL PANEL (inches)
    8-foot Wall Height 9-foot Wall Height 10-foot Wall Height
    48
    42
    36
    48
    36
    27
    48
    36
    N/A
    48
    N/A
    N/A
    For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
    a. Interpolation shall be permitted.

     

    TABLE R602.10.3.1
    MINIMUM LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR BRACED WALL PANELS
    SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY AND WIND SPEED BRACING METHOD HEIGHT OF BRACED WALL PANEL
    8ft 9ft 10 ft 11 ft 12 ft
    SDC A, B, C, Do, D1 and D2 Wind speed < 110 mph DWB, WSP, SFB, PBS, PCP, HPS and Method GB when double sided 4' - 0" 4' - 0" 4' - 0" 4' - 5" 4' - 10"
    Method GB, single sided 8' - 0" 8' - 0" 8' - 0" 8' - 10" 9' - 8"
    For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

     

    TABLE R602.10.3.2
    MINIMUM LENGTH REQUIREMENTS AND HOLD-DOWN FORCES FOR METHOD ABW BRACED WALL PANELS
    SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY AND WIND SPEED   HEIGHT OF BRACED WALL PANEL
    8ft 9ft 10 ft 11 ft 12 ft
    SDCA, Band C Wind speed < 110 mph Minimum sheathed length 2' - 4" 2' - 8" 2' - 10" 3' - 2" 3' - 6"
    R602.10.3.2, item 1 hold-down force (Ib) 1800 1800 1800 2000 2200
    R602.10.3.2, item 2 hold-down force (Ib) 3000 3000 3000 3300 3600
    SDC Do, D1 and D2 Wind speed < 110 mph Minimum sheathed length 2' - 8" 2' - 8" 2' - 10" Npa Npa
    R602.10.3.2 , item 1 hold-down force (Ib) 1800 1800 1800 Npa Npa
    R602.10.3.2, item 2 hold-down force (Ib) 3000 3000 3000 Npa Npa
    For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 305 mm, 1 pound = 4.448 N.
    a. NP = Not Permitted. Maximum height of 10 feet.
    170
  2. In the first story of two-story buildings, each wall panel shall be braced in accordance with item 1 above, except that each panel shall have a length of not less than 24 inches (610 mm).

R602.10.3.4 Method PFG: at garage door openings in Seismic Design Categories A, Band C. Where supporting a roof or one story and a roof, alternate braced wall panels constructed in accordance with the following provisions are permitted on either side of garage door openings. For the purpose of calculating wall bracing amounts to satisfy the minimum requirements of Table R602.10.1.2(1), the length of the alternate braced wall panel shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.5.

  1. Braced wallpanellength shall be a minimum of 24 inches (610 mm) and braced wall panel height shall be a maximum of 10 feet (3048 mm).
  2. Braced wallpanelshall be sheathed on one face with a single layer of 7/l6-inch-minimum (11 mm) thickness wood structural panel sheathing attached to framing with 8d common nails at 3 inches (76 mm) on center in accordance with Figure R602.10.3.4.
  3. The wood structural panel sheathing shall extend up over the solid sawn or glued-laminated header and shall be nailed to the header at 3 inches (76 mm) on center grid in accordance with Figure R602.1 0.3.4.
  4. The header shall consist of a minimum of two solid sawn 2x12s (51 by 305 mm) or a 3 inches x 11.25 inch (76 by 286 mm) glued-laminated header. The header shall extend between the inside faces of the first full-length outer studs of each panel in accordance with Figure R602.1 0.3.4. The clear span of the header between the inner studs of each panel shall be not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) and not more than 18 feet (5486 mm) in length.
  5. A strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds (4448 N) shall fasten the header to the side of the inner studs opposite the sheathing face. Where building is located in Wind Exposure Categories C or D, the strap uplift capacity shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.4.1.1.
  6. A minimum of two bolts not less than liz-inch (12.7 mm) diameter shall be installed in accordance with Section R403.1.6. A 3/l6-inch by 2½-inch (4.8 by 63 by 63 mm) by 2½-inch steel plate washer is installed between the bottom plate and the nut of each bolt.
  7. Braced wall panel shall be installed directly on a foundation.
  8. Where an alternate braced wall panel is located only on one side of the garage opening, the header shall be connected to a supportingjack stud on the opposite side of the garage opening with a metal strap with an uplift capacity of not less than 1,000 pounds. Where that supportingjack stud is not part of a braced wall panel assembly, another 1,000 pounds (4448 N) strap shall be installed to attach the supporting jack stud to the foundation.

FIGURE R602.10.3.2 ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL

FIGURE R602.10.3.2 ALTERNATE BRACED WALL PANEL

171

FIGURE R602.10.3.3 METHOD PFH: PORTAL FRAME WITH HOLD-DOWNS

FIGURE R602.10.3.3 METHOD PFH: PORTAL FRAME WITH HOLD-DOWNS

FIGURE R602.10.3.4 METHOD PFG PORTAL FRAME AT GARAGE DOOR OPENINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, BAND C

FIGURE R602.10.3.4 METHOD PFG PORTAL FRAME AT GARAGE DOOR OPENINGS IN SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, BAND C

172

R602.10.4 Continuous sheathing. Braced wall lines with continuous sheathing shall be constructed in accordance with this section. All braced wall lines along exterior walls on the same story shall be continuously sheathed.

Exception: Within Seismic Design Categories A, Band C or in regions where the basic wind speed is less than or equal to 100 mph (45 m/s), other bracing methods prescribed by this code shall be permitted on other braced wall lines on the same story level or on any braced wall line on different story levels of the building.

R602.10.4.1 Continuous sheathing braced wall panels. Continuous sheathing methods require structural panel sheathing to be used on all sheathable surfaces on one side ofa braced wallline including areas above and below openings and gable end walls. Braced wallpanels shall be constructed in accordance with one of the methods listed in Table R602.10.4.1. Different bracing methods, other than those listed in Table R602.10.4.1, shall not be permitted along a braced wall line with continuous sheathing.

R602.10.4.1.1 Continuous portal frame. Continuous portal frame braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Figure R602.1 0.4.1.1. The number of continuous portal frame panels in a single braced wall line shall not exceed four. For purposes of resisting wind pressures acting perpendicular to the wall, the requirements of Figure R602.10.4.1.1 and Table R602.10.4.1.1 shall be met. There shall be a maximum of two braced wall segments per header and header length shall not exceed 22 feet (6706 mm). Tension straps shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

R602.10.4.2 Length ofbraced wall panels with continuous sheathing. Braced wall panels along a braced wall line with continuous sheathing shall be full-height with a length based on the adjacent clear opening height in accordance with Table R602.10.4.2 and Figure R602.10.4.2. Within a braced wall line when a panel has an opening on either side of differing heights, the taller opening height shall be used to determine the panel length from Table R602.10.4.2. For Method CS-PF, wall height shall be measured from the top of the header to the bottom of the bottom plate as shown in Figure R602.10.4. 1. 1.

