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2009 International Fire Code®

First Printing: March 2009

ISBN: 978-1-5800 1-729-9 (soft-cover edition)
ISBN: 978-1-58001-728-2 (loose-leaf edition)

COPYRIGHT © 2009
by
INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2009 International Fire Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example, and not limitation, photocopying or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233).

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Fire Code" are trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc.

PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.

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PREFACE

Introduction

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date fire code addressing conditions hazardous to life and property from fire, explosion, handling or use of hazardous materials and the use and occupancy of buildings and premises. The International Fire Code®, in this 2009 edition, is designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large and small.

This comprehensive fire code establishes minimum regulations for fire prevention and fire protection systems using prescriptive and performance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new system designs. This 2009 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes@(I-Codes®) published by the International Code Council (ICC) ®, including the International BUilding Code@, International Energy Conservation Code@, International Existing BUilding Code@, International Fuel Gas Code@, International Mechanical Code@, ICC Performance Code@, International Plumbing Code@, International Private Sewage Disposal Code@, International Property Maintenance Code@, International Residential Code@, International Wildland- Urban Interface Code ™ and International Zoning Code@.

The International Fire Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that offers an international forum for fire safety professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of provisions.

Development

The first edition of the International Fire Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1997 by a development committee appointed by ICC and consisting of representatives of the three statutory members of the International Code Council: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to draft a comprehensive set offire safety regulations consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development, followed by public hearings in 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed changes. This 2009 edition presents the code as originally issued, with changes reflected in the 2006 edition and further changes approved through the ICC Code Development Process through 2008. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years.

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a fire code that adequately protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to particular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction.

Adoption

The International Fire Code is available for adoption and use byjurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmentaljurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdiction's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local information, such as the name of the adoptingjurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page xiii addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text.

Maintenance

The International Fire Code is kept up-to-date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate.

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Development Department of the International Code Council.

While the development procedure of the International Fire Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC, its members and those participating in the development ofthis code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provisions because ICC and its founding members do not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority.

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Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers

In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Development Hearings by the ICC Fire Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on the proposed change. Proposed changes to a code section that has a number beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a different code development committee. For example, proposed changes to code sections that have [B] in front of them (e.g. [B] 607.2) are considered by the ICC Building Code Development Committee at the code development hearings.

The content of sections in this code that begin with a letter designation are maintained by another code development committee in accordance with the following:

[B]   = International Building Code Development Committee;

[EB] = International Existing Building Code Development Committee;

[FG] = International Fuel Gas Code Development Committee;

[M]   = International Mechanical Code Development Committee; and

[P]   = International Plumbing Code Development Committee.

Marginal Markings

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2006 edition. Deletion indicators in the form ofan arrow (•) are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has been deleted or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted.

Coordination between the International Building and Fire Codes

Because the coordination of technical provisions is one ofthe benefits ofadopting the ICC family of model codes, users will find the ICC codes to be a very flexible set of model documents. To accomplish this flexibility some technical provisions are duplicated in some of the model code documents. While the International Codes are provided as a comprehensive set of model codes for the built environment, documents are occasionally adopted as a stand-alone regulation. When one of the model documents is adopted as the basis of a stand-alone code, that code should provide a complete package of requirements with enforcement assigned to the entity for which the adoption is being made.

The model codes can also be adopted as a family of complementary codes. When adopted together there should be no conflict of any of the technical provisions. When multiple model codes are adopted in ajurisdiction it is important for the adopting authority to evaluate the provisions in each code document and determine how and by which agency(ies) they will be enforced. It is important, therefore, to understand that where technical provisions are duplicated in multiple model documents that enforcement duties must be clearly assigned by the local adoptingjurisdiction. ICC remains committed to providing state-of-the-art model code documents that, when adopted locally, will reduce the cost to government of code adoption and enforcement and protect the public health, safety and welfare.

Italicized Terms

Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text. Such terms are not italicized where the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions which the user should read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code.

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Effective Use of the International Fire Code

The International Fire Code@(IFC®) is a model code that regulates minimum fire safety requirements for new and existing buildings, facilities, storage and processes. The IFC addresses fire prevention, fire protection, life safety and safe storage and use of hazardous materials in new and existing buildings, facilities and processes. The IFC provides a total approach of controlling hazards in all buildings and sites, regardless of the hazard being indoors or outdoors.

The IFC is a design document. For example, before one constructs a building, the site must be provided with an adequate water supply for fire-fighting operations and a means of building access for emergency responders in the event of a medical emergency, fire or natural or technological disaster. Depending on the building's occupancy and uses, the IFC regulates the various hazards that may be housed within the building, including refrigeration systems, application of flammable finishes, fueling of motor vehicles, high-piled combustible storage and the storage and use of hazardous materials. The IFC sets forth minimum requirements for these and other hazards and contains requirements for maintaining the life safety of building occupants, the protection of emergency responders, and to limit the damage to a building and its contents as the result ofa fire, explosion or unauthorized hazardous material discharge.

Arrangement and Format of the 2009 IFC

Before applying the requirements ofthe IFC it is beneficial to understand its arrangement and format. The IFC, like other codes published by the International Code Council, is arranged and organized to follow sequential steps that generally occur during a plan review or inspection. The IFC is divided into eight different parts:

Chapters Subjects
1-2 Administration and definitions
3-4 General safety requirements
5-10 Building and site requirements
11-26 and 45 Special processes and uses
27-44 Hazardous materials
46 Construction requirements for existing buildings
47 Referenced Standards
Appendices A-] Appendices

The IFC requirements for fire-resistive construction, interior finish, fire protection systems and means of egress are directly correlated to the requirements of the IBC. The following chapters of the IFC are correlated to the IBC:

Chapter Subject
7 Fire-resistance-rated construction
8 Interior finish, decorative materials and furnishings
9 Fire protection systems
10 Means of egress

The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the International Fire Code:

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, enforcement and administration of subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establishing the scope of the code, Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and structures come under its purview. Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining"due process of law" in enforcing the regulations contained in the body of the code. Only through careful observation of the administrative provisions can the code official reasonably expect to demonstrate that" equal protection under the law" has been provided.

Chapter 2 Definitions. All terms that are defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 2. While a defined term may be used in one chapter or another, the meaning provided in Chapter 2 is applicable throughout the code.

Where understanding of a term's definition is especially key to or necessary for understanding of a particular code provision, the term is show in italics wherever it appears in the code. This is true only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code.

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In other words, the generally understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning prescribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known.

Guidance regarding tense, gender and plurality of defined terms as well as guidance regarding terms not defined in this code are also provided.

Chapter 3 General Requirements. The open burning, ignition source, vacant building, miscellaneous storage and hazards to fire fighters requirements and precautions, among other general regulations, contained in this chapter are intended to improve premises safety for everyone, including construction workers, tenants, operations and maintenance personnel and emergency response personnel. As with other chapters ofthe International Fire Code, Section 302 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 4 Emergency Planning and Preparedness. This chapter addresses the human contribution to life safety in buildings when a fire or other emergency occurs. The requirements for continuous training and scheduled fire, evacuation and lockdown drills can be as important as the required periodic inspections and maintenance of built-in fire protection features. The level of preparation by the occupants also improves the emergency responders' abilities during an emergency. The International BUilding Code®(IBC®) focuses on built-in fire protection features, such as automatic sprinkler systems, fire-resistance-rated construction and properly designed egress systems whereas this chapter fully addresses the human element. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 402 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 5 Fire Service Features. The requirements of this chapter apply to all buildings and occupancies and pertain to access roads; access to building openings and roofs; premises identification; key boxes; fire protection water supplies; fire command centers; fire department access to equipment and emergency responder radio coverage in buildings. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 502 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 6 Building Services and Systems. This chapter focuses on building systems and services as they relate to potential safety hazards and when and how they should be installed. This chapter brings together all building system- and service-related issues for convenience and provides a more systematic view of buildings. The following building services and systems are addressed: fuel-fired appliances (Section 603), emergency and standby power systems (Section 604) electrical equipment, wiring and hazards (Section 605), mechanical refrigeration (Section 606), elevator recall and maintenance (Section 607), stationary storage battery systems (Section 608) and commercial kitchen hoods (Section 609). As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 602 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 7 Fire-resistance-rated Construction. The maintenance of assemblies required to be fire-resistance rated is a key component in a passive fire protection philosophy. Chapter 7 sets forth requirements to maintain required fire-resistance ratings ofbuilding elements and limit fire spread. The required maintenance of fire-resistance-rated assemblies and opening protectives is described in Section 703 while Section 704 covers the enclosure requirements for shafts in existing buildings. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 702 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 8 Interior Finish, Decorative Materials and Furnishings. The overall purpose of Chapter 8 is to regulate interior finishes, decorative materials and furnishings in new and existing buildings so that they do not significantly add to or create fire hazards within buildings. The provisions tend to focus on occupancies with specific risk characteristics, such as vulnerability of occupants, density of occupants, lack of familiarity with the building and societal expectations of importance. This chapter is consistent with Chapter 8 ofthe International BUilding Code®(IBC®), which regulates the interior finishes of new buildings. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 802 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems. Chapter 9 prescribes the minimum requirements for active systems of fire protection equipment to perform the functions of detecting a fire, alerting the occupants or fire department of a fire emergency, controlling smoke and controlling or extinguishing the fire. Generally, the requirements are based on the occupancy, the height and the area of the building, because these are the factors that most affect fire-fighting capabilities and the relative hazard of a specific building or portion thereof. This chapter parallels and is substantially duplicated in Chapter 9 of the International Building Code; however, this chapter also contains periodic testing criteria that are not contained in the IBC. In addition, the special fire protection system requirements based on use and occupancy found in Chapter 4 of the IBC are duplicated in Chapter 9 of the IFC as a user convenience. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 902 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 10 Means ofEgress. The general criteria set forth in Chapter 10 regulating the design of the means of egress are established as the primary method for protection of people in buildings by allowing timely relocation or evacuation of building occupants. Both prescriptive and performance language is utilized in this chapter to provide for a basic approach in the determination of a safe exiting system for all occupancies. It addresses all portions of the egress system (i.e., exit access, exits and exit discharge) and includes design requirements as well as provisions regulating individual components. The requirements detail the size, arrangement, number and protection of means of egress components. Functional and operational characteristics also are specified for the components that will permit their safe use without special knowledge or effort. The means of egress protection requirements work in coordination with other sections of the code, such as protection of vertical openings (see Chapter 7), interior finish (see Chapter 8), fire suppression and detection systems (see Chapter 9) and numerous others, all having an impact on life safety. Sections 1002 through 1029 are duplicated text from Chapter 10 of the IBC; however, the IFC contains an additional Section 1030 on maintenance of the means of egress system in

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existing buildings. Retroactive minimum means of egress requirements for existing buildings are now found in Chapter 46. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1002 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 11 Aviation Facilities. Chapter 11 specifies minimum requirements for the fire-safe operation of airports, heliports and helistops. The principal nonflight operational hazards associated with aviation involve fuel, facilities and operations. Therefore, safe use of flammable and combustible liquids during fueling and maintenance operations is emphasized. Availability of portable Class B:C-rated fire extinguishers for prompt control or suppression of incipient fires is required. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1102 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 12 Dry Cleaning. The provisions of Chapter 12 are intended to reduce hazards associated with use offlammable and combustible dry cleaning solvents. These materials, like all volatile organic chemicals, generate significant quantities ofstatic electricity and are thus readily ignitable. Many flammable and nonflammable dry cleaning solvents also possess health hazards when involved in a fire. As with other chapters ofthe International Fire Code, Section 1202 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 13 Combustible Dust-producing Operations. The requirements of Chapter 13 seek to reduce the likelihood of dust explosions by managing the hazards of ignitable suspensions of combustible dusts associated with a variety of operations including woodworking, mining, food processing, agricultural commodity storage and handling and pharmaceutical manufacturing, among others. Ignition source control and good housekeeping practices in occupancies containing dust-producing operations are emphasized. As with other chapters ofthe International Fire Code, Section 1302 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 14 Fire Safety During Construction and Demolition. This chapter outlines general fire safety precautions for all structures and all occupancies during construction and demolition operations. In general, these requirements seek to maintain required levels of fire protection, limit fire spread, establish the appropriate operation of equipment and promote prompt response to fire emergencies. Features regulated include fire protection systems, fire fighter access to the site and building, means of egress, hazardous materials storage and use and temporary heating equipment and other ignition sources.

Chapter 15 Flammable Finishes. Chapter 15 requirements govern operations where flammable or combustible finishes are applied by spraying, dipping, powder coating or flow-coating processes. As with all operations involving flammable or combustible liquids and combustible dusts or vapors, controlling ignition sources and methods of reducing or controlling flammable vapors or combustible dusts at or near these operations are emphasized. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1502 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 16 Fruit and Crop Ripening. Chapter 16 provides guidance that is intended to reduce the likelihood of explosions resulting from improper use or handling of ethylene gas used for crop-ripening and coloring processes. This is accomplished by regulating ethylene gas generation; storage and distribution systems and controlling ignition sources. Design and construction of facilities for this use are regulated by the International BUilding Code to reduce the impact ofpotential accidents on people and buildings.

Chapter 17 Fumigation and Thermal Insecticidal Fogging. This chapter regulates fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging operations which use toxic pesticide chemicals to kill insects, rodents and other vermin. Fumigants and thermal insecticidal fogging agents pose little hazard ifproperly applied; however, the inherent toxicity of all these agents and the potential flammability ofsome makes special precautions necessary when they are used. Requirements of this chapter are intended to protect both the public and fire fighters from hazards associated with these products. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1702 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 18 Semiconductor Fabrication Facilities. The requirements of this chapter are intended to control hazards associated with the manufacture of electrical circuit boards or microchips, commonly called semiconductors. Though the finished product possesses no unusual hazards, materials commonly associated with semiconductor manufacturing are often quite hazardous and include flammable liquids; pyrophoric and flammable gases; toxic substances and corrosives. The requirements of this chapter are concerned with both life safety and property protection. However, the fire code official should recognize that the risk of extraordinary property damages is far more common than the risk of personal injuries from fire. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1802 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 19 Lumber Yards and Woodworking Facilities. Provisions of this chapter are intended to prevent fires and explosions, facilitate fire control and reduce exposures to and from facilities storing, selling or processing wood and forest products, including sawdust, wood chips, shavings, bark mulch, shorts, finished planks, sheets, posts, poles, timber and raw logs and the hazard they represent once ignited. This chapter requires active and passive fire protection features to reduce on- and off-site exposures, limit fire size and development and facilitate fire fighting by employees and the fire service. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 1902 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 20 Manufacture ofOrganic Coatings. This chapter regulates materials and processes associated with the manufacture of paints as well as bituminous, asphaltic and other diverse compounds formulated to protect buildings, machines and objects from the effects of weather, corrosion and hostile environmental exposures. Paint for decorative, architectural and industrial uses comprises the bulk of organic coating production. Painting and processes related to the manufacture of nonflammable and noncombustible or water-based products are exempt from the provisions of this chapter. The application of organic coatings is covered by Chapter 15. Elimination of ignition sources, maintenance of fire protection equipment and isolation or segregation of hazardous operations are

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emphasized. As with other chapters ofthe International Fire Code, Section 2002 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 21 Industrial Ovens. This chapter addresses the fuel supply, ventilation, emergency shutdown equipment, fire protection and the operation and maintenance of industrial ovens, which are sometimes referred to as industrial heat enclosures or industrial furnaces. Compliance with this chapter is intended to reduce the likelihood of fires involving industrial ovens which are usually the result of the fuel in use or volatile vapors given off by the materials being heated or to manage the impact if a fire should occur. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2102 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 22 Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities and Repair Garages. This chapter provides provisions that regulate the storage and dispensing of both liquid and gaseous motor fuels at public and private automotive, marine and aircraft motor fuel-dispensing facilities, fleet vehicle motor fuel-dispensing facilities and repair garages. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2202 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 23 High-piled Combustible Storage. This chapter provides guidance for reasonable protection of life from hazards associated with the storage of combustible materials in closely packed piles or on pallets, in racks or on shelves where the top of storage is greater than 12 feet in height. It provides requirements for identifying various classes of commodities; general fire and life safety features including storage arrangements, smoke and heat venting, fire department access and housekeeping and maintenance requirements. The chapter attempts to define the potential fire severity and, in turn, determine fire and life safety protection measures needed to control, and in some cases suppress, a potential fire. This chapter does not cover miscellaneous combustible materials storage regulated in Section 315. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2302 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 24 Tents and Other Membrane Structures. The requirements in this chapter are intended to protect temporary as well as permanent tents and air-supported and other membrane structures from fire by regulating structure location and access, anchorage, egress, heat-producing equipment, hazardous materials and operations, combustible vegetation, ignition sources, waste accumulation and requiring regular inspections and certifying continued compliance with fire safety regulations. As with other chapters ofthe International Fire Code, Section 2402 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 25 Tire Rebuilding and Tire Storage. The requirements of Chapter 25 are intended to prevent or control fires and explosions associated with the remanufacture and storage of tires and tire by-products. Additionally, the requirements are intended to minimize the impact of indoor and outdoor tire storage fires by regulating pile volume and location, segregating the various operations, providing for fire department access and a water supply and controlling ignition sources.

Chapter 26 Welding and Other Hot Work. This chapter covers requirements for safety in welding and other types of hot work by reducing the potential for fire ignitions that usually result in large losses. Several different types of hot work would fall under the requirements found in Chapter 26, including both gas and electric arc methods and any open-torch operations. Many ofthe activities of this chapter focus on the actions of the occupants. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2602 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 27 Hazardous Materials-General Provisions. This chapter contains the general requirements for all hazardous chemicals in all occupancies. Hazardous chemicals are defined as those that pose an unreasonable risk to the health and safety ofoperating or emergency personnel, the public and the environment if not properly controlled during handling, storage, manufacture, processing, packaging, use, disposal or transportation. The general provisions of this chapter are intended to be companion provisions with the specific requirements of Chapters 28 through 44 regarding a given hazardous material. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2702 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 28 Aerosols. Chapter 28 addresses the prevention, control and extinguishment of fires and explosions in facilities where retail aerosol products are displayed or stored. It is concerned with both life safety and property protection from a fire; however, historically, aerosol product fires have caused property loss more frequently than loss of life. Requirements for storing aerosol products are dependent on the level of aerosol product, level of sprinkler protection, type of storage condition and quantity of aerosol products. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2802 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 29 Combustible Fibers. Chapter 29 establishes the requirements for storage and handling of combustible fibers, including animal, vegetable and synthetic fibers, whether woven into textiles, baled, packaged or loose. Operations involving combustible fibers are typically associated with salvage, paper milling, recycling, cloth manufacturing, carpet and textile mills and agricultural operations, among others.

The primary hazard associated with these operations is the abundance of materials and their ready ignitability. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 2902 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 30 Compressed Gases. This chapter regulates the storage, use and handling of all flammable and nonflammable compressed gases, such as those that are used in medical facilities, air separation plants, industrial plants, agricultural equipment and similar occupancies. Standards for the design, construction and marking ofcompressed gas cylinders and pressure vessels are referenced. Compressed gases used in welding and cutting, cryogenic liquids and liquefied petroleum gases are also regulated under Chapters 26,32 and 38, respectively. Compressed gases that are classified as hazardous materials are also regulated in Chapter 27,

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which includes general requirements. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3002 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 31 Corrosive Materials. Chapter 31 addresses the hazards of corrosive materials that have a destructive effect on living tissues. Though corrosive gases exist, most corrosive materials are solid and classified as either acids or bases (alkalis). These materials may pose a wide range of hazards other than corrosivity, such as combustibility, reactivity or oxidizing hazards, and must conform to the requirements of the code with respect to all their known hazards. The focus of this chapter is on materials whose primary hazard is corrosivity; that is, the ability to destroy or irreparably damage living tissue on contact. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3102 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 32 Cryogenic Fluids. This chapter regulates the hazards associated with the storage, use and handling of cryogenic fluids through regulation of such things as pressure relief mechanisms and proper container storage. These hazards are in addition to the code requirements that address the other hazards of cryogenic fluids such as flammability and toxicity. These other characteristics are dealt with in Chapter 27 and other chapters, such as Chapter 35 dealing with flammable gases. Cryogens are hazardous because they are held at extremely low temperatures and high pressures. Many cryogenic fluids, however, are actually inert gases and would not be regulated elsewhere in the code. Cryogens are used for many applications but specifically have had widespread use in the biomedical field and in space programs. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3202 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 33 Explosives and Fireworks. This chapter prescribes minimum requirements for the safe manufacture, storage, handling and use of explosives, ammunition and blasting agents for commercial and industrial occupancies. These provisions are intended to protect the general public, emergency responders and individuals who handle explosives. Chapter 33 also regulates the manufacturing, retail sale, display and wholesale distribution of fireworks, establishing the requirements for obtaining approval to manufacture, store, sell, discharge or conduct a public display, and references national standards for regulations governing manufacture, storage and public displays. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3302 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 34 Flammable and Combustible Liquids. The requirements of this chapter are intended to reduce the likelihood of fires involving the storage, handling, use or transportation of flammable and combustible liquids. Adherence to these practices may also limit damage in the event of an accidental fire involving these materials. These liquids are used for fuel, lubricants, cleaners, solvents, medicine and even drinking. The danger associated with flammable and combustible liquids is that the vapors from these liquids, when combined with air in their flammable range, will burn or explode at temperatures near our normal living and working environment. The protection provided by the code is to prevent the flammable and combustible liquids from being ignited. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3402 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 35 Flammable Gases and Flammable Cryogenic Fluids. Chapter 35 sets requirements for the storage and use of flammabIe gases. For safety purposes, there is a limit on the quantities of flammable gas allowed per control area. Exceeding these limitations increases the possibility of damage to both property and individuals. The principal hazard posed by flammable gas is its ready ignitability, or even explosivity, when mixed with air in the proper proportions. Consequently, occupancies storing or handling large quantities of flammable gas are classified as Group H-2 (high hazard) by the International BUilding Code. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3502 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 36 Flammable Solids. This chapter addresses general requirements for storage and handling of flammable solids, especially magnesium; however, it is important to note that several other solid materials, primarily metals including, but not limited to, such metals as titanium, zirconium, hafnium, calcium, zinc, sodium, lithium, potassium, sodium/potassium alloys, uranium, thorium and plutonium which, under the right conditions, can be explosion hazards. Some of these metals are almost exclusively laboratory materials but because of where they are used, fire service personnel must be trained to handle emergency situations. Because uranium, thorium and plutonium are also radioactive materials, they present still more specialized problems for fire service personnel. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3602 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 37 Highly Toxic and Toxic Materials. The main purpose of this chapter is to protect occupants, emergency responders and those in the immediate area of the building and facility from short-term, acute hazards associated with a release or general exposure to toxic and highly toxic materials. This chapter deals with all three states oftoxic and highly toxic materials: solids, liquids and gases. The code does not address long-term exposure effects of these materials which are addressed by agencies such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3702 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 38 Liquefied Petroleum Gases. Chapter 38 establishes requirements for the safe handling, storing and use of LP-gas to reduce the possibility of damage to containers, accidental releases of LP-gas and exposure of flammable concentrations of LP-gas to ignition sources. LP-gas (notably Propane) is well known as a camping fuel for cooking, lighting, heating and refrigerating and also remains a popular standby fuel supply for auxiliary generators as well as being widely used as an alternative motor vehicle fuel. Its characteristic as a clean-burning fuel having resulted in the addition of propane dispensers to service stations throughout the country. As with other chapters ofthe International Fire Code, Section 3802 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 39 Organic Peroxides. This chapter addresses the hazards associated with the storage, handling and use of organic peroxides and intends to manage the fire and oxidation hazards of organic peroxides by preventing their uncontrolled release. These

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chemicals possess the characteristics of flammable or combustible liquids and are also strong oxidizers. This unusual combination of properties requires special storage and handling precautions to prevent uncontrolled release, contamination, hazardous chemical reactions, fires or explosions. The requirements of this chapter pertain to industrial applications in which significant quantities of organic peroxides are stored or used; however, smaller quantities of organic peroxides still pose a significant hazard and, therefore, must be stored and used in accordance with the applicable provisions of this chapter and Chapter 27. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 3902 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 40 Oxidizers, Oxidizing Gases and Oxidizing Cryogenic Fluids. Chapter 40 addresses the hazards associated with solid, liquid, gaseous and cryogenic fluid oxidizing materials, including oxygen in home use, and establishes criteria for their safe storage and protection in indoor and outdoor storage facilities, minimizing the potential for uncontrolled releases and contact with fuel sources. Although oxidizers themselves do not burn, they pose unique fire hazards because of their ability to support combustion by breaking down and giving off oxygen. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 4002 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 41 Pyrophoric Materials. This chapter regulates the hazards associated with pyrophoric materials, which are capable of spontaneously igniting in the air at or below a temperature of 130°F (54°C). Many pyrophoric materials also pose severe flammability or reactivity hazards. This chapter addresses only the hazards associated with pyrophoric materials. Materials that pose multiple hazards must conform to the requirements of the code with respect to all hazards. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 4102 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 42 Pyroxylin (Cellulose Nitrate) Plastics. This chapter addresses the significant hazards associated with pyroxylin (cellulose nitrate) plastics, which are the most dangerous and unstable of all plastic compounds. The chemically bound oxygen in their structure permits them to burn vigorously in the absence of atmospheric oxygen at a rate 15 times greater than comparable common combustibles. Strict compliance with the provisions ofthis chapter, along with proper housekeeping and storage arrangements, help to reduce the hazards associated with pyroxylin (cellulose nitrate) plastics in a fire or other emergencies.

Chapter 43 Unstable (Reactive) Materials. This chapter addresses the hazards of unstable (reactive) liquid and solid materials as well as unstable (reactive) compressed gases. In addition to their unstable reactivity, these materials may pose other hazards, such as toxicity, corrosivity, explosivity, flammability or oxidizing potential. This chapter, however, intends to address those materials whose primary hazard is unstable reactivity. Materials that pose multiple hazards must conform to the requirements of the code with respect to all hazards. Strict compliance with the provisions of this chapter, along with proper housekeeping and storage arrangements, help to reduce the exposure hazards associated with unstable (reactive) materials in a fire or other emergency. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 4302 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 44 Water-reactive Solids and Liquids. This chapter addresses the hazards associated with water-reactive materials that are solid or liquid at normal temperatures and pressures. In addition to their water reactivity, these materials may pose a wide range of other hazards, such as toxicity, flammability, corrosiveness or oxidizing potential. This chapter addresses only those materials whose primary hazard is water reactivity. Materials that pose multiple hazards must conform to the requirements of the code with respect to all hazards. Strict compliance with the requirements of this chapter, along with proper housekeeping and storage arrangements, helps to reduce the exposure hazards associated with water-reactive materials in a fire or other emergency. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 4402 contains a definition applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 45 Marinas. Chapter 45 is a new chapter in the 2009 International Fire Code addressing the fire protection and prevention requirements for marinas. It was developed in response to the complications encountered by a number of fire departments responsible for the protection of marinas as well as fire loss history in marinas that lacked fire protection. Compliance with this chapter intends to establish safe practices in marina areas, provide an identification method for mooring spaces in the marina, provide fire fighters with safe operational areas and fire protection methods to extend hose lines in a safe manner. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 4502 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 46 Construction Requirements for Existing Buildings. Chapter 46 is also a new chapter in the 2009 International Fire Code. This chapter applies to existing buildings constructed prior to the adoption of this code and intends to provide a minimum degree of fire and life safety to persons occupying existing buildings by providing for alterations to such buildings that do not comply with the minimum requirements of the International BUilding Code. While this chapter is new, its content existed previously in the IFC but in a random manner that was neither efficient nor user-friendly. In the 2007/2008 code development cycle, code change F294-07/08 was approved that consolidated the retroactive elements ofIFC/2006 Sections 607,701,704,903,905,907 and 2506 and all of Section 1027 into a single chapter for easier and more efficient reference and application to existing buildings. As with other chapters of the International Fire Code, Section 4602 contains definitions applicable to the chapter contents.

Chapter 47 Referenced Standards. The code contains several references to standards that are used to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 47 contains a comprehensive list of all standards that are referenced in the code. The standards are part of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard. Compliance with the referenced standard is necessary for compliance with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and installation requirements necessary for compliance with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal basis to the code official, contractor, designer and owner.

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Chapter 47 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of the referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based upon the standard identification. The list also contains the title ofthe standard; the edition (date) ofthe standard referenced; any addenda included as part ofthe ICC adoption; and the section or sections ofthis code that reference the standard.

Appendix A Board of Appeals. This appendix contains optional criteria that, when adopted, provides jurisdictions with detailed appeals, board member qualifications and administrative procedures to supplement the basic requirements found in Section 108 of the code. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii).

Appendix B Fire-flow Requirements for Buildings. This appendix provides a tool for the use ofjurisdictions in establishing a policy for determining fire-flow requirements in accordance with IFC Section 507.3. The determination of required fire flow is not an exact science, but having some level of information provides a consistent way of choosing the appropriate fire flow for buildings throughout ajurisdiction. The primary tool used in this appendix is a table which presents fire flows based on construction type and building area based on the correlation of the Insurance Services Office (ISO) method and the construction types used in the International BUilding Code. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii).

Appendix C Fire Hydrant Locations and Distribution. This appendix focuses on the location and spacing of fire hydrants which are important to the success offire-fighting operations. The difficulty with determining the spacing offire hydrants is that every situation is unique and has unique challenges. Finding one methodology for determining hydrant spacing is difficult. This particular appendix gives one methodology based on the required fire flow that fire departments can work with to set a policy for hydrant distribution around new buildings and facilities in conjunction with IFC Section 507.5. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii).

Appendix D Fire Apparatus Access Roads. This appendix contains more detailed elements for use with the basic access requirements found in IFC Section 503 which gives some minimum criteria, such as a maximum length of 150 feet and a minimum width of 20 feet, but in many cases does not state specific criteria. This appendix, like Appendices Band C, is a tool for jurisdictions looking for guidance in establishing access requirements and includes criteria for multiple-family residential developments, large one- and two-family subdivisions, specific examples for various types of turnarounds for fire department apparatus and parking regulatory signage. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii).

Appendix E Hazard Categories. This appendix contains guidance for designers, engineers, architects, code officials, plans reviewers and inspectors in the classifying of hazardous materials so that proposed designs can be evaluated intelligently and accurately. The descriptive materials and explanations of hazardous materials and how to report and evaluate them on a Material Safety Data Sheet that are contained in this appendix are intended to be instructional as well as informative. Note that this appendix is for information purposes and is not intended for adoption.

Appendix F Hazard Ranking. The information in this appendix is intended to be a companion to the specific requirements of Chapters 28 through 44 which regulate the storage, handling and use ofall hazardous materials classified as either physical or health hazards. These materials pose diverse hazards, including instability, reactivity, flammability, oxidizing potential or toxicity; therefore, identifying them by hazard ranking is essential. This appendix lists the various hazardous materials categories that are defined in the code, along with the NFPA 704 hazard ranking for each. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii).

Appendix G Cryogenic Fluids-Weight and Volume Equivalents. This appendix gives the fire code official and design professional a ready reference tool for the conversion of the liquid weight and volume of cryogenic fluid to their corresponding volume of gas and vice versa and is a companion to the provisions of Chapter 32 of the code. Note that this appendix is for information purposes and is not intended for adoption.

Appendix H Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) Instructions. This new IFC appendix is intended to assist businesses in establishing a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) and Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) based on the classification and quantities of materials that would be found on site in storage and/or use. The sample forms and available Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) provide the basis for the evaluations. It is also a companion to IFC Sections 407.5 and 407.6 which provide the requirement that the HMIS and HMMP be submitted when required by the fire code official. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii).

Appendix I Fire Protection Systems-Unsafe Conditions. The purpose of this new IFC appendix, which was developed by the ICC Hazard Abatement in Existing Buildings Committee, is to provide the fire code official with a list of conditions that are readily identifiable by the inspector during the course of an inspection utilizing the International Fire Code. The specific conditions identified in this appendix are primarily derived from applicable NFPA standards and pose a hazard to the proper operation of the respective systems. While these do not represent all of the conditions that pose a hazard or otherwise may impair the proper operation of fire protection systems, their identification in this adoptable appendix will provide a more direct path for enforcement by the fire

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code official. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii).

Appendix J Emergency Responder Radio Coverage. This new IFC Appendix provides design, installation, testing and maintenance requirements for the emergency responder communications facilities where required by new IFC Section 510. Included are requirements for system performance, primary and secondary power supplies, signal boosters, radio frequencies, installer qualifications, acceptance testing and system maintenance. Note that the provisions contained in this appendix are not mandatory unless specifically referenced in the adopting ordinance (see sample ordinance on page xiii).

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ORDINANCE

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 2009 International Fire Code as an enforceable set of regulations for the safeguarding of life and property from fire and explosion hazards arising from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and from conditions hazardous to life or property in the occupancy of buildings and premises should ensure that certain factual information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text.

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF THE INTERNATIONAL FIRE CODE ORDINANCE NO. _

An ordinance of the [NAME OF JURISDICTION] adopting the 2009 edition of the International Fire Code, regulating and governing the safeguarding of life and property from fire and explosion hazards arising from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and from conditions hazardous to life or property in the occupancy of buildings and premises in the [NAME OF JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No. of the [NAME OF JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith.

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [NAME OF JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows:

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Fire Code, 2009 edition, including Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Fire Code Section 101.2.1, 2009 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Fire Code of the [NAME OF JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] regulating and governing the safeguarding of life and property from fire and explosion hazards arising from the storage, handling and use of hazardous substances, materials and devices, and from conditions hazardous to life or property in the occupancy of buildings and premises as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Fire Code on file in the office of the [NAME OF JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance.

Section 2. That the following sections are hereby revised:

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION]

Section 109.3. Insert: [OFFENSE, DOLLAR AMOUNT, NUMBER OF DAYS]

Section 111.4. Insert: [DOLLAR AMOUNT IN TWO LOCATIONS]

Section 3. That the geographic limits referred to in certain sections of the 2009 International Fire Code are hereby established as follows:

Section 3404.2.9.6.1 (geographic limits in which the storage of Class I and Class II liquids in above-ground tanks outside of buildings is prohibited): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY]

Section 3406.2.4.4 (geographic limits in which the storage of Class I and Class II liquids in above-ground tanks is prohibited): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY]

Section 3506.2 (geographic limits in which the storage of flammable cryogenic fluids in stationary containers is prohibited): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY]

Section 3804.2 (geographic limits in which the storage of liquefied petroleum gas is restricted for the protection of heavily populated or congested areas): [JURISDICTION TO SPECIFY]

Section 4. That Ordinance No. of [NAME OF JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY SPECIFIC REFERENCE] and all other ordinances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed.

Section 5. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it

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would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective ofthe fact that anyone or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional.

Section 6. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Fire Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 4 of this ordinance; nor shall anyjust or legal right or remedy ofany character be lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance.

Section 7. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.)