R602.10.4.3 Length ofbracing for continuous sheathing. Braced walllines with continuous sheathing shall be provided with braced wall panels in the length required in Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2). Only those full-height braced wallpanels complying with the length requirements of Table R602.10.4.2 shall be permitted to contribute to the minimum required length of bracing.

R602.10.4.4 Continuously sheathed braced wall panel location and corner construction. For all continuous sheathing methods, full-height braced wall panels complying with the length requirements of Table R602.10.4.2 shall be located at each end of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing and at least every 25 feet (7620 mm) on center. A minimum 24 inch (610 mm) wood structural panel corner return shall be provided at both ends of a braced wall line with continuous sheathing in accordance with Figures R602.10.4.4(1) and R602.10.4.4(2). In lieu of the corner return, a hold-down device with a minimum uplift design value of 800 pounds

TABLE R602.10.4.1
CONTINUOUS SHEATHING METHODS
METHOD MATERIAL MINIMUM THICKNESS FIGURE CONNECTION CRITERIA
CS-WSP Wood structural panel 3/8" Image 6d common (2" x 0.113") nails at 6" spacing (panel edges) and Iat 12" spacing (intermediate supports) or 16 gao x 1¾ staples at 3" spacing (panel edges) and 6" spacing (intermediate supports)
CS-G Wood structural panel adjacent to garage openings and supporting roof load onlya,b 3/8" Image See Method CS-WSP
CS-PF Continuous portal frame See Section R602.10.4.1.1 Image See Section R602.10.4.1.1
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 47.89 Pa.
a. Applies to one wall of a garage only.
b. Roof covering dead loads shall be 3 psf or less.
173

(3560 N) shall be fastened to the corner stud and to the foundation or framing below in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(3).

Exception: The fIrSt braced wallpanelshall be permitted to begin 12.5 feet (3810 mm) from each end of the braced waJ1 line in Seismic Design Categories A, B and C and 8 feet (2438 mm) in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2 provided one of the following is satisfied:

  1. A minimum 24 inch (610 mm) long, full-height wood structural panel is provided at both sides of a corner constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(1) at the braced wall line ends in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(4), or
  2. The braced wall panel closest to the corner shall have a hold-down device with a minimum uplift design value of 800 pounds (3560 N) fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wallpanelclosest to the corner and to the foundation or framing belowinaccordancewithFigureR602.10.4.4(5).

FIGURE R602.10.4.1.1 METHOD CS-PF: CONTINUOUS PORTAL FRAME PANEL CONSTRUCTION

FIGURE R602.10.4.1.1 METHOD CS-PF: CONTINUOUS PORTAL FRAME PANEL CONSTRUCTION

174
TABLE R602.10.4.1.1
TENSION STRAP CAPACITY REQUIRED FOR RESISTING WIND PRESSURES PERPENDICULAR TO 6:1 ASPECT RATIO WALLSa,b
MINIMUM WAll STUD FRAMING NOMINAL SIZE AND GRADE MAXIMUM PONY WAll HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM TOTAL WAll HEIGHT (feet) MAXIMUM OPENING WIDTH (feet) BASIC WIND SPEED (mph)
85 90 100 85 90 100
Exposure B Exposure C
Tension strap capacity required (lbOa,b
2x4
No.2 Grade
0 10 18 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000
1 10 9 1000 1000 1000 1000 1000 1275
16 1000 1000 1750 1800 2325 3500
18 1000 1200 2100 2175 2725 DR
2 10 9 1000 1000 1025 1075 1550 2500
16 1525 2025 3125 3200 3900 DR
18 1875 2400 3575 3700 DR DR
2 12 9 1000 1200 2075 2125 2750 4000
16 2600 3200 DR DR DR DR
18 3175 3850 DR DR DR DR
4 12 9 1775 2350 500 3550 DR DR
16 4175 DR DR DR DR DR
2x6
Stud Grade
2 12 9 1000 1000 1325 1375 1750 2550
16 1650 2050 2925 3000 3550 DR
18 2025 2450 3425 3500 4100 DR
4 12 9 1125 1500 2225 2275 2775 3800
16 2650 3150 DR DR DR DR
18 3125 3675 DR DR DR DR
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound force = 4.448 N.
a. DR = design required.
b. Strap shall be installed in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.

FIGURE R602.10.4.2 BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

FIGURE R602.10.4.2 BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

175
TABLE R602.10.4.2
LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR BRACED WALL PANELS WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHINGa (inches)
METHOD ADJACENT CLEAR OPENING HEIGHT (inches) WALL HEIGHT (feet)
8 9 10 11 12
CS-WSP 64 24 27 30 33 36
68 26 27 30 - -
72 28 27 30 - -
76 29 30 30 - -
80 31 33 30 - -
84 35 36 33 - -
88 39 39 36 - -
92 44 42 39 - -
96 48 45 42 - -
100 - 48 45 - -
104 - 51 48 - -
108 - 54 51 - -
112 - - 54 44 -
116 - - 57 - -
120 - - 60 - -
122 - - - - 48
132 - - - 66 -
144 - - - - 75
CS-G ≤ 120 24 27 30 - -
CS-PF ≤ 120 16 18 20 - -
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Interpolation shall be permitted.
176

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(1) TYPICAL EXTERIOR CORNER FRAMING FOR CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(1) TYPICAL EXTERIOR CORNER FRAMING FOR CONTINUOUS SHEATHING

177

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(2) BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING WITH CORNER RETURN PANEL

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(2) BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING WITH CORNER RETURN PANEL

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(3) BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING WITH CORNER RETURN PANEL

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(3) BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING WITH CORNER RETURN PANEL

178

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(4) BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING FIRST BRACED WALL PANEL AWAY FROM END OF WALL LINE WITHOUT TIE DOWN

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(4) BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING FIRST BRACED WALL PANEL AWAY FROM END OF WALL LINE WITHOUT TIE DOWN

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(5) BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING-FIRST BRACED WALL PANEL AWAY FROM END OF WALL LINE WITH HOLD-DOWN

FIGURE R602.10.4.4(5) BRACED WALL LINE WITH CONTINUOUS SHEATHING-FIRST BRACED WALL PANEL AWAY FROM END OF WALL LINE WITH HOLD-DOWN

179

R602.10.5 Continuously-sheathed braced wall line using Method CS-SFB (structural fiberboard sheathing). Continuously sheathed braced wall lines using structural fiberboard sheathing shall comply with this section. Different bracing methods shall not be permitted within a continuously sheathed braced wall line. Other bracing methods prescribed by this code shall be permitted on other braced wall lines on the same story level or on different story levels of the building.