Section 8. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION 1
PART I-GENERAL PROVISIONS 1
Section
101 Scope and General Requirements 1
102 Applicability 1
PART 2-ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 2
103 Department of Fire Prevention 2
104 General Authority and Responsibilities 2
105 Permits 4
106 Inspections 11
107 Maintenance 11
108 Board of Appeals 11
109 Violations 12
110 Unsafe Buildings 12
111 Stop Work Order 13
112 Service Utilities 13
113 Fees 13
CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 15
Section
201 General 15
202 General Definitions 15
CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 33
Section
301 General 33
302 Definitions 33
303 Asphalt Kettles 33
304 Combustible Waste Material 33
305 Ignition Sources 34
306 Motion Picture Projection Rooms and Film 34
307 Open Burning, Recreational Fires and Portable Outdoor Fireplaces 35
308 Open Flames 35
309 Powered Industrial Trucks and Equipment 37
310 Smoking 37
311 Vacant Premises 38
312 Vehicle Impact Protection 39
313 Fueled Equipment 39
314 Indoor Displays 39
315 Miscellaneous Combustible Materials Storage 39
316 Hazards to Fire Fighters 40
317 Laundry Carts 40
CHAPTER 4 EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS 41
Section
401 General 41
402 Definitions 41
403 Public Assemblages and Events 41
404 Fire Safety and Evacuation Plans 42
405 Emergency Evacuation Drills 43
406 Employee Training and Response Procedures 44
407 Hazard Communication 44
408 Use and Occupancy-related Requirements 44
CHAPTER 5 FIRE SERVICE FEATURES 49
Section
501 General 49
502 Definitions 49
503 Fire Apparatus Access Roads 49
504 Access to Building Openings and Roofs 50
505 Premises Identification 50
506 Key Boxes 51
507 Fire Protection Water Supplies 51
508 Fire Command Center 51
509 Fire Protection Equipment Identification and Access 52
510 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage 52
CHAPTER 6 BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS 53
Section
601 General 53
602 Definitions 53
603 Fuel-fired Appliances 54
604 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 56
605 Electrical Equipment, Wiring and Hazards 58
606 Mechanical Refrigeration 59
607 Elevator Recall and Maintenance 61
608 Stationary Storage Battery Systems 62
609 Commercial Kitchen Hoods 63 xv
CHAPTER 7 FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION 65
Section
701 General 65
702 Definitions 65
703 Fire-resistance-rated Construction 65
704 Floor Openings and Shafts 66
CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS 67
Section
801 General 67
802 Definitions 67
803 Interior Wall and Ceiling Finish and Trim in Existing BUildings 67
804 Interior Wall and Ceiling Trim in New and Existing Buildings 69
805 Upholstered Furniture and Mattresses in New and Exisiting Buildings 70
806 Decorative Vegetation in New and Existing Buildings 72
807 Decorative Materials Other Than Decorative Vegetation in New and Existing Buildings 73
808 Furnishings Other than Upholstered Furniture and Mattresses or Decorative Materials in New and Existing Buildings 74
CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 75
Section
901 General 75
902 Definitions 76
903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 79
904 Alternative Automatic Fire-extinguishing Systems 84
905 Standpipe Systems 87
906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 89
907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 91
908 Emergency Alarm Systems 101
909 Smoke Control Systems 101
910 Smoke and Heat Vents 107
911 Explosion Control 109
912 Fire Department Connections 109
913 Fire Pumps 111
914 Fire Protection Based on Special Detailed Requirements of Use and Occupancy 111
CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 115
Section
1001 Administration 115
1002 Definitions 115
1003 General Means of Egress 116
1004 Occupant Load 117
1005 Egress Width 119
1006 Means of Egress Illumination 119
1007 Accessible Means of Egress 120
1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 122
1009 Stairways 128
1010 Ramps 131
1011 Exit Signs 132
1012 Handrails 133
1013 Guards 134
1014 Exit Access 135
1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 136
1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 138
1017 Aisles 138
1018 Corridors 139
1019 Egress Balconies 140
1020 Exits 141
1021 Number of Exits and Continuity 141
1022 Exit Enclosures 142
1023 Exit Passageways 144
1024 Luminous Egress Path Markings 144
1025 Horizontal Exits 145
1026 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 146
1027 Exit Discharge 147
1028 Assembly 148
1029 Emergency Escape and Rescue 152
1030 Maintenance of the Means of Egress 153
CHAPTER 11 AVIATION FACILITIES 155
Section
1101 General 155
1102 Definitions 155
1103 General Precautions 155
1104 Aircraft Maintenance 155
1105 Portable Fire Extinguishers 156
1106 Aircraft Fueling 156
1107 Helistops and Heliports 161 xvi
CHAPTER 12 DRY CLEANING 163
Section
1201 General 163
1202 Definitions 163
1203 Classifications 163
1204 General Requirements 163
1205 Operating Requirements 164
1206 Spotting and Pretreating 164
1207 Dry Cleaning Systems 165
1208 Fire Protection 165
CHAPTER 13 COMBUSTIBLE DUST-PRODUCING OPERATIONS 167
Section
1301 General 167
1302 Definitions 167
1303 Precautions 167
1304 Explosion Protection 167
CHAPTER 14 FIRE SAFETY DURING CONSTRUCTION AND DEMOLITION 169
Section
1401 General 169
1402 Definitions 169
1403 Temporary Heating Equipment 169
1404 Precautions Against Fire 169
1405 Flammable and Combustible Liquids 169
1406 Flammable Gases 170
1407 Explosive Materials 170
1408 Owner's Responsibility for Fire Protection 170
1409 Fire Reporting 170
1410 Access for Fire Fighting 170
1411 Means of Egress 170
1412 Water Supply for Fire Protection 170
1413 Standpipes 170
1414 Automatic Sprinkler System 171
1415 Portable Fire Extinguishers 171
1416 Motorized Equipment 171
1417 Safeguarding Roofing Operations 171
CHAPTER 15 FLAMMABLE FINISHES 173
Section
1501 General 173
1502 Definitions 173
1503 Protection of Operations 174
1504 Spray Finishing 175
1505 Dipping Operations 179
1506 Powder Coating 180
1507 Electrostatic Apparatus 181
1508 Organic Peroxides and Dual-component Coatings 182
1509 Indoor Manufacturing of Reinforced Plastics 182
1510 Floor Surfacing and Finishing Operations 183
CHAPTER 16 FRUIT AND CROP RIPENING 185
Section
1601 General 185
1602 Definitions 185
1603 Ethylene Gas 185
1604 Sources of Ignition 185
1605 Combustible Waste 185
1606 Ethylene Generators 185
1607 Warning Signs 185
CHAPTER 17 FUMIGATION AND THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING 187
Section
1701 General 187
1702 Definitions 187
1703 Fire Safety Requirements 187
CHAPTER 18 SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITIES 189
Section
1801 General 189
1802 Definitions 189
1803 General Safety Provisions 189
1804 Storage 193
1805 Use and Handling 194
CHAPTER 19 LUMBER YARDS AND WOODWORKING FACILITIES 199
Section
1901 General 199
1902 Definitions 199
1903 General Requirements 199
1904 Fire Protection 199
1905 Plywood, Veneer and Composite Board Mills 200
1906 Log Storage Areas 200 xvii
1907 Storage of Wood Chips and Hogged Material Associated with Timber and Lumber Production Facilities 200
1908 Storage and Processing of Wood Chips, Hogged Material, Fines, Compost and Raw Product Associated with Yard Waste and Recycling Facilities 200
1909 Exterior Storage of Finished Lumber Products 201
CHAPTER 20 MANUFACTURE OF ORGANIC COATINGS 203
Section
2001 General 203
2002 Definitions 203
2003 General Precautions 203
2004 Electrical Equipment and Protection 203
2005 Process Structures 204
2006 Process Mills and Kettles 204
2007 Process Piping 204
2008 Raw Materials in Process Areas 205
2009 Raw Materials and Finished Products 205
CHAPTER 21 INDUSTRIAL OVENS 207
Section
2101 General 207
2102 Definitions 207
2103 Location 207
2104 Fuel Piping 207
2105 Interlocks 207
2106 Fire Protection 208
2107 Operation and Maintenance 208
CHAPTER 22 MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES AND REPAIR GARAGES 209
Section
2201 General 209
2202 Definitions 209
2203 Location of Dispensing Devices 209
2204 Dispensing Operations 210
2205 Operational Requirements 211
2206 Flammable and Combustible Liquid Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities 212
2207 Liquefied Petroleum Gas Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities 216
2208 Compressed Natural Gas Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities 217
2209 Hydrogen Motor Fuel-dispensing and Generation Facilities 218
2210 Marine Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities 221
2211 Repair Garages 223
CHAPTER 23 HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE 227
Section
2301 General 227
2302 Definitions 227
2303 Commodity Classification 228
2304 Designation of High-piled Storage Areas 230
2305 Housekeeping and Maintenance 230
2306 General Fire Protection and Life Safety Features 232
2307 Solid-piled and Shelf Storage 234
2308 Rack Storage 234
2309 Automated Storage 235
2310 Specialty Storage 235
CHAPTER 24 TENTS AND OTHER MEMBRANE STRUCTURES 237
Section
2401 General 237
2402 Definitions 237
2403 Temporary Tents and Membrane Structures 237
2404 Temporary and Permanent Tents and Membrane Structures 239
CHAPTER 25 TIRE REBUILDING AND TIRE STORAGE 243
Section
2501 General 243
2502 Definitions 243
2503 Tire Rebuilding 243
2504 Precautions Against Fire 243
2505 Outdoor Storage 243
2506 Fire Department Access 244
2507 Fencing 244
2508 Fire Protection 244
2509 Indoor Storage Arrangement 244
CHAPTER 26 WELDING AND OTHER HOT WORK 245
Section
2601 General 245
2602 Definitions 245 xviii
2603 General Requirements 245
2604 Fire Safety Requirements 246
2605 Gas Welding and Cutting 247
2606 Electric Arc Hot Work 247
2607 Calcium Carbide Systems 247
2608 Acetylene Generators 247
2609 Piping Manifolds and Hose Systems for Fuel Gases and Oxygen 248
CHAPTER 27 HAZARDOUS MATERIALS-GENERAL PROVISIONS 249
Section
2701 General 249
2702 Definitions 251
2703 General Requirements 253
2704 Storage 268
2705 Use, Dispensing and Handling 271
CHAPTER 28 AEROSOLS 277
Section
2801 General 277
2802 Definitions 277
2803 Classification of Aerosol Products 277
2804 Inside Storage of Aerosol Products 277
2805 Outside Storage 279
2806 Retail Display 280
2807 Manufacturing Facilities 281
CHAPTER 29 COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS 283
Section
2901 General 283
2902 Definitions 283
2903 General Precautions 283
2904 Loose Fiber Storage 283
2905 Baled Storage 284
CHAPTER 30 COMPRESSED GASES 285
Section
3001 General 285
3002 Definitions 285
3003 General Requirements 285
3004 Storage of Compressed Gases 289
3005 Use and Handling of Compressed Gases 289
3006 Medical Gas Systems 290
3007 Compressed Gases Not Otherwise Regulated 290
CHAPTER 31 CORROSIVE MATERIALS 291
Section
3101 General 291
3102 Definitions 291
3103 General Requirements 291
3104 Storage 291
3105 Use 291
CHAPTER 32 CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 293
Section
3201 General 293
3202 Definitions 293
3203 General Requirements 293
3204 Storage 295
3205 Use and Handling 296
CHAPTER 33 EXPLOSIVES AND FIREWORKS 299
Section
3301 General 299
3302 Definitions 302
3303 Record Keeping and Reporting 305
3304 Explosive Materials Storage and Handling 305
3305 Manufacture, Assembly and Testing of Explosives, Explosive Materials and Fireworks 312
3306 Small Arms Ammunition 314
3307 Blasting 316
3308 Fireworks Display 317
3309 Temporary Storage of Consumer Fireworks 318
CHAPTER 34 FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS 319
Section
3401 General 319
3402 Definitions 319
3403 General Requirements 320
3404 Storage 324
3405 Dispensing, Use, Mixing and Handling 344
3406 Special Operations 349
CHAPTER 35 FLAMMABLE GASES AND FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 359
Section
3501 General 359
3502 Definitions 359 xix
3503 General Requirements 359
3504 Storage 360
3505 Use 360
3506 Flammable Cryogenic Fluids 360
3507 Metal Hydride Storage Systems 362
CHAPTER 36 FLAMMABLE SOLIDS 365
Section
3601 General 365
3602 Definitions 365
3603 General Requirements 365
3604 Storage 365
3605 Use 365
3606 Magnesium 365
CHAPTER 37 HIGHLY TOXIC AND TOXIC MATERIALS 369
Section
3701 General 369
3702 Definitions 369
3703 Highly Toxic and Toxic Solids and Liquids 370
3704 Highly Toxic and Toxic Compressed Gases 371
3705 Ozone Gas Generators 375
CHAPTER 38 LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GASES 377
Section
3801 General 377
3802 Definitions 377
3803 Installation of Equipment 377
3804 Location of LP-gas Containers 378
3805 Prohibited Use of LP-gas 379
3806 Dispensing and Overfilling 379
3807 Safety Precautions and Devices 379
3808 Fire Protection 379
3809 Storage of Portable LP-gas Containers Awaiting Use or Resale 379
3810 LP-gas Containers Not in Service 381
3811 Parking and Garaging 381
CHAPTER 39 ORGANIC PEROXIDES 383
Section
3901 General 383
3902 Definitions 383
3903 General Requirements 383
3904 Storage 383
3905 Use 385
CHAPTER 40 OXIDIZERS, OXIDIZING GASES AND OXIDIZING CRYOGENIC FLUIDS 387
Section
4001 General 387
4002 Definitions 387
4003 General Requirements 387
4004 Storage 388
4005 Use 390
4006 Liquid Oxygen in Home Health Care 390
CHAPTER 41 PYROPHORIC MATERIALS 393
Section
4101 General 393
4102 Definitions 393
4103 General Requirements 393
4104 Storage 393
4105 Use 394
CHAPTER 42 PYROXYLIN (CELLULOSE NITRATE) PLASTICS 395
Section
4201 General 395
4202 Definitions 395
4203 General Requirements 395
4204 Storage and Handling 395
CHAPTER 43 UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIALS 397
Section
4301 General 397
4302 Definitions 397
4303 General Requirements 397
4304 Storage 398
4305 Use 398
CHAPTER 44 WATER-REACTIVE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS 399
Section
4401 General 399
4402 Definitions 399
4403 General Requirements 399
4404 Storage 399
4405 Use 400 xx
CHAPTER 45 MARINAS 401
Section
4501 Scope 401
4502 Definitions 401
4503 General Precautions 401
4504 Fire Protection Equipment 401
4505 Marine Motor Fuel-dispensing Facilities 402
CHAPTER 46 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR EXISTING BUILDINGS 403
Section
4601 General 403
4602 Definitions 403
4603 Fire Safety Requirements for Existing Buildings 403
4604 Means of Egress for Existing Buildings 407
4605 Requirements for Outdoor Operations 412
CHAPTER 47 REFERENCED STANDARDS 413
APPENDIX A BOARD OF APPEALS 423
Section
A101 General 423
APPENDIX B FIRE-FLOW REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDINGS 425
Section
BIOI General 425
B102 Definitions 425
B103 Modifications 425
B104 Fire-flow Calculation Area 425
BIOS Fire-flow Requirements for Buildings 425
B106 Referenced Standards 425
APPENDIX C FIRE HYDRANT LOCATIONS AND DISTRIBUTION 427
Section
C101 General 427
C102 Location 427
C103 Number of Fire Hydrants 427
C104 Consideration of Existing Fire Hydrants 427
C105 Distribution of Fire Hydrants 427
APPENDIX D FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS 429
Section
D101 General 429
D102 Required Access 429
D103 Minimum Specifications 429
D104 Commercial and Industrial Developments 430
D105 Aerial Fire Apparatus Access Roads 430
D106 Multiple-family Residential Developments 430
D107 One- or Two-family Residential Developments 431
D108 Referenced Standards 431
APPENDIX E HAZARD CATEGORIES 433
Section
E101 General 433
E102 Hazard Categories 433
E103 Evaluation of Hazards 437
E104 Referenced Standards 438
APPENDIX F HAZARD RANKING 439
Section
F101 General 439
F102 Referenced Standards 439
APPENDIX G CRYOGENIC FLUIDS-WEIGHT AND VOLUME EQUIVALENTS 441
Section
G101 General 441
APPENDIX H HAZARDOUS MATERIALS MANAGEMENT PLAN (HMMP) AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS INVENTORY STATEMENT (HMIS) INSTRUCTIONS 443
Section
H101 HMMP 443
H102 HMIS 443
H103 Emergency Plan 444
H104 Referenced Standards 444
APPENDIX I FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS-NONCOMPLIANT CONDITIONS 451
Section
1101 Noncompliant Conditions 451
1102 Referenced Standards 452
APPENDIX J EMERGENCY RESPONDER RADIO COVERAGE 453
Section
J101 General 453
J102 Definitions 453 xxi
J103 Technical Requirements 453
J104 Referenced Standards 454
INDEX 455
xxii

CHAPTER 1
SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION

PART 1-GENERAL PROVISIONS

SECTION 101
SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the Fire Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter referred to as "this code."

101.2 Scope. This code establishes regulations affecting or relating to structures, processes, premises and safeguards regarding:

  1. The hazard of fire and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of structures, materials or devices;
  2. Conditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy of structures or premises;
  3. Fire hazards in the structure or on the premises from occupancy or operation;
  4. Matters related to the construction, extension, repair, alteration or removal of fire suppression or alarm systems; and
  5. Conditions affecting the safety of fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically adopted.

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements consistent with nationally recognized good practice for providing a reasonable level oflife safety and property protection from the hazards of fire, explosion or dangerous conditions in new and existing buildings, structures and premises and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

101.4 Severability. If a section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this code is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional' such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this code.

101.5 Validity. In the event any part or provision of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provisions hereof, which are determined to be legal; and it shall be presumed that this code would have been adopted without such illegal or invalid parts or provisions.

SECTION 102
APPLICABILITY

102.1 Construction and design provisions. The construction and design provisions of this code shall apply to:

  1. Structures, facilities and conditions arising after the adoption of this code.
  2. Existing structures, facilities and conditions not legally in existence at the time of adoption of this code.
  3. Existing structures, facilities and conditions when required in Chapter 46.
  4. Existing structures, facilities and conditions which, in the opinion of the fire code official, constitute a distinct hazard to life or property.

102.2 Administrative, operational and maintenance provisions. The administrative, operational and maintenance provisions of this code shall apply to:

  1. Conditions and operations arising after the adoption of this code.
  2. Existing conditions and operations.

102.3 Change of use or occupancy. No change shall be made in the use or occupancy of any structure that would place the structure in a different division of the same group or occupancy or in a different group of occupancies, unless such structure is made to comply with the requirements of this code and the International BUilding Code. Subject to the approval of the fire code official, the use or occupancy of an existing structure shall be allowed to be changed and the structure is allowed to be occupied for purposes in other groups without conforming to all the requirements of this code and the International BUilding Code for those groups, provided the new or proposed use is less hazardous, based on life and fire risk, than the existing use.

102.4 Application ofbuilding code. The design and construction of new structures shall comply with the International BUilding Code, and any alterations, additions, changes in use or changes in structures required by this code, which are within the scope of the International BUilding Code, shall be made in accordance therewith.

102.5 Application of residential code. Where structures are designed and constructed in accordance with the International Residential Code, the provisions of this code shall apply as follows:

  1. Construction and design provisions: Provisions of this code pertaining to the exterior of the structure shall apply including, but not limited to, premises identification, fire apparatus access and water supplies. Where interior or exterior systems or devices are installed, construction permits required by Section 105.7 of this code shall also apply.
  2. Administrative, operational and maintenance provisions: All such provisions of this code shall apply.

102.6 Historic buildings. The provisions of this code relating to the construction, alteration, repair, enlargement, restoration, relocation or moving of buildings or structures shall not be mandatory for existing buildings or structures identified and classified by the state or local jurisdiction as historic buildings when such buildings or structures do not constitute a distinct

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hazard to life or property. Fire protection in designated historic buildings and structures shall be provided in accordance with an approved fire protection plan.

102.7 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be those that are listed in Chapter 45 and such codes and standards shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where differences occur between the provisions of this code and the referenced standards, the provisions of this code shall apply.

102.8 Subjects not regulated by this code. Where no applicable standards or requirements are set forth in this code, or are contained within other laws, codes, regulations, ordinances or bylaws adopted by thejurisdiction, compliance with applicable standards of the National Fire Protection Association or other nationally recognized fire safety standards, as approved, shall be deemed as prima facie evidence of compliance with the intent of this code. Nothing herein shall derogate from the authority of the fire code official to determine compliance with codes or standards for those activities or installations within the fire code official'sjurisdiction or responsibility.

102.9 Matters not provided for. Requirements that are essential for the public safety of an existing or proposed activity, building or structure, or for the safety of the occupants thereof, which are not specifically provided for by this code shall be determined by the fire code official.

102.10 Conflicting provisions. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable. Where, in a specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.

102.11 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions oflocal, state or federal law.

102.12 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

PART 2-ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS

SECTION 103
DEPARTMENT OF FIRE PREVENTION

103.1 General. The department of fire prevention is established within thejurisdiction under the direction ofthe fire code official. The function of the department shall be the implementation, administration and enforcement of the provisions of this code.

103.2 Appointment. The fire code official shall be appointed by the chiefappointing authority ofthejurisdiction; and the fire code official shall not be removed from office except for cause and after full opportunity to be heard on specific and relevant charges by and before the appointing authority.

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing authority, the fire code official shall have the authority to appoint a deputy fire code official, other related technical officers' inspectors and other employees.

103.4 Liability. The fire code official, member of the board of appeals, officer or employee charged with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction, in good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally, and is hereby relieved from all personalliability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of an act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official duties.

103.4.1 Legal defense. Any suit instituted against any officer or employee because of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall be defended by the legal representative of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. The fire code official or any subordinate shall not be liable for costs in an action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code; and any officer of the department of fire prevention, acting in good faith and without malice, shall be free from liability for acts performed under any of its provisions or by reason of any act or omission in the performance of official duties in connection therewith.

SECTION 104
GENERAL AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITIES

104.1 General. The fire code official is hereby authorized to enforce the provisions of this code and shall have the authority to render interpretations of this code, and to adopt policies, procedures, rules and regulations in order to clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies, procedures, rules and regulations shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code and shall not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this code.

104.2 Applications and permits. The fire code official is authorized to receive applications, review construction documents and issue permits for construction regulated by this code, issue permits for operations regulated by this code, inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code.

104.3 Right of entry. Whenever it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or whenever the fire code official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a building or upon any premises any conditions or violations of this code which make the building or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the fire code officialshall have the authority to enter the building or premises at all reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed upon the fire code officialby this code. If such building or premises is occupied, the fire code official shall present credentials to the occupant and request entry. If such building or premises is unoccupied, the fire code official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the building or premises and request entry. If entry is

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refused, the fire code official has recourse to every remedy provided by law to secure entry.

104.3.1 Warrant. When the fire code official has first obtained a proper inspection warrant or other remedy provided by law to secure entry, an owneror occupant or person having charge, care or control of the building or premises shall not fail or neglect, after proper request is made as herein provided, to permit entry therein by the fire code official for the purpose of inspection and examination pursuant to this code.

104.4 Identification. The fire code official shall carry proper identification when inspecting structures or premises in the performance of duties under this code.

104.5 Notices and orders. The fire code official is authorized to issue such notices or orders as are required to affect compliance with this code in accordance with Sections 109.1 and 109.2.

104.6 Official records. The fire code officialshall keep official records as required by Sections 104.6.1 through 104.6.4. Such official records shall be retained for not less than five years or for as long as the structure or activity to which such records relate remains in existence, unless otherwise provided by other regulations.

104.6.1 Approvals. A record of approvals shall be maintained by the fire code official and shall be available for public inspection during business hours in accordance with applicable laws.

104.6.2 Inspections. The fire code official shall keep a record of each inspection made, including notices and orders issued, showing the findings and disposition ofeach.

104.6.3 Fire records. The fire department shall keep a record of fires occurring within its jurisdiction and of facts concerning the same, including statistics as to the extent of such fires and the damage caused thereby, together with other information as required by the fire code official.

104.6.4 Administrative. Application for modification, alternative methods or materials and the final decision of the fire code official shall be in writing and shall be officially recorded in the permanent records of the fire code official.

104.7 Approved materials and equipment. All materials, equipment and devices approved by the fire code official shall be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval.

104.7.1 Material and equipment reuse. Materials, equipment and devices shall not be reused or reinstalled unless such elements have been reconditioned, tested and placed in good and proper working condition and approved.

104.7.2 Technical assistance. To determine the acceptability of technologies, processes, products, facilities, materials and uses attending the design, operation or use of a building or premises subject to inspection by the fire code official, the fire code official is authorized to require the owner or agent to provide, without charge to the jurisdiction, a technical opinion and report. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified engineer, specialist, laboratory or fire safety specialty organization acceptable to the fire code official and shall analyze the fire safety properties of the design, operation or use of the building or premises and the facilities and appurtenances situated thereon, to recommend necessary changes. The fire code official is authorized to require design submittals to be prepared by, and bear the stamp of, a registered design professional.

104.8 Modifications. Whenever there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the fire code official shall have the authority to grant modifications for individual cases, provided the fire code official shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does not lessen health, life and fire safety requirements. The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files of the department of fire prevention.

104.9 Alternative materials and methods. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. The fire code official is authorized to approve an alternative material or method of construction where the fire code official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety.

104.9.1 Research reports. Supporting data, when necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources.

104.9.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative materials or methods, the fire code official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the fire code official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the fire code official for the period required for retention of public records.

104.10 Fire investigations. The fire code official, the fire department or other responsible authority shall have the authority to investigate the cause, origin and circumstances of any fire, explosion or other hazardous condition. Information that could be related to trade secrets or processes shall not be made part of the public record except as directed by a court of law.

104.10.1 Assistance from other agencies. Police and other enforcement agencies shall have authority to render necessary assistance in the investigation of fires when requested to do so.

104.11 Authority at fires and other emergencies. The fire chief or officer of the fire department in charge at the scene of a

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fire or other emergency involving the protection of life or property or any part thereof, shall have the authority to direct such operation as necessary to extinguish or control any fire, perform any rescue operation, investigate the existence of suspected or reported fires, gas leaks or other hazardous conditions or situations, or take any other action necessary in the reasonable performance of duty. In the exercise of such power, the fire chief is authorized to prohibit any person, vehicle, vessel or thing from approaching the scene and is authorized to remove, or cause to be removed or kept away from the scene, any vehicle, vessel or thing which could impede or interfere with the operations of the fire department and, in the judgment of the fire chief, any person not actually and usefully employed in the extinguishing of such fire or in the preservation of property in the vicinity thereof.

104.11.1 Barricades. The fire chief or officer of the fire department in charge at the scene of an emergency is authorized to place ropes, guards, barricades or other obstructions across any street, alley, place or private property in the vicinity of such operation so as to prevent accidents or interference with the lawful efforts of the fire department to manage and control the situation and to handle fire apparatus.

104.11.2 Obstructing operations. No person shall obstruct the operations of the fire department in connection with extinguishment or control of any fire, or actions relative to other emergencies, or disobey any lawful command of the fire chief or officer of the fire department in charge of the emergency, or any part thereof, or any lawful order of a police officer assisting the fire department.

104.11.3 Systems and devices. No person shall render a system or device inoperative during an emergency unless by direction of the fire chief or fire department official in charge of the incident.

SECTION 105
PERMITS

105.1 General. Permits shall be in accordance with Sections 105.1.1 through 105.7.14.

105.1.1 Permits required. Permits required by this code shall be obtained from the fire code official. Permit fees, if any, shall be paid prior to issuance of the permit. Issued permits shall be kept on the premises designated therein at all times and shall be readily available for inspection by the fire code official.

105.1.2 Types of permits. There shall be two types of permits as follows:

  1. Operational permit. An operational permit allows the applicant to conduct an operation or a business for which a permit is required by Section 105.6 for either:

    1.1. A prescribed period.

    1.2. Until renewed or revoked.

  2. Construction permit. A construction permit allows the applicant to install or modify systems and equipment for which a permit is required by Section 105.7.

105.1.3 Permits for the same location. When more than one permit is required for the same location, the fire code official is authorized to consolidate such permits into a single permit provided that each provision is listed in the permit.

105.2 Application. Application for a permit required by this code shall be made to the fire code official in such form and detail as prescribed by the fire code official. Applications for permits shall be accompanied by such plans as prescribed by the fire code official.

105.2.1 Refusal to issue permit. If the application for a permit describes a use that does not conform to the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws and ordinances, the fire code official shall not issue a permit, but shall return the application to the applicant with the refusal to issue such permit. Such refusal shall, when requested, be in writing and shall contain the reasons for refusal.

105.2.2 Inspection authorized. Before a new operational permit is approved, the fire code official is authorized to inspect the receptacles, vehicles, buildings, devices, premises, storage spaces or areas to be used to determine compliance with this code or any operational constraints required.

105.2.3 Time limitation ofapplication. An application for a permit for any proposed work or operation shall be deemed to have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, unless such application has been diligently prosecuted or a permit shall have been issued; except that the fire code officialis authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding 90 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.

105.2.4 Action on application. The fire code official shall examine or cause to be examined applications for permits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after filing. If the application or the construction documents do not conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the fire code official shall reject such application in writing, stating the reasons therefor. If the fire code official is satisfied that the proposed work or operation conforms to the requirements of this code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the fire code official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable.

105.3 Conditions of a permit. A permit shall constitute permission to maintain, store or handle materials; or to conduct processes which produce conditions hazardous to life or property; or to install equipment utilized in connection with such activities; or to install or modify any fire protection system or equipment or any other construction, equipment installation or modification in accordance with the provisions of this code where a permit is required by Section 105.6 or 105.7. Such permission shall not be construed as authority to violate, cancel or set aside any of the provisions of this code or other applicable regulations or laws of the jurisdiction.

105.3.1 Expiration. An operational permit shall remain in effect until reissued, renewed, or revoked or for such a period of time as specified in the permit. Construction permits

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shall automatically become invalid unless the work authorized by such permit is commenced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work authorized by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. Before such work recommences, a new permit shall be first obtained and the fee to recommence work, if any, shall be one-half the amount required for a new permit for such work, provided no changes have been made or will be made in the original construction documents for such work, and provided further that such suspension or abandonment has not exceeded one year. Permits are not transferable and any change in occupancy, operation, tenancy or ownership shall require that a new permit be issued.

105.3.2 Extensions. A permittee holding an unexpired permit shall have the right to apply for an extension of the time within which the permittee will commence work under that permit when work is unable to be commenced within the time required by this section for good and satisfactory reasons. The fire code official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more extensions of the time period of a permit for periods of not more than 180 days each. Such extensions shall be requested by the permit holder in writing andjustifiable cause demonstrated.

105.3.3 Occupancy prohibited before approval. The building or structure shall not be occupied prior to the fire code official issuing a permit and conducting associated inspections indicating the applicable provisions of this code have been met.

105.3.4 Conditional permits. Where permits are required and upon the request of a permit applicant, the fire code official is authorized to issue a conditional permit to occupy the premises or portion thereof before the entire work or operations on the premises is completed, provided that such portion or portions will be occupied safely prior to full completion or installation of equipment and operations without endangering life or public welfare. The fire code official. shall notify the permit applicant in writing of any limitations or restrictions necessary to keep the permit area safe. The holder of a conditional permit shall proceed only to the point for which approval has been given, at the permit holder's own risk and without assurance that approval for the occupancy or the utilization of the entire premises, equipment or operations will be granted.

105.3.5 Posting the permit. Issued permits shall be kept on the premises designated therein at all times and shall be readily available for inspection by the fire code official.

105.3.6 Compliance with code. The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction documents and other data shall not prevent the fire code official. from requiring the correction of errors in the construction documents and other data. Any addition to or alteration of approved construction documents shall be approved in advance by the fire code official, as evidenced by the issuance of a new or amended permit.

105.3.7 Information on the permit. The fire code official shall issue all permits required by this code on an approved form furnished for that purpose. The permit shall contain a general description of the operation or occupancy and its location and any other information required by the fire code official. Issued permits shall bear the signature of the fire code official or other approved legal authorization.

105.3.8 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction documents, operational documents and other data shall not prevent the fire code ofl1cialfrom requiring correction of errors in the documents or other data.

105.4 Construction documents. Construction documents shall be in accordance with this section.

105.4.1 Submittals. Construction documents and supporting data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each application for a permit and in such form and detail as required by the fire code official. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.

Exception: The fire code official is authorized to waive the submission of construction documents and supporting data not required to be prepared by a registered design professional if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that review of construction documents is not necessary to obtain compliance with this code.

105.4.1.1 Examination of documents. The fire code official shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying construction documents and shall ascertain by such examinations whether the work indicated and described is in accordance with the requirements of this code.

105.4.2 Information on construction documents. Construction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are allowed to be submitted when approved by the fire code official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations as determined by the fire code official.

105.4.2.1 Fire protection system shop drawings. Shop drawings for the fire protections system(s) shall be submitted to indicate compliance with this code and the construction documents and shall be approved prior to the start of installation. Shop drawings shall contain all information as required by the referenced installation standards in Chapter 9.

5

105.4.3 Applicant responsibility. It shall be the responsibility of the applicant to ensure that the construction documents include all of the fire protection requirements and the shop drawings are complete and in compliance with the applicable codes and standards.

105.4.4 Approved documents. Construction documents approved by the fire code official are approved with the intent that such construction documents comply in all respects with this code. Review and approval by the fire code official shall not relieve the applicant of the responsibility of compliance with this code.

105.4.4.1 Phased approval. The fire code official is authorized to issue a permit for the construction ofpart of a structure, system or operation before the construction documents for the whole structure, system or operation have been submitted, provided that adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for parts of a structure, system or operation shall proceed at the holder's own risk with the building operation and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure, system or operation will be granted.

105.4.5 Corrected documents. Where field conditions necessitate any substantial change from the approved construction documents, the fire code official shall have the authority to require the corrected construction documents to be submitted for approval.

105.4.6 Retention of construction documents. One set of construction documents shall be retained by the fire code official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws. One set of approved construction documents shall be returned to the applicant, and said set shall be kept on the site of the building or work at all times during which the work authorized thereby is in progress.

105.5 Revocation. The fire code official is authorized to revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code when it is found by inspection or otherwise that there has been a false statement or misrepresentation as to the material facts in the application or construction documents on which the permit or approval was based including, but not limited to, anyone of the following:

  1. The permit is used for a location or establishment other than that for which it was issued.
  2. The permit is used for a condition or activity other than that listed in the permit.
  3. Conditions and limitations set forth in the permit have been violated.
  4. There have been any false statements or misrepresentations as to the material fact in the application for permit or plans submitted or a condition of the permit.
  5. The permit is used by a different person or firm than the name for which it was issued.
  6. The permittee failed, refused or neglected to comply with orders or notices duly served in accordance with the provisions ofthis code within the time provided therein.
  7. The permit was issued in error or in violation of an ordinance, regulation or this code.

105.6 Required operational permits. The fire code official is authorized to issue operational permits for the operations set forth in Sections 105.6.1 through 105.6.46.

105.6.1 Aerosol products. An operational permit is required to manufacture, store or handle an aggregate quantity of Level 2 or Level 3 aerosol products in excess of 500 pounds (227 kg) net weight.

105.6.2 Amusement buildings. An operational permit is required to operate a special amusement building.

105.6.3 Aviation facilities. An operational permit is required to use a Group H or Group S occupancy for aircraft servicing or repair and aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles. Additional permits required by other sections of this code include, but are not limited to, hot work, hazardous materials and flammable or combustible finishes.

105.6.4 Carnivals and fairs. An operational permit is required to conduct a carnival or fair.

105.6.5 Cellulose nitrate film. An operational permit is required to store, handle or use cellulose nitrate film in a Group A occupancy.

105.6.6 Combustible dust-producing operations. An operational permit is required to operate a grain elevator, flour starch mill, feed mill, or a plant pulverizing aluminum, coal, cocoa, magnesium, spices or sugar, or other operations producing combustible dusts as defined in Chapter 2.

105.6.7 Combustible fibers. An operational permit is required for the storage and handling of combustible fibers in quantities greater than 100 cubic feet (2.8 m3).

Exception: A permit is not required for agricultural storage.

105.6.8 Compressed gases. An operational permit is required for the storage, use or handling at normal temperature and pressure (NTP) of compressed gases in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.8.

Exception: Vehicles equipped for and using compressed gas as a fuel for propelling the vehicle.

TABLE 105.6.8
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR COMPRESSED GASES
TYPE OF GAS AMOUNT (cubic feet at NTP)
Corrosive 200
Flammable (except cryogenic fluids and liquefied petroleum gases) 200
Highly toxic Any Amount
Inert and simple asphyxiant 6,000
Oxidizing (including oxygen) 504
Pyrophoric Any Amount
Toxic Any Amount
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.
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105.6.9 Covered mall buildings. An operational permit is required for:

  1. The placement of retail fixtures and displays, concession equipment, displays of highly combustible goods and similar items in the mall.
  2. The display of liquid- or gas-fired equipment in the mall.
  3. The use ofopen-flame or flame-producing equipment in the mall.

105.6.10 Cryogenic fluids. An operational permit is required to produce, store, transport on site, use, handle or dispense cryogenic fluids in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.10.

Exception: Permits are not required for vehicles equipped for and using cryogenic fluids as a fuel for propelling the vehicle or for refrigerating the lading.

TABLE 105.6.10
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR CRYOGENIC FLUIDS
TYPE OF CRYOGENIC FLUID INSIDE BUILDING (gallons) OUTSIDE BUILDING (gallons)
Flammable More than 1 60
Inert 60 500
Oxidizing (includes oxygen) 10 50
Physical or health hazard not indicated above Any Amount Any Amount
For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L.

105.6.11 Cutting and welding. An operational permit is required to conduct cutting or welding operations within the jurisdiction.

105.6.12 Dry cleaning plants. An operational permit is required to engage in the business of dry cleaning or to change to a more hazardous cleaning solvent used in existing dry cleaning equipment.

105.6.13 Exhibits and trade shows. An operational permit is required to operate exhibits and trade shows.

105.6.14 Explosives. An operational permit is required for the manufacture, storage, handling, sale or use of any quantity of explosives, explosive materials, fireworks or pyrotechnic special effects within the scope of Chapter 33.

Exception: Storage in Group R-3 occupancies of smokeless propellant, black powder and small arms primers for personal use, not for resale and in accordance with Section 3306.

105.6.15 Fire hydrants and valves. An operational permit is required to use or operate fire hydrants or valves intended for fire suppression purposes which are installed on water systems and accessible to a fire apparatus access road that is open to or generally used by the public.

Exception: A permit is not reqUired for authorized employees ofthe water company that supplies the system or the fire department to use or operate fire hydrants or valves.

105.6.16 Flammable and combustible liquids. An operational permit is required:

  1. To use or operate a pipeline for the transportation within facilities of flammable or combustible liquids. This requirement shall not apply to the off-site transportation in pipelines regulated by the Department of Transportation (DOTn) nor does it apply to piping systems.
  2. To store, handle or use Class I liquids in excess of 5 gallons (19 L) in a building or in excess of 10 gallons (37.9 L) outside of a building, except that a permit is not required for the following:

    2.1. The storage or use of Class I liquids in the fuel tank of a motor vehicle, aircraft, motorboat, mobile power plant or mobile heating plant, unless such storage, in the opinion of the code official, would cause an unsafe condition.

    2.2. The storage or use of paints, oils, varnishes or similar flammable mixtures when such liquids are stored for maintenance, painting or similar purposes for a period ofnot more than 30 days.

  3. To store, handle or use Class II or Class IlIA liquids in excess of 25 gallons (95 L) in a building or in excess of 60 gallons (227 L) outside a building, except for fuel oil used in connection with oil-burning equipment.
  4. To store, handle or use Class IIIB liquids in tanks or portable tanks for fueling motor vehicles at motor fuel-dispensing facilities or where connected to fuel-burning equipment.

    Exception: Fuel oil and used motor oil used for space heating or water heating.

  5. To remove Class I or II liquids from an underground storage tank used for fueling motor vehicles by any means other than the approved, stationary on-site pumps normally used for dispensing purposes.
  6. To operate tank vehicles, equipment, tanks, plants, terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing stations, refineries, distilleries and similar facilities where flammable and combustible liquids are produced, processed, transported, stored, dispensed or used.
  7. To place temporarily out of service (for more than 90 days) an underground, protected above-ground or above-ground flammable or combustible liquid tank.
  8. To change the type ofcontents stored in a flammable or combustible liquid tank to a material that poses a greater hazard than that for which the tank was designed and constructed.
  9. To manufacture, process, blend or refine flammable or combustible liquids.
  10. To engage in the dispensing of liqUid fuels into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles at commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments. 7
  11. To utilize a site for the dispensing of liquid fuels from tank vehicles into the fuel tanks of motor vehicles' marine craft and other special equipment at commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments.

105.6.17 Floor finishing. An operational permit is required for floor finishing or surfacing operations exceeding 350 square feet (33 m2) using Class I or Class II liquids.

105.6.18 Fruit and crop ripening. An operational permit is required to operate a fruit-or crop-ripening facility or conduct a fruit-ripening process using ethylene gas.

105.6.19 Fumigation and thermal insecticidal fogging. An operational permit is required to operate a business of fumigation or thermal insecticidal fogging and to maintain a room, vault or chamber in which a toxic or flammable fumigant is used.

105.6.20 Hazardous materials. An operational permit is required to store, transport on site, dispense, use or handle hazardous materials in excess of the amounts listed in Table 105.6.20.

105.6.21 HPM facilities. An operational permit is required to store, handle or use hazardous production materials.

105.6.22 High-piled storage. An operational permit is required to use a building or portion thereof as a high-piled storage area exceeding 500 square feet (46 m2).

105.6.23 Hot work operations. An operational permit is required for hot work including, but not limited to:

  1. Public exhibitions and demonstrations where hot work is conducted.
  2. Use of portable hot work equipment inside a structure.

    Exception: Work that is conducted under a construction permit.

  3. Fixed-site hot work equipment such as welding booths.
  4. Hot work conducted within a wildfire risk area.
  5. Application of roof coverings with the use of an open-flame device.
  6. When approved, the fire code official shall issue a permit to carry out a hot work program. This program allows approved personnel to regulate their facility's hot work operations. The approved personnel shall be trained in the fire safety aspects denoted in this chapter and shall be responsible for issuing permits requiring compliance with the requirements found in Chapter 26. These permits shall be issued only to their employees or hot work operations under their supervision.

105.6.24 Industrial ovens. An operational permit is required for operation of industrial ovens regulated by Chapter 21.

TABLE 105.6.20
PERMIT AMOUNTS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
TYPE OF MATERIAL AMOUNT
Combustible liquids See Section 105.6.16
Corrosive materials
  Gases
  Liquids
  Solids
See Section 105.6.8
55 gallons
1000 pounds
Explosive materials See Section 105.6.14
Flammable materials
  Gases
  Liquids
  Solids
See Section 105.6.8
See Section 105.6.16
100 pounds
Highly toxic materials
  Gases
  Liquids
  Solids
See Section 105.6.8
Any Amount
Any Amount
Oxidizing materials
  Gases
  Liquids
    Class 4
    Class 3
    Class 2
    Class 1
  Solids
    Class 4
    Class 3
    Class 2
    Class 1
See Section 105.6.8
 
Any Amount
1 gallona
10 gallons
55 gallons
 
Any Amount
10 poundsb
100 pounds
500 pounds
Organic peroxides
  Liquids
    Class I
    Class II
    Class III
    Class IV
    Class V
  Solids
    Class I
    Class II
    Class III
    Class IV
    Class V
Any Amount
Any Amount
1 gallon
2 gallons
No Permit Required
 
Any Amount
Any Amount
10 pounds
20 pounds
No Permit Required
Pyrophoric materials
  Gases
  Liquids
  Solids
Any Amount
Any Amount
Any Amount
Toxic materials
  Gases
  Liquids
  Solids
See Section 105.6.8
10 gallons
100 pounds
Unstable (reactive) materials
  Liquids
    Class 4
    Class 3
    Class 2
    Class 1
  Solids
    Class 4
    Class 3
    Class 2
    Class 1
Any Amount
Any Amount
5 gallons
10 gallons
 
Any Amount
Any Amount
50 pounds
100 pounds
Water-reactive materials
  Liquids
    Class 3
    Class 2
    Class 1
  Solids
    Class 3
    Class 2
    Class 1
Any Amount
5 gallons
55 gallons
 
Any Amount
50 pounds
500 pounds
For SI:    1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
a. 20 gallons when Table 2703.1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard identification signs in accordance with Section 2703.5 are provided for quantities of 20 gallons or less.
b. 200 pounds when Table 2703.1.1(1) Note k applies and hazard identification signs in accordance with Section 2703.5 are provided for quantities of 200 pounds or less.
8

105.6.25 Lumber yards and woodworking plants. An operational permit is required for the storage or processing of lumber exceeding 100,000 board feet (8,333 ft3) (236 m3).

105.6.26 Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles or equipment in assembly buildings. An operational permit is required to display, operate or demonstrate liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles or equipment in assembly buildings.

105.6.27 LP-gas. An operational permit is required for:

  1. Storage and use of LP-gas.

    Exception: A permit is not required for individual containers with a 500-gallon (1893 L) water capacity or less serving occupancies in Group R-3.

  2. Operation of cargo tankers that transport LP-gas.

105.6.28 Magnesium. An operational permit is required to melt, cast, heat treat or grind more than 10 pounds (4.54 kg) of magnesium.

105.6.29 Miscellaneous combustible storage. An operational permit is required to store in any building or upon any premises in excess of 2,500 cubic feet (71 m3) gross volume of combustible empty packing cases, boxes, barrels or similar containers, rubber tires, rubber, cork or similar combustible material.

105.6.30 Open burning. An operational permit is required for the kindling or maintaining of an open fire or a fire on any public street, alley, road, or other public or private ground. Instructions and stipulations of the permit shall be adhered to.

Exception: Recreational fires.

105.6.31 Open flames and torches. An operational permit is required to remove paint with a torch; or to use a torch or open-flame device in a wildfire risk area.

105.6.32 Open flames and candles. An operational permit is required to use open flames or candles in connection with assembly areas, dining areas of restaurants or drinking establishments.

105.6.33 Organic coatings. An operational permit is required for any organic-coating manufacturing operation producing more than 1 gallon (4 L) of an organic coating in one day.

105.6.34 Places of assembly. An operational permit is required to operate a place of assembly.

105.6.35 Private fire hydrants. An operational permit is required for the removal from service, use or operation of private fire hydrants.

Exception: A permit is not required for private industry with trained maintenance personnel, private fire brigade or fire departments to maintain, test and use private hydrants.

105.6.36 Pyrotechnic special effects material. An operational permit is required for use and handling of pyrotechnic special effects material.

105.6.37 Pyroxylin plastics. An operational permit is required for storage or handling of more than 25 pounds (11 kg) of cellulose nitrate (pyroxylin) plastics and for the assembly or manufacture of articles involving pyroxylin plastics.

105.6.38 Refrigeration equipment. An operational permit is required to operate a mechanical refrigeration unit or system regulated by Chapter 6.

105.6.39 Repair garages and motor fuel-dispensing facilities. An operational permit is required for operation of repair garages and automotive, marine and fleet motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

105.6.40 Rooftop heliports. An operational permit is required for the operation of a rooftop heliport.

105.6.41 Spraying or dipping. An operational permit is required to conduct a spraying or dipping operation utilizing flammable or combustible liquids or the application of combustible powders regulated by Chapter 15.

105.6.42 Storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts. An operational permit is required to establish, conduct or maintain storage of scrap tires and tire byproducts that exceeds 2,500 cubic feet (71 m3) oftotal volume ofscrap tires and for indoor storage of tires and tire byproducts.

105.6.43 Temporary membrane structures and tents. An operational permit is required to operate an air-supported temporary membrane structure or a tent having an area in excess of 400 square feet (37 m2).

Exceptions:

  1. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping purposes.
  2. Tents open on all sides, which comply with all of the following:

    2.1. Individual tents having a maximum size of 700 square feet (65 m2).

    2.2. The aggregate area of multiple tents placed side by side without a fire break clearance of not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) shall not exceed 700 square feet (65 m2) total.

    2.3. A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 mm) to structures and other tents shall be provided.

105.6.44 Tire-rebuilding plants. An operational permit is required for the operation and maintenance of a tire-rebuilding plant.

105.6.45 Waste handling. An operational permit is required for the operation ofwrecking yards, junk yards and waste material-handling facilities.

105.6.46 Wood products. An operational permit is required to store chips, hogged material, lumber or plywood in excess of 200 cubic feet (6 m3).

105.7 Required construction permits. The fire code official is authorized to issue construction permits for work as set forth in Sections 105.7.1 through 105.7.14.

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105.7.1 Automatic fire-extinguishing systems. A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to an automatic fire-extinguishing system. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered a modification and does not require a permit.

105.7.2 Battery systems. A permit is required to install stationary storage battery systems having a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L).

105.7.3 Compressed gases. When the compressed gases in use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 105.6.8, a construction permit is required to install, repair damage to, abandon, remove, place temporarily out of service, or close or substantially modify a compressed gas system.

Exceptions:

  1. Routine maintenance.
  2. For emergency repair work performed on an emergency basis, application for permit shall be made within two working days of commencement of work.

105.7.4 Cryogenic fluids. A construction permit is required for installation of or alteration to outdoor stationary cryogenic fluid storage systems where the system capacity exceeds the amounts listed in Table 105.6.10. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered an alteration and does not require a construction permit.

105.7.5 Fire alarm and detection systems and related equipment. A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to fire alarm and detection systems and related equipment. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered a modification and does not require a permit.

105.7.6 Fire pumps and related equipment. A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to fire pumps and related fuel tanks, jockey pumps, controllers and generators. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered a modification and does not require a permit.

105.7.7 Flammable and combustible liquids. A construction permit is required:

  1. To install, repair or modify a pipeline for the transportation of flammable or combustible liquids.
  2. To install, construct or alter tank vehicles, equipment, tanks, plants, terminals, wells, fuel-dispensing stations, refineries, distilleries and similar facilities where flammable and combustible liquids are produced, processed, transported, stored, dispensed or used.
  3. To install, alter, remove, abandon or otherwise dispose of a flammable or combustible liquid tank.

105.7.8 Hazardous materials. A construction permit is required to install, repair damage to, abandon, remove, place temporarily out of service, or close or substantially modify a storage facility or other area regulated by Chapter 27 when the hazardous materials in use or storage exceed the amounts listed in Table 105.6.20.

Exceptions:

  1. Routine maintenance.
  2. For emergency repair work performed on an emergency basis, application for permit shall be made within two working days of commencement of work.

105.7.9 Industrial ovens. A construction permit is required for installation of industrial ovens covered by Chapter 21.

Exceptions:

  1. Routine maintenance.
  2. For repair work performed on an emergency basis, application for permit shall be made within two working days of commencement of work.

105.7.10 LP-gas. A construction permit is required for installation of or modification to an LP-gas system.

105.7.11 Private fire hydrants. A construction permit is required for the installation or modification of private fire hydrants.

105.7.12 Spraying or dipping. A construction permit is required to install or modify a spray room, dip tank or booth.

105.7.13 Standpipe systems. A construction permit is required for the installation, modification or removal from service of a standpipe system. Maintenance performed in accordance with this code is not considered a modification and does not require a permit.

105.7.14 Temporary membrane structures and tents. A construction permit is required to erect an air-supported temporary membrane structure or a tent having an area in excess of 400 square feet (37 m2).

Exceptions:

  1. Tents used exclusively for recreational camping purposes.
  2. Funeral tents and curtains or extensions attached thereto, when used for funeral services.
  3. Tents and awnings open on all sides which comply with all of the following:

    3.1. Individual tents shall have a maximum size of 700 square feet (65 m2).

    3.2. The aggregate area of multiple tents placed side by side without a fire break clearance of not less than 12 feet (3658 mm) shall not exceed 700 square feet (65 m2) total.

    3.3. A minimum clearance of 12 feet (3658 mm) to structures and other tents shall be maintained.

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SECTION 106
INSPECTIONS

106.1 Inspection authority. The fire code officialis authorized to enter and examine any building, structure, marine vessel, vehicle or premises in accordance with Section 104.3 for the purpose of enforcing this code.

106.2 Inspections. The fire code official is authorized to conduct such inspections as are deemed necessary to determine the extent of compliance with the provisions of this code and to approve reports of inspection by approved agencies or individuals. All reports of such inspections shall be prepared and submitted in writing for review and approval. Inspection reports shall be certified by a responsible officer of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The fire code official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to report upon unusual, detailed or complex technical issues subject to the approval of the governing body.

106.2.1 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of the permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the fire code official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code.

106.2.2 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the fire code official. The fire code official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the fire code official.

106.3 Concealed work. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Whenever any installation subject to inspection prior to use is covered or concealed without having first been inspected, the fire code official shall have the authority to require that such work be exposed for inspection. Neither the fire code official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to allow inspection.

106.4 Approvals. Approval as the result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel provisions of this code or ofother ordinances ofthejurisdiction shall not be valid.

SECTION 107
MAINTENANCE

107.1 Maintenance of safeguards. Whenever or wherever any device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection, or any other feature is required for compliance with the provisions of this code, or otherwise installed, such device, equipment, system, condition, arrangement, level of protection, or other feature shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with this code and applicable referenced standards.

107.2 Testing and operation. Equipment requiring periodic testing or operation to ensure maintenance shall be tested or operated as specified in this code.

107.2.1 Test and inspection records. Required test and inspection records shall be available to the fire code official at all times or such records as the designates shall be filed with the fire code official.

107.2.2 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or installation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the necessary corrections shall be made so as to achieve compliance with this code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to the fire code official for inspection and testing.

107.3 Supervision. Maintenance and testing shall be under the supervision of a responsible person who shall ensure that such maintenance and testing are conducted at specified intervals in accordance with this code.

107.4 Rendering equipment inoperable. Portable or fixed fire-extinguishing systems or devices and fire-warning systems shall not be rendered inoperative or inaccessible except as necessary during emergencies, maintenance, repairs, alterations, drills or prescribed testing.

107.5 Owner/occupant responsibility. Correction and abatement of violations of this code shall be the responsibility of the owner: If an occupant creates, or allows to be created, hazard0us conditions in violation of this code, the occupant shall be held responsible for the abatement of such hazardous conditions.

107.6 Overcrowding. Overcrowding or admittance ofany person beyond the approved capacity of a building or a portion thereofshall not be allowed. The fire code official, upon finding any overcrowding conditions or obstructions in aisles, passageways or other means ofegress, or upon finding any condition which constitutes a life safety hazard, shall be authorized to cause the event to be stopped until such condition or obstruction is corrected.

SECTION 108
BOARD OF APPEALS

108.1 Board of appeals established. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the fire code official relative to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The board ofappeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The fire code official shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall have no vote on any matter before the board. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the fire code official.

108.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the intent of this code or the rules legally adopted hereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply, or an equivalent

11

method of protection or safety is proposed. The board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this code.

108.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training to pass on matters pertaining to hazards of fire, explosions, hazardous conditions or fire protection systems and are not employees of the jurisdiction.

SECTION 109
VIOLATIONS

109.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for a person, firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, repair, remove, demolish or utilize a building, occupancy, premises or system regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code.

109.2 Notice of violation. When the fire code official finds a building, premises, vehicle, storage facility or outdoor area that is in violation of this code, the fire code official is authorized to prepare a written notice of violation describing the conditions deemed unsafe and, when compliance is not immediate, specifying a time for reinspection.

109.2.1 Service. A notice of violation issued pursuant to this code shall be served upon the owner; operator, occupant or other person responsible for the condition or violation, either by personal service, mail or by delivering the same to, and leaving it with, some person of responsibility upon the premises. For unattended or abandoned locations, a copy of such notice of violation shall be posted on the premises in a conspicuous place at or near the entrance to such premises and the notice of violation shall be mailed by certified mail with return receipt requested or a certificate of mailing, to the last known address of the owner; occupant or both.

109.2.2 Compliance with orders and notices. A notice of violation issued or served as provided by this code shall be complied with by the owner; operator, occupant or other person responsible for the condition or violation to which the notice of violation pertains.

109.2.3 Prosecution ofviolations. If the notice of violation is not complied with promptly, the fire code officialis authorized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate legal proceedings at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation or to require removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made pursuant hereto.

109.2.4 Unauthorized tampering. Signs, tags or seals posted or affixed by the fire code official shall not be mutilated, destroyed or tampered with or removed without authorization from the fire code official.

109.3 Violation penalties. Persons who shall violate a provision of this code or shall fail to comply with any of the requirements thereof or who shall erect, install, alter, repair or do work in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of the fire code official, or of a permit or certificate used under provisions of this code, shall be guilty of a [SPECIFY OFFENSE], punishable by a fine of not more than [AMOUNT] dollars or by imprisonment not exceeding [NUMBER OF DAYS], or both such fine and imprisonment. Each day that a violation continues after due notice has been served shall be deemed a separate offense.

109.3.1 Abatement ofviolation. In addition to the imposition of the penalties herein described, the fire code official is authorized to institute appropriate action to prevent unlawful construction or to restrain, correct or abate a violation; or to prevent illegal occupancy of a structure or premises; or to stop an illegal act, conduct of business or occupancy of a structure on or about any premises.

SECTION 110
UNSAFE BUILDINGS

110.1 General. If during the inspection of a premises, a building or structure or any building system, in whole or in part, constitutes a clear and inimical threat to human life, safety or health, the fire code official shall issue such notice or orders to remove or remedy the conditions as shall be deemed necessary in accordance with this section and shall refer the building to the building department for any repairs, alterations, remodeling, removing or demolition required.

110.1.1 Unsafe conditions. Structures or existing equipment that are or hereafter become unsafe or deficient because of inadequate means ofegress or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life or the public welfare, or which involve illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be deemed an unsafe condition. A vacant structure which is not secured against unauthorized entry as required by Section 311 shall be deemed unsafe.

110.1.2 Structural hazards. When an apparent structural hazard is caused by the faulty installation, operation or malfunction of any of the items or devices governed by this code, the fire code official shall immediately notify the building code official in accordance with Section 110.1.

110.2 Evacuation. The fire code official or the fire department official in charge of an incident shall be authorized to order the immediate evacuation ofany occupied building deemed unsafe when such building has hazardous conditions that present imminent danger to building occupants. Persons so notified shall immediately leave the structure or premises and shall not enter or re-enter until authorized to do so by the fire code officialor the fire department official in charge of the incident.

110.3 Summary abatement. Where conditions exist that are deemed hazardous to life and property, the fire code official or fire department official in charge of the incident is authorized to abate summarily such hazardous conditions that are in violation of this code.

110.4 Abatement. The owner; operator or occupant of a building or premises deemed unsafe by the fire code official shall abate or cause to be abated or corrected such unsafe conditions either by repair, rehabilitation, demolition or other approved corrective action.

12

SECTION 111
STOP WORK ORDER

111.1 Order. Whenever the fire code official finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner contrary to the provisions of this code or in a dangerous or unsafe manner, the fire code official is authorized to issue a stop work order.

111.2 Issuance. A stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner ofthe property, or to the owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the conditions under which the cited work is authorized to resume.

111.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the fire code official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to stopping the work.

111.4 Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine of not less than [AMOUNT] dollars or more than [AMOUNT] dollars.

SECTION 112
SERVICE UTILITIES

112.1 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The fire code official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of utility service to the building, structure or system in order to safely execute emergency operations or to eliminate an immediate hazard. The fire code official shall notify the serving utility and, whenever possible, the owner and occupant of the building, structure or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such action if not notified prior to disconnection. The owner or occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be notified in writing as soon as practical thereafter.

SECTION 113
FEES

113.1 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid.

113.2 Schedule of permit fees. A fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority.

113.3 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person who commences any work, activity or operation regulated by this code before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to an additional fee established by the applicable governing authority, which shall be in addition to the required permit fees.

113.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition ofwork done in connection to or concurrently with the work or activity authorized by a permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law.

113.5 Refunds. The applicable governing authority is authorized to establish a refund policy.

13 14

CHAPTER 2
DEFINITIONS

SECTION 201
GENERAL

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings shown in this chapter.

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural, the singular.

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the International Building Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code or International Plumbing Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes.

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary, 11th Edition, shall be considered as providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

SECTION 202
GENERAL DEFINITIONS

[B] ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1.

[B] ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. A continuous, unobstructed path that complies with Chapter 11 of the International Building Code.

AEROSOL. See Section 2802.1.

Levell aerosol products. See Section 2802.1.

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1.

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 2802.1.

AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 2802.1.

AEROSOL WAREHOUSE. See Section 2802.1.

AGENT. A person who shall have charge, care or control of any structure as owner; or agent of the owner; or as executor, executrix, administrator, administratrix, trustee or guardian of the estate ofthe owner: Any such person representing the actual owner shall be bound to comply with the provisions of this code to the same extent as if that person was the owner:

[B] AGRICULTURAL BUILDING. A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public.

[B] AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1.

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1.

AIRCRAFT MOTOR-VEHICLE FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). See Section 1102.1.

AIRPORT. See Section 1102.1.

[B] AISLE. See Section 1002.1.

[B] AISLE ACCESSWAY. See Section 1002.1.

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 902.1.

ALCOHOL-BASED HAND RUB. See Section 3402.1.

ALCOHOL BLENDED FUELS. See Section 2202.1.

[EB] ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than a repair or addition.

[B] ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002.1.

[B] AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE FACILITY. BUildings or portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or similar care on a less than 24-hour basis to individuals who are rendered incapable of self-preservation.

AMMONIUM NITRATE. See Section 3302.1.

ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1.

APPROVED. Acceptable to the fire code official.

[B] AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.

[B] AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1.

ARRAY. See Section 2302.1.

ARRAY, CLOSED. See Section 2302.1.

[B] ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505 of the International Building Code.

[B] ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story and the roof rafters.

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

AUTOMATED RACK STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.

AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1.

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AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

AUTOMOTIVE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 902.1.

[B] AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight, rigid skeleton structure over which a covering is attached.

BARRICADE. See Section 3302.1.

Artificial barricade. See Section 3302.1.

Natural barricade. See Section 3302.1.

BARRICADED. See Section 3302.1.

[B] BASEMENT. A story that is not a story above grade plane.

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD ACID. See Section 602.1.

BATTERY TYPES. See Section 602.1.

Lithium-ion battery. See Section 602.1.

Lithium metal polymer battery. See Section 602.1.

Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. See Section 602.1.

Nonrecombinant battery. See Section 602.1.

Recombinant battery. See Section 602.1.

Stationary storage battery. See Section 602.1.

Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. See Section 602.1.

Vented (Flooded) lead-acid battery. See Section 602.1.

BIN BOX. See Section 2302.1.

BLAST AREA. See Section 3302.1.

BLAST SITE. See Section 3302.1.

BLASTER. See Section 3302.1.

BLASTING AGENT. See Section 3302.1.

[B] BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1.

[B] BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied as a single-family unit.

BOILING POINT. See Section 2702.1.

BONFIRE. See Section 302.1.

BRITISH THERMAL UNIT (BTU). The heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 pound (0.454 kg) of water by 1of (0.5565°C).

[B] BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.

[B] BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of the International BUilding Code, or a duly authorized representative.

BULK HYDROGEN COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3502.1.

BULK LIQUEFIED HYDROGEN GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3502.1.

BULK OXYGEN SYSTEM. See Section 4002.1.

BULK PLANT OR TERMINAL. See Section 3402.1.

BULK TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1.

BULLET RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1.

CANOPY. A structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identity or decoration, and may be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer end.

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

CARTON. A cardboard or fiberboard box enclosing a product.

CEILING LIMIT. See Section 2702.1.

[EB] CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY. A change in the purpose or level of activity within a building that involves a change in application of the requirements of this code.

CHEMICAL. See Section 2702.1.

CHEMICAL NAME. See Section 2702.1.

[B] CHILD CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care on a 24-hour basis to more than five children, 2½ years of age or less.

[B] CHIMNEY. A primarily vertical enclosure containing one or more passageways for conveying flue gases to the outside atmosphere.

CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1.

[B] CLINIC-OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical care on less than a 24-hour basis to individuals who are not rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided.

CLOSED CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1.

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a closed vessel or system that remains closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of equipment.

COLD DECK. See Section 1902.1.

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 1302.1.

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 2902.1.

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1.

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Class II. See Section 3402.1.

Class IlIA. See Section 3402.1.

Class IIIB. See Section 3402.1.

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. See Section 602.1.

COMMODITY. See Section 2302.1.

[B] COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 1002.1.

COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 3002.1.

COMPRESSED GAS CONTAINER. See Section 3002.1.

COMPRESSED GAS SYSTEM. See Section 3002.1.

[B] CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share bathroom and/or kitchen facilities.

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 902.1.

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. The written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary for obtaining a permit.

CONTAINER. See Section 2702.1.

CONTAINMENT SYSTEM. See Section 3702.1.

CONTAINMENT VESSEL. See Section 3702.1.

CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 1802.1.

CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1.

[B] CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1.

CORROSIVE. See Section 3102.1.

COTTON. See Section 2902.1.

Baled cotton. See Section 2902.1.

Baled cotton, densely packed. See Section 2902.1.

Seed cotton. See Section 2902.1.

[B] COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or other enclosing devices.

[B] COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term" covered mall building" shall include open mall buildings as defined below.

Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term "mall" shall include open malls as defined below.

Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade.

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls. For the purpose of Chapter 4 of the International BUilding Code, anchor buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building.

CRYOGENIC CONTAINER. See Section 3202.1.

CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202.1.

CRYOGENIC VESSEL. See Section 3202.1.

CYLINDER. See Section 2702.1.

[B] DAMPER. See "Fire damper" and "Smoke damper."

DAY BOX. See Section 2702.1.

DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and surface coverings) and all other materials utilized for decorative effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials do not include floor coverings, ordinary window shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate.

DEFLAGRATION. See Section 2702.1.

DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

DESIGN PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1.

DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 2702.1.

DETEARING. See Section 1502.1.

DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902.1.

DETONATING CORD. See Section 3302.1.

DETONATION. See Section 3302.1.

DETONATOR. See Section 3302.1.

[B] DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that serve patients who are provided treatment for substance abuse on a 24-hour basis and who are incapable of self-preservation or who are harmful to themselves or others.

DIP TANK. See Section 1502.1.

DISCHARGE SITE. See Section 3302.1.

DISPENSING. See Section 2702.1.

DISPENSING DEVICE, OVERHEAD TYPE. See Section 2202.1.

DISPLAY SITE. See Section 3302.1.

[B] DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1.

[B] DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of

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closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses.

DRAFT CURTAIN. See Section 2302.1.

[B] DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702.1.

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Section 902.1.

DRY CLEANING. See Section 1202.1.

DRY CLEANING PLANT. See Section 1202.1.

DRY CLEANING ROOM. See Section1202.1.

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. See Section 1202.1.

[B] DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes.

[B] DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

EARLY SUPPRESSION FAST-RESPONSE (ESFR) SPRINKLER. See Section 2302.1.

[B] EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1.

ELECTROSTATIC FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1.

ELEVATOR GROUP. See Section 902.1.

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 1802.1.

[B] EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See Section 1002.1.

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. See Section 402.1.

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE. A valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids.

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, AUTOMATIC. A fail-safe automatic-closing valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids initiated by a control system that is activated by automatic means.

EMERGENCY SHUTOFF VALVE, MANUAL. A manually operated valve designed to shut off the flow of gases or liquids.

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. See Section 902.1.

[B] EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated platform used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, including the associated elevated walk-ways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to access the platform (see Section 505.5 of the International Building Code).

EXCESS FLOW CONTROL. See Section 2702.1.

EXCESS FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1.

EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 2702.1.

EXISTING. See Section 4602.1.

[B] EXIT. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1.

[B] EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1.

EXPANDED PLASTIC. See Section 2302.1.

EXPLOSION. See Section 2702.1.

EXPLOSIVE. See Section 3302.1.

High Explosive. See Section 3302.1.

Low Explosive. See Section 3302.1.

Mass-detonating Explosives. See Section 3302.1.

UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.1. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.2. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.3. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.4. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.5. See Section 3302.1.

Division 1.6. See Section 3302.1.

EXPLOSIVE MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1.

[B] EXTERIOR WALL. A wall, bearing or nonbearing, that is used as an enclosing wall for a building, other than a fire wall, and that has a slope of 60 degrees (1.05 rad) or greater with the horizontal plane.

EXTRA-HIGH-RACK COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.

FABRICATION AREA. See Section 1802.1.

FACILITY. A building or use in a fixed location including exterior storage areas for flammable and combustible substances and hazardous materials, piers, wharves, tank farms and similar uses. This term includes recreational vehicles, mobile home and manufactured housing parks, sales and storage lots.

FAIL-SAFE. A design condition incorporating a feature for automatically counteracting the effect of an anticipated possible source of failure; also, a design condition eliminating or mitigating a hazardous condition by compensating automatically for a failure or malfunction.

FALLOUT AREA. See Section 3302.1.

FALSE ALARM. The willful and knowing initiation or transmission of a signal, message or other notification of an event of fire when no such danger exists.

FINES. See Section 1902.1.

FIRE ALARM. The giving, signaling or transmission to any public fire station, or company or to any officer or employee thereof, whether by telephone, spoken word or otherwise, of information to the effect that there is a fire at or near the place

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indicated by the person giving, signaling or transmitting such information.

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1.

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1.

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. See Section 502.1.

FIRE AREA. See Section 902.1.

[B] FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained.

FIRE CHIEF. The chief officer of the fire department serving the jurisdiction, or a duly authorized representative.

FIRE CODE OFFICIAL. The fire chief or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of the code, or a duly authorized representative.

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 502.1.

[B] FIRE DAMPER. A listeddevice installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detection of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are classified for use in either static systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow.

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. See Section 502.1.

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1.

[B] FIRE DOOR. The door component ofa fire door assembly.

[B] FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, frame, hardware and other accessories that together provide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening.

[B] FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1.

FIRE LANE. See Section 502.1.

[B] FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread offire in which openings are protected.

FIRE POINT. See Section 3402.1.

[B] FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an opening protective assembly will maintain the ability to confine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 715 of the International BUilding Code. Ratings are stated in hours or minutes.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

[B] FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use.

[B] FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a building element, component or assembly maintains the ability to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on tests, prescribed in Section 703 of the International Building Code.

[B] FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. See Section 702.1.

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902.1.

[B] FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured from the building face to one of the following:

  1. The closest interior lot line;
  2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or
  3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the property.

The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face of the wall.

[B] FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof, with sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse ofconstruction on either side without collapse ofthe wall.

FIRE WATCH. A temporary measure intended to ensure continuous and systematic surveillance of a building or portion thereof by one or more qualified individuals for the purposes of identifying and controlling fire hazards, detecting early signs of unwanted fire, raising an alarm of fire and notifying the fire department.

[B] FIREBLOCKING. See Section 702.1.

FIREWORKS. See Section 3302.1.

Fireworks, 1.4G. See Section 3302.1.

Fireworks, 1.3G. See Section 3302.1.

FIREWORKS DISPLAY. See Section 3302.1.

[B] FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). See Section 902.1.

FLAMMABLE CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 3202.1.

FLAMMABLE FINISHES. See Section 1502.1.

FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 3502.1.

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 3502.1.

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 3402.1.

Class IA. See Section 3402.1.

Class lB. See Section 3402.1.

Class IC. See Section 3402.1.

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature of 600°F (316°C) or less.

FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 3602.1.

FLAMMABLE VAPOR AREA. See Section 1502.1.

FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 2702.1.

[B] FLAME SPREAD. See Section 802.1.

[B] FLAME SPREAD INDEX. See Section 802.1.

FLASH POINT. See Section 3402.1.

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FLEET VEHICLE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.

[B] FLIGHT. SeeSection1002.1.

FLOAT. See Section 4502.1.

[B] FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1.

[B] FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1.

FLUIDIZED BED. See Section 1502.1.

FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

[B] FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Section 1002.1.

FUEL LIMIT SWITCH. See Section 3402.1.

FUMIGANT. See Section 1702.1.

FUMIGATION. See Section 1702.1.

FURNACE CLASS A. See Section 2102.1.

FURNACE CLASS B. See Section 2102.1.

FURNACE CLASS C. See Section 2102.1.

FURNACE CLASS D. See Section 2102.1.

GAS CABINET. See Section 2702.1.

GAS DETECTION SYSTEM, CONTINUOUS. See "Continuous gas detection system."

GAS ROOM. See Section 2702.1.

[B] GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening.

[B] GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lotline or, where the lotline is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building.

[B] GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1.

[B] GUARD. See Section 1002.1.

[B] GYPSUM BOARD. Gypsum wallboard, gypsum sheathing, gypsum base for gypsum veneer plaster, exterior gypsum soffit board, predecorated gypsum board or water-resistant gypsum backing board complying with the standards listed in Tables 2506.2 and 2507.2 and Chapter 35 of the International BUilding Code.

[B] HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

HANDLING. See Section 2702.1.

[B] HANDRAIL. See Section 1002.1.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1.

HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). See Section 1802.1.

HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 2702.1.

[B] HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade plane to the average height of the highest roof surface.

HELIPORT. See Section 1102.1.

HELISTOP. See Section 1102.1.

HI-BOY. See Section 302.1.

HIGH-PILED COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.

HIGH-PILED STORAGE AREA. See Section 2302.1.

HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE. See Section 302.1.

HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 3702.1.

HIGHLY VOLATILE LIQUID. A liquefied compressedgas with a boiling point of less than 68°F (20°C).

HIGHWAY. See Section 3302.1.

[B] HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law.

HOGGED MATERIALS. See Section 1902.1.

[B] HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated floor or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained.

[M] HOOD. See Section 602.1.

Type I. See Section 602.1.

[B] HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. Buildings or portions thereof used on a 24-hour basis for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical, or surgical treatment of inpatients who are incapable of self-preservation.

HOT WORK. See Section 2602.1.

HOT WORK AREA. See Section 2602.1.

HOT WORK EQUIPMENT. See Section 2602.1.

HOT WORK PERMITS. See Section 2602.1.

HOT WORK PROGRAM. See Section 2602.1.

HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 1802.1.

HPM ROOM. See Section 1802.1.

IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). See Section 2702.1.

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. See Section 902.1.

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1.

INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other materials only under abnormal conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. Within the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit either physicalor health hazardproperties as defined (other than acting as a simple asphyxiant) or hazard properties other than those of a

20

compressedgas. Some ofthe more common inert gases include argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen and xenon.

INHABITED BUILDING. See Section 3302.1.

INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

[B] INTERIOR FINISH. Interior finish includes interior wall and ceiling finish and interior floor finish.

INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. See Section 802.1.

[B] INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. The exposed interior surfaces of buildings, including but not limited to: fixed or movable walls and partitions; toilet room privacy partitions; columns; ceilings; and interior wainscoting, paneling or other finish applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation, structural fire resistance or similar purposes, but not including trim.

IRRITANT. A chemical which is not corrosive, but which causes a reversible inflammatory effect on living tissue by chemical action at the site of contact. A chemical is a skin irritant if, when tested on the intact skin ofalbino rabbits by the methods of CPSC 16CFR Part 1500.41 for an exposure of four or more hours or by other appropriate techniques, it results in an empirical score of 5 or more. A chemical is classified as an eye irritant if so determined under the procedure listed in CPSC 16CFR Part 1500.42 or other approved techniques.

KEY BOX. See Section 502.1.

[B] JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code under due legislative authority.

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LIMITED SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1502.1.

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG). See Section 2202.1.

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS (LP-gas). See Section 3802.1.

LIQUID. See Section 2702.1.

LIQUID OXYGEN AMBULATORY CONTAINER. Section 4002.1.

LIQUID OXYGEN HOME CARE CONTAINER. Section 4002.1.

LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 3402.1.

LIQUID STORAGE WAREHOUSE. See Section 3402.1.

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the fire code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LOCKDOWN. See Section 402.1.

LONGITUDINAL FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1.

[B] LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.

[B] LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.

LOW-PRESSURE TANK. See Section 3202.1.

LOWER EXPLOSIVE LIMIT (LEL). See Section 2702.1.

LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 2702.1.

LP-GAS CONTAINER. See Section 3802.1.

MAGAZINE. See Section 3302.1.

Indoor. See Section 3302.1.

Type 1. See Section 3302.1.

Type 2. See Section 3302.1.

Type 3. See Section 3302.1.

Type 4. See Section 3302.1.

Type 5. See Section 3302.1.

MAGNESIUM. See Section 3602.1.

[B] MALL. See "Covered mall building."

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1.

MANUAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 2302.1.

MARINA. See Section 4502.1.

MARINE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.

MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET (MSDS). See Section 2702.1.

MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1.

[B] MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1.

MECHANICAL STOCKING METHODS. See Section 2302.1.

MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See Section 2402.1.

[B] MENTAL HOSPITALS. See "Hospitals and Mental Hospitals."

[B] MERCHANDISE PAD. See Section 1002.1.

METAL HYDRIDE. See Section 3502.1.

METAL HYDRIDE STORAGE SYSTEM. See Section 3502.1.

[B] MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Section 505 of the International Building Code.

MOBILE FUELING. See Section 3402.1.

MORTAR. See Section 3302.1.

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

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NESTING. See Section 3002.1.

NET EXPLOSIVE WEIGHT (net weight). See Section 3302.1.

NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). See Section 2702.1.

[B] NOSING. See Section 1002.1.

NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

[B] NURSING HOMES. Nursing homes are long-term care facilities on a 24-hour basis, including both intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing facilities, serving more than five persons and any of the persons are incapable of self-preservation.

OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION. For the purposes of this code, certain occupancies are defined as follows:

[B] Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink consumption; or awaiting transportation.

Exceptions:

  1. A building or tenant space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons shall be classified as a Group B occupancy.
  2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.
  3. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is less than 750 square feet (70 m2) in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.
  4. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E occupancies are not considered separate occupancies except when applying the assembly occupancy requirements of Chapter 11 of the International BUilding Code.
  5. Accessory religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums with occupantloads of less than 100 are not considered separate occupancies.

Assembly occupancies shall include the following:

A-I Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited to:

Motion picture theaters
Symphony and concert halls
Televison and radio studios admitting an audience
Theaters

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink consumption including, but not limited to:

Banquet halls
Night clubs
Restaurants
Taverns and bars

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly uses not classified elsewhere in Group A, including, but not limited to:

Amusement arcades
Art galleries
Bowling alleys
Community halls
Courtrooms
Dance halls (not including food or drink consumption)
Exhibition halls
Funeral parlors
Gymnasiums (without spectator seating)
Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating)
Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating)
Lecture halls
Libraries
Museums
Places of religious worship
Pool and billiard parlors
Waiting areas in transportation terminals

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with spectator seating including, but not limited to:

Arenas
Skating rinks
Swimming pools
Tennis courts

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing outdoor activities including, but not limited to:

Amusement park structures
Bleachers
Grandstands
Stadiums

[B] Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transactions, including storage of records and accounts. Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Airport traffic control towers
Ambulatory health-care facilities
Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds
Banks
Barber and beauty shops
Car wash
Civic administration
Clinic-outpatient
Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations and self-service
Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade
Electronic data processing
Laboratories: testing and research
Motor vehicle showrooms

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Post offices
Print shops
Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physicians, engineers, etc.)
Radio and television stations
Telephone exchanges
Training and skill development not within a school or academic program

[B] Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at anyone time for educational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance with Section 508.3.1 ofthe International Building Code and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as Group A-3 occupancies.

Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care services for more than five children older than 2½ years of age shall be classified as an E occupancy.

[B] Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group F occupancy includes, among others, the use ofa building or structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or processing operations that are not classified as a Group H high-hazard or Group S storage occupancy.

Factory Industrial F-l Moderate-hazard occupancy. Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Factory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair)
Appliances
Athletic equipment
Automobiles and other motor vehicles
Bakeries
Beverages; over 16-percent alcohol content
Bicycles
Boats
Brooms or brushes
Business machines
Cameras and photo equipment
Canvas or similar fabric
Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning)
Clothing
Construction and agricultural machinery
Disinfectants
Dry cleaning and dyeing
Electric generation plants
Electronics
Engines (including rebuilding)
Food processing
Furniture
Hemp products
Jute products
Laundries
Leather products
Machinery
Metals
Millwork (sash and door)
Motion pictures and television filming (without spectators)
Musical instruments
Optical goods
Paper mills or products
Photographic film
Plastic products
Printing or publishing
Refuse incineration
Shoes
Soaps and detergents
Textiles
Tobacco
Trailers
Upholstering
Wood; distillation
Woodworking (cabinet)

[B] Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occupancy. Factory industrial uses involving the fabrication or manufacturing of noncombustible materials which, during finishing, packaging or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard, shall be classified as Group F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Beverages; up to and including 16-percent alcohol content
Brick and masonry
Ceramic products
Foundries
Glass products
Gypsum
Ice
Metal products (fabrication and assembly)

High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those allowed in control areas complying with Section 2703.8.3, based on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control areas set forth in Tables 2703.1.1(1) and 2703.1.1(2). Hazardous occupancies are classified in Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accordance with this code and the requirements of Section 415 of the International Building Code. Hazardous materials stored or used on top of roofs or canopies shall be classified as outdoor storage or use and shall comply with this code.

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified as Group H, but shall be classified as the occupancy that they most nearly resemble.

  1. Buildings and structures occupied for the application of flammable finishes, provided that such buildings or areas conform to the requirements of Chapter 15 of this code and Section 416 of the International BUilding Code. 23
  2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies conforming to Chapter 34.
  3. Closed piping system containing flammable or combustible liquids or gases utilized for the operation of machinery or equipment.
  4. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) or higher in closed systems employing equipment listedby an approved testing agency, provided that this occupancy is separated from all other areas of the building by I-hour fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 of the International BUilding Code or I-hour horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 712 of the International Building Code, or both.
  5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).
  6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage.
  7. Refrigeration systems.
  8. The storage or utilization ofmaterials for agricultural purposes on the premises.
  9. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency power, uninterrupted power supply or telecommunication facilities, provided that the batteries are equipped with safety venting caps and ventilation is provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
  10. Corrosives shall not include personal or household products in their original packaging used in retail display or commonly used building materials.
  11. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol storage shall be classified as Group S-I, provided that such buildings conform to the requirements of Chapter 28.
  12. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantityper control area in Group M or S occupancies complying with Section 2703.8.3.5.
  13. The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, M and S, provided such storage conforms to the quantity limits and requirements of this code.

High-hazard Group H-l. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be classified as Group H-l. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Detonable pyrophoric materials

Explosives:

Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3

Exception: Materials that are used and maintained in a form where either confinement or configuration will not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explosion hazard shall be allowed in Group H-2 occupancies.

Division 1.4

Exception: Articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles shall be allowed in Group H-3 occupancies.

Division 1.5
Division 1.6

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable
Oxidizers, Class 4
Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable, and Class 4

High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Class I, II or IlIA flammable or combustible liquids which are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge
Combustible dusts
Cryogenic fluids,
flammable
Flammable gases
Organic peroxides, Class I
Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 pounds per square inch (103.4 kPa) gauge
Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable Water-reactive materials, Class 3

High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures containing materials that readily support combustion or that

24

pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Class I, II or IlIA flammable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa) or less
Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled cotton
Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common)
Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing
Flammable solids
Organic peroxides, Class II and III
Oxidizers, Class 2
Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less
Oxidizing gases
Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2
Water-reactive materials, Class 2

High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures which contain materials that are health hazards shall be classified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Corrosives
Highly toxic materials
Toxic materials

High-hazard Group H-5. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of those listed in Tables 2703.1.1 (1) and 2703.1.1 (2) shall be classified as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 415.8 of the International Building Code.

[B] Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy includes, among others, the use ofa building or structure, or a portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a supervised environment, having physical limitations because of health or age, are harbored for medical treatment or other care or treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group 1-1,1-2,1-3 or 1-4.

Group 1-1. This occupancy shall include buildings, structures or parts thereof housing more than 16 persons, on a 24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environment that provides personal care services. The occupants are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from staff. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Alcohol and drug centers
Assisted living facilities
Congregate care facilities
Convalescent facilities
Group homes
Half-way houses
Residential board and care facilities
Social rehabilitation facilities

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2 of the International Building Code. A facility such as above, housing at least six and not more than 16 persons, shall be classified as Group R-4.

[B] Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include buildings and structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or custodial care for persons who are not capable of self-preservation. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Child care facilities
Detoxification facilities
Hospitals
Mental hospitals
Nursing homes

Group 1-3. This occupancy shall include buildings and structures which are inhabited by more than five persons who are under restraint or security. An 1-3 facility is occupied by persons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to security measures not under the occupants' control. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Correctional centers
Detention centers
Jails
Prerelease centers
Prisons
Reformatories

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated below:

Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted, to the exterior via means ofegress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed as Group R.

Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits.

Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-controlled release ofmeans ofegress from such smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.

Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from

25

an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

[B] Group 1-4, day care facilities. This group shall include buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individuals other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage, or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared for. A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall be classified as Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2 of the International BUilding Code. Places of worship during religious functions are not included.

Adult care facility. A facility that provides accommodations for less than 24 hours for more than five unrelated adults and provides supervision and personal care services shall be classified as Group 1-4.

Exception: Where the occupants are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from the staff, the facility shall be classified as Group R-3.

Child care facility. Child care facilities that provide supervision and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for more than five children 2½ years of age or less shall be classified as Group 1-4.

Exception: A child day care facility that provides care for more than five but no more than 100 children 2½ years or less of age, where the rooms in which the children are cared for are located on a level ofexit discharge serving such rooms and each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall be classified as Group E.

[B] Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise, and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following.

Department stores
Drug stores
Markets
Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
Retail or wholesale stores
Sales rooms

Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2 of the International BUilding Code. Residential occupancies shall include the following:

R-1 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, including:

Boarding houses (transient)
Hotels (transient)
Motels (transient)

Congregate living facilities (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants are permitted to comply with the construction requirements for Group R-3.

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, including:

Apartment houses
Boarding houses (nontransient)
Convents
Dormitories
Fraternities and sororities
Hotels (nontransient)
Live/work units
Monasteries
Motels (nontransient)
Vacation timeshare properties

Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer occupants are permitted to comply with the construction requirements for Group R-3.

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R-1, R-2, R-4 or I, including:

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units.
Adult care facilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer persons ofany age for less than 24 hours.
Child care facilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer persons ofany age for less than 24 hours.
Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer persons.