R602.10.5.1 Continuously sheathed braced wall line requirements. Continuously-sheathed braced walllines shall be in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.2 and shall comply with all of the following requirements:

  1. Structural fiberboard sheathing shall be applied to all exterior sheathable surfaces of a braced wall line including areas above and below openings.
  2. Only full-height or blocked braced wall panels shall be used for calculating the braced wall length in accordance with Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2 (2).

R602.10.5.2 Braced wall panel length. In a continuously-sheathed structural fiberboard braced wall line, the minimum braced wallpanel length shall be in accordance with Table R602.10.5.2.

R602.10.5.3 Braced wall panel location and corner construction. A braced wall panel shall be located at each end of a continuously-sheathed braced wall line. A minimum 32-inch (813 mm) structural fiberboard sheathing panel corner return shall be provided at both ends of a continuously-sheathed braced wall line in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(1) In lieu of the corner return, a hold-down device with a minimum uplift design value of 800 pounds (3560 N) shall be fastened to the corner stud and to the foundation or framing below in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(3).

Exception: The first braced wall panel shall be permitted to begin 12 feet 6 inches (3810 mm) from each end of the braced wallline in Seismic Design Categories A, Band C provided one of the following is satisfied:

  1. A minimum 32-inch-Iong (813 mm), full-height structural fiberboard sheathing panel is provided at both sides of a corner constructed in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(1) at the braced wall line ends in accordance with Figure R602.10.4.4(4), or
  2. The braced wall panel closest to the corner shall have a hold-down device with a minimum uplift design value of 800 pounds (3560 N) fastened to the stud at the edge of the braced wallpanelclosest to the corner and to the foundation or framing belowinaccordancewithFigureR602.10.4.4(5).

R602.10.5.4 Continuously sheathed braced wall lines. Where a continuously-sheathed braced wall line is used in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and Dz or regions where the basic wind speed exceeds 100 miles per hour (45 m/s) , the braced wall line shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice and the provisions of the International BUilding Code. Also, all other exterior braced wall lines in the same storyshall be continuously sheathed.

R602.10.6 Braced wall panel connections. Braced wall panels shall be connected to floor framing or foundations as follows:

  1. Where joists are perpendicular to a braced wallpanel above or below, a rim joist, band joist or blocking shall be provided along the entire length of the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.6(1). Fastening of top and bottom wall plates to framing, rimjoist, bandjoist andlor blocking shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
  2. Wherejoists are parallel to a braced wallpanelabove or below, a rim joist, endjoist or other parallel framing member shall be provided directly above and below the braced wall panel in accordance with Figure R602.10.6(2). Where a parallel framing member cannot be located directly above and below the panel, full-depth blocking at 16 inch (406 mm) spacing shall be provided between the parallel framing members to each side of the braced wallpanel in accordance with Figure R602.10.6(2). Fastening of blocking and wall plates shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and Figure R602.10.6(2).
  3. Connections of braced wall panels to concrete or masonry shall be in accordance with Section R403.1.6.
TABLE R602.10.5.2
MINIMUM LENGTH REQUIREMENTS FOR STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD BRACED WALL PANELS IN A CONTINUOUSLY-SHEATHED WALLa
MINIMUM LENGTH OF STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD BRACED WALL PANEL (inches) MINIMUM OPENING CLEAR HEIGHT NEXT TO THE STRUCTURAL FIBERBOARD BRACED WALL PANEL (% of wall height)
8-foot wall 9-foot wall 10-foot wall
48 54 60 100
32 36 40 85
24 27 30 67
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Interpolation is permitted.
180

FIGURE R602.10.6(1) BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

FIGURE R602.10.6(1) BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PERPENDICULAR TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

FIGURE R602.10.6(2) BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

FIGURE R602.10.6(2) BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION WHEN PARALLEL TO FLOOR/CEILING FRAMING

181

R602.10.6.1 Braced wall panel connections for Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2Braced wallpanels shall be fastened to required foundations in accordance with Section R602.11.1, and top plate lap splices shall be face-nailed with at least eight 16d nails on each side of the splice.

R602.10.6.2 Connections to roof framing. Exterior braced wallpanels shall be connected to roof framing as follows.

  1. Parallel rafters or roof trusses shall be attached to the top plates of braced wall panels in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
  2. For SDC A, Band C and wind speeds less than 100 miles per hour (45 m/s) , where the distance from the top of the rafters or roof trusses and perpendicular top plates is inches (235 mm) or less, the rafters or roof trusses shall be connected to the top plates of braced wall lines in accordance with Table R602.3(1) and blocking need not be installed. Where the distance from the top of the rafters and perpendicular top plates is between inches (235 mm) and 15¼ inches (387 mm) the rafters shall be connected to the top plates of braced wall panels with blocking in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2(1) and attached in accordance with Table R602.3(1). Where the distance from the top of the roof trusses and perpendicular top plates is between 9¼ inches (235 mm) and 15¼ inches (387 mm) the roof trusses shall be connected to the top plates of braced wall panels with blocking in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
  3. For SDC Do, D1 and Dz or wind speeds of 100 miles per hour (45 m/s) or greater, where the distance between the top of rafters or roof trusses and perpendicular top plates is 15¼inches (387 mm) or less, rafters or roof trusses shall be connected to the top plates of braced wall panels with blocking in accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2(1) and attached in accordance with Table R602.3(1).
  4. For all seismic design categories and wind speeds, where the distance between the top of rafters or roof trusses and perpendicular top plates exceeds 15¼ inches (387 mm), perpendicular rafters or roof trusses shall be connected to the top plates of braced wall panels in accordance with one of the following methods:

    4.1. In accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2(2),

    4.2. In accordance with Figure R602.10.6.2(3),

    4.3. With full height engineered blocking panels designed for values listed in American Forest and Paper Association (AF&PA) Wood Frame Construction Manual for One- and Two-Family Dwellings (WFCM). Both the roof and floor sheathing shall be attached to the blocking panels in accordance with Table R602.3(1).

    4.4. Designed in accordance with accepted engineering methods.

Lateral support for the rafters and ceiling joists shall be provided in accordance with Section R802.8. Lateral support for trusses shall be provided in accordance with Section R802.10.3. Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section R806.1.