Adult care and child care facilities that are within a single-family home are permitted to comply with the International Residential Code.

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings arranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted living facilities including more than five but not more than 16 occupants, excluding staff.

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in this code or shall comply with the International Residential Code, provided the building is protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.2.8.

[B] Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or

26

a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occupancy.

Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-l. Buildings occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, including, but not limited to, storage of the following:

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3
Aircraft hangar (storage and repair)
Bags: cloth, burlap and paper
Bamboos and rattan
Baskets
Belting: canvas and leather
Books and paper in rolls or packs
Boots and shoes
Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone
Cardboard and cardboard boxes
Clothing, woolen wearing apparel
Cordage
Dry boat storage (indoor)
Furniture
Furs Glues, mucilage, pastes and size
Grains
Horns and combs, other than celluloid
Leather
Linoleum
Lumber
Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in Table 2703.1.1 (1) (see Section 406.6 of the International BUilding Code)
Photo engravings
Resilient flooring
Silks
Soaps
Sugar
Tires, bulk storage of
Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff
Upholstery and mattresses
Wax candles

Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among others, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Storage uses shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following:

Asbestos
Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in metal, glass or ceramic containers
Cement in bags
Chalk and crayons
Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers
Dry cell batteries
Electrical coils
Electrical motors
Empty cans
Food products
Foods in noncombustible containers
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers
Frozen foods
Glass
Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids
Gypsum board
Inert pigments
Ivory
Meats
Metal cabinets
Metal desks with plastic tops and trim
Metal parts
Metals
Mirrors
Oil-filled and other types ofdistribution transformers
Parking garages, open or enclosed
Porcelain and pottery
Stoves
Talc and soapstones
Washers and dryers

[B] Miscellaneous Group U. Buildings and structures ofan accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Agricultural buildings
Aircraft hangar, accessory to a one- or two-family residence (see Section 412.3 of the International BUilding Code)
Barns
Carports
Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high
Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy
Greenhouses
Livestock shelters
Private garages
Retaining walls
Sheds
Stables
Tanks
Towers

[B] OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002.1.

OPEN BURNING. See Section 302.1.

[B] OPEN MALL. See "Covered mall building."

[B] OPEN MALL BUILDING. See "Covered mall building."

[B] OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.3.3.1 of the International Building Code on two or more sides that is used for the parking or storage ofprivate motor vehicles as described in Section 406.3.4 of the International Building Code.

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during

27

normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations.

OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 3302.1.

OPERATING LINE. See Section 3302.1.

OPERATING PRESSURE. The pressure at which a system operates.

ORGANIC COATING. See Section 2002.1.

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 3902.1.

Class I. See Section 3902.1.

Class II. See Section 3902.1.

Class III. See Section 3902.1.

Class IV. See Section 3902.1.

Class V. See Section 3902.1.

Unclassified detonable. See Section 3902.1.

OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA. See Section 2702.1.

[B] OUTPATIENT CLINIC. See "Clinic, outpatient."

OVERCROWDING. A condition that exists when either there are more people in a building, structure or portion thereof than have been authorized or posted by the fire code official, or when the fire code off1cial determines that a threat exists to the safety of the occupants due to persons sitting and/or standing in locations that may obstruct or impede the use of aisles, passages, corridors, stairways, exits or other components of the means of egress.

OWNER. A corporation, firm, partnership, association, organization and any other group acting as a unit, or a person who has legal title to any structure or premises with or without accompanying actual possession thereof, and shall include the duly authorized agent or attorney, a purchaser, devisee, fiduciary and any person having a vested or contingent interest in the premises in question.

OXIDIZER. See Section 4002.1.

Class 4. See Section 4002.1.

Class 3. See Section 4002.1.

Class 2. See Section 4002.1.

Class 1. See Section 4002.1.

OXIDIZING CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 4002.1.

OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 4002.1.

OZONE-GAS GENERATOR. See Section 3702.1.

[B] PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1.

PASS-THROUGH. See Section 1802.1.

[B] PENTHOUSE. An enclosed, unoccupied structure above the roof of a building, other than a tank, tower, spire, dome cupola or bulkhead.

PERMISSIBLE EXPOSURE LIMIT (PEL). See Section 2702.1.

[B] PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the authority having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of a specified activity.

[B] PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.

[B] PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of residents who do not require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. Personal care involves responsibility for the safety of the resident while inside the building.

PESTICIDE. See Section 2702.1.

[B] PHOTOLUMINESCENT. See Section 1002.1.

PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 2702.1.

PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD. See Section 3702.1.

PIER. See Section 4502.1.

PLOSOPHORIC MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1.

PLYWOOD and VENEER MILLS. See Section 1902.1.

PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE. See Section 302.1.

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. See Section 302.1.

PRESSURE VESSEL. See Section 2702.1.

PRIMARY CONTAINMENT. The first level of containment, consisting of the inside portion of that container which comes into immediate contact on its inner surface with the material being contained.

PROCESS TRANSFER. See Section 3402.1.

PROPELLANT. See Section 2802.1.

PROXIMATE AUDIENCE. See Section 3302.1.

PUBLIC TRAFFIC ROUTE (PTR). See Section 3302.1.

[B] PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1.

PYROPHORIC. See Section 4102.1.

PYROTECHNIC ARTICLE. See Section 3302.1.

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 3302.1.

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL EFFECT. See Section 3302.1.

PYROTECHNIC SPECIAL-EFFECT MATERIAL. See Section 3302.1.

PYROTECHNICS. See Section 3302.1.

QUANTITY-DISTANCE (Q-D). See Section 3302.1.

Inhabited building distance (IBD). See Section 3302.1.

Intermagazine distance (IMD). See Section 3302.1.

Intraline distance (ILD) or Intraplant distance (IPD). See Section 3302.1.

Minimum separation distance (Do). See Section 3302.1.

RAILWAY. See Section 3302.1.

[B] RAMP. See Section 1002.1.

RAW PRODUCT. See Section 1902.1.

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READY BOX. See Section 3302.1.

RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1.

RECREATIONAL FIRE. See Section 302.1.

REDUCED FLOW VALVE. See Section 3702.1.

REFINERY. See Section 3402.1.

REFRIGERANT. See Section 602.1.

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. See Section 602.1.

[B] REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An architect or engineer, registered or licensed to practice professional architecture or engineering, as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state in which the project is to be constructed.

[B] RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or portion thereof intended for the performance of religious services.

REMOTE EMERGENCY SHUTOFF DEVICE. See Section 3402.1.

REMOTE SOLVENT RESERVOIR. See Section 3402.1.

REMOTELY LOCATED, MANUALLY ACTIVATED SHUTDOWN CONTROL. A control system that is designed to initiate shutdown of the flow of gases or liquids that is manually activated from a point located some distance from the delivery system.

REPAIR GARAGE. See Section 2202.1.

[B] RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part thereof housing persons, on a 24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environment which provides personal care services. The occupants are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from staff. This classification shall include, but not be limited to, the following: residential board and care facilities, assisted living facilities, halfway houses, group homes, congregate care facilities, social rehabilitation facilities, alcohol and drug abuse centers and convalescent facilities.

RESIN APPLICATION AREA. See Section 1502.1.

RESPONSIBLE PERSON. See Section 2602.1.

RETAIL DISPLAY AREA. See Section 2802.1.

ROLL COATING. See Section 1502.1.

RUBBISH (TRASH). Combustible and noncombustible waste materials, including residue from the burning of coal, wood, coke or other combustible material, paper, rags, cartons, tin cans, metals, mineral matter, glass crockery, dust and discarded refrigerators, and heating, cooking or incinerator-type appliances.

SAFETY CAN. See Section 2702.1.

[B] SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1.

SECONDARY CONTAINMENT. See Section 2702.1.

SEGREGATED. See Section 2702.1.

[B] SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other opening, means equipped with an approved device that will ensure closing after having been opened.

[B] SELF-LUMINOUS. See Section 1002.1.

SELF-SERVICE MOTOR FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITY. See Section 2202.1.

SEMICONDUCTOR FABRICATION FACILITY. See Section 1802.1.

SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 1802.1.

SHELF STORAGE. See Section 2302.1.

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

[B] SITE. A parcel ofland bounded by a lotline or a designated portion of a public right-of-way.

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. See Section 802.1.

[B] SLEEPING UNIT. See Section 902.1.

SMALL ARMS AMMUNITION. See Section 3302.1.

SMALL ARMS PRIMERS. See Section 3302.1.

SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

[B] SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical or horizontal, such as a wall, floor, or ceiling assembly, that is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke.

[B] SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and bottom.

[B] SMOKE DAMPER. A listeddevice installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center:

SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1.

[B] SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802.1.

[B] SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Section 1002.1.

SMOKELESS PROPELLANTS. See Section 3302.1.

[B] SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. An exit stairway designed and constructed so that the movement of the products of combustion produced by a fire occurring in any part of the building into the enclosure is limited.

SOLID. See Section 2702.1.

SOLID SHELVING. See Section 2302.1.

SOLVENT DISTILLATION UNIT. See Section 3402.1.

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. See Section 1202.1.

Class I solvents. See Section 1202.1.

Class II solvents. See Section 1202.1.

Class IlIA solvents. See Section 1202.1.

Class IIIB solvents. See Section 1202.1.

Class IV solvents. See Section 1202.1.

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A building that is temporary, permanent or mobile that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction as a form of amusement arranged so that the egress path is not readily apparent

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due to visual or audio distractions or an intentionally confounded egress path, or is not readily available because of the mode of conveyance through the building or structure.

SPECIAL INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. See Section 3302.1.

SPRAY BOOTH. See Section 1502.1.

SPRAY ROOM. See Section 1502.1.

SPRAYING SPACE. See Section 1502.1.

[B] STAIR. See Section 1002.1.

[B] STAIRWAY. See Section 1002.1.

[B] STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1.

[B] STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1.

[B] STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002.1.

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. See Section 902.1.

Class I system. See Section 902.1.

Class II system. See Section 902.1.

Class III system. See Section 902.1.

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. See Section 902.1.

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1.

Automatic wet. See Section 902.1.

Manual dry. See Section 902.1.

Manual wet. See Section 902.1.

Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902.1.

STATIC PILES. See Section 1902.1.

STEEL. Hot-or cold-rolled as defined by the International Building Code.

STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 2702.1.

[B] STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above (also see "Mezzanine" and Section 502.1 of the International BUilding Code). It is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceilingjoists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.

[B] STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which the finished surface of the floor next above is:

  1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or
  2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.

[B] SUITE. See Section 1002.1.

SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1.

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

SYSTEM. See Section 2702.1.

TANK. A vessel containing more than 60 gallons (227 L).

TANK, ATMOSPHERIC. See Section 2702.1.

TANK, PORTABLE. See Section 2702.1.

TANK, PRIMARY. See Section 3402.1.

TANK, PROTECTED ABOVE GROUND. A tank listed in accordance with UL 2085 consisting of a primary tank provided with protection from physical damage and fire-resistive protection from a high-intensity liquid pool fire exposure. The tank may provide protection elements as a unit or may be an assembly of components, or a combination thereof.

TANK, STATIONARY. See Section 2702.1.

TANK VEHICLE. See Section 2702.1.

TENT. See Section 2402.1.

THEFT RESISTANT. See Section 3302.1.

THERMAL INSECTICIDAL FOGGING. See Section 1702.1.

TIMBER and LUMBER PRODUCTION FACILITIES. See Section 1902.1.

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. See Section 902.1.

TOOL. See Section 1802.1.

TORCH-APPLIED ROOF SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1.

[B] TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on at least two sides.

TOXIC. See Section 3702.1.

[B] TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit for not more than 30 days.

[B] TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. See Section 902.1.

TRANSVERSE FLUE SPACE. See Section 2302.1.

TRASH. See "Rubbish."

TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

TUBE TRAILER. See Section 3002.1.

UNAUTHORIZED DISCHARGE. See Section 2702.1.

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 4302.1.

Class 4. See Section 4302.1.

Class 3. See Section 4302.1.

Class 2. See Section 4302.1.

Class 1. See Section 4302.1.

UNWANTED FIRE. A fire not used for cooking, heating or recreational purposes or one not incidental to the normal operations of the property.

USE (MATERIAL). See Section 2702.1.

VAPOR PRESSURE. See Section 2702.1.

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[B] VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.

VESSEL. See Section 1002.1.

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 4402.1.

Class 3. See Section 4402.1.

Class 2. See Section 4402.1.

Class 1. See Section 4402.1.

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Section 902.1.

WHARF. See Section 4502.1.

WILDFIRE RISK AREA. Land that is covered with grass, grain, brush or forest, whether privately or publicly owned, which is so situated or is ofsuch inaccessible location that a fire originating upon it would present an abnormally difficultjob of suppression or would result in great or unusual damage through fire or such areas designated by the fire code official.

[B] WINDER. See Section 1002.1.

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

WORKSTATION. See Section 1802.1.

[B] YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by the International BUilding Code, on the lot on which a building is situated.

ZONE. See Section 902.1.

ZONE, NOTIFICATION. See Section 902.1.

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CHAPTER 3
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

SECTION 301
GENERAL

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the occupancy and maintenance of all structures and premises for precautions against fire and the spread of fire and general requirements of fire safety.

301.2 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6 for the activities or uses regulated by Sections 306,307, 308 and 315.

SECTION 302
DEFINITIONS

302.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

BONFIRE. An outdoor fire utilized for ceremonial purposes.

HI-BOY. A cart used to transport hot roofing materials on a roof.

HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE. An electrical power transmission line operating at or above 66 kilovolts.

OPEN BURNING. The burning of materials wherein products of combustion are emitted directly into the ambient air without passing through a stack or chimney from an enclosed chamber. Open burning does not include road flares, smudgepots and similar devices associated with safety or occupational uses typically considered open flames, recreational fires or use of portable outdoor fireplaces. For the purpose of this definition, a chamber shall be regarded as enclosed when, during the time combustion occurs, only apertures, ducts, stacks, flues or chimneys necessary to provide combustion air and permit the escape of exhaust gas are open.

PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACE. A portable, outdoor, solid-fuel-burning fireplace that may be constructed of steel, concrete, clay or other noncombustible material. A portable outdoor fireplace may be open in design, or may be equipped with a small hearth opening and a short chimney or chimney opening in the top.

POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCK. A forklift, tractor, platform lift truck or motorized hand truck powered by an electrical motor or internal combustion engine. Powered industrial trucks do not include farm vehicles or automotive vehicles for highway use.

RECREATIONAL FIRE. An outdoor fire burning materials other than rubbish where the fuel being burned is not contained in an incinerator, outdoor fireplace, portable outdoor fireplace, barbeque grill or barbeque pit and has a total fuel area of 3 feet (914 mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in height for pleasure, religious, ceremonial, cooking, warmth or similar purposes.

SECTION 303
ASPHALT KETTLES

303.1 Transporting. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be transported over any highway, road or street when the heat source for the kettle is operating.

Exception: Asphalt (tar) kettles in the process of patching road surfaces.

303.2 Location. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall not be located within 20 feet (6096 mm) of any combustible material, combustible building surface or any building opening and within a controlled area identified by the use of traffic cones, barriers or other approved means. Asphalt (tar) kettles and pots shall not be utilized inside or on the roof ofa building or structure. Roofing kettles and operating asphalt (tar) kettles shall not block means ofegress, gates, roadways or entrances.

303.3 Location of fuel containers. Fuel containers shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from the burner.

Exception: Containers properly insulated from heat or flame are allowed to be within 2 feet (610 mm) ofthe burner.

303.4 Attendant. An operating kettle shall be attended by a minimum of one employee knowledgeable of the operations and hazards. The employee shall be within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of the kettle and have the kettle within sight. Ladders or similar obstacles shall not form a part of the route between the attendant and the kettle.

303.5 Fire extinguishers. There shall be a portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 40-B:C rating within 25 feet (7620 mm) of each asphalt (tar) kettle during the period such kettle is being utilized. Additionally, there shall be one portable fire extinguisher with a minimum 3-A:40-B:C rating on the roof being covered.

303.6 Lids. Asphalt (tar) kettles shall be equipped with tight-fitting lids.

303.7 Hi-boys. Hi-boys shall be constructed of noncombustible materials. Hi- boys shall be limited to a capacity of 55 gallons (208 L). Fuel sources or heating elements shall not be allowed as part of a hi-boy.

303.8 Roofing kettles. Roofing kettles shall be constructed of noncombustible materials.

303.9 Fuel containers under air pressure. Fuel containers that operate under air pressure shall not exceed 20 gallons (76 L) in capacity and shall be approved.

SECTION 304
COMBUSTIBLE WASTE MATERIAL

304.1 Waste accumulation prohibited. Combustible waste material creating a fire hazard shall not be allowed to accumulate in buildings or structures or upon premises.

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304.1.1 Waste material. Accumulations of wastepaper, wood, hay, straw, weeds, litter or combustible or flammable waste or rubbish of any type shall not be permitted to remain on a roof or in any court, yard, vacant lot, alley, parking lot, open space, or beneath a grandstand, bleacher, pier, wharf, manufactured home, recreational vehicle or other similar structure.

304.1.2 Vegetation. Weeds, grass, vines or other growth that is capable of being ignited and endangering property, shall be cut down and removed by the owner or occupant of the premises. Vegetation clearance requirements in urban-wildland interface areas shall be in accordance with the International Wildland-Urban Interface Code.

304.1.3 Space underneath seats. Spaces underneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall be kept free from combustible and flammable materials. Except where enclosed in not less than I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction in accordance with the International BUilding Code, spaces underneath grandstand and bleacher seats shall not be occupied or utilized for purposes other than means ofegress.

304.2 Storage. Storage of combustible rubbish shall not produce conditions that will create a nuisance or a hazard to the public health, safety or welfare.

304.3 Containers. Combustible rubbish, and waste material kept within or near a structure shall be stored in accordance with Sections 304.3.1 through 304.3.4.

304.3.1 Spontaneous ignition. Materials susceptible to spontaneous ignition, such as oily rags, shall be stored in a listed disposal container. Contents of such containers shall be removed and disposed of daily.

304.3.2 Capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet. Containers with a capacity exceeding 5.33 cubic feet (40 gallons) (0.15 m3) shall be provided with lids. Containers and lids shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW1m2 in the horizontal orientation.

Exception: Wastebaskets in Group I-3 occupancies shall comply with Section 808.1.

304.3.3 Capacity exceeding 1.5 cubic yards. Dumpsters and containers with an individual capacity of 1.5 cubic yards [40.5 cubic feet (1.15 m3)] or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines.

Exceptions:

  1. Dumpsters or containers in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.
  2. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or container storage.

304.3.4 Capacity of 1cubic yard or more. Dumpsters with an individual capacity of 1.0 cubic yard [200 gallons (0.76 m3)] or more shall not be stored in buildings or placed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of combustible walls, openings or combustible roof eave lines unless the dumpsters are constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials with a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW1m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation.

Exceptions:

  1. Dumpsters in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.
  2. Storage in a structure shall not be prohibited where the structure is of Type I or IIA construction, located not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other buildings and used exclusively for dumpster or container storage.

SECTION 305
IGNITION SOURCES

305.1 Clearance from ignition sources. Clearance between ignition sources, such as luminaires, heaters, flame-producing devices and combustible materials, shall be maintained in an approved manner.

305.2 Hot ashes and spontaneous ignition sources. Hot ashes, cinders, smoldering coals or greasy or oily materials subject to spontaneous ignition shall not be deposited in a combustible receptacle, within 10 feet (3048 mm) of other combustible material including combustible walls and partitions or within 2 feet (610 mm) of openings to buildings.

Exception: The minimum required separation distance to other combustible materials shall be 2 feet (610 mm) where the material is deposited in a covered, noncombustible receptacle placed on a noncombustible floor, ground surface or stand.

305.3 Open-flame warning devices. Open-flame warning devices shall not be used along an excavation, road, or any place where the dislodgment of such device might permit the device to roll, fall or slide on to any area or land containing combustible material.

305.4 Deliberate or negligent burning. It shall be unlawful to deliberately or through negligence set fire to or cause the burning of combustible material in such a manner as to endanger the safety of persons or property.

SECTION 306
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION
ROOMS AND FILM

306.1 Motion picture projection rooms. Electric arc, xenon or other light source projection equipment which develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation and the projection of ribbon-type cellulose nitrate film, regardless of the light source used in projection, shall be operated within a motion picture

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projection room complying with Section 409 of the International BUilding Code.

306.2 Cellulose nitrate film storage. Storage of cellulose nitrate film shall be in accordance with NFPA 40.

SECTION 307
OPEN BURNING, RECREATIONAL FIRES AND PORTABLE OUTDOOR FIREPLACES

307.1 General. A person shall not kindle or maintain or authorize to be kindled or maintained any open burning unless conducted and approved in accordance with this section.

307.1.1 Prohibited open burning. Open burning that is offensive or objectionable because of smoke emissions or when atmospheric conditions or local circumstances make such fires hazardous shall be prohibited.

307.2 Permit required. A permit shall be obtained from the fire code ofl1cial in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to kindling a fire for recognized silvicultural or range or wildlife management practices, prevention or control of disease or pests, or a bonfire. Application for such approval shall only be presented by and permits issued to the owner of the land upon which the fire is to be kindled.

307.2.1 Authorization. Where required by state or local law or regulations, open burning shall only be permitted with prior approval from the state or local air and water quality management authority, provided that all conditions specified in the authorization are followed.

307.3 Extinguishment authority. The fire code official is authorized to order the extinguishment by the permit holder, another person responsible or the fire department of open burning that creates or adds to a hazardous or objectionable situation.

307.4 Location. The location for open burningshall not be less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any structure, and provisions shall be made to prevent the fire from spreading to within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of any structure.

Exceptions:

  1. Fires in approved containers that are not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) from a structure.
  2. The minimum required distance from a structure shall be 25 feet (7620 mm) where the pile size is 3 feet (914 mm) or less in diameter and 2 feet (610 mm) or less in height.

307.4.1 Bonfires. A bonfire shall not be conducted within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a structure or combustible material unless the fire is contained in a barbecue pit. Conditions which could cause a fire to spread within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition.

307.4.2 Recreational fires. Recreational fires shall not be conducted within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure or combustible material. Conditions which could cause a fire to spread within 25 feet (7620 mm) of a structure shall be eliminated prior to ignition.

307.4.3 Portable outdoor fireplaces. Portable outdoor fireplaces shall be used in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and shall not be operated within 15 feet (3048 mm) of a structure or combustible material.

Exception: Portable outdoor fireplaces used at one- and two-family dwellings.

307.5 Attendance. Open burning, bonfires, recreational fires and use of portable outdoor fireplaces shall be constantly attended until the fire is extinguished. A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 with a minimum 4-A rating or other approved on-site fire-extinguishing equipment, such as dirt, sand, water barrel, garden hose or water truck, shall be available for immediate utilization.

SECTION 308
OPEN FLAMES

308.1 General. Open flame, fire and burning on all premises shall be in accordance with Sections 308.1.1 through 308.4.1 and with other applicable sections of this code.

308.1.1 Where prohibited. A person shall not take or utilize an open flame or light in a structure, vessel, boat or other place where highly flammable, combustible or explosive material is utilized or stored. Lighting appliances shall be well-secured in a glass globe and wire mesh cage or a similar approved device.

308.1.2 Throwing or placing sources of ignition. No person shall throw or place, or cause to be thrown or placed, a lighted match, cigar, cigarette, matches, or other flaming or glowing substance or object on any surface or article where it can cause an unwanted fire.

308.1.3 Torches for removing paint. Persons utilizing a torch or other flame-producing device for removing paint from a structure shall provide a minimum of one portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and with a minimum 4-A rating, two portable fire extinguishers, each with a minimum 2-A rating, or a water hose connected to the water supply on the premises where such burning is done. The person doing the burning shall remain on the premises 1 hour after the torch or flame-producing device is utilized.

308.1.4 Open-flame cooking devices. Charcoal burners and other open-flame cooking devices shall not be operated on combustible balconies or within 10 feet (3048 mm) of combustible construction.

Exceptions:

  1. One- and two-family dwellings.
  2. Where buildings, balconies and decks are protected by an automatic sprinkler system.
  3. LP-gas cooking devices having LP-gas container with a water capacity not greater than 2½ pounds [nominal 1 pound (0.454 kg) LP-gas capacity].

308.1.5 Location near combustibles. Open flames such as from candles, lanterns, kerosene heaters and gas-fired heaters shall not be located on or near decorative material or similar combustible materials.

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308.1.6 Open-flame devices. Torches and other devices, machines or processes liable to start or cause fire shall not be operated or used in or upon wildfire risk areas, except by a permit in accordance with Section 105.6 secured from the fire code official.

Exception: Use within inhabited premises or designated campsites which are a minimum of 30 feet (9144 mm) from grass-, grain-, brush- or forest-covered areas.

308.1.6.1 Signals and markers. Flame-employing devices, such as lanterns or kerosene road flares, shall not be operated or used as a signal or marker in or upon wildfire risk areas.

Exception: The proper use of fusees at the scenes of emergencies or as required by standard railroad operating procedures.

308.1.6.2 Portable fueled open-flame devices. Portable open-flame devices fueled by flammable or combustible gases or liquids shall be enclosed or installed in such a manner as to prevent the flame from contacting combustible material.

Exceptions:

  1. LP-gas-fueled devices used for sweating pipe joints or removing paint in accordance with Chapter 38.
  2. Cutting and welding operations in accordance with Chapter 26.
  3. Torches or flame-producing devices in accordance with Section 308.4.
  4. Candles and open-flame decorative devices in accordance with Section 308.3.

308.1.7 Religious ceremonies. When, in the opinion of the fire code official, adequate safeguards have been taken, participants in religious ceremonies are allowed to carry hand-held candles. Hand-held candles shall not be passed from one person to another while lighted.

308.1.7.1 Aisles and exits. Candles shall be prohibited in areas where occupants stand, or in an aisle or exit.

308.1.8 Flaming food and beverage preparation. The preparation of flaming foods or beverages in places of assembly and drinking or dining establishments shall be in accordance with Sections 308.1.8.1 through 308.1.8.5.

308.1.8.1 Dispensing. Flammable or combustible liquids used in the preparation of flaming foods or beverages shall be dispensed from one of the following:

  1. A I-ounce (29.6 m!) container; or
  2. A container not exceeding I-quart (946.5 m!) capacity with a controlled pouring device that will limit the flow to a I-ounce (29.6 m!) serving.

308.1.8.2 Containers not in use. Containers shall be secured to prevent spillage when not in use.

308.1.8.3 Serving offlaming food. The serving of flaming foods or beverages shall be done in a safe manner and shall not create high flames. The pouring, ladling or spooning of liquids is restricted to a maximum height of 8 inches (203 mm) above the receiving receptacle.

308.1.8.4 Location. Flaming foods or beverages shall be prepared only in the immediate vicinity ofthe table being serviced. They shall not be transported or carried while burning.

308.1.8.5 Fire protection. The person preparing the flaming foods or beverages shall have a wet cloth towel immediately available for use in smothering the flames in the event of an emergency.

308.2 Permits required. Permits shall be obtained from the fire code official in accordance with Section 105.6 prior to engaging in the following activities involving open flame, fire and burning:

  1. Use ofa torch or flame-producing device to remove paint from a structure.
  2. Use of open flame, fire or burning in connection with Group A or E occupancies.
  3. Use or operation of torches and other devices, machines or processes liable to start or cause fire in or upon wild-fire risk areas.

308.3 Group A occupancies. Open-flame devices shall not be used in a Group A occupancy.

Exceptions:

  1. Open-flame devices are allowed to be used in the following situations, provided approved precautions are taken to prevent ignition of a combustible material or injury to occupants:

    1.1. Where necessary for ceremonial or religious purposes in accordance with Section 308.1.7.

    1.2. On stages and platforms as a necessary part of a performance in accordance with Section 308.3.2.

    1.3. Where candles on tables are securely supported on substantial noncombustible bases and the candle flames are protected.

  2. Heat-producing equipment complying with Chapter 6 and the International Mechanical Code.
  3. Gas lights are allowed to be used provided adequate precautions satisfactory to the fire code official are taken to prevent ignition of combustible materials.

308.3.1 Open-flame decorative devices. Open-flame decorative devices shall comply with all of the following restrictions:

  1. Class I and Class II liquids and LP-gas shall not be used.
  2. Liquid- or solid-fueled lighting devices containing more than 8 ounces (237 m!) of fuel must self-extinguish and not leak fuel at a rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if tipped over.
  3. The device or holder shall be constructed to prevent the spillage of liquid fuel or wax at the rate of more 36 than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) when the device or holder is not in an upright position.
  4. The device or holder shall be designed so that it will return to the upright position after being tilted to an angle of 45 degrees from vertical.

    Exception: Devices that self-extinguish if tipped over and do not spill fuel or wax at the rate of more than 0.25 teaspoon per minute (1.26 ml per minute) if tipped over.

  5. The flame shall be enclosed except where openings on the side are not more than 0.375 inch (9.5 mm) diameter or where openings are on the top and the distance to the top is such that a piece of tissue paper placed on the top will not ignite in 10 seconds.
  6. Chimneys shall be made of noncombustible materials and securely attached to the open-flame device.

    Exception: A chimney is not required to be attached to any open-flame device that will self-extinguish if the device is tipped over.

  7. Fuel canisters shall be safely sealed for storage.
  8. Storage and handling of combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Chapter 34.
  9. Shades, where used, shall be made of noncombustible materials and securely attached to the open-flame device holder or chimney.
  10. Candelabras with flame-lighted candles shall be securely fastened in place to prevent overturning, and shall be located away from occupants using the area and away from possible contact with drapes, curtains or other combustibles.

308.3.2 Theatrical performances. Where approved, open-flame devices used in conjunction with theatrical performances are allowed to be used when adequate safety precautions have been taken in accordance with NFPA 160.

308.4 Group R occupancies. Open flame, fire and burning in Group R occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 308.1 through 308.1.6.2 and 308.4.1.

308.4.1 Group R-2 dormitories. Candles, incense and similar open-flame-producing items shall not be allowed in sleeping units in Group R-2 dormitory occupancies.

SECTION 309
POWERED INDUSTRIAL TRUCKS AND EQUIPMENT

309.1 General. Powered industrial trucks and similar equipment including, but not limited to, floor scrubbers and floor buffers, shall be operated and maintained in accordance with this section.

309.2 Battery chargers. Battery chargers shall be of an approved type. Combustible storage shall be kept a minimum of 3 feet (915 mm) from battery chargers. Battery charging shall not be conducted in areas accessible to the public.

309.3 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in an approved manner in battery-charging areas to prevent a dangerous accumulation of flammable gases.

309.4 Fire extinguishers. Battery-charging areas shall be provided with a fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 having a minimum 4-A:20-B:C rating within 20 feet (6096 mm) of the battery charger.

309.5 Refueling. Powered industrial trucks using liquid fuel, LP-gas or hydrogen shall be refueled outside of buildings or in areas specifically approved for that purpose. Fixed fuel-dispensing equipment and associated fueling operations shall be in accordance with Chapter 22. Other fuel-dispensing equipment and operations, including cylinder exchange for LP-gas-fueled vehicles, shall be in accordance with Chapter 34 for flammable and combustible liquids or Chapter 38 for LP-gas.

309.6 Repairs. Repairs to fuel systems, electrical systems and repairs utilizing open flame or welding shall be done in approved locations outside of buildings or in areas specifically approved for that purpose.

SECTION 310
SMOKING

310.1 General. The smoking or carrying of a lighted pipe, cigar, cigarette or any other type of smoking paraphernalia or material is prohibited in the areas indicated in Sections 310.2 through 310.8.

310.2 Prohibited areas. Smoking shall be prohibited where conditions are such as to make smoking a hazard, and in spaces where flammable or combustible materials are stored or handled.

310.3 "No Smoking" signs. The fire code officialis authorized to order the posting of "No Smoking" signs in a conspicuous location in each structure or location in which smoking is prohibited. The content, lettering, size, color and location of required "No Smoking" signs shall be approved.

310.4 Removal of signs prohibited. A posted "No Smoking" sign shall not be obscured, removed, defaced, mutilated or destroyed.

310.5 Compliance with "No Smoking" signs. Smoking shall not be permitted nor shall a person smoke, throw or deposit any lighted or smoldering substance in any place where "No Smoking" signs are posted.

310.6 Ash trays. Where smoking is permitted, suitable noncombustible ash trays or match receivers shall be provided on each table and at other appropriate locations.

310.7 Burning objects. Lighted matches, cigarettes, cigars or other burning object shall not be discarded in such a manner that could cause ignition of other combustible material.

310.8 Hazardous environmental conditions. When the fire code official determines that hazardous environmental conditions necessitate controlled use of smoking materials, the ignition or use of such materials in mountainous, brush-covered or forest-covered areas or other designated areas is prohibited except in approved designated smoking areas.

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SECTION 311
VACANT PREMISES

311.1 General. Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, premises or portions thereof, including tenant spaces, shall be safeguarded and maintained in accordance with this section.

311.1.1 Abandoned premises. Buildings, structures and premises for which an owner cannot be identified or located by dispatch of a certificate of mailing to the last known or registered address, which persistently or repeatedly become unprotected or unsecured, which have been occupied by unauthorized persons or for illegal purposes, or which present a danger of structural collapse or fire spread to adjacent properties shall be considered abandoned, declared unsafe and abated by demolition or rehabilitation in accordance with the International Property Maintenance Code and the International BUilding Code.

311.1.2 Tenant spaces. Storage and lease plans required by this code shall be revised and updated to reflect temporary or partial vacancies.

311.2 Safeguarding vacant premises. Temporarily unoccupied buildings, structures, premises or portions thereof shall be secured and protected in accordance with this section.

311.2.1 Security. Exterior and interior openings accessible to other tenants or unauthorized persons shall be boarded, locked, blocked or otherwise protected to prevent entry by unauthorized individuals. The fire code official is authorized to placard, post signs, erect barrier tape or take similar measures as necessary to secure public safety.

311.2.2 Fire protection. Fire alarm, sprinkler and stand-pipe systems shall be maintained in an operable condition at all times.

Exceptions:

  1. When the premises have been cleared of all combustible materials and debris and, in the opinion of the fire code official, the type of construction, fire separation distance and security of the premises do not create a fire hazard.
  2. Where approved by the fire chief, buildings that will not be heated and where fire protection systems will be exposed to freezing temperatures, fire alarm and sprinkler systems are permitted to be placed out of service and standpipes are permitted to be maintained as dry systems (without an automatic water supply), provided the building has no contents or storage, and windows, doors and other openings are secured to prohibit entry by unauthorized persons.

311.2.3 Fire separation. Fire-resistance-rated partitions, fire barriers and fire walls separating vacant tenant spaces from the remainder of the building shall be maintained. Openings, joints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall be protected in accordance with Chapter 7.

311.3 Removal ofcombustibles. Persons owning, or in charge or control of, a vacant building or portion thereof, shall remove therefrom all accumulations of combustible materials, flammable or combustible waste or rubbish and shall securely lock or otherwise secure doors, windows and other openings to prevent entry by unauthorized persons. The premises shall be maintained clear of waste or hazardous materials.

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings or portions of buildings undergoing additions, alterations, repairs or change of occupancy in accordance with the International BUilding Code, where waste is controlled and removed as required by Section 304.
  2. Seasonally occupied buildings.

311.4 Removal of hazardous materials. Persons owning or having charge or control of a vacant building containing hazardous materials regulated by Chapter 27 shall comply with the facility closure requirements of Section 2701.6.

311.5 Placards. Any vacant or abandoned buildings or structures determined to be unsafe pursuant to Section 110 of this code relating to structural or interior hazards shall be marked as required by Sections 311.5.1 through 311.5.5.

311.5.1 Placard location. Placards shall be applied on the front of the structure and be visible from the street. Additional placards shall be applied to the side of each entrance to the structure and on penthouses.

311.5.2 Placard size and color. Placards shall be 24 inches by 24 inches (610 mm by 610 mm) minimum in size with a red background, white reflective stripes and a white reflective border. The stripes and border shall have a 2-inch (51 mm) minimum stroke.

311.5.3 Placard date. Placards shall bear the date of their application to the building and the date of the most recent inspection.

311.5.4 Placard symbols. The design of the placards shall use the following symbols:

  1. Image This symbol shall mean that the structure had normal structural conditions at the time of marking.
  2. Image This symbol shall mean that structural or interior hazards exist and interior fire-fighting or rescue operations should be conducted with extreme caution.
  3. Image This symbol shall mean that structural or interior hazards exist to a degree that consideration should be given to limit fire fighting to exterior operations only, with entry only occurring for known life hazards.
  4. Vacant marker hazard identification symbols: The following symbols shall be used to designate known hazards on the vacant building marker. They shall be placed directly above the symbol.

    4.1. RIO-Roof open

    4.2. S/M-Stairs, steps and landing missing

    4.3. FIE-Avoid fire escapes

    4.4. H/F-Holes in floor

311.5.5 Informational use. The use of these symbols shall be informational only and shall not in any way limit the discretion of the on-scene incident commander.

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SECTION 312
VEHICLE IMPACT PROTECTION

312.1 General. Vehicle impact protection required by this code shall be provided by posts that comply with Section 312.2 or by other approved physical barriers that comply with Section 312.3.

312.2 Posts. Guard posts shall comply with all of the following requirements:

  1. Constructed of steel not less than 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter and concrete filled.
  2. Spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) between posts on center.
  3. Set not less than 3 feet (914 mm) deep in a concrete footing of not less than a 15-inch (381 mm) diameter.
  4. Set with the top of the posts not less than 3 feet (914 mm) above ground.
  5. Located not less than 3 feet (914 mm) from the protected object.

312.3 Other barriers. Physical barriers shall be a minimum of 36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall resist a force of 12,000 pounds (53375 N) applied 36 inches (914 mm) above the adjacent ground surface.

SECTION 313
FUELED EQUIPMENT

313.1 General. Fueled equipment including, but not limited to, motorcycles, mopeds, lawn-care equipment, portable generators and portable cooking equipment, shall not be stored, operated or repaired within a building.

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings or rooms constructed for such use in accordance with the International Building Code.
  2. Where allowed by Section 314.
  3. Storage of equipment utilized for maintenance purposes is allowed in approved locations when the aggregate fuel capacity of the stored equipment does not exceed 10 gallons (38 L) and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

313.1.1 Removal. The fire code official is authorized to require removal of fueled equipment from locations where the presence of such equipment is determined by the fire code official to be hazardous.

313.2 Group R occupancies. Vehicles powered by flammable liquids, Class II combustible liquids or compressed flammable gases shall not be stored within the living space of Group R buildings.

SECTION 314
INDOOR DISPLAYS

314.1 General. Indoor displays constructed within any occupancy shall comply with Sections 314.2 through 314.4.

314.2 Fixtures and displays. Fixtures and displays of goods for sale to the public shall be arranged so as to maintain free, immediate and unobstructed access to exits as required by Chapter 10.

314.3 Highly combustible goods. The display of highly combustible goods, including but not limited to fireworks, flammable or combustible liquids, liquefied flammable gases, oxidizing materials, pyroxylin plastics and agricultural goods, in main exit access aisles, corridors, covered malls, or within 5 feet (1524 mm) of entrances to exits and exterior exit doors is prohibited when a fire involving such goods would rapidly prevent or obstruct egress.

314.4 Vehicles. Liquid- or gas-fueled vehicles, boats or other motorcraft shall not be located indoors except as follows:

  1. Batteries are disconnected.
  2. Fuel in fuel tanks does not exceed one-quarter tank or 5 gallons (19 L) (whichever is least).
  3. Fuel tanks and fill openings are closed and sealed to prevent tampering.
  4. Vehicles, boats or other motorcraft equipment are not fueled or defueled within the building.

SECTION 315
MISCELLANEOUS COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS STORAGE

315.1 General. Storage, use and handling of miscellaneous combustible materials shall be in accordance with this section. A permit shall be obtained in accordance with Section 105.6.

315.2 Storage in buildings. Storage of combustible materials in buildings shall be orderly. Storage shall be separated from heaters or heating devices by distance or shielding so that ignition cannot occur.

315.2.1 Ceiling clearance. Storage shall be maintained 2 feet (610 mm) or more below the ceiling in nonsprinklered areas of buildings or a minimum of 18 inches (457 mm) below sprinkler head deflectors in sprinklered areas of buildings.

315.2.2 Means of egress. Combustible materials shall not be stored in exits or exit enclosures.

315.2.3 Equipment rooms. Combustible material shall not be stored in boiler rooms, mechanical rooms or electrical equipment rooms.

315.2.4 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 1¾ inches (44.5 mm) in thickness. Storage shall not be placed on exposed joists.

Exceptions:

  1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems.
  2. Group R-3 and Group U occupancies.
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315.3 Outside storage. Outside storage of combustible materials shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) ofa property line.

Exceptions:

  1. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced to 3 feet (914 mm) for storage not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.
  2. The separation distance is allowed to be reduced when the fire code official determines that no hazard to the adjoining property exists.

315.3.1 Storage beneath overhead projections from buildings. Where buildings are protected by automatic sprinklers, the outdoor storage, display and handling of combustible materials under eaves, canopies or other projections or overhangs is prohibited except where automatic sprinklers are installed under such eaves, canopies or other projections or overhangs.

315.3.2 Height. Storage in the open shall not exceed 20 feet (6096 mm) in height.

I315.4 Storage underneath high-voltage transmission lines. Storage located underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall be in accordance with Section 316.5.2.

SECTION 316
HAZARDS TO FIRE FIGHTERS

316.1 Trapdoors to be closed. Trapdoors and scuttle covers, other than those that are within a dwelling unit or automatically operated, shall be kept closed at all times except when in use.

316.2 Shaftway markings. Vertical shafts shall be identified as required by this section.

316.2.1 Exterior access to shaftways. Outside openings accessible to the fire department and which open directly on a hoistway or shaftway communicating between two or more floors in a building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible from the outside of the building.

316.2.2 Interior access to shaftways. Door or window openings to a hoistway or shaftway from the interior of the building shall be plainly marked with the word SHAFTWAY in red letters at least 6 inches (152 mm) high on a white background. Such warning signs shall be placed so as to be readily discernible.

Exception: Marking shall not be required on shaftway openings which are readily discernible as openings onto a shaftway by the construction or arrangement.

316.3 Pitfalls. The intentional design or alteration of buildings to disable, injure, maim or kill intruders is prohibited. No person shall install and use firearms, sharp or pointed objects, razor wire, explosives, flammable or combustible liquid containers, or dispensers containing highly toxic, toxic, irritant or other hazardous materials in a manner which may passively or actively disable, injure, maim or kill a fire fighter who forcibly enters a building for the purpose ofcontrolling or extinguishing a fire, rescuing trapped occupants or rendering other emergency assistance.

316.4 Security device. Any security device or system that emits any medium that could obscure a means ofegress in any building, structure or premise shall be prohibited.

316.5 Structures and outdoor storage underneath high-voltage transmission lines. Structures and outdoor storage underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall comply with Sections 316.5.1 and 316.5.2, respectively.

316.5.1 Structures. Structures shall not be constructed within the utility easement underneath high-voltage transmission lines.

Exception: Restrooms and unoccupied telecommunication structures of noncombustible construction less than 15 feet in height.

316.5.2 Outdoor storage. Outdoor storage within the utility easement underneath high-voltage transmission lines shall be limited to noncombustible material. Storage of hazardous materials including, but not limited to, flammable and combustible liquids is prohibited.

Exception: Combustible storage, including vehicles and fuel storage for backup power equipment serving public utility equipment, is allowed, provided that a plan indicating the storage configuration is submitted and approved.

SECTION 317
LAUNDRY CARTS

317.1 Laundry carts with a capacity of 1 cubic yard or more. Laundry carts with an individual capacity of 1 cubic yard [200 gallons (0.76 m3)] or more, used in laundries within Group B, F-l, I and R-l occupancies shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or materials having a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW1m2 at a flux of 50 kW1m2 when tested in a horizontal orientation in accordance with ASTM E 1354.

Exceptions:

  1. Laundry carts in areas protected by an approvedautomatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Laundry carts in coin-operated laundries.
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CHAPTER 4
EMERGENCY PLANNING AND PREPAREDNESS

SECTION 401
GENERAL

401.1 Scope. Reporting of emergencies, coordination with emergency response forces, emergency plans and procedures for managing or responding to emergencies shall comply with the provisions of this section.

Exception: Firms that have approved on-premises fire-fighting organizations and that are in compliance with approved procedures for fire reporting.

401.2 Approval. Where required by this code, fire safety plans, emergency procedures and employee training programs shall be approved by the fire code official.

401.3 Emergency responder notification. Notification of emergency responders shall be in accordance with Sections 401.3.1 through 401.3.3.

401.3.1 Fire events. In the event an unwanted fire occurs on a property, the owner or occupant shall immediately report such condition to the fire department.

401.3.2 Alarm activations. Upon activation of a fire alarm signal, employees or staff shall immediately notify the fire department.

401.3.3 Delayed notification. A person shall not, by verbal or written directive, require any delay in the reporting of a fire to the fire department.

401.4 Required plan implementation. In the event an unwanted fire is detected in a building or a fire alarm activates, the emergency plan shall be implemented.

401.5 Making false report. A person shall not give, signal or transmit a false alarm.

401.6 Emergency evacuation drills. The sounding of a fire alarm signal and the carrying out of an emergency evacuation drill in accordance with the provisions of Section 405 shall be allowed.

401.7 Unplanned evacuation. Evacuations made necessary by the unplanned activation of a fire alarm system or by any other emergency shall not be substituted for a required evacuation drill.

401.8 Interference with fire department operations. It shall be unlawful to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, conspire to interfere with, obstruct or restrict the mobility of or block the path of travel of a fire department emergency vehicle in any way, or to interfere with, attempt to interfere with, conspire to interfere with, obstruct or hamper any fire department operation.

SECTION 402
DEFINITIONS

402.1 Definition. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILL. An exercise performed to train staff and occupants and to evaluate their efficiency and effectiveness in carrying out emergency evacuation procedures.

LOCKDOWN. An emergency situation, in other than a Group I-3 occupancy, requiring that the occupants be sheltered and secured in place within a building when normal evacuation would put occupants at risk.

SECTION 403
PUBLIC ASSEMBLAGES AND EVENTS

403.1 Fire watch personnel. When, in the opinion of the fire code official, it is essential for public safety in a place of assembly or any other place where people congregate, because of the number of persons, or the nature of the performance, exhibition' display, contest or activity, the owner; agent or lessee shall provide one or more fire watch personnel, as required and approved, to remain on duty during the times such places are open to the public, or when such activity is being conducted.

403.1.1 Duties. Fire watch personnel shall keep diligent watch for fires, obstructions to means of egress and other hazards during the time such place is open to the public or such activity is being conducted and take prompt measures for remediation of hazards, extinguishment of fires that occur and assist in the evacuation of the public from the structures.

403.2 Public safety plan. In other than Group A or E occupancies, where the fire code official determines that an indoor or outdoor gathering of persons has an adverse impact on public safety through diminished access to buildings, structures, fire hydrants and fire apparatus access roads or where such gatherings adversely affect public safety services of any kind, the fire code official shall have the authority to order the development of, or prescribe a plan for, the provision of an approved level of public safety.

403.2.1 Contents. The public safety plan, where required by Section 403.2, shall address such items as emergency vehicle ingress and egress, fire protection, emergency medical services, public assembly areas and the directing of both attendees and vehicles (including the parking of vehicles), vendor and food concession distribution, and the need for the presence of law enforcement, and fire and emergency medical services personnel at the event.

403.3 Crowd managers. Trained crowd managers shall be provided for facilities or events where more than 1,000 persons congregate. The minimum number of crowd managers shall be

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established at a ratio of one crowd manager to every 250 persons. Where approved by the fire code official, the ratio of crowd managers shall be permitted to be reduced where the facility is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system or based upon the nature of the event.

SECTION 404
FIRE SAFETY AND EVACUATION PLANS

404.1 General. Fire safety, evacuation and lockdown plans and associated drills shall comply with the requirements of Sections 404.2 through 404.5.1.

404.2 Where required. An approved fire safety and evacuation plan shall be prepared and maintained for the following occupancies and buildings.

  1. Group A, other than Group A occupancies used exclusively for purposes of religious worship that have an occupant load less than 2,000.
  2. Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level ofexit discharge.
  3. Group E.
  4. Group F buildings having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level ofexit discharge.
  5. Group H.
  6. Group 1.
  7. Group R-1.
  8. Group R-2 college and university buildings.
  9. Group R-4.
  10. High-rise buildings.
  11. Group M buildings having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level ofexit discharge.
  12. Covered malls exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in aggregate floor area.
  13. Underground buildings.
  14. Buildings with an atrium and having an occupancy in Group A, E or M.

404.3 Contents. Fire safety and evacuation plan contents shall be in accordance with Sections 404.3.1 and 404.3.2.

404.3.1 Fire evacuation plans. Fire evacuation plans shall include the following:

  1. Emergency egress or escape routes and whether evacuation of the building is to be complete or, where approved, by selected floors or areas only.
  2. Procedures for employees who must remain to operate critical equipment before evacuating.
  3. Procedures for assisted rescue for persons unable to use the general means ofegress unassisted.
  4. Procedures for accounting for employees and occupants after evacuation has been completed.
  5. Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for rescue or emergency medical aid.
  6. The preferred and any alternative means of notifying occupants of a fire or emergency.
  7. The preferred and any alternative means of reporting fires and other emergencies to the fire department or designated emergency response organization.
  8. Identification and assignment of personnel who can be contacted for further information or explanation of duties under the plan.
  9. A description of the emergency voice/alarm communication system alert tone and preprogrammed voice messages, where provided.

404.3.2 Fire safety plans. Fire safety plans shall include the following:

  1. The procedure for reporting a fire or other emergency.
  2. The life safety strategy and procedures for notifying, relocating or evacuating occupants, including occupants who need assistance.
  3. Site plans indicating the following:

    3.1. The occupancy assembly point.

    3.2. The locations of fire hydrants.

    3.3. The normal routes offire department vehicle access.

  4. Floor plans identifying the locations ofthe following:

    4.1. Exits.

    4.2. Primary evacuation routes.

    4.3. Secondary evacuation routes.

    4.4. Accessible egress routes.

    4.5. Areas of refuge.

    4.6. Exterior areas for assisted rescue.

    4.7. Manual fire alarm boxes.

    4.8. Portable fire extinguishers.

    4.9. Occupant-use hose stations.

    4.10. Fire alarm annunciators and controls.

  5. A list of major fire hazards associated with the normal use and occupancy of the premises, including maintenance and housekeeping procedures.
  6. Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for maintenance of systems and equipment installed to prevent or control fires.
  7. Identification and assignment of personnel responsible for maintenance, housekeeping and controlling fuel hazard sources.

404.3.3 Lockdown plans. Where facilities develop a lockdown plan, the lockdown plan shall be in accordance with Sections 404.3.3.1 through 404.3.3.3.

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404.3.3.1 Lockdown plan contents. Lockdown plans shall be approved by the fire code official and shall include the following:

  1. Initiation. The plan shall include instructions for reporting an emergency that requires a lockdown.
  2. Accountability. The plan shall include accountability procedures for staff to report the presence or absence of occupants.
  3. Recall. The plan shall include a prearranged signal for returning to normal activity.
  4. Communication and coordination. The plan shall include an approvedmeans of two-way communication between a central location and each secured area.

404.3.3.2 Training frequency. The training frequency shall be included in the lockdown plan. The lockdown drills shall not substitute for any of the fire and evacuation drills required in Section 405.2.

404.3.3.3 Lockdown notification. The method of notifying building occupants ofa lockdown shall be included in the plan. The method of notification shall be separate and distinct from the fire alarm signal.

404.4 Maintenance. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be reviewed or updated annually or as necessitated by changes in staff assignments, occupancy or the physical arrangement of the building.

404.5 Availability. Fire safety and evacuation plans shall be available in the workplace for reference and review by employees, and copies shall be furnished to the fire code official for review upon request.

404.5.1 Distribution. The fire safety and evacuation plans shall be distributed to the tenants and building service employees by the owneror owner's agent. Tenants shall distribute to their employees applicable parts of the fire safety plan affecting the employees' actions in the event of a fire or other emergency.

SECTION 405
EMERGENCY EVACUATION DRILLS

405.1 General. Emergency evacuation drills complying with the provisions of this section shall be conducted at least annually in the occupancies listed in Section 404.2 or when required by the fire code official. Drills shall be designed in cooperation with the local authorities.

405.2 Frequency. Required emergency evacuation drills shall be held at the intervals specified in Table 405.2 or more frequently where necessary to familiarize all occupants with the drill procedure.

405.3 Leadership. Responsibility for the planning and conduct ofdrills shall be assigned to competent persons designated to exercise leadership.

405.4 Time. Drills shall be held at unexpected times and under varying conditions to simulate the unusual conditions that occur in case of fire.

405.5 Record keeping. Records shall be maintained of required emergency evacuation drills and include the following information:

  1. Identity of the person conducting the drill.
  2. Date and time of the drill.
  3. Notification method used.
  4. Staff members on duty and participating.
  5. Number of occupants evacuated.
  6. Special conditions simulated.
  7. Problems encountered.
  8. Weather conditions when occupants were evacuated.
  9. Time required to accomplish complete evacuation.
TABLE 405.2
FIRE AND EVACUATION DRILL FREQUENCY AND PARTICIPATION
GROUP OR OCCUPANCY FREQUENCY PARTICIPATION
Group A Quarterly Employees
Group Be Annually Employees
Group E Monthlya All occupants
Group F Annually Employees
Group I Ouarterly on each shift Employeesb
Group R-l Quarterly on each shift Employees
Group R-2d Four annually All occupants
Group R-4 Quarterly on each shift Employeesb
High-rise buildings Annually Employees
a. The frequency shall be allowed to be modified in accordance with Section 408.3.2.
b. Fire and evacuation drills in residential care assisted living facilities shall include complete evacuation of the premises in accordance with Section 408.10.5. Where occupants receive habilitation or rehabilitation training, fire prevention and fire safety practices shall be included as part of the training program.
c. Group B buildings having an occupant load of 500 or more persons or more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.
d. Applicable to Group R-2 college and university buildings in accordance with Section 408.3.

405.6 Notification. Where required by the fire code official, prior notification of emergency evacuation drills shall be given to the fire code official.

405.7 Initiation. Where a fire alarm system is provided, emergency evacuation drills shall be initiated by activating the fire alarm system.

405.8 Accountability. As building occupants arrive at the assembly point, efforts shall be made to determine if all occupants have been successfully evacuated or have been accounted for.

405.9 Recall and reentry. An electrically or mechanically operated signal used to recall occupants after an evacuation shall be separate and distinct from the signal used to initiate the evacuation. The recall signal initiation means shall be manually operated and under the control of the person in charge of the premises or the official in charge of the incident. Noone shall reenter the premises until authorized to do so by the official in charge.

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SECTION 406
EMPLOYEE TRAINING AND RESPONSE PROCEDURES

406.1 General. Employees in the occupancies listed in Section 404.2 shall be trained in the fire emergency procedures described in their fire evacuation and fire safety plans. Training shall be based on these plans and as described in Section 404.3.

406.2 Frequency. Employees shall receive training in the contents of fire safety and evacuation plans and their duties as part of new employee orientation and at least annually thereafter. Records shall be kept and made available to the fire code ofl1cial upon request.

406.3 Employee training program. Employees shall be trained in fire prevention, evacuation and fire safety in accordance with Sections 406.3.1 through 406.3.4.

406.3.1 Fire prevention training. Employees shall be apprised of the fire hazards of the materials and processes to which they are exposed. Each employee shall be instructed in the proper procedures for preventing fires in the conduct of their assigned duties.

406.3.2 Evacuation training. Employees shall be familiarized with the fire alarm and evacuation signals, their assigned duties in the event of an alarm or emergency, evacuation routes, areas of refuge, exterior assembly areas and procedures for evacuation.

406.3.3 Emergency lockdown training. Where a facility has a lockdown plan, employees shall be trained on their assigned duties and procedures in the event ofan emergency lockdown.

406.3.4 Fire safety training. Employees assigned fire-fighting duties shall be trained to know the locations and proper use of portable fire extinguishers or other manual fire-fighting equipment and the protective clothing or equipment required for its safe and proper use.

SECTION 407
HAZARD COMMUNICATION

407.1 General. The provisions of Sections 407.2 through 407.7 shall be applicable where hazardous materials subject to permits under Section 2701.5 are located on the premises or where required by the fire code official.

407.2 Material Safety Data Sheets. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for all hazardous materials shall be either readily available on the premises as a paper copy, or where approved, shall be permitted to be readily retrievable by electronic access.

407.3 Identification. Individual containers of hazardous materials, cartons or packages shall be marked or labeled in accordance with applicable federal regulations. Buildings, rooms and spaces containing hazardous materials shall be identified by hazard warning signs in accordance with Section 2703.5.

407.4 Training. Persons responsible for the operation of areas in which hazardous materials are stored, dispensed, handled or used shall be familiar with the chemical nature of the materials and the appropriate mitigating actions necessary in the event of a fire, leak or spill. Responsible persons shall be designated and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning emergency responses and identification of the locations where hazardous materials are located, and shall have access to Material Safety Data Sheets and be knowledgeable in the site emergency response procedures.

407.5 Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement. Where required by the fire code official, each application for a permit shall include a Hazardous Materials Inventory Statement (HMIS) in accordance with Section 2701.5.2.

407.6 Hazardous Materials Management Plan. Where required by the fire code official, each application for a permit shall include a Hazardous Materials Management Plan (HMMP) in accordance with Section 2701.5.1. The fire code official is authorized to accept a similar plan required by other regulations.

407.7 Facility closure plans. The permit holder or applicant shall submit to the fire code official a facility closure plan in accordance with Section 2701.6.3 to terminate storage, dispensing, handling or use of hazardous materials.

SECTION 408
USE AND OCCUPANCY-RELATED REQUIREMENTS

408.1 General. In addition to the other requirements of this chapter, the provisions of this section are applicable to specific occupancies listed herein.

408.2 Group A occupancies. Group A occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.2.1 and 408.2.2 and Sections 401 through 406.

408.2.1 Seating plan. The fire safety and evacuation plans for assembly occupancies shall include the information required by Section 404.3 and a detailed seating plan, occupant load and occupant load limit. Deviations from the approvedplans shall be allowed provided the occupantload limit for the occupancy is not exceeded and the aisles and exit accessways remain unobstructed.

408.2.2 Announcements. In theaters, motion picture theaters, auditoriums and similar assembly occupancies in Group A used for noncontinuous programs, an audible announcement shall be made not more than 10 minutes prior to the start of each program to notify the occupants of the location of the exits to be used in the event of a fire or other emergency.

Exception: In motion picture theaters, the announcement is allowed to be projected upon the screen in a manner approved by the fire code official.

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408.3 Group E occupancies and Group R-2 college and university buildings. Group E occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.3.1 through 408.3.4 and Sections 401 through 406. Group R-2 college and university buildings shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.3.1 and 408.3.3 and Sections 401 through 406.

408.3.1 First emergency evacuation drill. The first emergency evacuation drill of each school year shall be conducted within 10 days of the beginning of classes.

408.3.2 Emergency evacuation drill deferral. In severe climates, the fire code official shall have the authority to modify the emergency evacuation drill frequency specified in Section 405.2.

408.3.3 Time of day. Emergency evacuation drills shall be conducted at different hours of the day or evening, during the changing of classes, when the school is at assembly, during the recess or gymnastic periods, or during other times to avoid distinction between drills and actual fires. In Group R-2 college and university buildings, one required drill shall be held during hours after sunset or before sunrise.

408.3.4 Assembly points. Outdoor assembly areas shall be designated and shall be located a safe distance from the building being evacuated so as to avoid interference with fire department operations. The assembly areas shall be arranged to keep each class separate to provide accountability of all individuals.

408.4 Group "-5 occupancies. Group H-5 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.4.1 through 408.4.4 and Sections 401 through 407.

408.4.1 Plans and diagrams. In addition to the requirements of Section 404 and Section 407.6, plans and diagrams shall be maintained in approved locations indicating the approximate plan for each area, the amount and type of HPM stored, handled and used, locations of shutoff valves for HPM supply piping, emergency telephone locations and locations of exits.

408.4.2 Plan updating. The plans and diagrams required by Section 408.4.1 shall be maintained up to date and the fire code official and fire department shall be informed of all major changes.

408.4.3 Emergency response team. Responsible persons shall be designated the on-site emergency response team and trained to be liaison personnel for the fire department. These persons shall aid the fire department in preplanning emergency responses, identifying locations where HPM is stored, handled and used, and be familiar with the chemical nature of such material. An adequate number of personnel for each work shift shall be designated.

408.4.4 Emergency drills. Emergency drills of the on-site emergency response team shall be conducted on a regular basis but not less than once every three months. Records of drills conducted shall be maintained.

408.5 Group 1-1 occupancies. Group 1-1 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.5.1 through 408.5.5 and Sections 401 through 406.

408.5.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include special staff actions including fire protection procedures necessary for residents and shall be amended or revised upon admission of any resident with unusual needs.

408.5.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically instructed and kept informed of their duties and responsibilities under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed by the staff at least every two months. A copy of the plan shall be readily available at all times within the facility.

408.5.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, training in fire prevention and actions to take in the event of a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them to do so without additional personal risk.

408.5.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills shall be conducted at least six times per year, two times per year on each shift. Twelve drills shall be conducted in the first year of operation. Drills are not required to comply with the time requirements of Section 405.4.

408.5.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a selected assembly point.

408.6 Group 1-2 occupancies. Group 1-2 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.6.1 and 408.6.2 and Sections 401 through 406. Drills are not required to comply with the time requirements of Section 405.4.

408.6.1 Evacuation not required. During emergency evacuation drills, the movement of patients to safe areas or to the exterior of the building is not required.

408.6.2 Coded alarm signal. When emergency evacuation drills are conducted after visiting hours or when patients or residents are expected to be asleep, a coded announcement is allowed instead of audible alarms.

408.7 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.7.1 through 408.7.4 and Sections 401 through 406.

408.7.1 Employee training. Employees shall be instructed in the proper use of portable fire extinguishers and other manual fire suppression equipment. Training of new staff shall be provided promptly upon entrance on duty. Refresher training shall be provided at least annually.

408.7.2 Staffing. Group 1-3 occupancies shall be provided with 24-hour staffing. Staff shall be within three floors or 300 feet (91 440 mm) horizontal distance of the access door of each resident housing area. In Use Conditions 3,4 and 5,

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as defined in Chapter 2, the arrangement shall be such that the staff involved can start release of locks necessary for emergency evacuation or rescue and initiate other necessary emergency actions within 2 minutes of an alarm.

Exception: Staff shall not be required to be within three floors or 300 feet (9144 mm) in areas in which all locks are unlocked remotely and automatically in accordance with Section 408.4 of the International BUilding Code.

408.7.3 Notification. Provisions shall be made for residents in Use Conditions 3, 4 and 5, as defined in Chapter 2, to readily notify staff of an emergency.

408.7.4 Keys. Keys necessary for unlocking doors installed in a means of egress shall be individually identifiable by both touch and sight.

408.8 Group R-l occupancies. Group R-1 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.8.1 through 408.8.3 and Sections 401 through 406.

408.8.1 Evacuation diagrams. A diagram depicting two evacuation routes shall be posted on or immediately adjacent to every required egress door from each hotel, motel or dormitory sleeping unit.

408.8.2 Emergency duties. Upon discovery of a fire or suspected fire, hotel, motel and dormitory employees shall perform the following duties:

  1. Activate the fire alarm system, where provided.
  2. Notify the public fire department.
  3. Take other action as previously instructed.

408.8.3 Fire safety and evacuation instructions. Information shall be provided in the fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 to allow guests to decide whether to evacuate to the outside, evacuate to an area ofrefuge, remain in place, or any combination of the three.

408.9 Group R-2 occupancies. Group R-2 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.9.1 through 408.9.3 and Sections 401 through 406.

408.9.1 Emergency guide. A fire emergency guide shall be provided which describes the location, function and use of fire protection equipment and appliances accessible to residents, including fire alarm systems, smoke alarms, and portable fire extinguishers. The guide shall also include an emergency evacuation plan for each dwelling unit.

408.9.2 Maintenance. Emergency guides shall be reviewed and approved in accordance with Section 401. 2.

408.9.3 Distribution. A copy of the emergency guide shall be given to each tenant prior to initial occupancy.

408.10 Group R-4 occupancies. Group R-4 occupancies shall comply with the requirements of Sections 408.10.1 through 408.10.5 and Sections 401 through 406.

408.10.1 Fire safety and evacuation plan. The fire safety and evacuation plan required by Section 404 shall include special staff actions, including fire protection procedures necessary for residents, and shall be amended or revised upon admission of a resident with unusual needs.

408.10.2 Staff training. Employees shall be periodically instructed and kept informed oftheir duties and responsibilities under the plan. Such instruction shall be reviewed by the staff at least every two months. A copy of the plan shall be readily available at all times within the facility.

408.10.3 Resident training. Residents capable of assisting in their own evacuation shall be trained in the proper actions to take in the event of a fire. The training shall include actions to take if the primary escape route is blocked. Where the resident is given rehabilitation or habilitation training, training in fire prevention and actions to take in the event of a fire shall be a part of the rehabilitation training program. Residents shall be trained to assist each other in case of fire to the extent their physical and mental abilities permit them to do so without additional personal risk.

408.10.4 Drill frequency. Emergency evacuation drills shall be conducted at least six times per year, two times per year on each shift. Twelve drills shall be conducted in the first year ofoperation. Drills are not required to comply with the time requirements of Section 405.4.

408.10.5 Resident participation. Emergency evacuation drills shall involve the actual evacuation of residents to a selected assembly point and shall provide residents with experience in exiting through all required exits. All required exits shall be used during emergency evacuation drills.

Exception: Actual exiting from windows shall not be required. Opening the window and signaling for help shall be an acceptable alternative.

408.11 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings shall comply with the provisions of Sections 408.11.1 through 408.11.3.

408.11.1 Lease plan. A lease plan shall be prepared for each covered mall building. The plan shall include the following information in addition to that required by Section 404.3.2:

  1. Each occupancy, including identification of tenant.
  2. Exits from each tenant space.
  3. Fire protection features, including the following:

    3.1. Fire department connections.

    3.2. Fire command center.

    3.3. Smoke management system controls.

    3.4. Elevators, elevator machine rooms and controls.

    3.5. Hose valve outlets.

    3.6. Sprinkler and standpipe control valves.

    3.7. Automatic fire-extinguishing system areas.

    3.8. Automatic fire detector zones.

    3.9. Fire barriers.

408.11.1.1 Approval. The lease plan shall be submitted to the fire code ofl1cial for approval, and shall be maintained on site for immediate reference by responding fire service personnel.

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408.11.1.2 Revisions. The lease plans shall be revised annually or as often as necessary to keep them current. Modifications or changes in tenants or occupancies shall not be made without prior approval of the fire code official and building official.

408.11.2 Tenant identification. Each occupied tenant space provided with a secondary exit to the exterior or exit corridor shall be provided with tenant identification by business name and/or address. Letters and numbers shall be posted on the corridor side of the door, be plainly legible and shall contrast with their background.

Exception: Tenant identification is not required for anchor stores.

408.11.3 Maintenance. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be:

  1. Kept free from the storage of any materials.
  2. Separated from the remainder of the building by partitions of at least O.5-inch-thick (12.7 mm) gypsum board or an approved equivalent to the underside of the ceiling of the adjoining tenant spaces.
  3. Without doors or other access openings other than one door that shall be kept key locked in the closed position except during that time when opened for inspection.
  4. Kept free from combustible waste and be broom-swept clean.
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CHAPTER 5
FIRE SERVICE FEATURES

SECTION 501
GENERAL

501.1 Scope. Fire service features for buildings, structures and premises shall comply with this chapter.

501.2 Permits. A permit shall be required as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

501.3 Construction documents. Construction documents for proposed fire apparatus access, location of fire lanes, security gates across fire apparatus access and construction documents and hydraulic calculations for fire hydrant systems shall be submitted to the fire department for review and approval prior to construction.

501.4 Timing of installation. When fire apparatus access roads or a water supply for fire protection is required to be installed, such protection shall be installed and made serviceable prior to and during the time of construction except when approved alternative methods of protection are provided. Temporary street signs shall be installed at each street intersection when construction of new roadways allows passage by vehicles in accordance with Section 505.2.

SECTION 502
DEFINITIONS

502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROAD. A road that provides fire apparatus access from a fire station to a facility, building or portion thereof. This is a general term inclusive of all other terms such as fire lane, public street, private street, parking lot lane and access roadway.

FIRE COMMAND CENTER. The principal attended or unattended location where the status of the detection, alarm communications and control systems is displayed, and from which the system (s) can be manually controlled.

FIRE DEPARTMENT MASTER KEY. A limited issue key of special or controlled design to be carried by fire department officials in command which will open key boxes on specified properties.

FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessarily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus.

KEY BOX. A secure device with a lock operable only by a fire department master key, and containing building entry keys and other keys that may be required for access in an emergency.

SECTION 503
FIRE APPARATUS ACCESS ROADS

503.1 Where required. Fire apparatus access roads shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Sections 503.1.1 through 503.1.3.

503.1.1 Buildings and facilities. Approved fire apparatus access roads shall be provided for every facility, building or portion of a building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction. The fire apparatus access road shall comply with the requirements of this section and shall extend to within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of all portions of the facility and all portions of the exterior walls of the first story ofthe building as measured by an approvedroute around the exterior of the building or facility.

Exception: The fire code official is authorized to increase the dimension of 150 feet (45 720 mm) where:

  1. The building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.
  2. Fire apparatus access roads cannot be installed because of location on property, topography, waterways, nonnegotiable grades or other similar conditions, and an approved alternative means of fire protection is provided.
  3. There are not more than two Group R-3 or Group U occupancies.

503.1.2 Additional access. The fire code official is authorized to require more than one fire apparatus access road based on the potential for impairment of a single road by vehicle congestion, condition of terrain, climatic conditions or other factors that could limit access.

503.1.3 High-piled storage. Fire department vehicle access to buildings used for high-piled combustible storage shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 23.

503.2 Specifications. Fire apparatus access roads shall be installed and arranged in accordance with Sections 503.2.1 through 503.2.8.

503.2.1 Dimensions. Fire apparatus access roads shall have an unobstructed width of not less than 20 feet (6096 mm), exclusive ofshoulders, except for approvedsecurity gates in accordance with Section 503.6, and an unobstructed vertical clearance of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm).

503.2.2 Authority. The fire code official shall have the authority to require an increase in the minimum access widths where they are inadequate for fire or rescue operations.

503.2.3 Surface. Fire apparatus access roads shall be designed and maintained to support the imposed loads of

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fire apparatus and shall be surfaced so as to provide all-weather driving capabilities.

503.2.4 Turning radius. The required turning radius of a fire apparatus access road shall be determined by the fire code official.

503.2.5 Dead ends. Dead-end fire apparatus access roads in excess of 150 feet (45 720 mm) in length shall be provided with an approved area for turning around fire apparatus.

503.2.6 Bridges and elevated surfaces. Where a bridge or an elevated surface is part of a fire apparatus access road, the bridge shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with AASHTO HB-17. Bridges and elevated surfaces shall be designed for a live load sufficient to carry the imposed loads of fire apparatus. Vehicle load limits shall be posted at both entrances to bridges when required by the fire code official. Where elevated surfaces designed for emergency vehicle use are adjacent to surfaces which are not designed for such use, approvedbarriers, approved signs or both shall be installed and maintained when required by the fire code official.

503.2.7 Grade. The grade of the fire apparatus access road shall be within the limits established by the fire code official based on the fire department's apparatus.

503.2.8 Angles ofapproach and departure. The angles of approach and departure for fire apparatus access roads shall be within the limits established by the fire code official based on the fire department's apparatus.

503.3 Marking. Where required by the fire code official, approved signs or other approved notices or markings that include the words NO PARKING-FIRE LANE shall be provided for fire apparatus access roads to identify such roads or prohibit the obstruction thereof. The means by which fire lanes are designated shall be maintained in a clean and legible condition at all times and be replaced or repaired when necessary to provide adequate visibility.

503.4 Obstruction offire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access roads shall not be obstructed in any manner, including the parking of vehicles. The minimum widths and clearances established in Section 503.2.1 shall be maintained at all times.

503.5 Required gates or barricades. The fire code official is authorized to require the installation and maintenance of gates or other approved barricades across fire apparatus access roads, trails or other accessways, not including public streets, alleys or highways. Electric gate operators, where provided, shall be listedin accordance with UL 325. Gates intended for automatic operation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F 2200.

503.5.1 Secured gates and barricades. When required, gates and barricades shall be secured in an approved manner. Roads, trails and other accessways that have been closed and obstructed in the manner prescribed by Section 503.5 shall not be trespassed on or used unless authorized by the owner and the fire code official.

Exception: The restriction on use shall not apply to public officers acting within the scope of duty.

503.6 Security gates. The installation ofsecurity gates across a fire apparatus access road shall be approved by the fire chief. Where security gates are installed, they shall have an approved means of emergency operation. The security gates and the emergency operation shall be maintained operational at all times. Electric gate operators, where provided, shall be listedin accordance with UL 325. Gates intended for automatic operation shall be designed, constructed and installed to comply with the requirements of ASTM F 2200.

SECTION 504
ACCESS TO BUILDING OPENINGS AND ROOFS

504.1 Required access. Exterior doors and openings required by this code or the International Building Code shall be maintained readily accessible for emergency access by the fire department. An approved access walkway leading from fire apparatus access roads to exterior openings shall be provided when required by the fire code official.

504.2 Maintenance ofexterior doors and openings. Exterior doors and their function shall not be eliminated without prior approval. Exterior doors that have been rendered nonfunctional and that retain a functional door exterior appearance shall have a sign affixed to the exterior side of the door with the words THIS DOOR BLOCKED. The sign shall consist of letters having a principal stroke of not less than ¾ inch (19.1 mm) wide and at least 6 inches (152 mm) high on a contrasting background. Required fire department access doors shall not be obstructed or eliminated. Exit and exit access doors shall comply with Chapter 10. Access doors for high-piled combustible storage shall comply with Section 2306.6.1.

504.3 Stairway access to roof. New buildings four or more stories above grade plane, except those with a roof slope greater than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), shall be provided with a stairway to the roof. Stairway access to the roof shall be in accordance with Section 1009.12. Such stairwayshall be marked at street and floor levels with a sign indicating that the stairwaycontinues to the roof. Where roofs are used for roof gardens or for other purposes, stairways shall be provided as required for such occupancy classification.

SECTION 505
PREMISES IDENTIFICATION

505.1 Address identification. New and existing buildings shall have approved address numbers, building numbers or approved building identification placed in a position that is plainly legible and visible from the street or road fronting the property. These numbers shall contrast with their background. Address numbers shall be Arabic numbers or alphabeticalletters. Numbers shall be a minimum of 4 inches (101.6 mm) high with a minimum stroke width of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm). Where access is by means of a private road and the building cannot be viewed from the public way a monument, pole or other sign or means shall be used to identify the structure.

505.2 Street or road signs. Streets and roads shall be identified with approved signs. Temporary signs shall be installed at each street intersection when construction of new roadways allows

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passage by vehicles. Signs shall be of an approved size, weather resistant and be maintained until replaced by permanent signs.

SECTION 506
KEY BOXES

506.1 Where required. Where access to or within a structure or an area is restricted because of secured openings or where immediate access is necessary for life-saving or fire-fighting purposes, the fire code officialis authorized to require a key box to be installed in an approved location. The key box shall be of an approved type and shall contain keys to gain necessary access as required by the fire code official.

506.1.1 Locks. An approvedlock shall be installed on gates or similar barriers when required by the fire code official.

506.2 Key box maintenance. The operator of the building shall immediately notify the fire code official and provide the new key when a lock is changed or rekeyed. The key to such lock shall be secured in the key box.

SECTION 507
FIRE PROTECTION WATER SUPPLIES

507.1 Required water supply. An approved water supply capable of supplying the required fire flow for fire protection shall be provided to premises upon which facilities, buildings or portions of buildings are hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction.

507.2 Type of water supply. A water supply shall consist of reservoirs, pressure tanks, elevated tanks, water mains or other fixed systems capable of providing the required fire flow.

507.2.1 Private fire service mains. Private fire service mains and appurtenances shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 24.

507.2.2 Water tanks. Water tanks for private fire protection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 22.

507.3 Fire flow. Fire flow requirements for buildings or portions of buildings and facilities shall be determined by an approved method.

507.4 Water supply test. The fire code officialshall be notified prior to the water supply test. Water supply tests shall be witnessed by the fire code official or approved documentation of the test shall be provided to the fire code ofl1cial prior to final approval of the water supply system.

507.5 Fire hydrant systems. Fire hydrant systems shall comply with Sections 507.5.1 through 507.5.6.

507.5.1 Where required. Where a portion of the facility or building hereafter constructed or moved into or within the jurisdiction is more than 400 feet (122 m) from a hydrant on a fire apparatus access road, as measured by an approved route around the exterior of the facility or building, on-site fire hydrants and mains shall be provided where required by the fire code official.

Exceptions:

  1. For Group R-3 and Group U occupancies, the distance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m).
  2. For buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the distance requirement shall be 600 feet (183 m).

507.5.2 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire hydrant systems shall be subject to periodic tests as required by the fire code official. Fire hydrant systems shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times and shall be repaired where defective. Additions, repairs, alterations and servicing shall comply with approved standards.

507.5.3 Private fire service mains and water tanks. Private fire service mains and water tanks shall be periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25 at the following intervals:

  1. Private fire hydrants (all types): Inspection annually and after each operation; flow test and maintenance annually.
  2. Fire service main piping: Inspection of exposed, annually; flow test every 5 years.
  3. Fire service main piping strainers: Inspection and maintenance after each use.

507.5.4 Obstruction. Unobstructed access to fire hydrants shall be maintained at all times. The fire department shall not be deterred or hindered from gaining immediate access to fire protection equipment or fire hydrants.

507.5.5 Clear space around hydrants. A 3-foot (914 mm) clear space shall be maintained around the circumference of fire hydrants except as otherwise required or approved.

507.5.6 Physical protection. Where fire hydrants are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, guard posts or other approved means shall comply with Section 312.

SECTION 508
FIRE COMMAND CENTER

508.1 General. Where required by other sections of this code and in all buildings classified as high-rise buildings by the International Building Code, a fire command center for fire department operations shall be provided and shall comply with Sections 508.1.1 through 508.1.5.

508.1.1 Location and access. The location and accessibility of the fire command center shall be approvedby the fire chief.

508.1.2 Separation. The fire command centershall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 ofthe International BUilding Code or horizontalassemblyconstructed

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in accordance with Section 712 of the International BUilding Code, or both.

508.1.3 Size. The fire command center shall be a minimum of 200 square feet (19 m2) in area with a minimum dimension of 10 feet (3048 mm).

508.1.4 Layout approval. A layout of the fire command center and all features required by this section to be contained therein shall be submitted for approval prior to installation.

508.1.5 Required features. The fire command center shall comply with NFPA 72 and shall contain the following features:

  1. The emergency voice/alarm communication system control unit.
  2. The fire department communications system.
  3. Fire detection and alarm system annunciator.
  4. Annunciator unit visually indicating the location of the elevators and whether they are operational.
  5. Status indicators and controls for air distribution systems.
  6. The fire-fighter' s control panel required by Section 909.16 for smoke control systems installed in the building.
  7. Controls for unlocking stairway doors simultaneously.
  8. Sprinkler valve and water-flow detector display panels.
  9. Emergency and standby power status indicators.
  10. A telephone for fire department use with controlled access to the public telephone system.
  11. Fire pump status indicators.
  12. Schematic building plans indicating the typical floor plan and detailing the building core, means of egress, fire protection systems, fire-fighting equipment and fire department access, and the location of fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions.
  13. Work table.
  14. Generator supervision devices, manual start and transfer features.
  15. Public address system, where specifically required by other sections of this code.
  16. Elevator fire recall switch in accordance with ASMEAI7.1.
  17. Elevator emergency or standby power selector switch(es), where emergency or standby power is provided.

SECTION 509
FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT IDENTIFICATION AND ACCESS

509.1 Identification. Fire protection equipment shall be identified in an approved manner. Rooms containing controls for air-conditioning systems, sprinkler risers and valves, or other fire detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for the use of the fire department. Approved signs required to identify fire protection equipment and equipment location shall be constructed of durable materials, permanently installed and readily visible.

509.2 Equipment access. Approved access shall be provided and maintained for all fire protection equipment to permit immediate safe operation and maintenance of such equipment. Storage, trash and other materials or objects shall not be placed or kept in such a manner that would prevent such equipment from being readily accessible.

SECTION 510
EMERGENCY RESPONDER RADIO COVERAGE

510.1 Emergency responder radio coverage in buildings. All buildings shall have approved radio coverage for emergency responders within the building based upon the existing coverage levels of the public safety communication systems of thejurisdiction at the exterior of the building. This section shall not require improvement of the existing public safety communication systems.