FIGURE R602.10.6.2(1) BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS

FIGURE R602.10.6.2(1) BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS

FIGURE R602.10.6.2(2) BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

FIGURE R602.10.6.2(2) BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

182

FIGURE R602.10.6.2(3) BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

FIGURE R602.10.6.2(3) BRACED WALL PANEL CONNECTION OPTION TO PERPENDICULAR RAFTERS OR ROOF TRUSSES

R602.10.7 Braced wall panel support. Braced wall panel support shall be provided as follows:

  1. Cantilevered floor joists, supporting braced wall lines, shall comply with Section R502.3.3. Solid blocking shall be provided at the nearest bearing wall location. In Seismic DeSign Categories A, Band C, where the cantilever is not more than 24 inches (610 mm), a full height rim joist instead of solid blocking shall be provided.
  2. Elevated post or pier foundations supporting braced wall panels shall be designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.
  3. Masonry stem walls with a length of 48 inches (1220 mm) or less supporting braced wall panels shall be reinforced in accordance with Figure R602.10.7. Masonry stem walls with a length greater than 48 inches (1220 mm) supporting braced wall panels shall be constructed in accordance with Section R403.1 Braced wallpanels constructed in accordance with Sections R602.10.3.2 and R602.10.3.3 shall not be attached to masonry stem walls.

R602.10.7.1 Braced wall panel support for Seismic Design Category D2. In one-story buildings located in Seismic DeSign Category D2, braced wallpanels shall be supported on continuous foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). In two-story buildings located in Seismic DeSign Category D2, all braced wall panels shall be supported on continuous foundations.

Exception: Two-story buildings shall be permitted to have interior braced wallpanels supported on continuous foundations at intervals not exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm) provided that:

  1. The height of cripple walls does not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm).
  2. First-floor braced wallpanels are supported on doubled floor joists, continuous blocking or floor beams.
  3. The distance between bracing lines does not exceed twice the building width measured parallel to the braced wall line.

R602.10.8 Paneljoints. All vertical joints of panel sheathing shall occur over, and be fastened to common studs. Horizontal joints in braced wall panels shall occur over, and be fastened to common blocking of a minimum 1 ½ inch (38 mm) thickness.

Exceptions:

  1. Blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in wall segments that are not counted as braced wall panels.
  2. Where the bracing length provided is at least twice the minimum length required by Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2) blocking at horizontal joints shall not be required in braced wall panels constructed using Methods WSP, SFB, GB, PBS or HPS.
  3. When Method GB panels are installed horizontally, blocking ofhorizontaljoints is not required.

R602.10.9 Cripple wall bracing. In Seismic DeSign Categories other than D2, cripple walls shall be braced with a length and type of bracing as required for the wall above in accordance with Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2) with the following modifications for cripple wall bracing:

  1. The length of bracing as determined from Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2) shall be multiplied by a factor of 1.15, and
  2. The wall panel spacing shall be decreased to 18 feet (5486 mm) instead of 25 feet (7620 mm).
183

R602.10.9.1 Cripple wall bracing in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and Dz. In addition to the requirements of Section R602.10.9, where braced wall lines at interior walls occur without a continuous foundation below, the length of parallel exterior cripple wall bracing shall be 1½ times the length required by Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2(2). Where cripple walls braced using Method WSP of Section R602.10.2 cannot provide this additional length, the capacity of the sheathing shall be increased by reducing the spacing of fasteners along the perimeter of each piece of sheathing to 4 inches (102 mm) on center.

In Seismic Design Category D2, cripple walls shall be braced in accordance with Tables R602.10.1.2(1) and R602.10.1.2 (2).

R602.10.9.2 Redesignation of cripple walls. In any Seismic Design Category, cripple walls shall be permitted to be redesignated as the first storywalls for purposes of determining wall bracing requirements. If the cripple walls are redesignated, the stories above the redesignated storyshall be counted as the second and third stories, respectively.

R602.11 Wall anchorage. Braced wall line sills shall be anchored to concrete or masonry foundations in accordance with Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1.

602.11.1 Wall anchorage for all buildings in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and Dzand townhouses in Seismic Design Category C. Plate washers, a minimum of 0.229 inch by 3 inches by 3 inches (5.8 mm by 76 mm by 76 mm) in size, shall be provided between the foundation sill plate and the nut except where approved anchor straps are used. The hole in the plate washer is permitted to be diagonally slotted with a width of up to 3/16 inch (5 mm) larger than the bolt diameter and a slot length not to exceed 1¾ inches (44 mm), provided a standard cut washer is placed between the plate washer and the nut.

FIGURE R602.10.7 MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS

FIGURE R602.10.7 MASONRY STEM WALLS SUPPORTING BRACED WALL PANELS

184

R602.11.2 Stepped foundations in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2• In all buildings located in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 or Dz, where the height of a required braced wall line that extends from foundation to floor above varies more than 4 feet (1219 mm), the braced wallline shall be constructed in accordance with the following:

  1. Where the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to a foundation not less than 8 feet (2440 mm) in length along a line of bracing, the line shall be considered as braced. The double plate of the cripple stud wall beyond the segment of footing that extends to the lowest framed floor shall be spliced by extending the upper top plate a minimum of 4 feet (1219 mm) along the foundation. Anchor bolts shall be located a maximum of 1 foot and 3 feet (305 and 914 mm) from the step in the foundation. See Figure R602.11.2.
  2. Where cripple walls occur between the top of the foundation and the lowest floor framing, the bracing requirements of Sections R602.10.9 and R602.10.9.1 shall apply.
  3. Where only the bottom of the foundation is stepped and the lowest floor framing rests directly on a sill bolted to the foundations, the requirements of Sections R403.1.6 and R602.11.1 shall apply.

R602.12 Wall bracing and stone and masonry veneer. Where stone and masonry veneer is installed in accordance with Section R703. 7, wall bracing shall comply with this section.

For all buildings in Seismic Design Categories A, Band C, wall bracing at exterior and interior braced walllines shall be in accordance with Section R602.10 and the additional requirements of Table R602.12(1).

For detached one- or two-family dwellings in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and Dz, wall bracing and hold downs at exterior and interior braced wall lines shall be in accordance with Sections R602.10 and R602.11 and the additional requirements of Section R602.12.1 and Table R602.12 (2). In Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and Dz, cripple walls are not permitted, and required interior braced wall lines shall be supported on continuous foundations.

R602.12.1 Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and D2• Wall bracing where stone and masonry veneer exceeds the first story height in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and Dz shall conform to the requirements of Sections R602.10 and R602.11 and the following requirements.

R602.12.1.1 Length of bracing. The length of bracing along each braced wall line shall be in accordance with Table R602.12(2).

R602.12.1.2 Braced wall panel location. Braced wall panels shall begin no more than 8 feet (2440 mm) from each end ofa braced wallline and shall be spaced a maximum of 25 feet (7620 mm) on center.

R602.12.1.3 Braced wall panel construction. Braced wall panels shall be constructed of sheathing with a thickness of not less than 7/16 inch (11 mm) nailed with 8d common nails spaced 4 inches (102 mm) on center at all panel edges and 12 inches (305 mm) on center at intermediate supports. The end of each braced wall panel shall have a hold down device in accordance with Table R602.12 (2) installed at each end. Size, height and spacing of wood studs shall be in accordance with Table R602.3(5).

FIGURE R602.11.2 STEPPED FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION

FIGURE R602.11.2 STEPPED FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION

185
TABLE R602.12(1)
STONE OR MASONRY VENEER WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS, WOOD OR STEEL FRAMING, SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES A, Band C
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY NUMBER OF WOOD FRAMED STORIES WOOD FRAMED STORY MINIMUM SHEATHING AMOUNT (length of braced wall line length)a
AorB 1,2 or 3 all Table R602.10.1.2(2)
C 1 1 only Table R602.10.1.2(2)
2 top Table R602.10.1.2(2)
bottom 1.5 times length required by Table R602.10.1.2(2)
3 top Table R602.10.1.2(2)
middle 1.5 times length required by Table R602.10.1.2(2)
bottom 1.5 times length required by Table R602.10.1.2(2)
a. Applies to exterior and interior braced wall lines.

 

TABLE R602.12(2)
STONE OR MASONRY VENEER WALL BRACING REQUIREMENTS, ONE- AND TWO-FAMILY DETACHED DWELLINGS, SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORIES Do' D1 and D2
SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY NUMBER OF STORIESa STORY MINIMUM SHEATHING AMOUNT (length of braced wall line length in feet)b MINIMUM SHEATHING THICKNESS AND FASTENING SINGLE STORY HOLD DOWN FORCE (lb)C CUMULATIVE HOLD DOWN FORCE (Ib)d
Do 1 1 only 35 7/16-inch wood structural panel sheathing with 8d common nails spaced at 4 inches on center at panel edges, 12 inches on center at intermediate supports; 8d common nails at 4 inches on center at braced wall panel end posts with hold down attached N/A -
2 top 35 1900 -
bottom 45 3200 5100
3 top 40 1900 -
middle 45 3500 5400
bottom 60 3500 8900
D1 1 1 only 45 2100 -
2 top 45 2100 -
bottom 45 3700 5800
3 top 45 2100 -
middle 45 3700 5800
bottom 60 3700 9500
Dz 1 1 only 55 2300 -
2 top 55 2300 -
bottom 55 3900 6200
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot = 0.479kPa, 1 pound-force = 4.448 N.
a. Cripple walls are not permitted in Seismic Design Categories Do, D1 and Dz.
b. Applies to exterior and interior braced wall lines.
c. Hold down force is minimum allowable stress design load for connector providing uplift tie from wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the noted story to wall framing at end of braced wall panel at the story below, or to foundation or foundation wall. Use single story hold down force where edges of braced wall panels do not align; a continuous load path to the foundation shall be maintained. [See Figure R602.12].
d. Where hold down connectors from stories above align with stories below, use cumulative hold down force to size middle and bottom story hold down connectors. (See Figure R602.12).
186

R602.12.1.4 Minimum length of braced panel. Each braced wall panel shall be at least 48 inches (1219 mm) in length, covering a minimum of 3 stud spaces where studs are spaced 16 inches (406 mm) on center and covering a minimum of 2 stud spaced where studs are spaced 24 inches on center.

R602.12.1.5 Alternate braced wall panel. Alternate braced wall panels described in Section R602.10.3.2 shall not replace the braced wall panel specification of this section.

R602.12.1.6 Continuously sheathed wall bracing. Continuously sheathed provisions of Section R602.1 0.4 shall not be used in conjunction with the wall bracing provisions of this section.

SECTION R603
STEEL WALL FRAMING

R603.1 General. Elements shall be straight and free of any defects that would significantly affect structural performance. Cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with the requirements of this section.

R603.1.1 Applicability limits. The provisions of this section shall control the construction of exterior cold-formed steel wall framing and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing for buildings not more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long perpendicular to the joist or truss span, not more than 40 feet (12 192 mm) wide parallel to the joist or truss span, and less than or equal to three stories above grade plane. All exterior walls installed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be considered as load-bearing walls. Cold-formed steel walls constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section shall be limited to sites subjected to a maximum design wind speed of 110 miles per hour (49 m/s) Exposure B or C and a maximum ground snow load of 70 pounds per square foot (3.35 kPa).

R603.1.2 In-line framing. Load-bearing cold-formed steel studs constructed in accordance with Section R603 shall be located in-line with joists, trusses and rafters in accordance with Figure R603.1.2and the tolerances specified as follows:

  1. The maximum tolerance shall be ¾ inch (19 mm) between the centerline of the horizontal framing member and the centerline of the vertical framing member.
  2. Where the centerline of the horizontal framing member and bearing stiffener are located to one side of the centerline of the vertical framing member, the maximum tolerance shall be inch (3 mm) between the web of the horizontal framing member and the edge of the vertical framing member.

FIGURE R602.12 HOLD DOWNS AT EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR BRACED WALL PANELS

FIGURE R602.12 HOLD DOWNS AT EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR BRACED WALL PANELS

187

FIGURE R603.1.2 IN-LINE FRAMING

FIGURE R603.1.2 IN-LINE FRAMING

R603.2 Structural framing. Load-bearing cold-formed steel wall framing members shall comply with Figure R603.2(1) and with the dimensional and minimum thickness requirements specified in Tables R603.2(1) and R603.2(2). Tracks shall comply with Figure R603.2(2) and shall have a minimum flange width of inches (32 mm). The maximum inside bend radius for members shall be the greater of 3/32 inch (2.4 mm) minus half the base steel thickness or 1.5 times the base steel thickness.

R603.2.1 Material. Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall be cold-formed to shape from structural quality sheet steel complying with the requirements of one of the following:

  1. ASTM A 653: Grades 33, and 50 (Class 1 and 3).
  2. ASTM A 792: Grades 33, and 50A.
  3. ASTM A 1003: Structural Grades 33 Type H, and 50 Type H.

R603.2.2 Identification. Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing members shall have a legible label, stencil, stamp or embossment with the following information as a minimum:

  1. Manufacturer's identification.
  2. Minimum base steel thickness in inches (mm).
  3. Minimum coating designation.
  4. Minimum yield strength, in kips per square inch (ksi) (MPa).