Exceptions:

  1. Where approved by the building official and the fire code official, a wired communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 shall be permitted to be installed or maintained in lieu ofan approved radio coverage system.
  2. Where it is determined by the fire code officialthat the radio coverage system is not needed.

510.2 Radio signal strength. The building shall be considered to have acceptable emergency responder radio coverage when signal strength measurements in 95 percent of all areas on each floor of the building meet the signal strength requirements of Sections 510.2.1 and 510.2.2.

510.2.1 Minimum signal strength into the building. A minimum signal strength of -95 dBm shall be receivable within the building.

510.2.2 Minimum signal strength out of the building. A minimum signal strength of -100 dBm shall be received by the agency's radio system when transmitted from within the building.

510.3 Emergency responder radio coverage in existing buildings. Existing buildings that do not have approved radio coverage for emergency responders within the building shall be equipped with such coverage according to one ofthe following:

  1. Wherever existing wired communication system cannot be repaired or is being replaced, or where not approved in accordance with Section 510.1, Exception 1.
  2. Within a time frame established by the adopting authority.
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CHAPTER 6
BUILDING SERVICES AND SYSTEMS

SECTION 601
GENERAL

601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the installation, operation and maintenance of fuel-fired appliances and heating systems, emergency and standby power systems, electrical systems and equipment, mechanical refrigeration systems, elevator recall, stationary storage battery systems and commercial kitchen hoods.

601.2 Permits. Permits shall be obtained for refrigeration systems and battery systems as set forth in Sections 105.6 and 105.7.

SECTION 602
DEFINITIONS

602.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

BATTERY SYSTEM, STATIONARY LEAD-ACID. A system which consists of three interconnected subsystems:

  1. A lead-acid battery.
  2. A battery charger.
  3. A collection of rectifiers, inverters, converters and associated electrical equipment as required for a particular application.

BATTERY TYPES

Lithium-ion battery. A storage battery that consists of lithium ions embedded in a carbon graphite or nickel metal-oxide substrate. The electrolyte is a carbonate mixture or a gelled polymer. The lithium ions are the charge carriers of the battery.

Lithium metal polymer battery. A storage battery that is comprised of nonaqueous liquid or polymerized electrolytes, which provide ionic conductivity between lithiated positive active material electrically separated from metallic lithium or lithiated negative active material.

Nickel cadmium (Ni-Cd) battery. An alkaline storage battery in which the positive active material is nickel oxide, the negative contains cadmium and the electrolyte is potassium hydroxide.

Nonrecombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gasses created by electrolysis are vented into the air outside of the battery.

Recombinant battery. A storage battery in which, under conditions of normal use, hydrogen and oxygen gases created by electrolysis are converted back into water inside the battery instead ofventing into the air outside ofthe battery.

Stationary storage battery. A group of electrochemical cells interconnected to supply a nominal voltage of DC power to a suitably connected electrical load, designed for service in a permanent location. The number of cells connected in a series determines the nominal voltage rating of the battery. The size of the cells determines the discharge capacity of the entire battery. After discharge, it may be restored to a fully charged condition by an electric current flowing in a direction opposite to the flow of current when the battery is discharged.

Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) battery. A lead-acid battery consisting of sealed cells furnished with a valve that opens to vent the battery whenever the internal pressure of the battery exceeds the ambient pressure by a set amount. In VRLA batteries, the liquid electrolyte in the cells is immobilized in an absorptive glass mat (AGM cells or batteries) or by the addition of a gelling agent (gel cells or gelled batteries).

Vented (Flooded) lead-acid battery. A lead-acid battery consisting of cells that have electrodes immersed in liquid electrolyte. Flooded lead-acid batteries have a provision for the user to add water to the cell and are equipped with a flame-arresting vent which permits the escape of hydrogen and oxygen gas from the cell in a diffused manner such that a spark, or other ignition source, outside the cell will not ignite the gases inside the cell.

[M] COMMERCIAL COOKING APPLIANCES. Appliances used in a commercial food service establishment for heating or cooking food and which produce grease vapors, steam, fumes, smoke or odors that are required to be removed through a local exhaust ventilation system. Such appliances include deep fat fryers; upright broilers; griddles; broilers; steam-jacketed kettles; hot-top ranges; under-fired broilers (charbroilers); ovens; barbecues; rotisseries; and similar appliances. For the purpose of this definition, a food service establishment shall include any building or a portion thereof used for the preparation and serving of food.

[M] HOOD. An air-intake device used to capture by entrapment, impingement, adhesion or similar means, grease and similar contaminants before they enter a duct system.

Type I. A kitchen hood for collecting and removing grease vapors and smoke.

REFRIGERANT. The fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system; the refrigerant absorbs heat and transfers it at a higher temperature and a higher pressure, usually with a change of state.

REFRIGERATION SYSTEM. A combination of interconnected refrigerant-containing parts constituting one closed refrigerant circuit in which a refrigerant is circulated for the purpose of extracting heat.

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SECTION 603
FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES

603.1 Installation. The installation of nonportable fuel gas appliances and systems shall comply the International Fuel Gas Code. The installation of all other fuel-fired appliances, other than internal combustion engines, oil lamps and portable devices such as blow torches, melting pots and weed burners, shall comply with this section and the International Mechanical Code.

603.1.1 Manufacturer's instructions. The installation shall be made in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and applicable federal, state and local rules and regulations. Where it becomes necessary to change, modify or alter a manufacturer's instructions in any way, written approval shall first be obtained from the manufacturer.

603.1.2 Approval. The design, construction and installation of fuel-fired appliances shall be in accordance with the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code.

603.1.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment used in connection with oil-burning equipment shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 605 and NFPA 70.

603.1.4 Fuel oil. The grade of fuel oil used in a burner shall be that for which the burner is approved and as stipulated by the burner manufacturer. Oil containing gasoline shall not be used. Waste crankcase oil shall be an acceptable fuel in Group F, M and S occupancies, when utilized in equipment listed for use with waste oil and when such equipment is installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the terms of its listing.

603.1.5 Access. The installation shall be readily accessible for cleaning hot surfaces; removing burners; replacing motors, controls, air filters, chimney connectors, draft regulators and other working parts; and for adjusting, cleaning and lubricating parts.

603.1.6 Testing, diagrams and instructions. After installation of the oil-burning equipment, operation and combustion performance tests shall be conducted to determine that the burner is in proper operating condition and that all accessory equipment, controls, and safety devices function properly.

603.1.6.1 Diagrams. Contractors installing industrial oil-burning systems shall furnish not less than two copies of diagrams showing the main oil lines and controlling valves, one copy of which shall be posted at the oil-burning equipment and another at an approved location that will be accessible in case of emergency.

603.1.6.2 Instructions. After completing the installation, the installer shall instruct the owner or operator in the proper operation of the equipment. The installer shall also furnish the owner or operator with the name and telephone number of persons to contact for technical information or assistance and routine or emergency services.

603.1.7 Clearances. Working clearances between oil-fired appliances and electrical panelboards and equipment shall be in accordance with NFPA 70. Clearances between oil-fired equipment and oil supply tanks shall be in accordance with NFPA 31.

[B, M, FG] 603.2 Chimneys. Masonry chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code. Factory-built chimneys shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Metal chimneys shall be constructed and installed in accordance with NFPA 211.

603.3 Fuel oil storage systems. Fuel oil storage systems shall be installed in accordance with this code. Fuel oil piping systems shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

603.3.1 Fuel oil storage in outside, above-ground tanks. Where connected to a fuel-oil piping system, the maximum amount of fuel oil storage allowed outside above ground without additional protection shall be 660 gallons (2498 L). The storage of fuel oil above ground in quantities exceeding 660 gallons (2498 L) shall comply with NFPA 31.

603.3.2 Fuel oil storage inside buildings. Fuel oil storage inside buildings shall comply with Sections 603.3.2.1 through 603.3.2.5 or Chapter 34.

603.3.2.1 Quantity limits. One or more fuel oil storage tanks containing Class II or III combustible liquid shall be permitted in a building. The aggregate capacity of all such tanks shall not exceed 660 gallons (2498 L).

Exception: The aggregate capacity limit shall be permitted to be increased to 3,000 gallons (11 356 L) of Class II or III liquid for storage in protected aboveground tanks complying with Section 3404.2.9.6, when all of the following conditions are met

  1. The entire 3,000 gallon (11 356 L) quantity shall be stored in protected above-ground tanks;
  2. The 3,000 gallon (11 356 L) capacity shall be permitted to be stored in a single tank or multiple smaller tanks; and
  3. The tanks shall be located in a room protected by an automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1.

603.3.2.2 Restricted use and connection. Tanks installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2 shall be used only to supply fuel oil to fuel-burning or generator equipment installed in accordance with Section 603.3.2.4. Connections between tanks and equipment supplied by such tanks shall be made using closed piping systems.

603.3.2.3 Applicability of maximum allowable quantity and control area requirements. The quantity of combustible liquid stored in tanks complying with Section 603.3.2 shall not be counted towards the maximum allowable quantity set forth in Table 2703.1.1 (1), and such tanks shall not be required to be located in a control area.

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603.3.2.4 Installation. Tanks and piping systems shall be installed and separated from other uses in accordance with Section 915 and Chapter 13 both of the International Mechanical Code, as applicable.

Exception: Protected above-ground tanks complying with Section 3404.2.9.6 shall not be required to be separated from surrounding areas.

603.3.2.5 Tanks in basements. Tanks in basements shall be located not more than two stories below grade plane.

603.3.3 Underground storage of fuel oil. The storage of fuel oil in underground storage tanks shall comply with NFPA 31.

603.4 Portable unvented heaters. Portable unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall be prohibited in occupancies in Groups A, E, I, R-l, R-2, R-3 and R-4.

Exceptions:

  1. Listed and approved unvented fuel-fired heaters, including portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances, in one- and two-family dwellings.
  2. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be allowed in accordance with Section 603.4.2.

603.4.1 Prohibited locations. Unvented fuel-fired heating equipment shall not be located in, or obtain combustion air from, any of the following rooms or spaces: sleeping rooms, bathrooms, toilet rooms or storage closets.

603.4.2 Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances. Portable gas-fired heating appliances located outdoors shall be in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1 through 603.4.2.3.4.

603.4.2.1 Location. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.1.1 through 603.4.2.1.4.

603.4.2.1.1 Prohibited locations. The storage or use of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances is prohibited in any of the following locations:

  1. Inside of any occupancy when connected to the fuel gas container.
  2. Inside of tents, canopies and membrane structures.
  3. On exterior balconies.

Exception: As allowed in Section 6.17 of NFPA 58.

603.4.2.1.2 Clearance to buildings. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be located at least 5 feet (1524 mm) from buildings.

603.4.2.1.3 Clearance to combustible materials. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located beneath, or closer than 5 feet (1524 mm) to combustible decorations and combustible overhangs, awnings, sunshades or similar combustible attachments to buildings.

603.4.2.1.4 Proximity to exits. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of exits or exit discharges.

603.4.2.2 Installation and operation. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and operated in accordance with Sections 603.4.2.2.1 through 603.4.2.2.4.

603.4.2.2.1 Listing and approval. Only listed and approved portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances utilizing a fuel gas container that is integral to the appliance shall be used.

603.4.2.2.2 Installation and maintenance. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

603.4.2.2.3 Tip-over switch. Portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be equipped with a tilt or tip-over switch that automatically shuts off the flow of gas if the appliance is tilted more than 15 degrees (0.26 rad) from the vertical.

603.4.2.2.4 Guard against contact. The heating element or combustion chamber of portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.

603.4.2.3 Gas containers. Fuel gas containers for portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall comply with Sections 603.4.2.3.1 through 603.4.2.3.4.

603.4.2.3.1 Approved containers. Only approved DOTn or ASME gas containers shall be used.

603.4.2.3.2 Container replacement. Replacement of fuel gas containers in portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not be conducted while the public is present.

603.4.2.3.3 Container capacity. The maximum individual capacity of gas containers used in connection with portable outdoor gas-fired heating appliances shall not exceed 20 pounds (9 kg).

603.4.2.3.4 Indoor storage prohibited. Gas containers shall not be stored inside of buildings except in accordance with Section 3809.9.

603.5 Heating appliances. Heating appliances shall be listed and shall comply with this section.

603.5.1 Guard against contact. The heating element or combustion chamber shall be permanently guarded so as to prevent accidental contact by persons or material.

603.5.2 Heating appliance installation and maintenance. Heating appliances shall be installed and maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, the International Building Code, the International Mechanical Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 70.

603.6 Chimneys and appliances. Chimneys, incinerators, smokestacks or similar devices for conveying smoke or hot gases to the outer air and the stoves, furnaces, fireboxes or boilers

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to which such devices are connected, shall be maintained so as not to create a fire hazard.

603.6.1 Masonry chimneys. Masonry chimneys that, upon inspection, are found to be without a flue liner and that have open mortar joints which will permit smoke or gases to be discharged into the building, or which are cracked as to be dangerous, shall be repaired or relined with a listed chimney liner system installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions or a flue lining system installed in accordance with the requirements of the International BUilding Code and appropriate for the intended class of chimney service.

603.6.2 Metal chimneys. Metal chimneys which are corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.

603.6.3 Decorative shrouds. Decorative shrouds installed at the termination of factory-built chimneys shall be removed except where such shrouds are listed and labeled for use with the specific factory-built chimney system and are installed in accordance with the chimney manufacturer's installation instructions.

603.6.4 Factory-built chimneys. Existing factory-built chimneys that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.

603.6.5 Connectors. Existing chimney and vent connectors that are damaged, corroded or improperly supported shall be repaired or replaced.

603.7 Discontinuing operation of unsafe heating appliances. The fire code official is authorized to order that measures be taken to prevent the operation of any existing stove, oven, furnace, incinerator, boiler or any other heat-producing device or appliance found to be defective or in violation ofcode requirements for existing appliances after giving notice to this effect to any person, owner; firm or agent or operator in charge of the same. The fire code official is authorized to take measures to prevent the operation of any device or appliance without notice when inspection shows the existence of an immediate fire hazard or when imperiling human life. The defective device shall remain withdrawn from service until all necessary repairs or alterations have been made.

603.7.1 Unauthorized operation. It shall be a violation of this code for any person, user, firm or agent to continue the utilization of any device or appliance (the operation of which has been discontinued or ordered discontinued in accordance with Section 603.7) unless written authority to resume operation is given by the fire code official. Removing or breaking the means by which operation of the device is prevented shall be a violation of this code.

603.8 Incinerators. Commercial, industrial and residential-type incinerators and chimneys shall be constructed in accordance with the International Building Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and the International Mechanical Code.

603.8.1 Residential incinerators. Residential incinerators shall be of an approved type.

603.8.2 Spark arrestor. Incinerators shall be equipped with an effective means for arresting sparks.

603.8.3 Restrictions. Where the fire code official determines that burning in incinerators located within 500 feet (152m) of mountainous, brush or grass-covered areas will create an undue fire hazard because of atmospheric conditions' such burning shall be prohibited.

603.8.4 Time of burning. Burning shall take place only during approved hours.

603.8.5 Discontinuance. The fire code officialis authorized to require incinerator use to be discontinued immediately if the fire code official determines that smoke emissions are offensive to occupants of surrounding property or if the use of incinerators is determined by the fire code officialto constitute a hazardous condition.

603.9 Gas meters. Above-ground gas meters, regulators and piping subject to damage shall be protected by a barrier complying with Section 312 or otherwise protected in an approved manner.

SECTION 604
EMERGENCY AND STANDBY POWER SYSTEMS

604.1 Installation. Emergency and standby power systems required by this code or the International Building Code shall be installed in accordance with this code, NFPA 110 and NFPA 111. Existing installations shall be maintained in accordance with the original approval.

604.1.1 Stationary generators. Stationary emergency and standby power generators required by this code shall be listedin accordance with UL 2200.

604.2 Where required. Emergency and standby power systems shall be provided where required by Sections 604.2.1 through 604.2.18.4.

604.2.1 Group A occupancies. Emergency power shall be provided for emergency voice/alarm communication systems in Group A occupancies in accordance with Section 907.2.1.1.

604.2.2 Smoke control systems. Standby power shall be provided for smoke control systems in accordance with Section 909.11.

604.2.3 Exit signs. Emergency power shall be provided for exit signs in accordance with Section 1011.5.3.

604.2.4 Means of egress illumination. Emergency power shall be provided for means ofegress illumination in accordance with Section 1006.3.

604.2.5 Accessible means of egress elevators. Standby power shall be provided for elevators that are part of an accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 1007.4.

604.2.6 Accessible means of egress platform lifts. Standby power in accordance with this section or ASME A18.1 shall be provided for platform lifts that are part of an accessible means of egress in accordance with Section 1007.5.

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604.2.7 Horizontal sliding doors. Standby power shall be provided for horizontal sliding doors in accordance with Section 1008.1.4.3.

604.2.8 Semiconductor fabrication facilities. Emergency power shall be provided for semiconductor fabrication facilities in accordance with Section 1803.15.

604.2.9 Membrane structures. Emergency power shall be provided for exit signs in temporary tents and membrane structures in accordance with Section 2403.12.6.1. Standby power shall be provided for auxiliary inflation systems in permanent membrane structures in accordance with the International BUilding Code.

604.2.10 Hazardous materials. Emergency or standby power shall be provided in occupancies with hazardous materials in accordance with Sections 2704.7 and 2705.1.5.

604.2.11 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Emergency power shall be provided for occupancies with highly toxic or toxic materials in accordance with Sections 3704.2.2.8 and 3704.3.4.2.

604.2.12 Organic peroxides. Standby power shall be provided for occupancies with organic peroxides in accordance with Section 3904.1.11.

604.2.13 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) shall be provided with standby power systems which are capable of operating the emergency voice/alarm communication.

604.2.14 High-rise buildings. Standby power, light and emergency systems in high-rise buildings shall comply with the requirements ofSections 604.2.14.1 through 604.2.14.3.

604.2.14.1 Standby power. A standby power system shall be provided. Where the standby system is a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the International BUilding Code, or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center:

604.2.14.1.1 Fuel supply. An on-premises fuel supply, sufficient for not less than 2-hour full-demand operation of the system, shall be provided.

Exception: When approved, the system shall be allowed to be supplied by natural gas pipelines.

604.2.14.1.2 Capacity. The standby system shall have a capacity and rating that supplies all equipment required to be operational at the same time. The generating capacity is not required to be sized to operate all ofthe connected electrical equipment simultaneously.

604.2.14.1.3 Connected facilities. Power and lighting facilities for the fire commandcenter and elevators specified in Sections 403.9 and 403.10 of the International Building Code, as applicable, shall be transferable to the standby source. Standby power shall be provided for at least one elevator to serve all floors and be transferable to any elevator.

604.2.14.2 Separate circuits and luminaires. Separate lighting circuits and luminaires shall be required to provide sufficient light with an intensity of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) measured at floor level in all means of egress corridors, stairways, smokeproof enclosures, elevator cars and lobbies, and other areas that are clearly a part of the escape route.

604.2.14.2.1 Other circuits. Circuits supplying lighting for the fire command center and mechanical equipment rooms shall be transferable to the standby source.

604.2.14.3 Emergency systems. Exit signs, exit illumination as required by Chapter 10, electrically powered fire pumps required to maintain pressure, and elevator car lighting are classified as emergency systems and shall operate within 10 seconds of failure of the normal power supply and shall be capable of being transferred to the standby source.

Exception: Exitsign, exit and means ofegress illumination are permitted to be powered by a standby source in buildings of Group F and S occupancies.

604.2.15 Underground buildings. Emergency and standby power systems in underground buildings covered in Chapter 4 of the International Building Code shall comply with Sections 604.2.15.1 and 604.2.15.2.

604.2.15.1 Standby power. A standby power system complying with this section and NFPA 70 shall be provided for standby power loads as specified in Section 604.2.15.1.1.

[B] 604.2.15.1.1 Standby power loads. The following loads are classified as standby power loads:

  1. Smoke control system.
  2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.
  3. Fire pumps.
  4. Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accordance with Section 3003 of the International BUilding Code.

[B] 604.2.15.1.2 Pickup time. The standby power system shall pick up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of the normal power supply.

604.2.15.2 Emergency power. An emergency power system complying with this code and NFPA 70 shall be provided for emergency power loads as specified in Section 604.2.15.2.1.

604.2.15.2.1 Emergency power loads. The following loads are classified as emergency power loads:

  1. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems.
  2. Fire alarm systems.
  3. Automatic fire detection systems.
  4. Elevator car lighting.
  5. Means ofegress lighting and exitsign illumination as required by Chapter 10.
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604.2.16 Group 1-3 occupancies. Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors in Group I-3 occupancies shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical operating release shall be provided.

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities where provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required as set forth in the International Building Code.

604.2.17 Airport traffic control towers. A standby power system shall be provided in airport traffic control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. Power shall be provided to the following equipment:

  1. Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and lighting.
  2. Elevator operating equipment.
  3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems.

604.2.18 Elevators. In buildings and structures where standby power is required or furnished to operate an elevator, the operation shall be in accordance with Sections 604.2.18.1 through 604.2.18.4.

604.2.18.1 Manual transfer. Standby power shall be manually transferable to all elevators in each bank.

604.2.18.2 One elevator. Where only one elevator is installed, the elevator shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power.

604.2.18.3 Two or more elevators. Where two or more elevators are controlled by a common operating system, all elevators shall automatically transfer to standby power within 60 seconds after failure of normal power where the standby power source is of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time. Where the standby power source is not of sufficient capacity to operate all elevators at the same time, all elevators shall transfer to standby power in sequence, return to the designated landing and disconnect from the standby power source. After all elevators have been returned to the designated level, at least one elevator shall remain operable from the standby power source.

604.2.18.4 Venting. Where standby power is connected to elevators, the machine room ventilation or air conditioning shall be connected to the standby power source.

604.3 Maintenance. Emergency and standby power systems shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111 such that the system is capable of supplying service within the time specified for the type and duration required.

604.3.1 Schedule. Inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall be in accordance with an approved schedule established upon completion and approval of the system installation.

604.3.2 Written record. Written records of the inspection, testing and maintenance of emergency and standby power systems shall include the date ofservice, name of the servicing technician, a summary of conditions noted and a detailed description of any conditions requiring correction and what corrective action was taken. Such records shall be kept on the premises served by the emergency or standby power system and be available for inspection by the fire code official.

604.3.3 Switch maintenance. Emergency and standby power system transfer switches shall be included in the inspection, testing and maintenance schedule required by Section 604.3.1. Transfer switches shall be maintained free from accumulated dust and dirt. Inspection shall include examination of the transfer switch contacts for evidence of deterioration. When evidence of contact deterioration is detected, the contacts shall be replaced in accordance with the transfer switch manufacturer's instructions.

604.4 Operational inspection and testing. Emergency power systems, including all appurtenant components shall be inspected and tested under load in accordance with NFPA 110 and NFPA 111.

Exception: Where the emergency power system is used for standby power or peak load shaving, such use shall be recorded and shall be allowed to be substituted for scheduled testing of the generator set, provided that appropriate records are maintained.

604.4.1 Transfer switch test. The test of the transfer switch shall consist of electrically operating the transfer switch from the normal position to the alternate position and then return to the normal position.

604.5 Supervision of maintenance and testing. Routine maintenance, inspection and operational testing shall be over-seen by a properly instructed individual.

SECTION 605
ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT, WIRING AND HAZARDS

605.1 Abatement of electrical hazards. Identified electrical hazards shall be abated. Identified hazardous electrical conditions in permanent wiring shall be brought to the attention of the responsible code official. Electrical wiring, devices, appliances and other equipment that is modified or damaged and constitutes an electrical shock or fire hazard shall not be used.

605.2 Illumination. Illumination shall be provided for service equipment areas, motor control centers and electrical panelboards.

605.3 Working space and clearance. A working space of not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided in front of electrical service equipment. Where the electrical service equipment is wider than 30 inches (762 mm), the working space shall not be less than the width ofthe equipment. No storage of any materials shall be located within the designated working space.

Exceptions:

  1. Where other dimensions are required or allowed by NFPA 70. 58
  2. Access openings into attics or under-floor areas which provide a minimum clear opening of 22 inches (559 mm) by 30 inches (762 mm).

605.3.1 Labeling. Doors into electrical control panel rooms shall be marked with a plainly visible and legible sign stating ELECTRICAL ROOM or similar approved wording. The disconnecting means for each service, feeder or branch circuit originating on a switchboard or panelboard shall be legibly and durably marked to indicate its purpose unless such purpose is clearly evident.

605.4 Multiplug adapters. Multiplug adapters, such as cube adapters, unfused plug strips or any other device not complying with NFPA 70 shall be prohibited.

605.4.1 Power tap design. Relocatable power taps shall be of the polarized or grounded type, equipped with overcurrent protection, and shall be listed in accordance with UL 1363.

605.4.2 Power supply. Relocatable power taps shall be directly connected to a permanently installed receptacle.

605.4.3 Installation. Relocatable power tap cords shall not extend through walls, ceilings, floors, under doors or floor coverings, or be subject to environmental or physical damage.

605.5 Extension cords. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be a substitute for permanent wiring. Extension cords and flexible cords shall not be affixed to structures, extended through walls, ceilings or floors, or under doors or floor coverings, nor shall such cords be subject to environmental damage or physical impact. Extension cords shall be used only with portable appliances.

605.5.1 Power supply. Extension cords shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle, power tap or multiplug adapter and, except for approvedmultiplug extension cords, shall serve only one portable appliance.

605.5.2 Ampacity. The ampacity of the extension cords shall not be less than the rated capacity of the portable appliance supplied by the cord.

605.5.3 Maintenance. Extension cords shall be maintained in good condition without splices, deterioration or damage.

605.5.4 Grounding. Extension cords shall be grounded when serving grounded portable appliances.

605.6 Unapproved conditions. Open junction boxes and open-wiring splices shall be prohibited. Approvedcovers shall be provided for all switch and electrical outlet boxes.

605.7 Appliances. Electrical appliances and fixtures shall be tested and listed in published reports of inspected electrical equipment by an approved agency and installed and maintained in accordance with all instructions included as part of such listing.

605.8 Electrical motors. Electrical motors shall be maintained free from excessive accumulations of oil, dirt, waste and debris.

605.9 Temporary wiring. Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed for a period not to exceed 90 days. Temporary wiring methods shall meet the applicable provisions of NFPA 70.

Exception: Temporary wiring for electrical power and lighting installations is allowed during periods of construction, remodeling, repair or demolition of buildings, structures, equipment or similar activities.

605.9.1 Attachment to structures. Temporary wiring attached to a structure shall be attached in an approvedman nero

605.10 Portable, electric space heaters. Where not prohibited by other sections of this code, portable, electric space heaters shall be permitted to be used in all occupancies other than Group 1-2 and in accordance with Sections 605.10.1 through 605.10.4.

Exception: The use of portable, electric space heaters in which the heating element cannot exceed a temperature of 212°F (100°C) shall be permitted in nonsleeping staff and employee areas in Group 1-2 occupancies.

605.10.1 Listed and labeled. Only listedand labeled portable, electric space heaters shall be used.

605.10.2 Power supply. Portable, electric space heaters shall be plugged directly into an approved receptacle.

605.10.3 Extension cords. Portable, electric space heaters shall not be plugged into extension cords.

605.10.4 Prohibited areas. Portable, electric space heaters shall not be operated within 3 feet (914 mm) ofany combustible materials. Portable, electric space heaters shall be operated only in locations for which they are listed

SECTION 606
MECHANICAL REFRIGERATION

[M] 606.1 Scope. Refrigeration systems shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

[M] 606.2 Refrigerants. The use and purity of new, recovered and reclaimed refrigerants shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

[M] 606.3 Refrigerant classification. Refrigerants shall be classified in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

[M] 606.4 Change in refrigerant type. A change in the type of refrigerant in a refrigeration system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

606.5 Access. Refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 30 pounds (14 kg) ofany other group refrigerant shall be accessible to the fire department at all times as required by the fire code official.

606.6 Testing of equipment. Refrigeration equipment and systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 30 pounds (14 kg) ofany other group refrigerant shall be subject to periodic testing in accordance with Section 606.6.1. A written record of required testing shall be maintained on the premises. Tests of emergency

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devices or systems required by this chapter shall be conducted by persons trained and qualified in refrigeration systems.

606.6.1 Periodic testing. The following emergency devices or systems shall be periodically tested in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and as required by the fire code official.

  1. Treatment and flaring systems.
  2. Valves and appurtenances necessary to the operation of emergency refrigeration control boxes.
  3. Fans and associated equipment intended to operate emergency ventilation systems.
  4. Detection and alarm systems.

606.7 Emergency signs. Refrigeration units or systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant shall be provided with approved emergency signs, charts and labels in accordance with NFPA 704. Hazard signs shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code for the classification of refrigerants listed therein.

606.8 Refrigerant detector. Machinery rooms shall contain a refrigerant detector with an audible and visual alarm. The detector, or a sampling tube that draws air to the detector, shall be located in an area where refrigerant from a leak will concentrate. The alarm shall be actuated at a value not greater than the corresponding TLV-TWA values shown in the International Mechanical Code for the refrigerant classification. Detectors and alarms shall be placed in approved locations. The detector shall transmit a signal to an approved location.

606.9 Remote controls. Remote control of the mechanical equipment and appliances located in the machinery room shall be provided at an approved location immediately outside the machinery room and adjacent to its principal entrance.

606.9.1 Refrigeration system emergency shutoff. A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type or with an approvedtamper-resistant cover shall provide off-only control of refrigerant compressors, refrigerant pumps and normally closed automatic refrigerant valves located in the machinery room. Additionally, this equipment shall be automatically shut off whenever the refrigerant vapor concentration in the machinery room exceeds the vapor detector's upper detection limit or 25 percent of the LEL, whichever is lower.

Exception: In machinery rooms where only nonflammable refrigerants are used, only compressors are required to be stopped by vapor detection or the cut-off switch.

606.9.2 Ventilation system. A clearly identified switch of the break-glass type shall provide on-only control of the machinery room ventilation fans.

606.10 Emergency pressure control system. Refrigeration systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) offlammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerant or ammonia shall be provided with an emergency pressure control system in accordance with Sections 606.10.1 and 606.10.2.

606.10.1 Automatic crossover valves. Each high- and intermediate-pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a single automatic valve providing a crossover connection to a lower pressure zone. Automatic crossover valves shall comply with Sections 606.10.1.1 through 606.10.1.3.

606.10.1.1 Overpressure limit set point. Automatic crossover valves shall be arranged to automatically relieve excess system pressure to a lower pressure zone if the pressure in a high- or intermediate-pressure zone rises to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices.

606.10.1.2 Manual operation. When required by the fire code ofl1cial, automatic crossover valves shall be capable of manual operation.

606.10.1.3 System design pressure. Refrigeration system zones that are connected to a higher pressure zone by an automatic crossover valve shall be designed to safely contain the maximum pressure that can be achieved by interconnection of the two zones.

606.10.2 Automatic emergency stop. An automatic emergency stop feature shall be provided in accordance with Sections 606.10.2.1 and 606.10.2.2.

606.10.2.1 Operation of an automatic crossover valve. Operation of an automatic crossover valve shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop. Dedicated pressure-sensing devices located immediately adjacent to crossover valves shall be permitted as a means for determining operation of a valve. To ensure that the automatic crossover valve system provides a redundant means of stopping compressors in an overpressure condition, high-pressure cutout sensors associated with compressors shall not be used as a basis for determining operation of a crossover valve.

606.10.2.2 Overpressure in low-pressure zone. The lowest pressure zone in a refrigeration system shall be provided with a dedicated means of determining a rise in system pressure to within 90 percent of the set point for emergency pressure relief devices. Activation of the overpressure sensing device shall cause all compressors on the affected system to immediately stop.

606.11 Storage, use and handling. Flammable and combustible materials shall not be stored in machinery rooms for refrigeration systems having a refrigerant circuit containing more than 220 pounds (100 kg) of Group Al or 30 pounds (14 kg) of any other group refrigerant. Storage, use or handling of extra refrigerant or refrigerant oils shall be as required by Chapters 27,30,32 and 34.

Exception: This provision shall not apply to spare parts, tools and incidental materials necessary for the safe and proper operation and maintenance of the system.

606.12 Termination of relief devices. Pressure relief devices, fusible plugs and purge systems for refrigeration systems containing more than 6.6 pounds (3 kg) of flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall be provided with an approved discharge system as required by Sections 606.12.1, 606.12.2

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and 606.12.3. Discharge piping and devices connected to the discharge side of a fusible plug or rupture member shall have provisions to prevent plugging the pipe in the event of the fusible plug or rupture member functions.

606.12.1 Flammable refrigerants. Systems containing flammable refrigerants having a density equal to or greater than the density of air shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.4 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.5. Systems containing flammable refrigerants having a density less than the density of air shall be permitted to discharge vapor to the atmosphere provided that the point of discharge is located outside of the structure at not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the adjoining grade level and not less than 20 feet (6096 mm) from any window, ventilation opening or exit.

606.12.2 Toxic and highly toxic refrigerants. Systems containing toxic or highly toxic refrigerants shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere only through an approved treatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.4 or a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.5.

606.12.3 Ammonia refrigerant. Systems containing ammonia refrigerant shall discharge vapor to the atmosphere through an approvedtreatment system in accordance with Section 606.12.4, a flaring system in accordance with Section 606.12.5, or through an approved ammonia diffusion system in accordance with Section 606.12.6, or by other approved means.

Exceptions:

  1. Ammonia/water absorption systems containing less than 22 pounds (10 kg) of ammonia and for which the ammonia circuit is located entirely outdoors.
  2. When the fire code official determines, on review of an engineering analysis prepared in accordance with Section 104.7.2, that a fire, health or environmental hazard would not result from discharging ammonia directly to the atmosphere.

606.12.4 Treatment systems. Treatment systems shall be designed to reduce the allowable discharge concentration of the refrigerant gas to not more than 50 percent of the IDLH at the point of exhaust. Treatment systems shall be in accordance with Chapter 37.

606.12.5 Flaring systems. Flaring systems for incineration offlammable refrigerants shall be designed to incinerate the entire discharge. The products of refrigerant incineration shall not pose health or environmental hazards. Incineration shall be automatic upon initiation of discharge, shall be designed to prevent blowback and shall not expose structures or materials to threat of fire. Standby fuel, such as LP gas, and standby power shall have the capacity to operate for one and one-halfthe required time for complete incineration of refrigerant in the system.

606.12.6 Ammonia diffusion systems. Ammonia diffusion systems shall include a tank containing 1 gallon of water for each pound ofammonia (4 L ofwater for each 1 kg of ammonia) that will be released in 1 hour from the largest relief device connected to the discharge pipe. The water shall be prevented from freezing. The discharge pipe from the pressure relief device shall distribute ammonia in the bottom of the tank, but no lower than 33 feet (10 058 mm) below the maximum liquid level. The tank shall contain the volume of water and ammonia without overflowing.

606.13 Discharge location for refrigeration machinery room ventilation. Exhaust from mechanical ventilation systems serving refrigeration machinery rooms containing flammable, toxic or highly toxic refrigerants, other than ammonia, capable of exceeding 25 percent of the LFL or 50 percent of the IDLH shall be equipped with approved treatment systems to reduce the discharge concentrations to those values or lower.

606.14 Notification of refrigerant discharges. The fire code official shall be notified immediately when a discharge becomes reportable under state, federal or local regulations in accordance with Section 2703.3.1.

606.15 Records. A written record shall be kept of refrigerant quantities brought into and removed from the premises. Such records shall be available to the fire code official.

606.16 Electrical equipment. Where refrigerants of Groups A2, A3, B2 and B3, as defined in the International Mechanical Code, are used, refrigeration machinery rooms shall conform to the Class I, Division 2 hazardous location classification requirements of NFPA 70.

Exception: Ammonia machinery rooms that are provided with ventilation in accordance with Section 1106.3 of the International Mechanical Code.

SECTION 607
ELEVATOR RECALL AND MAINTENANCE

607.1 Emergency operation. Existing elevators with a travel distance of 25 feet (7620 mm) or more shall comply with the requirements in Chapter 46. New elevators shall be provided with Phase I emergency recall operation and Phase II emergency in-car operation in accordance with ASME AI7.1.

[B] 607.2 Emergency signs. An approved pictorial sign of a standardized design shall be posted adjacent to each elevator call station on all floors instructing occupants to use the exit stairways and not to use the elevators in case of fire. The sign shall read: IN FIRE EMERGENCY, DO NOT USE ELEVATOR. USE EXIT STAIRS. The emergency sign shall not be required for elevators that are part of an accessible means of egress complying with Section 1007.4.

607.3 Fire service access elevator lobbies. Where fire service access elevators are required by Section 3007 of the International BUilding Code, fire service access elevator lobbies shall be maintained free of storage and furniture.

607.4 Elevator keys. Keys for the elevator car doors and fire-fighter service keys shall be kept in an approved location for immediate use by the fire department.

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SECTION 608
STATIONARY STORAGE BATTERY SYSTEMS

608.1 Scope. Stationary storage battery systems having an electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L) for flooded lead-acid, nickel cadmium and VRLA, or 1,000 pounds (454 kg) for lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer, used for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterrupted power supplies shall comply with this section and Table 608.1.

608.2 Safety caps. Safety caps for stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.2.1 and 608.2.2.

608.2.1 Nonrecombinant batteries. Vented lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of nonrecombinant batteries shall be provided with safety venting caps.

608.2.2 Recombinant batteries. VRLA batteries shall be equipped with self-resealing flame-arresting safety vents.

608.3 Thermal runaway. VRLA and lithium metal polymer battery systems shall be provided with a listed device or other approved method to preclude, detect and control thermal runaway.

608.4 Room design and construction. Enclosure of stationary battery systems shall comply with the International Building Code. Battery systems shall be allowed to be in the same room with the equipment they support.

608.4.1 Separate rooms. When stationary batteries are installed in a separate equipment room accessible only to authorized personnel, they shall be permitted to be installed on an open rack for ease of maintenance.

608.4.2 Occupied work centers. When a system ofVRLA, lithium-ion, or other type of sealed, nonventing batteries is situated in an occupied work center, it shall be allowed to be housed in a noncombustible cabinet or other enclosure to prevent access by unauthorized personnel.

608.4.3 Cabinets. When stationary batteries are contained in cabinets in occupied work centers, the cabinet enclosures shall be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the equipment that they support.

608.5 Spill control and neutralization. An approved method and materials for the control and neutralization of a spill of electrolyte shall be provided in areas containing lead-acid, nickel-cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing liquid electrolyte. For purposes of this paragraph, a "spill" is defined as any unintentional release of electrolyte.

Exception: VRLA, lithium-ion, lithium metal polymer or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electrolyte shall not require spill control.

608.5.1 Nonrecombinant battery neutralization. For battery systems containing lead acid, nickel cadmium or other types of batteries with free-flowing electrolyte, the method and materials shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of the total capacity from the largest cell or block to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

608.5.2 Recombinant battery neutralization. For VRLA or other types of sealed batteries with immobilized electrolyte, the method and material shall be capable of neutralizing a spill of 3.0 percent of the capacity of the largest cell or block in the room to a pH between 5.0 and 9.0.

Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer batteries shall not require neutralization.

TABLE 608.1
BATTERY REQUIREMENTS
REQUIREMENT NONRECOMBINANT BATTERIES RECOMBINANT BATTERIES OTHER
Flooded Lead Acid Batteries Flooded Nickel-Cadmium (Ni-Cd) Batteries Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) Batteries Lithium-Ion Batteries Lithium Metal Polymer
Safety caps Venting caps (608.2.1) Venting caps (608.2.1) Self-resealing flame-arresting caps (608.2.2) No caps No caps
Thermal runaway management Nat required Nat required Required (608.3) Not required Required (608.3)
Spill control Required (608.5) Required (608.5) Not required Not required Not required
Neutralization Required (608.5.1) Required (608.5.1) Required (608.5.2) Not required Not required
Ventilation Required (608.6.1; 608.6.2) Required (608.6.1; 608.6.2) Required (608.6.1; 608.6.2) Not required Not required
Signage Required (608.7) Required (608.7) Required (608.7) Required (608.7) Required (608.7)
Seismic protection Required (608.8) Required (608.8) Required (608.8) Required (608.8) Required (608.8)
Smoke detection Required (608.9) Required (608.9) Required (608.9) Required (608.9) Required (608.9)
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608.6 Ventilation. Ventilation of stationary storage battery systems shall comply with Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2.

608.6.1 Room ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the following:

  1. For flooded lead-acid, flooded Ni-Cad and VRLA batteries, the ventilation system shall be designed to limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1.0 percent of the total volume of the room; or
  2. Continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate ofnot less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (1 ft3/minlft2) [0.0051 m3/s x m2] of floor area of the room.