R603.2.3 Corrosion protection. Load-bearing cold-formed steel framing shall have a metallic coating complying with ASTM A 1003 and one of the following:

  1. A minimum of G 60 in accordance with ASTM A 653.
  2. A minimum of AZ 50 in accordance with ASTM A 792.

R603.2.4 Fastening requirements. Screws for steel-to-steel connections shall be installed with a minimum edge distance and center-to-center spacing of ½ inch (12.7 mm), shall be self-drilling tapping and shall conform to ASTM C 1513. Structural sheathing shall be attached to cold-formed steel studs with minimum No. 8 self-drilling tapping screws that conform to ASTM C 1513. Screws for attaching structural sheathing to cold-formed steel wall framing shall have a minimum head diameter of 0.292 inch (7.4 mm) with countersunk heads and shall be installed with a minimum edge distance of inch (9.5 mm). Gypsum board shall be attached to cold-formed steel wall framing with minimum No. 6 screws conforming to ASTM C 954 or ASTM C 1513 with a bugle head style and shall be installed in accordance with Section R702. For all connections, screws shall extend through the steel a minimum of three exposed threads. All fasteners shall have rust inhibitive coating suitable for the installation in which they are being used, or be manufactured from material not susceptible to corrosion.

188
TABLE R603.2(1)
LOAD-BEARING COLD-FORMED STEEL STUD SIZES
MEMBER DESIGNATIONa WEB DEPTH (inches) MINIMUM FLANGE WIDTH (inches) MAXIMUM FLANGE WIDTH (inches) MINIMUM LIP SIZE (inches)
350S162-t 3.5 1.625 2 0.5
550S162-t 5.5 1.625 2 0.5
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.
a. The member designation is defined by the first number representing the member depth in hundredths of an inch "S" representing a stud orjoist member, the second number representing the flange width in hundredths of an inch, and the letter "t" shall be a number representing the minimum base metal thickness in mils [See Table R603.2(2)].

 

TABLE R603.2(2)
MINIMUM THICKNESS OF COLD-FORMED STEEL MEMBERS
DESIGNATION THICKNESS (mils) MINIMUM BASE STEEL THICKNESS (inches)
33 0.0329
43 0.0428
54 0.0538
68 0.0677
97 0.0966
For SI: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm, 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

FIGURE R603.2(1) C-SHAPED SECTION

FIGURE R603.2(1) C-SHAPED SECTION

FIGURE R603.2(2) TRACK SECTION

FIGURE R603.2(2) TRACK SECTION

189

Where No.8 screws are specified in a steel-to-steel connection, the required number of screws in the connection is permitted to be reduced in accordance with the reduction factors in Table R603.2.4, when larger screws are used or when one of the sheets of steel being connected is thicker than 33 mils (0.84 mm). When applying the reduction factor, the resulting number of screws shall be rounded up.

TABLE R603.2.4
SCREW SUBSTITUTION FACTOR
SCREW SIZE THINNEST CONNECTED STEEL SHEET (mils)
33 43
#8 1.0 0.67
#10 0.93 0.62
#12 0.86 0.56
For 51: 1 mil = 0.0254 mm.

R603.2.5 Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole patching. Web holes, web hole reinforcing and web hole patching shall be in accordance with this section.

R603.2.5.1 Web holes. Web holes in wall studs and other structural members shall comply with all of the following conditions:

  1. Holes shall conform to Figure R603.2.5.1;
  2. Holes shall be permitted only along the centerline of the web of the framing member;
  3. Holes shall have a center-to-center spacing of not less than 24 inches (610 mm);
  4. Holes shall have a web hole width not greater than 0.5 times the member depth, or 1½ inches (38 mm);

    FIGURE R603.2.5.1 WEB HOLES

    FIGURE R603.2.5.1 WEB HOLES

  5. Holes shall have a web hole length not exceeding 4½ inches (114 mm); and
  6. Holes shall have a minimum distance between the edge ofthe bearing surface and the edge of the web hole of not less than 10 inches (254 mm).

Framing members with web holes not conforming to the above requirements shall be reinforced in accordance with Section R603.2.5.2, patched in accordance with Section R603.2.5.3 or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice.

R603.2.5.2 Web hole reinforcing. Web holes in gable endwall studs not conforming to the requirements of Section R603.2.5.1 shall be permitted to be reinforced if the hole is located fully within the center 40 percent of the span and the depth and length of the hole does not exceed 65 percent of the flat width of the web. The reinforcing shall be a steel plate or C-shape section with a hole that does not exceed the web hole size limitations of Section R603.2.5.1 for the member being reinforced. The steel reinforcing shall be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel reinforcing shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No.8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with minimum edge distance of ½ inch (12.7 mm).

R603.2.5.3 Hole patching. Web holes in wall studs and other structural members not conforming to the requirements in Section R603.2.5.1 shall be permitted to be patched in accordance with either of the following methods:

  1. Framing members shall be replaced or designed in accordance with accepted engineering practice when web holes exceed the following size limits:

    1.1. The depth of the hole, measured across the web, exceeds 70 percent ofthe flat width of the web; or

    1.2. The length of the hole measured along the web exceeds 10 inches (254 mm) or the depth of the web, whichever is greater.

  2. Web holes not exceeding the dimensional requirements in Section R603.2.5.3, Item 1 shall be patched with a solid steel plate, stud section or track section in accordance with Figure R603.2.5.3. The steel patch shall, as a minimum, be the same thickness as the receiving member and shall extend at least 1 inch (25.4 mm) beyond all edges of the hole. The steel patch shall be fastened to the web of the receiving member with No. 8 screws spaced no more than 1 inch (25.4 mm) center-to-center along the edges of the patch with a minimum edge distance of ½ inch (12.7 mm).
190

FIGURE R603.2.5.3 STUD WEB HOLE PATCH

FIGURE R603.2.5.3 STUD WEB HOLE PATCH

R603.3 Wall construction. All exterior cold-formed steel framed walls and interior load-bearing cold-formed steel framed walls shall be constructed in accordance with the provisions of this section.

R603.3.1 Wall to foundation or floor connection. Cold-formed steel framed walls shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Table R603.3.1 and Figure R603.3.1 (1), R603.3.1 (2) or R603.3.1 (3). Anchor bolts shall be located not more than 12 inches (305 mm) from corners or the termination of bottom tracks. Anchor bolts shall extend a minimum of 15 inches (381 mm) into masonry or 7 inches (178 mm) into concrete. Foundation anchor straps shall be permitted, in lieu ofanchor bolts, ifspaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.

R603.3.1.1 Gable endwalls. Gable endwalls with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be anchored to foundations or floors in accordance with Tables R603.3.1.1 (1) or R603.3.1.1 (2).

R603.3.2 Minimum stud sizes. Cold-formed steel walls shall be constructed in accordance with Figures R603.3.1 (1), R603.3.1 (2), or R603.3.1 (3) , as applicable. Exterior wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31). Interior load-bearing wall stud size and thickness shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31) based upon an 85 miles per hour (38 mls) Exposure AlB wind value and the building width, stud spacing and snow load, as appropriate. Fastening requirements shall be in accordance with Section R603.2.4 and Table R603.3.2(1). Top and bottom tracks shall have the same minimum thickness as the wall studs.

Exterior wall studs shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm) ,where both of the following conditions exist:

  1. Minimum of ½ inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R702 on the interior surface.
  2. Wood structural sheathing panels of minimum 7/16 inch (11 mm) thick oriented strand board or 15/32 inch (12 mm) thick plywood is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R603.9.1 and Table R603.3.2(1) on the outside surface.

Interior load-bearing walls shall be permitted to be reduced to the next thinner size, as shown in Tables R603.3.2 (2) through R603.3.2(31), but not less than 33 mils (0.84 mm), where a minimum of ½ inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board is installed and fastened in accordance with Section R702 on both sides of the wall. The tabulated stud thickness for load-bearing walls shall be used when the atticload is 10 pounds per square feet (480 Pa) or less. A limited attic storage load of 20 pounds per square feet (960 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(31).

For two-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one floor, roof and ceiling shall be used when second floor live load is 30 pounds per square feet (1440 Pa). Second floor live loads of40 psf (1920 pounds per square feet) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(2) through R603.3.2(21).

For three-story buildings, the tabulated stud thickness for walls supporting one or two floors, roof and ceiling shall be used when the third floor live load is 30 pounds per square feet (1440 Pa). Third floor live loads of 40 pounds per square feet (1920 Pa) shall be permitted provided that the next higher snow load column is used to select the stud size from Tables R603.3.2(22) through R603.3.2(31).

R603.3.2.1 Gable endwalls. The size and thickness of gable endwall studs with heights less than or equal to 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be permitted in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2.1 (1) or R603.3.2.1 (2). The size and thickness of gable endwall studs with heights greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be determined in accordance with the limits set forth in Tables R603.3.2.1 (3) or R603.3.2.1 (4).

R603.3.3 Stud bracing. The flanges of cold-formed steel studs shall be laterally braced in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Gypsum board on both sides, structural sheathing on both sides, or gypsum board on one side and structural sheathing on the other side of load-bearing walls with gypsum board installed with minimum No. 6 screws in accordance with Section R702 and structural sheathing installed in accordance with Section R603.9.1 and Table R603.3.2(1).
  2. Horizontal steel straps fastened in accordance with Figure R603.3.3(1) on both sides at mid-height for 8-foot (2438 mm) walls, and at one-third points for 9-foot and 10-foot (2743 mm and 3048 mm) walls. Horizontal steel straps shall be at least 1.5 inches in width and 33 mils in thickness (38 mm by 0.84 mm). Straps shall be attached to the flanges of studs with one No. 8 screw. In-line blocking shall be installed between studs at the termination of all straps and at 12 foot (3658 mm) intervals along the strap. Straps shall be fastened to the blocking with two No.8 screws.
191
TABLE R603.3.1
WALL TO FOUNDATION OR FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b
FRAMING CONDITION WIND SPEED (mph) AND EXPOSURE
85 B 90 B 100 B
85 C
110 B
90C
100 C < 110 C
Wall bottom track to floor per Figure R603.3.1 (1) I-No.8 screw at 12" o.c. I-No.8 screw at 12" o.c. I-No.8 screw at 12" o.c. I-No.8 screw at 12" o.c. 2-No. 8 screws at 12" o.c. 2 No.8 screws at 12" o.c.
Wall bottom track to foundation per Figure R603.3.1(2)d ½″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 6' o.c. ½″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 6' o.c. ½″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c. ½″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c. ½″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c. ½″ minimum diameter anchor bolt at 4' o.c.
Wall bottom track to wood sill per Figure R603.3.1 (3) Steel plate spaced at 4' O.C. , with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-1 Od or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 4' O.C. , with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-1 Od or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 3' O.C. , with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-1 Od or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 3' O.C. , with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-1 Od or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 2' O.C. , with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-1 Od or 6-8d common nails Steel plate spaced at 2' O.C. , with 4-No. 8 screws and 4-1 Od or 6-8d common nails
Wind uplift connector strength to 16" stud spacingc NR NR NR NR NR 65 lb per foot of wall length
Wind uplift connector strength for 24" stud spacingc NR NR NR NR NR 100 lb per foot of wall length
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, lIb = 4.45 N.
a. Anchor bolts are to be located not more than 12 inches from corners or the termination ofbottom tracks (e.g. , at door openings or corners). Bolts are to extend a minimum of 15 inches into masonry or 7 inches into concrete.
b. All screw sizes shown are minimum.
c. NR = uplift connector not required.
d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts, if spaced as required to provide eqUivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.

FIGURE R603.3.1 (1) WALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION

FIGURE R603.3.1 (1) WALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION

192

FIGURE R603.3.1 (2) WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION;

FIGURE R603.3.1 (2) WALL TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION

FIGURE R603.3.1 (3) WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

FIGURE R603.3.1 (3) WALL TO WOOD SILL CONNECTION

193
TABLE R603.3.1.1 (1)
GABLE ENDWALL TO FLOOR CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c
BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) WALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FLOOR JOIST OR TRACK CONNECTION
Exposure Stud height, h (tt)
B C 10 < h < 14 14 < h ≤ 18 18 < h ≤ 22
85 -   I-No. 8 screw @ 12" O.c. I-No. 8 screw @ 12" O.c. I-No. 8 screw @ 12" O.c.
90 -   I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c.
100 85 I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c.
110 90 I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. I-No. 8 screw @ 12" O.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" O.c.
- 100 I-No.8 screw @ 12" O.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" O.c. I-No.8 screw @ 8" O.c.
- 110 2-No. 8 screws @ 12" O.c. I-No. 8 screw @ 8" O.c. 2-No. 8 screws @ 8" O.c.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1(2) for gable endwall bottom track to foundation connections.
b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
c. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall bottom track or brace connection height.

 

TABLE R603.3.1.1 (2)
GABLE ENDWALL BOTTOM TRACK TO FOUNDATION CONNECTION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c
BASIC WIND SPEED (mph) MINIMUM SPACING FOR ½ IN. DIAMETER ANCHOR BOLTSd
Exposure Stud height, h (tt)
B C 10 < h < 14 14 < h ≤ 18 18 < h ≤ 22
85 -   6' - 0" O.c. 6' - 0" O.c. 6' - 0" O.c.
90 -   6' - 0" O.c. 5' - 7" O.c. 6' - 0" O.c.
100 85 5' - 10" O.c. 6' - 0" O.c. 6' - 0" O.c.
110 90 4' - 10" O.c. 5' - 6" O.c. 6' - 0" O.c.
-    100 4' - 1" O.c. 6' - 0" O.c. 6' - 0" O.c.
-    110 5' - 1" O.c. 6' - 0" O.c. 5' - 2" O.c.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 mile per hour = 0.447 mis, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Refer to Table R603.3.1.1 (1) for gable endwall bottom track to floor joist or track connection connections.
b. Where attachment is not given, special design is required.
c. Stud height, h, is measured from wall bottom track to wall bottom track or brace connection height.
d. Foundation anchor straps are permitted in place of anchor bolts if spaced as required to provide equivalent anchorage to the required anchor bolts and installed in accordance with manufacturer's requirements.

R603.3.4 Cutting and notching. Flanges and lips of cold-formed steel studs and headers shall not be cut or notched.

R603.3.5 Splicing. Steel studs and other structural members shall not be spliced. Tracks shall be spliced in accordance with Figure R603.3.5.

R603.4 Corner framing. In exterior walls, corner studs and the bottom tracks shall be installed in accordance with Figure R603.4.

R603.5 Exterior wall covering. The method ofattachment of exterior wall covering materials to cold-formed steel stud wall framing shall conform to the manufacturer's installation instructions.

R603.6 Headers. Headers shall be installed above all wall openings in exterior walls and interior load-bearing walls. Box beam headers and back-to-back headers each shall be formed from two equal sized C-shaped members in accordance with Figures R603.6(1) and R603.6(2), respectively, and Tables R603.6(1) through R603.6(24). L-shaped headers shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with AISI S230. Alternately, headers shall be permitted to be designed and constructed in accordance with AISI S100, Section D4.

R603.6.1 Headers in gable endwalls. Box beam and back-to-back headers in gable endwalls shall be permitted to be constructed in accordance with Section R603.6 or with the header directly above the opening in accordance with Figures R603.6.1 (1) and R603.6.1 (2) and the following provisions:

  1. Two 362S162-33 for openings less than or equal to 4 feet (1219 mm).
  2. Two 600S162-43 for openings greater than 4 feet (1219 mm) but less than or equal to 6 feet (1830 mm).
  3. Two 800S162-54 for openings greater than 6 feet (1829 mm) but less than or equal to 9 feet (2743 mm).

R603.7 Jack and king studs. The number of jack and king studs installed on each side of a header shall comply with Table R603.7(1). King, jack and cripple studs shall be of the same dimension and thickness as the adjacent wall studs. Headers shall be connected to king studs in accordance with Table R603.7(2) and the following provisions:

  1. For box beam headers, one-half of the total number of required screws shall be applied to the header and one half to the king stud by use of C-shaped or track member in accordance with Figure R603.6(1). The track or C-shape sections shall extend the depth of the header minus ½ inch (12.7 mm) and shall have a minimum thickness not less than that of the wall studs. 194
  2. For back-to-back headers, one-half the total number of screws shall be applied to the header and one-halfto the king stud by use of a minimum 2-inch-by-2-inch (51 mm x 51 mm) clip angle in accordance with Figure R603.6(2). The clip angle shall extend the depth of the header minus ½ inch (12.7 mm) and shall have a minimum thickness not less than that of the wall studs. Jack and king studs shall be interconnected with structural sheathing in accordance with Figures R603.6(1) and R603.6(2).

R603.8 Head and sill track. Head track spans above door and window openings and sill track spans beneath window openings shall comply with Table R603.8. For openings less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in height that have both a head track and a sill track, multiplying the spans by 1.75 shall be permitted in Table R603.8. For openings less than or equal to 6 feet (1829 mm) in height that have both a head track and a sill track, multiplying the spans in Table R603.8 by 1.50 shall be permitted.

R603.9 Structural sheathing. Structural sheathing shall be installed in accordance with Figure R603.9 and this section on all sheathable exterior wall surfaces, including areas above and below openings.

R603.9.1 Sheathing materials. Structural sheathing panels shall consist of minimum 7/16-inch (11 mm) thick oriented strand board or 15/32-inch (12 mm) thick plywood.

R603.9.2 Determination ofminimum length offull height sheathing. The minimum length of full height sheathing on each braced wall line shall be determined by multiplying the length of the braced wall line by the percentage obtained from Table R603.9.2(1) and by the plan aspect-ratio adjustment factors obtained from Table R603.9.2(2). The minimum length of full height sheathing shall not be less than 20 percent of the braced wall line length.

To be considered full height sheathing, structural sheathing shall extend from the bottom to the bottom of the wall without interruption by openings. Only sheathed, full height wall sections, uninterrupted by openings, which are a minimum of 48 inches (1219 mm) wide, shall be counted toward meeting the minimum percentages in Table R603.9.2(1). In addition, structural sheathing shall comply with all of the following requirements:

  1. Be installed with the long dimension parallel to the stud framing (Le. vertical orientation) and shall cover the full vertical height of wall from the bottom of the bottom track to the bottom of the bottom track of each story. Installing the long dimension perpendicular to the stud framing or using shorter segments shall be permitted provided that the horizontal joint is blocked as described in Item 2 below.
  2. Be blocked when the long dimension is installed perpendicular to the stud framing (Le. horizontal orientation). Blocking shall be a minimum of 33 mil (0.84 mm) thickness. Each horizontal structural sheathing panel shall be fastened with No.8 screws spaced at 6 inches (152 mm) on center to the blocking at thejoint.
  3. Be applied to each end (corners) of each of the exterior walls with a minimum 48 inch (1219 mm) wide panel.

R603.9.2.1 The minimum percentage of full-height structural sheathing shall be multiplied by 1.10 for 9 foot (2743 mm) high walls and multiplied by 1.20 for 10 foot (3048 mm) high walls.

R603.9.2.2 For hip roofed homes, the minimum percentages of full height sheathing in Table R603.9.2(1), based upon wind, shall be permitted to be multiplied by a factor of 0.95 for roof slopes not exceeding 7: 12 and a factor of 0.9 for roof slopes greater than 7: 12.

R603.9.2.3 In the lowest storyof a dwelling, multiplying the percentage of full height sheathing required in Table R603.9.2(1) by 0.6, shall be permitted provided hold down anchors are provided in accordance with Section R603.9.4.2.

R603.9.3