    Exception: Lithium-ion and lithium metal polymer batteries shall not require ventilation.

608.6.2 Cabinet ventilation. When VRLA batteries are installed inside a cabinet, the cabinet shall be approved for use in occupied spaces and shall be mechanically or naturally vented by one of the following methods:

  1. The cabinet ventilation shall limit the maximum concentration of hydrogen to 1 percent of the total volume of the cabinet during the worst-case event of simultaneous "boost" charging of all the batteries in the cabinet; or
  2. When calculations are not available to substantiate the ventilation rate, continuous ventilation shall be provided at a rate ofnot less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot [1 ft3/min/ft2 or 0.0051 m3/(s· m2)] of floor area covered by the cabinet. The room in which the cabinet is installed shall also be ventilated as required in Section 608.6.1.

608.6.3 Supervision. Mechanical ventilation systems where required by Sections 608.6.1 and 608.6.2 shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.

608.7 Signage. Signs shall comply with Sections 608.7.1 and 608.7.2.

608.7.1 Equipment room and building signage. Doors into electrical equipment rooms or buildings containing stationary battery systems shall be provided with approved signs. The signs shall state that:

  1. The room contains energized battery systems.
  2. The room contains energized electrical circuits.
  3. The battery electrolyte solutions, where present, are corrosive liquids.

608.7.2 Cabinet signage. Cabinets shall have exterior labels that identify the manufacturer and model number of the system and electrical rating (voltage and current) of the contained battery system. There shall be signs within the cabinet that indicate the relevant electrical, chemical and fire hazards.

608.8 Seismic protection. The battery systems shall be seismically braced in accordance with the International BUilding Code.

608.9 Smoke detection. An approved automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2 in rooms containing stationary battery systems.

SECTION 609
COMMERCIAL KITCHEN HOODS

[M] 609.1 General. Commercial kitchen exhaust hoods shall comply with the requirements of the International Mechanical Code.

[M] 609.2 Where required. A Type I hood shall be installed at or above all commercial cooking appliances and domestic cooking appliances used for commercial purposes that produce grease vapors.

609.3 Operations and maintenance. Commercial cooking systems shall be operated and maintained in accordance with Sections 609.3.1 through 609.3.4.

609.3.1 Ventilation system. The ventilation system in connection with hoods shall be operated at the required rate of air movement, and classified grease filters shall be in place when equipment under a kitchen grease hood is used.

609.3.2 Grease extractors. Where grease extractors are installed, they shall be operated when the commercial-type cooking equipment is used.

609.3.3 Cleaning. Hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be cleaned at intervals as required by Sections 609.3.3.1 through 609.3.3.3.

609.3.3.1 Inspection. Hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts and other appurtenances shall be inspected at intervals specified in Table 609.3.3.1 or as approvedby the fire code official. Inspections shall be completed by qualified individuals.

TABLE 609.3.3.1
COMMERCIAL COOKING SYSTEM INSPECTION FREQUENCY
TYPE OF COOKING OPERATIONS FREQUENCY OF INSPECTION
High-volume cooking operations such as 24-hour cooking, charbroiling or wok cooking 3 months
Low-volume cooking operations such as places of religious worship, seasonal businesses and senior centers 12 months
Cooking operations utilizing solid-fuel burning cooking appliances 1 month
All other cooking operations 6 months

609.3.3.2 Grease accumulation. If during the inspection it is found that hoods, grease-removal devices, fans, ducts or other appurtenances have an accumulation of grease, such components shall be cleaned.

609.3.3.3 Records. Records for inspections shall state the individual and company performing the inspection, a description of the inspection and when the inspection took place. Records for cleanings shall state the individual and company performing the cleaning and when the cleaning took place. Such records shall be completed

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after each inspection or cleaning, maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years and be copied to the fire code official upon request.

609.3.4 Extinguishing system service. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be serviced as required in Section 904.11.6.

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CHAPTER 7
FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION

SECTION 701
GENERAL

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall specify the requirements for and the maintenance of fire-resistance-rated construction. New buildings shall comply with the International BUilding Code.

701.2 Unsafe conditions. Where any components in this chapter are not maintained and do not function as intended or do not have the fire resistance required by the code under which the building was constructed, remodeled or altered, such component(s) or portion thereof shall be deemed an unsafe condition, in accordance with Section 110.1.1. Components or portions thereof determined to be unsafe shall be repaired or replaced to conform to that code under which the building was constructed' remodeled, altered or this chapter, as deemed appropriate by the fire code official.

Where the extent of the conditions of components is such that any building, structure or portion thereof presents an imminent danger to the occupants of the building, structure or portion thereof, the fire code official shall act in accordance with Section 110.2.

SECTION 702
DEFINITIONS

702.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

[B] DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics.

[B] FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, tested and fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1966 or UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated assemblies.

[B] FIREBLOCKING. Building materials, or materials approvedfor use as fireblocking, installed to resist the free passage of flame to other areas of the building through concealed spaces.

SECTION 703
FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED CONSTRUCTION

703.1 Maintenance. The required fire-resistance rating of fire-resistance-rated construction (including walls, firestops, shaft enclosures, partitions, smoke barriers, floors, fire-resistive coatings and sprayed fire-resistant materials applied to structural members and fire-resistant joint systems) shall be maintained. Such elements shall be visually inspected by the owner annually and properly repaired, restored or replaced when damaged, altered, breached or penetrated. Where concealed, such elements shall not be required to be visually inspected by the ownerunless the concealed space is accessible by the removal or movement of a panel, access door, ceiling tile or similar movable entry to the space. Openings made therein for the passage of pipes, electrical conduit, wires, ducts, air transfer openings and holes made for any reason shall be protected with approved methods capable of resisting the passage of smoke and fire. Openings through fire-resistance-rated assemblies shall be protected by self- or automatic-closing doors of approved construction meeting the fire protection requirements for the assembly.

703.1.1 Fireblocking and draftstopping. Required fire-blockingand draftstopping in combustible concealed spaces shall be maintained to provide continuity and integrity of the construction.

703.1.2 Smoke barriers and smoke partitions. Required smoke barriers and smoke partitions shall be maintained to prevent the passage of smoke. All openings protected with approved smoke barrier doors or smoke dampers shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 105.

703.1.3 Fire walls, fire barriers and fire partitions. Required fire walls, fire barriers and fire partitions shall be maintained to prevent the passage of fire. All openings protected with approved doors or fire dampers shall be maintained in accordance with NFPA 80.

703.2 Opening protectives. Opening protectives shall be maintained in an operative condition in accordance with NFPA 80. Fire doors and smoke barrier doors shall not be blocked or obstructed or otherwise made inoperable. Fusible links shall be replaced promptly whenever fused or damaged. Fire door assemblies shall not be modified.

703.2.1 Signs. Where required by the fire code official, a sign shall be permanently displayed on or near each fire door in letters not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high to read as follows:

  1. For doors designed to be kept normally open: FIRE DOOR-DO NOT BLOCK.
  2. For doors designed to be kept normally closed: FIRE DOOR-KEEP CLOSED.

703.2.2 Hold-open devices and closers. Hold-open devices and automatic door closers, where provided, shall be maintained. During the period that such device is out of service for repairs, the door it operates shall remain in the closed position.

703.2.3 Door operation. Swinging fire doors shall close from the full-open position and latch automatically. The door closer shall exert enough force to close and latch the door from any partially open position.

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703.3 Ceilings. The hanging and displaying of salable goods and other decorative materials from acoustical ceiling systems that are part of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly, shall be prohibited.

703.4 Testing. Horizontal and vertical sliding and rolling fire doors shall be inspected and tested annually to confirm proper operation and full closure. A written record shall be maintained and be available to the fire code official.

SECTION 704
FLOOR OPENINGS AND SHAFTS

704.1 Enclosure. Interior vertical shafts, including but not limited to stairways, elevator hoistways, service and utility shafts, that connect two or more stories of a building shall be enclosed or protected as required in Chapter 46. New floor openings in existing buildings shall comply with the International Building Code.

704.2 Opening protectives. When openings are required to be protected, opening protectives shall be maintained self-closing or automatic-closing by smoke detection. Existing fusible-link-type automatic door-closing devices are permitted if the fusible link rating does not exceed 13SoP (S7°C).

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CHAPTER 8
INTERIOR FINISH, DECORATIVE MATERIALS AND FURNISHINGS

SECTION 801
GENERAL

801.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern interior finish, interior trim, furniture, furnishings, decorative materials and decorative vegetation in buildings. Existing buildings shall comply with Sections 803 through 808. New buildings shall comply with Sections 804 through 808 and Section 803 of the International BUilding Code.

SECTION 802
DEFINITIONS

802.1 General. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

[B] FLAME SPREAD. The propagation of flame over a surface.

[B] FLAME SPREAD INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from visual measurements of the spread of flame versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. Interior floor finish trim used to provide a functional or decorative border at the intersection of walls and floors.

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. A system, fabricated on site and intended for acoustical, tackable or aesthetic purposes, that is comprised of three elements:

  1. A frame constructed of plastic, wood, metal or other material used to hold fabric in place;
  2. A core material (infill, with the correct properties for the application); and
  3. An outside layer, comprised of a textile, fabric or vinyl, that is stretched taut and held in place by tension or mechanical fasteners via the frame.

[B] SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. A comparative measure, expressed as a dimensionless number, derived from measurements of smoke obscuration versus time for a material tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

SECTION 803
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH AND TRIM IN EXISTING BUILDINGS

803.1 General. The provisions of this section shall limit the allowable flame spread and smoke development of interior wall and ceiling finishes and interior wall and ceiling trim in existing buildings based on location and occupancy classification. Interior wall and ceiling finishes shall be classified in accordance with Section 803 of the International BUilding Code. Such materials shall be grouped in accordance with ASTM E 84, as indicated in Section 803.1.1, or in accordance with NFPA 286, as indicated in Section 803.1.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Materials having a thickness less than 0.036 inch (0.9 mm) applied directly to the surface of walls and ceilings.
  2. Exposed portions of structural members complying with the requirements of buildings of Type IV construction in accordance with the International Building Code shall not be subject to interior finish requirements.

803.1.1 Classification in accordance with ASTM E 84. Interior finish materials shall be grouped in the following classes in accordance with their flame spread and smoke-developed index when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84.

Class A: flame spread index 0-25; smoke-developed index 0-450.

Class B: flame spread index 26-75; smoke-developed index 0-450.

Class C: flame spread index 76-200; smoke-developed index 0-450.

803.1.2 Classification in accordance with NFPA 286. Interior wall or ceiling finishes shall be allowed to be tested in accordance with NFPA 286. Finishes tested in accordance with NFPA 286 shall comply with Section 803.1.2.1. Interior wall and ceiling finish materials tested in accordance with NFPA 286 and meeting the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 shall be allowed to be used where a Class A classification in accordance with ASTM E 84 is required.

803.1.2.1 Acceptance criteria for interior finish materials tested to NFPA 286. During the 40 kilowatt (kW) exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 1. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with Item 2. During the entire test, the interior finish shall comply with Item 3.

  1. During the 40 kW exposure, flames shall not spread to the ceiling.
  2. During the 160 kW exposure, the interior finish shall comply with the following:

    2.1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the sample on any wall or ceiling.

    2.2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 286, shall not occur.

  3. The total smoke released throughout the NFPA 286 test shall not exceed 1,000 m2
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TABLE 803.3
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH REQUIREMENTS BY OCCUPANCyk
GROUP SPRINKLERE01 NONSPRINKLEREO
Exit enclosures and exit passagewaysa, b Corridors Rooms and enclosed spacesc Exit enclosures and exit passagewaysa, b Corridors Rooms and enclosed spacesc
A-I & A-2 B B C A Ad Be
A-3f, A-4, A-S B B C A Ad C
B, E, M, R-I, R-4 B C C A B C
F C C C B C C
H B B cg A A B
I-I B C C A B B
1-2 B B Bh,i A A B
1-3 A Aj C A A B
1-4 B B Bh,i A A B
R-2 C C C B B C
R-3 C C C C C C
S C C C B B C
U No Restrictions No Restrictions
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m2.
a. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed for wainscoting or paneling of not more than 1,000 square feet of applied surface area in the grade lobby where applied directly to a noncombustible base or over furring strips applied to a noncombustible base and fireblocked as required by Section 803.4 of the International Building Code.
b. In exit enclosures of buildings less than three stories in height of other than Group 1-3, Class B interior finish for nonsprinklered buildings and Class C for sprinklered buildings shall be permitted.
c. Requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces shall be based upon spaces enclosed by partitions. Where a fire-resistance rating is required for structural elements, the enclosing partitions shall extend from the floor to the ceiling. Partitions that do not comply with this shall be considered as enclosing spaces and the rooms or spaces on both sides shall be considered as one. In determining the applicable requirements for rooms and enclosed spaces, the specific occupancy there of shall be the governing factor regardless of the group classification of the building or structure.
d. Lobby areas in Group A-I, A-2 and A-3 occupancies shall not be less than Class B materials.
e. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 300 persons or less.
f. In places of religious worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel furnishing shall be allowed.
g. Class B material is required where the building exceeds two stories.
h. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in administrative spaces.
i. Class C interior finish materials shall be allowed in rooms with a capacity of four persons or less.
j. Class B materials shall be allowed as wainscoting extending not more than 48 inches above the finished floor in corridors.
k. Finish materials as provided for in other sections of this code.
l. Applies when the vertical exits, exit passageways, corridors or rooms and spaces are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

803.2 Stability. Interior finish materials regulated by this chapter shall be applied or otherwise fastened in such a manner that such materials will not readily become detached where subjected to room temperatures of 200°F (93°C) for not less than 30 minutes.

803.3 Interior finish requirements based on occupancy. Interior wall and ceiling finish shall have a flame spread index not greater than that specified in Table 803.3 for the group and location designated.

803.4 Fire-retardant coatings. The required flame spread or smoke-developed index of surfaces in existing buildings shall be allowed to be achieved by application of approved fire-retardant coatings, paints or solutions to surfaces having a flame spread index exceeding that allowed. Such applications shall comply with NFPA 703 and the required fire-retardant properties shall be maintained or renewed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

803.5 Textiles. Where used as interior wall or ceiling finish materials, textiles, including materials having woven or nonwoven, napped, tufted, looped or similar surface, shall comply with the requirements of this section.

803.5.1 Textile wall coverings. Textile wall coverings shall comply with one of the following:

  1. The coverings shall have a Class A flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 and be protected by automatic sprinklers installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  2. The covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.5.1.1 or 803.5.1.2 when tested in the manner 68 intended for use in accordance with NFPA 265 using the product-mounting system (including adhesive) of actual use, or
  3. The covering shall meet the criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286 using the product-mounting system (including adhesive) of actual use.

803.5.1.1 Method A test protocol. During the Method A protocol, flame shall not spread to the ceiling during the 40 kW exposure. During the 150 kW exposure, the textile wall covering shall comply with all of the following:

  1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extremity of the sample on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 305 mm) wall.
  2. The specimen shall not burn to the outer extremity of the 2-foot-wide (610 mm) samples mounted in the corner of the room.
  3. Burning droplets deemed capable of igniting textile wall coverings or that burn for 30 seconds or more shall not form.
  4. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not occur.
  5. The maximum net instantaneous peak heat release rate, determined by subtracting the burner output from the maximum heat release rate, does not exceed 300 kW.

803.5.1.2 Method B test protocol. During the Method B protocol, flames shall not spread to the ceiling at any time during the 40 kW exposure. During the 150 kWexpo-sure, the textile wall covering shall comply with the following:

  1. Flame shall not spread to the outer extremities of the samples on the 8-foot by 12-foot (203 mm by 305 mm) walls.
  2. Flashover, as defined in NFPA 265, shall not occur.

803.6 Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings. Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings shall comply with the requirements of either Section 803.6.1 or 803.6.2.

803.6.1 General. Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings shall comply with the requirements of Section 803.1.2. Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings complying with Section 803.1.2 shall not be required to comply with Section 803.1.1.

803.6.2 Compliance alternative. Expanded vinyl wall or ceiling coverings shall be allowed to comply with the requirements for textile wall or ceiling coverings in Section 803.5. When tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, test specimen preparation shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2404.

803.7 Foam plastic materials. Foam plastic materials shall not be used as interior wall and ceiling finish unless specifically allowed by Section 803.7.1 or 803.7.2. Foam plastic materials shall not be used as interior trim unless specifically allowed by Section 803.7.3.

803.7.1 Combustibility characteristics. Foam plastic materials shall be allowed on the basis of fire tests that substantiate their combustibility characteristics for the use intended under actual fire conditions, as indicated in Section 2603.9 of the International Building Code. This section shall apply both to exposed foam plastics and to foam plastics used in conjunction with a textile or vinyl facing or cover.

803.7.2 Thermal barrier. Foam plastic material shall be allowed if it is separated from the interior of the building by a thermal barrier in accordance with Section 2603.4 of the International Building Code.

803.7.3 Trim. Foam plastic shall be allowed for trim in accordance with Section 804.2.

803.8 High-density polyethylene (HOPE). Where high-density polyethylene is used as an interior finish, it shall comply with Section 803.1.2.

803.9 Site-fabricated stretch systems. Where used as newly installed interior wall or interior ceiling finish materials, site-fabricated stretch systems shall be tested in the manner intended for use, and shall comply with the requirements of Section 803.1.1 or 803.1.2. If the materials are tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, specimen preparation and mounting shall be in accordance with ASTM E 2573.

SECTION 804
INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING TRIM IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS

804.1 Interior trim. Material, other than foam plastic, used as interior trim in new and existing buildings shall have minimum Class C flame spread and smoke-developed indices, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723, as described in Section 803.1.1. Combustible trim, excluding handrails and guardrails, shall not exceed 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling areas to which it is attached.

804.1.1 Alternate testing. When the interior trim material has been tested as an interior finish in accordance with NFPA 286 and complies with the acceptance criteria in Section 803.1.2.1, it shall not be required to be tested for flame spread index and smoke-developed index in accordance with ASTM E 84.

804.2 Foam plastic. Foam plastic used as interior trim shall comply with Sections 804.2.1 through 804.2.4.

804.2.1 Density. The minimum density of the interior trim shall be 20 pounds per cubic foot (320 kg/m3).

804.2.2 Thickness. The maximum thickness of the interior trim shall be ½ inch (12.7 mm) and the maximum width shall be 8 inches (203 mm).

804.2.3 Area limitation. The interior trim shall not constitute more than 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling area to which it is attached.

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804.2.4 Flame spread. The flame spread index shall not exceed 75 where tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. The smoke-developed index shall not be limited.

Exception: When the interior trim material has been tested as an interior finish in accordance with NFPA 286 and complies with the acceptance criteria in Section 803.1.2.1, it shall not be required to be tested for flame spread index in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

804.3 Interior floor-wall base. Interior floor-wall base that is 6 inches (152 mm) or less in height shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 253 and shall not be less than Class II. Where a Class I floor finish is required, the floor-wall base shall be Class I. The classification referred to herein corresponds to the classifications determined by NFPA 253 as follows: Class I, 0.45 watt/cm2 or greater; Class 11,0.22 watts/cm2 or greater.

Exception: Interior trim materials that comply with Section 804.1.

SECTION 805
UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS

805.1 Group 1-1, board and care facilities. The requirements in Sections 805.1.1 through 805.1.2 shall apply to board and care facilities classified in Group I-I.

805.1.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.1.1.1 through 805.1.1.3.

805.1.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with NFPA 261.
  2. The components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260.

805.1.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or California Technical Bulletin 133, as follows:

  1. The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW.

    Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

  2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 megajoules (M).

    Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

805.1.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.1.1.1 and 805.1.1.2.

805.1.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.1.2.1 through 805.1.2.3.

805.1.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm).

805.1.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows:

  1. The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 100 kW.

    Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

  2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 [M].

    Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

805.1.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2.

805.2 Group 1-2, nursing homes and hospitals. The requirements in Sections 805.2.1 through 805.2.2 shall apply to nursing homes and hospitals classified in Group 1-2.

805.2.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.2.1.1 through 805.2.1.3.

805.2.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following: (a) mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with NFPA 261 or (b) the components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260.

Exception: Upholstered furniture belonging to the patients in sleeping rooms of nursing homes (Group 1-2), provided that a smoke detector is installed in such rooms. Battery-powered, single-station smoke alarms shall be allowed.

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805.2.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or California Technical Bulletin 133, as follows:

  1. The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW.

    Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

  2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 [M].

    Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

805.2.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.2.1.1 and 805.2.1.2.

805.2.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 through 805.2.2.3.

805.2.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm).

805.2.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows:

  1. The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress shall not exceed 100 kW.

    Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

  2. The total energy released by the single mattress during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 M].

    Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

805.2.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.2.2.1 and 805.2.2.2.

805.3 Group 1-3, detention and correction facilities. The requirements in Sections 805.3.1 through 805.3.2 shall apply to detention and correction facilities classified in Group 1-3.

805.3.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.3.1.1 through 805.3.1.3

805.3.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 1.5 inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with NFPA 261, or
  2. The components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260.

805.3.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537, as follows:

  1. The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW.
  2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes ofthe test shall not exceed 25 [M].

805.3.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.3.1.1 and 805.3.1.2.

805.3.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 through 805.3.2.3.

805.3.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm).

805.3.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows:

  1. The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress shall not exceed 100 kW.
  2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 [M].

805.3.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.3.2.1 and 805.3.2.2.

805.4 Group R-2 college and university dormitories. The requirements of Sections 805.4.1 through 805.4.2.3 shall apply to college and university dormitories classified in Group R-2.

805.4.1 Upholstered furniture. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.4.1.1 through 805.4.1.3

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805.4.1.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Mocked-up composites of the upholstered furniture shall have a char length not exceeding 1 ½ inches (38 mm) when tested in accordance with NFPA 261; or
  2. The components of the upholstered furniture shall meet the requirements for Class I when tested in accordance with NFPA 260.

805.4.1.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced upholstered furniture shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1537 or California Technical Bulletin 133, as follows:

  1. The peak rate of heat release for the single upholstered furniture item shall not exceed 80 kW.

    Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

  2. The total energy released by the single upholstered furniture item during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25[M].

    Exception: Upholstered furniture in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

805.4.1.3 Identification. Upholstered furniture shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.4.1.1 and 805.4.1.2.

805.4.2 Mattresses. Newly introduced mattresses shall meet the requirements of Sections 805.4.2.1 through 805.4.2.3.

805.4.2.1 Ignition by cigarettes. Newly introduced mattresses shall be shown to resist ignition by cigarettes as determined by tests conducted in accordance with DOC 16 CFR Part 1632 and shall have a char length not exceeding 2 inches (51 mm).

805.4.2.2 Heat release rate. Newly introduced mattresses shall have limited rates of heat release when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1590 or California Technical Bulletin 129, as follows:

  1. The peak rate of heat release for the single mattress shall not exceed 100 kW.

    Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

  2. The total energy released by the single mattress during the first 10 minutes of the test shall not exceed 25 M].

    Exception: Mattresses in rooms or spaces protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

805.4.2.3 Identification. Mattresses shall bear the label of an approved agency, confirming compliance with the requirements of Sections 805.4.2.1 and 805.4.2.2.

SECTION 806
DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS

806.1 Natural cut trees. Natural cut trees, where allowed by this section, shall have the trunk bottoms cut offat least 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) above the original cut and shall be placed in a support device complying with Section 806.1.2.

806.1.1 Restricted occupancies. Natural cut trees shall be prohibited in Group A, E, I-I, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, M, R-l, R-2 and R-4 occupancies.

Exceptions:

  1. Trees located in areas protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 shall not be prohibited in Groups A, E, M, R-l and R-2.
  2. Trees shall be allowed within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies.

806.1.2 Support devices. The support device that holds the tree in an upright position shall be of a type that is stable and that meets all of the following criteria:

  1. The device shall hold the tree securely and be of adequate size to avoid tipping over of the tree.
  2. The device shall be capable of containing a minimum two-day supply of water.
  3. The water level, when full, shall cover the tree stem at least 2 inches (51 mm). The water level shall be maintained above the fresh cut and checked at least once daily.

806.1.3 Dryness. The tree shall be removed from the building whenever the needles or leaves fall off readily when a tree branch is shaken or if the needles are brittle and break when bent between the thumb and index finger. The tree shall be checked daily for dryness.

806.2 Artificial vegetation. Artificial decorative vegetation shall meet the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701. Meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall be documented and certified by the manufacturer in an approved manner.

806.3 Obstruction of means of egress. The required width of any portion of a means ofegress shall not be obstructed by decorative vegetation.

806.4 Open flame. Candles and open flames shall not be used on or near decorative vegetation. Natural cut trees shall be kept a distance from heat vents and any open flame or heat-producing devices at least equal to the height of the tree.

806.5 Electrical fixtures and wiring. The use of unlisted electrical wiring and lighting on natural cut trees and artificial decorative vegetation shall be prohibited. The use of electrical

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wiring and lighting on artificial trees constructed entirely of metal shall be prohibited.

SECTION 807
DECORATIVE MATERIALS OTHER THAN DECORATIVE VEGETATION IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS

807.1 General requirements. In occupancies in Groups A, E, I and R-l and dormitories in Group R-2, curtains, draperies, hangings and other decorative materials suspended from walls or ceilings shall meet the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 in accordance with Section 806.2 or be noncombustible.

Exceptions:

  1. Curtains, draperies, hangings and other decorative materials suspended from walls of sleeping units and dwelling units in dormitories in Group R-2 protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and such materials are limited to not more than 50 percent of the aggregate area of walls.
  2. Decorative materials, including, but not limited to, photographs and paintings in dormitories in Group R-2 where such materials are of limited quantities such that a hazard of fire development or spread is not present.

In Groups I-I and 1-2, combustible decorative materials shall meet the flame propagation criteria of NFPA 701 unless the decorative materials, including, but not limited to, photographs and paintings, are ofsuch limited quantities that a hazard offire development or spread is not present. In Group 1-3, combustible decorative materials are prohibited.

Fixed or movable walls and partitions, paneling, wall pads and crash pads, applied structurally or for decoration, acoustical correction, surface insulation or other purposes, shall be considered interior finish if they cover 10 percent or more of the wall or of the ceiling area, and shall not be considered decorative materials or furnishings.

In Group Band M occupancies, fabric partitions suspended from the ceiling and not supported by the floor shall meet the flame propagation performance criteria in accordance with Section 807.2 and NFPA 701 or shall be noncombustible.

807.1.1 Noncombustible materials. The permissible amount of noncombustible decorative material shall not be limited.

807.1.2 Combustible decorative materials. The permissible amount ofdecorative materials meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall not exceed 10 percent of the specific wall or ceiling area to which it is attached.

Exceptions:

  1. In auditoriums in Group A, the permissible amount of decorative material meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701 shall not exceed 75 percent of the aggregate wall area where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and where the material is installed in accordance with Section 803.4 of the International BUilding Code.
  2. The amount of fabric partitions suspended from the ceiling and not supported by the floor in Group Band M occupancies shall not be limited.

807.2 Acceptance criteria and reports. Where required to be flame resistant, decorative materials shall be tested by an approved agency and meet the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701, or such materials shall be noncombustible. Reports of test results shall be prepared in accordance with NFPA 701 and furnished to the fire code officialupon request.

807.3 Pyroxylin plastic. Imitation leather or other material consisting of or coated with a pyroxylin or similarly hazardous base shall not be used in Group A occupancies.

807.4 Occupancy-based requirements. In occupancies in Group A, E and 1-4 day care facilities, decorative materials other than decorative vegetation shall comply with Sections 807.4.1 through 807.4.4.2.

807.4.1 General. All of the following requirements shall apply to all Group A and E occupancies and Group 1-4 day care facilities regulated by Sections 807.4.2 through 807.4.4:

  1. Explosive or highly flammable materials. Furnishings or decorative materials of an explosive or highly flammable character shall not be used.
  2. Fire-retardant coatings. Fire-retardant coatings in existing buildings shall be maintained so as to retain the effectiveness of the treatment under service conditions encountered in actual use.
  3. Obstructions. Furnishings or other objects shall not be placed to obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom or visibility thereof.

807.4.2 Group A. The requirements in Sections 807.4.2.1 through 807.4.2.3 shall apply to occupancies in Group A.

807.4.2.1 Foam plastics. Exposed foam plastic materials and unprotected materials containing foam plastic used for decorative purposes or stage scenery or exhibit booths shall have a maximum heat release rate of 100 kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975.

Exceptions:

  1. Individual foam plastic items or items containing foam plastic where the foam plastic does not exceed 1 pound (0.45 kg) in weight.
  2. Cellular or foam plastic shall be allowed for trim in accordance with Section 804.2.

807.4.2.2 Motion picture screens. The screens upon which motion pictures are projected in new and existing buildings of Group A shall either meet the flame propagation performance criteria ofNFPA 701 or shall comply with the requirements for a Class B interior finish in accordance with Section 803 of the International Building Code.

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807.4.2.3 Wood use in Group A-3 places of religious worship. In places of religious worship, wood used for ornamental purposes, trusses, paneling or chancel furnishing shall be allowed.

807.4.3 Group E. The requirements in Sections 807.4.3.1 and 807.4.3.2 shall apply to occupancies in Group E.

807.4.3.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and lobbies.

Exceptions:

  1. Corridors protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Corridors protected by an approved smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.
  3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the minimum required egress width is maintained.

807.4.3.2 Artwork. Artwork and teaching materials shall be limited on the walls of corridors to not more than 20 percent of the wall area.

807.4.4 Group 1-4, day care facilities. The requirements in Sections 807.4.4.1 and 807.4.4.2 shall apply to day care facilities classified in Group 1-4.

807.4.4.1 Storage in corridors and lobbies. Clothing and personal effects shall not be stored in corridors and lobbies.

Exceptions:

  1. Corridors protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Corridors protected by an approved smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.
  3. Storage in metal lockers, provided the minimum required egress width is maintained.

807.4.4.2 Artwork. Artwork and teaching materials shall be limited on walls of corridors to not more than 20 percent of the wall area.

SECTION 808
FURNISHINGS OTHER THAN UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE AND MATTRESSES OR DECORATIVE MATERIALS IN NEW AND EXISTING BUILDINGS

808.1 Wastebaskets and linen containers in Group 1-2 and 1-3 occupancies. Wastebaskets, linen containers and other waste containers, including their lids, located in Group 1-2 and I-3 occupancies shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of materials that meet a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 300 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW1m2 in the horizontal orientation. Metal wastebaskets and other metal waste containers with a capacity of 20 gallons (75.7 L) or more shall be listed in accordance with UL 1315 and shall be provided with a noncombustible lid. Portable containers exceeding 32 gallons (121 L) shall be stored in an area classified as a waste and linen collection room and constructed in accordance with Table 508.2 of the International BUilding Code.

808.2 Signs. Foam plastic signs that are not affixed to interior building surfaces shall have a maximum heat release rate of 150 kW when tested in accordance with UL 1975.

Exception: Where the aggregate area of foam plastic signs is less than 10 percent of the floor area or wall area of the room or space in which the signs are located, whichever is less, subject to the approval of the fire code official.

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CHAPTER 9
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

SECTION 901
GENERAL

901.1 Scope. The provisions ofthis chapter shall specify where fire protection systems are required and shall apply to the design, installation, inspection, operation, testing and maintenance of all fire protection systems.

901.2 Construction documents. The fire code official shall have the authority to require construction documents and calculations for all fire protection systems and to require permits be issued for the installation, rehabilitation or modification of any fire protection system. Construction documents for fire protection systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation.

901.2.1 Statement of compliance. Before requesting final approval of the installation, where required by the fire code official, the installing contractor shall furnish a written statement to the fire code official that the subject fire protection system has been installed in accordance with approved plans and has been tested in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications and the appropriate installation standard. Any deviations from the design standards shall be noted and copies of the approvals for such deviations shall be attached to the written statement.

901.3 Permits. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6 and 105.7.

901.4 Installation. Fire protection systems shall be maintained in accordance with the original installation standards for that system. Required systems shall be extended, altered or augmented as necessary to maintain and continue protection whenever the building is altered, remodeled or added to. Alterations to fire protection systems shall be done in accordance with applicable standards.

901.4.1 Required fire protection systems. Fire protection systems required by this code or the International BUilding Code shall be installed, repaired, operated, tested and maintained in accordance with this code.

901.4.2 Nonrequired fire protection systems. Any fire protection system or portion thereof not required by this code or the International BUilding Code shall be allowed to be furnished for partial or complete protection provided such installed system meets the requirements of this code and the International BUilding Code.

901.4.3 Additional fire protection systems. In occupancies of a hazardous nature, where special hazards exist in addition to the normal hazards of the occupancy, or where the fire code official determines that access for fire apparatus is unduly difficult, the fire code official shall have the authority to require additional safeguards. Such safeguards include, but shall not be limited to, the following: automatic fire detection systems, fire alarm systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems, standpipe systems, or portable or fixed extinguishers. Fire protection equipment required under this section shall be installed in accordance with this code and the applicable referenced standards.

901.4.4 Appearance ofequipment. Any device that has the physical appearance of life safety or fire protection equipment but that does not perform that life safety or fire protection function shall be prohibited.

901.5 Installation acceptance testing. Fire detection and alarm systems, fire-extinguishing systems, fire hydrant systems, fire standpipe systems, fire pump systems, private fire service mains and all other fire protection systems and appurtenances thereto shall be subject to acceptance tests as contained in the installation standards and as approved by the fire code official. The fire code official shall be notified before any required acceptance testing.

901.5.1 Occupancy. It shall be unlawful to occupy any portion of a building or structure until the required fire detection, alarm and suppression systems have been tested and approved.

901.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. Fire detection, alarm and extinguishing systems shall be maintained in an operative condition at all times, and shall be replaced or repaired where defective. Nonrequired fire protection systems and equipment shall be inspected, tested and maintained or removed.

901.6.1 Standards. Fire protection systems shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the referenced standards listed in Table 901.6.1.

TABLE 901.6.1
FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM MAINTENANCE STANDARDS
SYSTEM STANDARD
Portable fire extinguishers NFPA 10
Carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing system NFPA 12
Halon 1301 fire-extinguishing systems NFPA 12A
Dry-chemical extinguishing systems NFPA 17
Wet-chemical extinguishing systems NFPA 17A
Water-based fire protection systems NFPA 25
Fire alarm systems NFPA 72
Water-mist systems NFPA 750
Clean-agent extinguishing systems NFPA 2001

901.6.2 Records. Records of all system inspections, tests and maintenance required by the referenced standards shall be maintained on the premises for a minimum of three years and shall be copied to the fire code official upon request.

901.6.2.1 Records information. Initial records shall include the name of the installation contractor, type of components installed, manufacturer of the components,

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location and number of components installed per floor. Records shall also include the manufacturers' operation and maintenance instruction manuals. Such records shall be maintained on the premises.

901.7 Systems out ofservice. Where a required fire protection system is out of service, the fire department and the fire code official shall be notified immediately and, where required by the fire code official, the building shall either be evacuated or an approved fire watch shall be provided for all occupants left unprotected by the shutdown until the fire protection system has been returned to service.

Where utilized, fire watches shall be provided with at least one approved means for notification of the fire department and their only duty shall be to perform constant patrols of the protected premises and keep watch for fires.

901.7.1 Impairment coordinator. The building owner shall assign an impairment coordinator to comply with the requirements of this section. In the absence of a specific designee, the owner shall be considered the impairment coordinator.

901.7.2 Tag required. A tag shall be used to indicate that a system, or portion thereof, has been removed from service.

901.7.3 Placement of tag. The tag shall be posted at each fire department connection, system control valve, fire alarm control unit, fire alarm annunciator and fire command center, indicating which system, or part thereof, has been removed from service. The fire code official shall specify where the tag is to be placed.

901.7.4 Preplanned impairment programs. Preplanned impairments shall be authorized by the impairment coordinator. Before authorization is given, a designated individual shall be responsible for verifying that all of the following procedures have been implemented:

  1. The extent and expected duration of the impairment have been determined.
  2. The areas or buildings involved have been inspected and the increased risks determined.
  3. Recommendations have been submitted to management or building owner/manager.
  4. The fire department has been notified.
  5. The insurance carrier, the alarm company, building owner/manager, and other authorities having jurisdiction have been notified.
  6. The supervisors in the areas to be affected have been notified.
  7. A tag impairment system has been implemented.
  8. Necessary tools and materials have been assembled on the impairment site.

901.7.5 Emergency impairments. When unplanned impairments occur, appropriate emergency action shall be taken to minimize potential injury and damage. The impairment coordinator shall implement the steps outlined in Section 901.7.4.

901.7.6 Restoring systems to service. When impaired equipment is restored to normal working order, the impairment coordinator shall verify that all of the following procedures have been implemented:

  1. Necessary inspections and tests have been conducted to verify that affected systems are operational.
  2. Supervisors have been advised that protection is restored.
  3. The fire department has been advised that protection is restored.
  4. The building owner/manager, insurance carrier, alarm company and other involved parties have been advised that protection is restored.
  5. The impairment tag has been removed.

901.8 Removal of or tampering with equipment. It shall be unlawful for any person to remove, tamper with or otherwise disturb any fire hydrant, fire detection and alarm system, fire suppression system, or other fire appliance required by this code except for the purpose of extinguishing fire, training purposes, recharging or making necessary repairs, or when approved by the fire code official.

901.8.1 Removal of or tampering with appurtenances. Locks, gates, doors, barricades, chains, enclosures, signs, tags or seals which have been installed by or at the direction of the fire code official shall not be removed, unlocked, destroyed, tampered with or otherwise vandalized in any manner.

901.9 Recall of fire protection components. Any fire protection system component regulated by this code that is the subject of a voluntary or mandatory recall under federal law shall be replaced with approved, listed components in compliance with the referenced standards of this code. The fire code official shall be notified in writing by the building owner when the recalled component parts have been replaced.

SECTION 902
DEFINITIONS

902.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A fire alarm system component such as a bell, horn, speaker, light or text display that provides audible, tactile or visible outputs, or any combination thereof.

ALARM SIGNAL. A signal indicating an emergency requiring immediate action, such as a signal indicative of fire.

ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. A feature of automatic fire detection and alarm systems to reduce unwanted alarms wherein smoke detectors report alarm conditions for a minimum period of time, or confirm alarm conditions within a given time period, after being automatically reset, in order to be accepted as a valid alarm-initiation signal.

ANNUNCIATOR. A unit containing one or more indicator lamps, alphanumeric displays or other equivalent means in

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which each indication provides status information about a circuit, condition or location.

AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of hearing.

AUTOMATIC. As applied to fire protection devices, a device or system providing an emergency function without the necessity for human intervention and activated as a result of a predetermined temperature rise, rate of temperature rise or combustion products.

AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. An approved system of devices and equipment which automatically detects a fire and discharges an approvedfire-extinguishing agent onto or in the area of a fire.

AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. A fire alarm system that has initiation devices that utilize smoke detectors for protection of an area such as a room or space with detectors to provide early warning of fire.

AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. An automatic sprinkler system, for fire protection purposes, is an integrated system of underground and overhead piping designed in accordance with fire protection engineering standards. The system includes a suitable water supply. The portion of the system above the ground is a network of specially sized or hydraulically designed piping installed in a structure or area, generally overhead, and to which automatic sprinklers are connected in a systematic pattern. The system is usually activated by heat from a fire and discharges water over the fire area.

AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. The root mean square, A-weighted sound pressure level measured over a 24-hour period, or the time any person is present, whichever time period is less.

CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A system supplying carbon dioxide (C02) from a pressurized vessel through fixed pipes and nozzles. The system includes a manual- or automatic-actuating mechanism.

CLEAN AGENT. Electrically nonconducting, volatile or gaseous fire extinguishant that does not leave a residue upon evaporation.

CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. A designated location at a facility staffed by trained personnel on a continu0us basis where alarm or supervisory signals are monitored and facilities are provided for notification of the fire department or other emergency services.

DELUGE SYSTEM. A sprinkler system employing open sprinklers attached to a piping system connected to a water supply through a valve that is opened by the operation of a detection system installed in the same area as the sprinklers. When this valve opens, water flows into the piping system and discharges from all sprinklers attached there to.

DETECTOR, HEAT. A fire detector that senses heat, either abnormally high temperature or rate of rise, or both.

DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A powder composed of small particles, usually of sodium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, urea-potassium-based bicarbonate, potassium chloride or monoammonium phosphate, with added particulate material supplemented by special treatment to provide resistance to packing, resistance to moisture absorption (caking) and the proper flow capabilities.

ELEVATOR GROUP. A grouping of elevators in a building located adjacent or directly across from one another that respond to a common hall call button(s).

EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. A system to provide indication and warning of emergency situations involving hazardous materials.

EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. Dedicated manual or automatic facilities for originating and distributing voice instructions, as well as alert and evacuation signals pertaining to a fire emergency, to the occupants of a building.

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See “Manual fire alarm box.”

FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. A system component that receives inputs from automatic and manual fire alarm devices and may be capable of supplying power to detection devices and transponder(s) or off-premises transmitter(s). The control unit may be capable ofproviding a transfer of power to the notification appliances and transfer of condition to relays or devices.

FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. A signal initiated by a fire alarm-initiating device such as a manual fire alarm box, automatic fire detector, waterflow switch or other device whose activation is indicative of the presence of a fire or fire signature.

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. A system or portion of a combination system consisting of components and circuits arranged to monitor and annunciate the status of fire alarm or supervisory signal-initiating devices and to initiate the appropriate response to those signals.

[B] FIRE AREA. The aggregate floor area enclosed and bounded by fire walls, fire barriers, exterior walls or horizontal assemblies of a building. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the fire area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor next above.

FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. A device designed to detect the presence of a fire signature and to initiate action.

FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. Approved devices, equipment and systems or combinations of systems used to detect a fire, activate an alarm, extinguish or control a fire, control or manage smoke and products of a fire or any combination thereof.

FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. Building and fire control functions that are intended to increase the level oflife safety for occupants or to control the spread ofthe harmful effects offire.

[B] FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and flight instruction.

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FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A special system discharging a foam made from concentrates, either mechanically or chemically, over the area to be protected.

HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. A fire-extinguishing system using one or more atoms of an element from the halogen chemical series: fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine.

IMPAIRMENT COORDINATOR. The person responsible for the maintenance of a particular fire protection system.

INITIATING DEVICE. A system component that originates transmission of a change-of-state condition, such as in a smoke detector, manual fire alarm box, or supervisory switch.

MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. A manually operated device used to initiate an alarm signal.

MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. Two or more single-station alarm devices that can be interconnected such that actuation of one causes all integral or separate audible alarms to operate. It also can consist of one single-station alarm device having connections to other detectors or to a manual fire alarm box.

MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. Two or more single-station alarm devices that are capable ofinterconnection such that actuation of one causes the appropriate alarm signal to operate in all interconnected alarms.

NOTIFICATION ZONE. See “Zone, notification.”

NUISANCE ALARM. An alarm caused by mechanical failure, malfunction, improper installation or lack of proper maintenance, or an alarm activated by a cause that cannot be determined.

RECORD DRAWINGS. Drawings (“as builts”) that document the location of all devices, appliances, wiring, sequences, wiring methods and connections of the components of a fire alarm system as installed.

SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. An assembly incorporating the detector, the control equipment and the alarm-sounding device in one unit, operated from a power supply either in the unit or obtained at the point of installation.

[B] SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.

SMOKE ALARM. A single- or multiple-station alarm responsive to smoke.

SMOKE DETECTOR. A listed device that senses visible or invisible particles of combustion.

STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. Standpipe classes are as follows:

Class I system. A system providing 2½-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.

Class II system. A system providing 1½-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use primarily by the building occupants or by the fire department during initial response.

Class III system. A system providing 1½-inch (38 mm) hose stations to supply water for use by building occupants and 2½-inch (64 mm) hose connections to supply a larger volume of water for use by fire departments and those trained in handling heavy fire streams.

STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. Standpipe types are as follows:

Automatic dry. A dry standpipe system, normally filled with pressurized air, that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a dry pipe valve, to admit water into the system piping automatically upon the opening of a hose valve. The water supply for an automatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.

Automatic wet. A wet standpipe system that has a water supply that is capable ofsupplying the system demand automatically.

Manual dry. A dry standpipe system that does not have a permanent water supply attached to the system. Manual dry standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper to be pumped into the system through the fire department connection in order to supply the system demand.

Manual wet. A wet standpipe system connected to a water supply for the purpose of maintaining water within the system but which does not have a water supply capable ofdelivering the system demand attached to the system. Manual wet standpipe systems require water from a fire department pumper (or the like) to be pumped into the system in order to supply the system demand.

Semiautomatic dry. A dry standpipe system that is arranged through the use of a device, such as a deluge valve, to admit water into the system piping upon activation of a remote control device located at a hose connection. A remote control activation device shall be provided at each hose connection. The water supply for a semiautomatic dry standpipe system shall be capable of supplying the system demand.

SUPERVISING STATION. A facility that receives signals and at which personnel are in attendance at all times to respond to these signals.

SUPERVISORY SERVICE. The service required to monitor performance ofguard tours and the operative condition offixed suppression systems or other systems for the protection of life and property.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. A signal indicating the need of action in connection with the supervision of guard tours, the fire suppression systems or equipment, or the maintenance features of related systems.

SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. An initiating device such as a valve supervisory switch, water level indicator, or low-air pressure switch on a dry-pipe sprinkler system whose change of state signals an off-normal condition and its restoration to normal of a fire protection or life safety system; or a need for action in connection with guard tours, fire

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suppression systems or equipment, or maintenance features of related systems.

TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. Storage of tires where the area available for storage exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3).

[B] TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another location and is at the transient location for not more than 90 days.

TROUBLE SIGNAL. A signal initiated by the fire alarm system or device indicative of a fault in a monitored circuit or component.

VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. A notification appliance that alerts by the sense of sight.

WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. A solution of water and potassium-carbonate-based chemical, potassium-acetate-based chemical or a combination thereof, forming an extinguishing agent.

WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. A system or a part of a system that can transmit and receive signals without the aid of wire.

ZONE. A defined area within the protected premises. A zone can define an area from which a signal can be received, an area to which a signal can be sent or an area in which a form of control can be executed.

ZONE, NOTIFICATION. An area within a building or facility covered by notification appliances which are activated simultaneously.

SECTION 903
AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEMS

903.1 General. Automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section.

903.1.1 Alternative protection. Alternative automatic fire-extinguishing systems complying with Section 904 shall be permitted in lieu of automatic sprinkler protection where recognized by the applicable standard and approved by the fire code official.

903.2 Where required. Approvedautomatic sprinklersystems in new buildings and structures shall be provided in the locations described in Sections 903.2.1 through 903.2.12.

Exception: Spaces or areas in telecommunications buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International BUilding Code or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the International Building Code, or both.

903.2.1 Group A. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings and portions thereof used as Group A occupancies as provided in this section. For Group A-I, A-2, A-3 and A-4 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout the floor area where the Group A-I, A-2, A-3 or A-4 occupancy is located, and in all floors from the Group A occupancy to, and including, the nearest level of exit discharge serving the Group A occupancy. For Group A-5 occupancies, the automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in the spaces indicated in Section 903.2.1.5.

903.2.1.1 Group A-I. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-I occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupantload of 300 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level ofexit discharge serving such occupancies.
  4. The fire area contains a multitheater complex.

903.2.1.2 Group A-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-2 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupantload of 100 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level ofexit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.3 Group A-3. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-3 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupantload of 300 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level ofexit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.4 Group A-4. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-4 occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. The fire area has an occupantload of 300 or more.
  3. The fire area is located on a floor other than a level ofexit discharge serving such occupancies.

903.2.1.5 Group A-5. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group A-5 occupancies in the following areas: concession stands, retail areas, press boxes and other accessory use areas in excess of 1,000 square feet (93 m2).

[F] 903.2.2 Group B ambulatory health care facilities. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all fire areas containing a Group B ambulatory health care facility occupancy when either of the following conditions exist at any time:

  1. Four or more care recipients are incapable of self-preservation.
  2. One or more care recipients who are incapable of self-preservation are located at other than the level of exit discharge serving such an occupancy.
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903.2.3 Group E. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group E occupancies as follows:

  1. Throughout all Group E fire areas greater than 12,000 square feet (1115 m2) in area.
  2. Throughout every portion of educational buildings below the lowest level ofexit discharge serving that portion of the building.

    Exception: An automatic sprinkler system is not required in any area below the lowest level ofexit discharge serving that area where every classroom throughout the building has at least one exterior exit door at ground level.

903.2.4 Group F-1. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group F-1 occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. A Group F-1 fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group F-1 fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group F-1 fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).

903.2.4.1 Woodworking operations. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all Group F-1 occupancy fire areas that contain woodworking operations in excess of 2,500 square feet in area (232 m2) which generate finely divided combustible waste or which use finely divided combustible materials.

903.2.5 Group H. Automatic sprinklersystems shall be provided in high-hazard occupancies as required in Sections 903.2.5.1 through 903.2.5.3.

903.2.5.1 General. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in Group H occupancies.

903.2.5.2 Group H-5 occupancies. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings containing Group H-5 occupancies. The design of the sprinkler system shall not be less than that required under the International BUilding Code for the occupancy hazard classifications in accordance with Table 903.2.5.2.

Where the design area of the sprinkler system consists of a corridor protected by one row of sprinklers, the maximum number ofsprinklers required to be calculated is 13.

TABLE 903.2.5.2
GROUP H-5 SPRINKLER DESIGN CRITERIA
LOCATION OCCUPANCY HAZARD CLASSIFICATION
Fabrication areas Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Service corridors Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms without dispensing Ordinary Hazard Group 2
Storage rooms with dispensing Extra Hazard Group 2
Corridors Ordinary Hazard Group 2

903.2.5.3 Pyroxylin plastics. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in buildings, or portions thereof, where cellulose nitrate film or pyroxylin plastics are manufactured, stored or handled in quantities exceeding 100 pounds (45 kg).

903.2.6 Group I. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings with a Group I fire area.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3 shall be allowed in Group 1-1 facilities.

903.2.7 Group M. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings containing a Group M occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. A Group M fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group M fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group M fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group M occupancy is used for the display and sale of upholstered furniture.

903.2.7.1 High-piled storage. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided as required in Chapter 23 in all buildings of Group M where storage of merchandise is in high-piled or rack storage arrays.

903.2.8 Group R. An automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3 shall be provided throughout all buildings with a Group R fire area.

903.2.9 Group S-I. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings containing a Group S-l occupancy where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. A Group S-l fire area exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2).
  2. A Group S-l fire area is located more than three stories above grade plane.
  3. The combined area of all Group S-l fire areas on all floors, including any mezzanines, exceeds 24,000 square feet (2230 m2).
  4. A Group S-l fire area used for the storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

903.2.9.1 Repair garages. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout all buildings used as repair garages in accordance with Section 406 of the International Building Code, as shown:

  1. Buildings having two or more stories above grade plane, including basements, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 10,000 square feet (929 m2).
  2. Buildings no more than one story above grade plane, with a fire area containing a repair garage exceeding 12,000 square feet (1115 m2). 80
  3. Buildings with repair garages servicing vehicles parked in basements.
  4. A Group S-l fire area used for the repair of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

903.2.9.2 Bulk storage oftires. Buildings and structures where the area for the storage of tires exceeds 20,000 cubic feet (566 m3) shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

903.2.10 Group S-2 enclosed parking garages. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings classified as enclosed parking garages in accordance with Section 406.4 of the International Building Code as follows:

  1. Where the fire area of the enclosed parking garage exceeds 12,000 square feet (1115 m2); or
  2. Where the enclosed parking garage is located beneath other groups.

    Exception: Enclosed parking garages located beneath Group R-3 occupancies.

903.2.10.1 Commercial parking garages. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout buildings used for storage of commercial trucks or buses where the fire area exceeds 5,000 square feet (464 m2).

903.2.11 Specific building areas and hazards. In all occupancies an automatic sprinkler system shall be installed for building design or hazards in the locations set forth in Sections 903.2.11.1 through 903.2.11.6.

Exception: Groups R-3 and U.

903.2.11.1 Stories without openings. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout all stories, including basements, of all buildings where the floor area exceeds 1,500 square feet (139.4 m2) and where there is not provided at least one of the following types of exterior wall openings:

  1. Openings below grade that lead directly to ground level by an exterior stairway complying with Section 1009 or an outside ramp complying with Section 1010. Openings shall be located in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
  2. Openings entirely above the adjoining ground level totaling at least 20 square feet (1.86 m2) in each 50 linear feet (15 240 mm), or fraction thereof, of exterior wall in the story on at least one side. The required openings shall be distributed such that the lineal distance between adjacent openings does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

903.2.11.1.1 Opening dimensions and access. Openings shall have a minimum dimension of not less than 30 inches (762 mm). Such openings shall be accessible to the fire department from the exterior and shall not be obstructed in a manner that fire fighting or rescue cannot be accomplished from the exterior.

903.2.11.1.2 Openings on one side only. Where openings in a story are provided on only one side and the opposite wall ofsuch story is more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from such openings, the story shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system or openings as specified above shall be provided on at least two sides of the story.

903.2.11.1.3 Basements. Where any portion of a basement is located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) from openings required by Section 903.2.11.1, the basement shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system.

903.2.11.2 Rubbish and linen chutes. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed at the top of rubbish and linen chutes and in their termination rooms. Chutes extending through three or more floors shall have additional sprinkler heads installed within such chutes at alternate floors. Chute sprinklers shall be accessible for servicing.

903.2.11.3 Buildings 55 feet or more in height. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout buildings with a floor level having an occupant load of 30 or more that is located 55 feet (16 764 mm) or more above the lowest level offire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:

  1. Airport control towers.
  2. Open parking structures.
  3. Occupancies in Group F-2.

903.2.11.4 Ducts conveying hazardous exhausts. Where required by the International Mechanical Code, automatic sprinklers shall be provided in ducts conveying hazardous exhaust, flammable or combustible materials.

Exception: Ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter ofthe duct is less than 10 inches (254 mm).

903.2.11.5 Commercial cooking operations. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in a commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system where an automatic sprinkler system is used to comply with Section 904.

903.2.11.6 Other required suppression systems. In addition to the requirements of Section 903.2, the provisions indicated in Table 903.2.11.6 also require the installation of a fire suppression system for certain buildings and areas.

903.2.12 During construction. Automatic sprinkler systems required during construction, alteration and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 1413.

903.3 Installation requirements. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1 through 903.3.7.

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TABLE 903.2.11.6
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED FIRE SUPPRESSION SYSTEMS
SECTION SUBJECT
914.2.1 Covered malls
914.3.1 High rise buildings
914.4.1 Atriums
914.5.1 Underground structures
914.6.1 Stages
914.7.1 Special amusement buildings
914.8.2, 914.8.5 Aircraft hangars
914.9 Flammable finishes
914.10 Drying rooms
914.11.1 Group B ambulatory health care facilities
1028.6.2.3 Smoke-protected assembly seating
1208.2 Dry cleaning plants
1208.3 Dry cleaning machines
1504.2 Spray finishing in Group A, E, I or R
1504.4 Spray booths and spray rooms
1505.2 Dip-tank rooms in Group A, lor R
1505.4.1 Dip tanks
1505.9.4 Hardening and tempering tanks
1803.10 HPM facilities
1803.10.1.1 HPM work station exhaust
1803.10.2 HPM gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures
1803.10.3 HPM exit access corridor
1803.10.4 HPM exhaust ducts
1803.10.4.1 HPM noncombustible ducts
1803.10.4.2 HPM combustible ducts
1907.3 Lumber production conveyor enclosures
1908.7 Recycling facility conveyor enclosures
2106.1 Class A and B ovens
2106.2 Class C and D ovens
2209.3.2.6.2 Hydrogen motor fuel-dispensing area canopies
Table 2306.2 Storage fire protection
2306.4 Storage
2703.8.4.1 Gas rooms
2703.8.5.3 Exhausted enclosures
2704.5 Indoor storage of hazardous materials
2705.1.8 Indoor dispensing of hazardous materials
2804.4.1 Aerosol warehouses
2806.3.2 Aerosol display and merchandising areas
2904.5 Storage of more than 1,000 cubic feet of loose combustible fibers
3306.5.2.1 Storage of smokeless propellant
3306.5.2.3 Storage of small arms primers
3404.3.7.5.1 Flammable and combustible liquid storage rooms
3404.3.8.4 Flammable and combustible liquid storage warehouses
3405.3.7.3 Flammable and combustible liquid Group H-2 or H-3 areas
3704.1.2 Gas cabinets for highly toxic and toxic gas
3704.1.3 Exhausted enclosures for highly toxic and toxic gas
3704.2.2.6 Gas rooms for highly toxic and toxic gas
3704.3.3 Outdoor storage for highly toxic and toxic gas
4204.1.1 Pyroxylin plastic storage cabinets
4204.1.3 Pyroxylin plastic storage vaults
4204.2 Pyroxylin plastic storage and manufacturing
4603.4.1 Pyroxylin plastic storage in existing buildings
4603.4.2 Existing Group 1-2 occupancies
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.023 m3·

903.3.1 Standards. Sprinkler systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with Sections 903.3.1.1, 903.3.1.2 or 903.3.1.3.

903.3.1.1 NFPA 13 sprinkler systems. Where the provisions of this code require that a building or portion thereof be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with this section, sprinklers shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13 except as provided in Section 903.3.1.1.1.

903.3.1.1.1 Exempt locations. Automatic sprinklers shall not be required in the following rooms or areas where such rooms or areas are protected with an approved automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 that will respond to visible or invisible particles of combustion. Sprinklers shall not be omitted from any room merely because it is damp, offire-resistance rated construction or contains electrical equipment.

  1. Any room where the application of water, or flame and water, constitutes a serious life or fire hazard.
  2. Any room or space where sprinklers are considered undesirable because of the nature of the contents, when approved by the fire code official.
  3. Generator and transformer rooms separated from the remainder of the building by walls and floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies having a fire-resistance rating ofnot less than 2 hours.
  4. Rooms or areas that are of noncombustible construction with wholly noncombustible contents.
  5. Fire service access elevator machine rooms and machinery spaces.
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903.3.1.2 NFPA 13R sprinkler systems. Where allowed in buildings of Group R, up to and including four stories in height, automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13R.

903.3.1.2.1 Balconies and decks. Sprinkler protection shall be provided for exterior balconies, decks and ground floor patios of dwelling units where the building is of Type V construction, provided there is a roof or deck above. Sidewall sprinklers that are used to protect such areas shall be permitted to be located such that their deflectors are within 1 inch (25 mm) to 6 inches (152 mm) below the structural members and a maximum distance of 14 inches (356 mm) below the deck of the exterior balconies and decks that are constructed of open wood joist construction.

903.3.1.3 NFPA 13D sprinkler systems. Where allowed, automatic sprinkler systems installed in one-and two-family dwellings and townhouses shall be installed throughout in accordance with NFPA 13D.

903.3.2 Quick-response and residential sprinklers. Where automatic sprinkler systems are required by this code, quick-response or residential automatic sprinklers shall be installed in the following areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1 and their listings:

  1. Throughout all spaces within a smoke compartment containing patient sleeping units in Group 1-2 in accordance with the International BUilding Code.
  2. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R and 1-1 occupancies.
  3. Light-hazard occupancies as defined in NFPA 13.

903.3.3 Obstructed locations. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed with due regard to obstructions that will delay activation or obstruct the water distribution pattern. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed in or under covered kiosks, displays, booths, concession stands or equipment that exceeds 4 feet (1219 mm) in width. Not less than a 3-foot (914 mm) clearance shall be maintained between automatic sprinklers and the top of piles of combustible fibers.

Exception: Kitchen equipment under exhaust hoods protected with a fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 904.

903.3.4 Actuation. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be automatically actuated unless specifically provided for in this code.

903.3.5 Water supplies. Water supplies for automatic sprinkler systems shall comply with this section and the standards referenced in Section 903.3.1. The potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in accordance with the requirements of this section and the International Plumbing Code.

903.3.5.1 Domestic services. Where the domestic service provides the water supply for the automatic sprinkler system, the supply shall be in accordance with this section.

903.3.5.1.1 Limited area sprinkler systems. Limited area sprinkler systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers on any single connection are permitted to be connected to the domestic service where a wet automatic standpipe is not available. Limited area sprinkler systems connected to domestic water supplies shall comply with each of the following requirements:

  1. Valves shall not be installed between the domestic water riser control valve and the sprinklers.

    Exception: An approved indicating control valve supervised in the open position in accordance with Section 903.4.

  2. The domestic service shall be capable of supplying the simultaneous domestic demand and the sprinkler demand required to be hydraulically calculated by NFPA 13, NFPA 13R or NFPA 13D.

903.3.5.1.2 Residential combination services. A single combination water supply shall be allowed provided that the domestic demand is added to the sprinkler demand as required by NFPA 13R.

903.3.5.2 Secondary water supply. A secondary on-site water supply equal to the hydraulically calculated sprinkler demand, including the hose stream requirement, shall be provided for high-rise buildings in Seismic Design Category C, D, E or F as determined by the International BUilding Code. The secondary water supply shall have a duration of not less than 30 minutes as determined by the occupancy hazard classification in accordance with NFPA 13.

Exception: Existing buildings.

903.3.6 Hose threads. Fire hose threads and fittings used in connection with automatic sprinklersystems shall be as prescribed by the fire code official.

903.3.7 Fire department connections. The location of fire department connections shall be approved by the fire code ofl1cial.

903.4 Sprinkler system supervision and alarms. All valves controlling the water supply for automatic sprinkler systems, pumps, tanks, water levels and temperatures, critical air pressures and water-flow switches on all sprinkler systems shall be electrically supervised by a listed fire alarm control unit.

Exceptions:

  1. Automatic sprinklersystems protecting one- and two-family dwellings.
  2. Limited area systems serving fewer than 20 sprinklers.
  3. Automatic sprinkler systems installed in accordance with NFPA 13R where a common supply main is used to supply both domestic water and the automatic sprinkler system, and a separate shutoff valve for the automatic sprinkler system is not provided. 83
  4. Jockey pump control valves that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  5. Control valves to commercial kitchen hoods, paint spray booths or dip tanks that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  6. Valves controlling the fuel supply to fire pump engines that are sealed or locked in the open position.
  7. Trim valves to pressure switches in dry, preaction and deluge sprinkler systems that are sealed or locked in the open position.

903.4.1 Monitoring. Alarm, supervisory and trouble signals shall be distinctly different and shall be automatically transmitted to an approved supervising station or, when approved by the fire code official, shall sound an audible signal at a constantly attended location.

Exceptions:

  1. Underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility are not required to be monitored.
  2. Backflow prevention device test valves located in limited area sprinkler system supply piping shall be locked in the open position. In occupancies required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, the backflow preventer valves shall be electrically supervised by a tamper switch installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and separately annunciated.

903.4.2 Alarms. Approved audible devices shall be connected to every automatic sprinkler system. Such sprinkler water-flow alarm devices shall be activated by water flow equivalent to the flow of a single sprinkler of the smallest orifice size installed in the system. Alarm devices shall be provided on the exterior of the building in an approved location. Where a fire alarm system is installed, actuation of the automatic sprinkler system shall actuate the building fire alarm system.

903.4.3 Floor control valves. Approvedsupervised indicating control valves shall be provided at the point of connection to the riser on each floor in high-rise buildings.

903.5 Testing and maintenance. Sprinkler systems shall be tested and maintained in accordance with Section 901.

903.6 Existing buildings. The provisions of this section are intended to provide a reasonable degree of safety in existing structures not complying with the minimum requirements of the International BUilding Code by requiring installation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system.

903.6.1 Pyroxylin plastics. All structures occupied for the manufacture or storage of articles of cellulose nitrate (pyroxylin) plastic shall be equipped with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system where required in Chapter 46.

903.6.2 Group 1-2. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided throughout Group 1-2 fire areas where required in Chapter 46.

SECTION 904
ALTERNATIVE AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS

904.1 General. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems, other than automatic sprinkler systems, shall be designed, installed, inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the provisions of this section and the applicable referenced standards.

904.2 Where required. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems installed as an alternative to the required automatic sprinkler systems of Section 903 shall be approved by the fire code official. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall not be considered alternatives for the purposes of exceptions or reductions allowed by other requirements of this code.

904.2.1 Commercial hood and duct systems. Each required commercial kitchen exhaust hood and duct system required by Section 609 to have a Type I hood shall be protected with an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system installed in accordance with this code.

904.3 Installation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed in accordance with this section.

904.3.1 Electrical wiring. Electrical wiring shall be in accordance with NFPA 70.

904.3.2 Actuation. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be automatically actuated and provided with a manual means of actuation in accordance with Section 904.11.1.

904.3.3 System interlocking. Automatic equipment inter-locks with fuel shutoffs, ventilation controls, door closers, window shutters, conveyor openings, smoke and heat vents, and other features necessary for proper operation of the fire-extinguishing system shall be provided as required by the design and installation standard utilized for the hazard.

904.3.4 Alarms and warning signs. Where alarms are required to indicate the operation of automatic fire-extinguishing systems, distinctive audible, visible alarms and warning signs shall be provided to warn of pending agent discharge. Where exposure to automatic-extinguishing agents poses a hazard to persons and a delay is required to ensure the evacuation of occupants before agent discharge, a separate warning signal shall be provided to alert occupants once agent discharge has begun. Audible signals shall be in accordance with Section 907.6.2.

904.3.5 Monitoring. Where a building fire alarm system is installed, automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be monitored by the building fire alarm system in accordance with NFPA 72.

904.4 Inspection and testing. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested in accordance with the provisions of this section prior to acceptance.

904.4.1 Inspection. Prior to conducting final acceptance tests, the following items shall be inspected:

  1. Hazard specification for consistency with design hazard.
  2. Type, location and spacing of automatic- and manual-initiating devices. 84
  3. Size, placement and position of nozzles or discharge orifices.
  4. Location and identification of audible and visible alarm devices.
  5. Identification of devices with proper designations.
  6. Operating instructions.

904.4.2 Alarm testing. Notification appliances, connections to fire alarm systems, and connections to approved supervising stations shall be tested in accordance with this section and Section 907 to verify proper operation.

904.4.2.1 Audible and visible signals. The audibility and visibility of notification appliances signaling agent discharge or system operation, where required, shall be verified.

904.4.3 Monitor testing. Connections to protected premises and supervising station fire alarm systems shall be tested to verify proper identification and retransmission of alarms from automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

904.5 Wet-chemical systems. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17A and their listing.

904.5.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.

904.5.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.

904.6 Dry-chemical systems. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 17 and their listing.

904.6.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 6-month intervals. Tests shall include a check of the detection system, alarms and releasing devices, including manual stations and other associated equipment. Extinguishing system units shall be weighed, and the required amount of agent verified. Stored pressure-type units shall be checked for the required pressure. The cartridge of cartridge-operated units shall be weighed and replaced at intervals indicated by the manufacturer.

904.6.2 Fusible link maintenance. Fixed temperature-sensing elements shall be maintained to ensure proper operation of the system.

904.7 Foam systems. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 11 and NFPA 16 and their listing.

904.7.1 System test. Foam-extinguishing systems shall be inspected and tested at intervals in accordance with NFPA 25.

904.8 Carbon dioxide systems. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12 and their listing.

904.8.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.

904.8.2 High-pressure cylinders. High-pressure cylinders shall be weighed and the date ofthe last hydrostatic test shall be verified at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original content of more than 10 percent, the cylinder shall be refilled or replaced.

904.8.3 Low-pressure containers. The liquid-level gauges of low-pressure containers shall be observed at one-week intervals. Where a container shows a content loss of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled to maintain the minimum gas requirements.

904.8.4 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At five-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.

904.8.4.1 Test procedure. Hoses shall be tested at not less than 2,500 pounds per square inch (psi) (17238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and at not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.

904.8.5 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure that such components are in proper operating condition.

904.9 Halon systems. Halogenated extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 12A and their listing.

904.9.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.

904.9.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure ofcontainers shall be checked at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure (adjusted for temperature) of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.

904.9.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. At 5-year intervals, all hoses shall be tested.

904.9.3.1 Test procedure. For Halon 1301 systems, hoses shall be tested at not less than 1,500 psi (10 343 kPa) for 600 psi (4137 kPa) charging pressure systems and not less than 900 psi (6206 kPa) for 360 psi (2482 kPa) charging pressure systems. For Halon 1211 hand-hose line systems, hoses shall be tested at 2,500 psi (17 238 kPa) for high-pressure systems and 900 psi (6206 kPa) for low-pressure systems.

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904.9.4 Auxiliary equipment. Auxiliary and supplementary components, such as switches, door and window releases, interconnected valves, damper releases and supplementary alarms, shall be manually operated at 12-month intervals to ensure such components are in proper operating condition.

904.10 Clean-agent systems. Clean-agent fire-extinguishing systems shall be installed, maintained, periodically inspected and tested in accordance with NFPA 2001 and their listing.

904.10.1 System test. Systems shall be inspected and tested for proper operation at 12-month intervals.

904.10.2 Containers. The extinguishing agent quantity and pressure of the containers shall be checked at 6-month intervals. Where a container shows a loss in original weight of more than 5 percent or a loss in original pressure, adjusted for temperature, of more than 10 percent, the container shall be refilled or replaced. The weight and pressure of the container shall be recorded on a tag attached to the container.

904.10.3 System hoses. System hoses shall be examined at 12-month intervals for damage. Damaged hoses shall be replaced or tested. All hoses shall be tested at 5-year intervals.

904.11 Commercial cooking systems. The automatic fire-extinguishing system for commercial cooking systems shall be of a type recognized for protection of commercial cooking equipment and exhaust systems of the type and arrangement protected. Preengineered automatic dry- and wet-chemical extinguishing systems shall be tested in accordance with UL 300 and listed and labeled for the intended application. Other types of automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be listed and labeled for specific use as protection for commercial cooking operations. The system shall be installed in accordance with this code, its listing and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems of the following types shall be installed in accordance with the referenced standard indicated, as follows:

  1. Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems, NFPA 12.
  2. Automatic sprinkler systems, NFPA 13.
  3. Foam-water sprinkler system or foam-water spray systems, NFPA 16.
  4. Dry-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17.
  5. Wet-chemical extinguishing systems, NFPA 17A.

Exception: Factory-built commercial cooking recirculating systems that are tested in accordance with UL 71 OB and listed, labeled and installed in accordance with Section 304.1 of the International Mechanical Code.

904.11.1 Manual system operation. A manual actuation device shall be located at or near a means ofegress from the cooking area a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) and a maximum of 20 feet (6096 mm) from the kitchen exhaust system. The manual actuation device shall be installed not more than 48 inches (1200 mm) nor less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the floor and shall clearly identify the hazard protected. The manual actuation shall require a maximum force of 40 pounds (178 N) and a maximum movement of 14 inches (356 mm) to actuate the fire suppression system.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler systems shall not be required to be equipped with manual actuation means.

904.11.2 System interconnection. The actuation of the fire extinguishing system shall automatically shut down the fuel or electrical power supply to the cooking equipment. The fuel and electrical supply reset shall be manual.

904.11.3 Carbon dioxide systems. When carbon dioxide systems are used, there shall be a nozzle at the top ofthe ventilating duct. Additional nozzles that are symmetrically arranged to give uniform distribution shall be installed within vertical ducts exceeding 20 feet (6096 mm) and horizontal ducts exceeding 50 feet (15 240 mm). Dampers shall be installed at either the top or the bottom of the duct and shall be arranged to operate automatically upon activation of the fire-extinguishing system. When the damper is installed at the top of the duct, the top nozzle shall be immediately below the damper. Automatic carbon dioxide fire-extinguishing systems shall be sufficiently sized to protect all hazards venting through a common duct simultaneously.

904.11.3.1 Ventilation system. Commercial-type cooking equipment protected by an automatic carbon dioxide extinguishing system shall be arranged to shut off the ventilation system upon activation.

904.11.4 Special provisions for automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler systems protecting commercial-type cooking equipment shall be supplied from a separate, readily accessible, indicating-type control valve that is identified.

904.11.4.1 Listed sprinklers. Sprinklers used for the protection offryers shall be tested in accordance with UL 199E, listed for that application and installed in accordance with their listing.

904.11.5 Portable fire extinguishers for commercial cooking equipment. Portable fire extinguishers shall be provided within a 30-foot (9144 mm) travel distance of commercial-type cooking equipment. Cooking equipment involving solid fuels or vegetable or animal oils and fats shall be protected by a Class K rated portable extinguisher in accordance with Sections 904.11.5.1 or 904.11.5.2, as applicable.

904.11.5.1 Portable fire extinguishers for solid fuel cooking appliances. All solid fuel cooking appliances, whether or not under a hood, with fireboxes 5 cubic feet (0.14 m3) or less in volume shall have a minimum 2.5-gallon (9 L) or two 1.5-gallon (6 L) Class K wet-chemical portable fire extinguishers located in accordance with Section 904.11.5.

904.11.5.2 Class K portable fire extinguishers for deep fat fryers. When hazard areas include deep fat fryers,

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listed Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be provided as follows:

  1. For up to four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: One Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5 gallon (6 L) capacity.
  2. For every additional group of four fryers having a maximum cooking medium capacity of 80 pounds (36.3 kg) each: One additional Class K portable fire extinguisher of a minimum 1.5 gallon (6 L) capacity shall be provided.
  3. For individual fryers exceeding 6 square feet (0.55 m2) in surface area: Class K portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in accordance with the extinguisher manufacturer's recommendations.

904.11.6 Operations and maintenance. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems protecting commercial cooking systems shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 904.11.6.1 through 904.11.6.3.

904.11.6.1 Existing automatic fire-extinguishing systems. Where changes in the cooking media, positioning of cooking equipment or replacement of cooking equipment occur in existing commercial cooking systems, the automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be required to comply with the applicable provisions of Sections 904.11 through 904.11.4.

904.11.6.2 Extinguishing system service. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems shall be serviced at least every 6 months and after activation of the system. Inspection shall be by qualified individuals, and a certificate of inspection shall be forwarded to the fire code official upon completion.

904.11.6.3 Fusible link and sprinkler head replacement. Fusible links and automatic sprinkler heads shall be replaced at least annually, and other protection devices shall be serviced or replaced in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

Exception: Frangible bulbs are not required to be replaced annually.

SECTION 905
STANDPIPE SYSTEMS

905.1 General. Standpipe systems shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with this section. Fire hose threads used in connection with standpipe systems shall be approved and shall be compatible with fire department hose threads. The location of fire department hose connections shall be approved. In buildings used for high-piled combustible storage, fire protection shall be in accordance with Chapter 23.

905.2 Installation standard. Standpipe systems shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 14.

905.3 Required installations. Standpipe systems shall be installed where required by Sections 905.3.1 through 905.3.7 and in the locations indicated in Sections 905.4, 905.5 and 905.6. Standpipe systems are allowed to be combined with automatic sprinkler systems.

Exception: Standpipe systems are not required in Group R-3 occupancies.

905.3.1 Height. Class III standpipe systems shall be installed throughout buildings where the floor level of the highest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) above the lowest level of the fire department vehicle access, or where the floor level of the lowest story is located more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the highest level of fire department vehicle access.

Exceptions:

  1. Class I standpipes are allowed in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  2. Class I manual standpipes are allowed in open parking garages where the highest floor is located not more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.
  3. Class I manual dry standpipes are allowed in open parking garages that are subject to freezing temperatures, provided that the hose connections are located as required for Class II standpipes in accordance with Section 905.5.
  4. Class I standpipes are allowed in basements equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system.
  5. In determining the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, it shall not be required to consider:

    5.1. Recessed loading docks for four vehicles or less, and

    5.2. Conditions where topography makes access from the fire department vehicle to the building impractical or impossible.

905.3.2 Group A. Class I automatic wet standpipes shall be provided in nonsprinklered Group A buildings having an occupant load exceeding 1,000 persons.

Exceptions:

  1. Open-air-seating spaces without enclosed spaces.
  2. Class I automatic dry and semiautomatic dry standpipes or manual wet standpipes are allowed in buildings where the highest floor surface used for human occupancy is 75 feet (22 860 mm) or less above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

905.3.3 Covered mall buildings. A covered mall building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system where required by Section 905.3.1. Covered mall buildings not required to be equipped with a standpipe system by Section 905.3.1 shall be equipped with Class I hose connections connected to the automatic sprinkler system sized to deliver water at 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) at the most hydraulically remote hose connection while concurrently supplying the automatic sprinkler system demand. The

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standpipe system shall be designed not to exceed a 50-pounds-per-square-inch (345 kPa) residual pressure loss with a flow of 250 gallons per minute (946.4 L/min) from the fire department connection to the hydraulically most remote hose connection. Hose connections shall be provided at each of the following locations:

  1. Within the mall at the entrance to each exit passageway or corridor.
  2. At each floor-level landing within enclosed stairways opening directly on the mall.
  3. At exterior public entrances to the mall.
  4. At other locations as necessary so that the distance to reach all portions of a tenant space does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection.

905.3.4 Stages. Stages greater than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area shall be equipped with a Class III wet standpipe system with 1½-inch and 2½-inch (38 mm and 64 mm) hose connections on each side of the stage.

Exception: Where the building or area is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system, a 1½ inch (38 mm) hose connection shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 13 or in accordance with NFPA 14 for Class II or III standpipes.

905.3.4.1 Hose and cabinet. The 1½-inch (38 mm) hose connections shall be equipped with sufficient lengths of 1½-inch (38 mm) hose to provide fire protection for the stage area. Hose connections shall be equipped with an approved adjustable fog nozzle and be mounted in a cabinet or on a rack.

905.3.5 Underground buildings. Underground buildings shall be equipped throughout with a Class I automatic wet or manual wet standpipe system.

905.3.6 Helistops and heliports. Buildings with a helistop or heliport that are equipped with a standpipe shall extend the standpipe to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located in accordance with Section 1107.5.

905.3.7 Marinas and boatyards. Standpipes in marinas and boatyards shall comply with Chapter 45.

905.4 Location of Class I standpipe hose connections. Class I standpipe hose connections shall be provided in all of the following locations:

  1. In every required stairway, a hose connection shall be provided for each floor level above or below grade. Hose connections shall be located at an intermediate floor level landing between floors, unless otherwise approved by the fire code official.
  2. On each side of the wall adjacent to the exitopening of a horizontal exit.

    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to a horizontal exit are reachable from exitstairwayhose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the horizontal exit.

  3. In every exit passageway, at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of a building.

    Exception: Where floor areas adjacent to an exit passageway are reachable from exit stairway hose connections by a 30-foot (9144 mm) hose stream from a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30 480 mm) of hose, a hose connection shall not be required at the entrance from the exit passageway to other areas of the building.

  4. In covered mall buildings, adjacent to each exterior public entrance to the mall and adjacent to each entrance from an exit passageway or exit corridor to the mall.
  5. Where the roof has a slope less than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33.3-percent slope), each standpipe shall be provided with a hose connection located either on the roof or at the highest landing of a stairwaywith stair access to the roof. An additional hose connection shall be provided at the top of the most hydraulically remote standpipe for testing purposes.
  6. Where the most remote portion of a nonsprinklered floor or story is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from a hose connection or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) from a hose connection, the fire code official is authorized to require that additional hose connections be provided in approved locations.

905.4.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class I standpipe systems not located within an enclosed stairwayor pressurized enclosure shall be protected by a degree of fire resistance equal to that required for vertical enclosures in the building in which they are located.

Exception: In buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, laterals that are not located within an enclosed stairway or pressurized enclosure are not required to be enclosed within fire-resistance-rated construction.

905.4.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than one standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.

905.5 Location of Class II standpipe hose connections. Class II standpipe hose connections shall be accessible and shall be located so that all portions of the building are within 30 feet (9144 mm) of a nozzle attached to 100 feet (30480 mm) ofhose.

905.5.1 Groups A-I and A-2. In Group A-I and A-2 occupancies with occupant loads of more than 1,000, hose connections shall be located on each side of any stage, on each side of the rear of the auditorium, on each side of the balcony, and on each tier of dressing rooms.

905.5.2 Protection. Fire-resistance-rated protection of risers and laterals of Class II standpipe systems is not required.

905.5.3 Class II system I-inch hose. A minimum I-inch (25 mm) hose shall be allowed to be used for hose stations in light-hazard occupancies where investigated and listed for this service and where approved by the fire code official.

905.6 Location ofClass III standpipe hose connections. Class III standpipe systems shall have hose connections located as

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required for Class I standpipes in Section 905.4 and shall have Class II hose connections as required in Section 905.5.

905.6.1 Protection. Risers and laterals of Class III standpipe systems shall be protected as required for Class I systems in accordance with Section 905.4.1.

905.6.2 Interconnection. In buildings where more than one Class III standpipe is provided, the standpipes shall be interconnected in accordance with NFPA 14.

905.7 Cabinets. Cabinets containing fire-fighting equipment, such as standpipes, fire hose, fire extinguishers or fire department valves, shall not be blocked from use or obscured from view.

905.7.1 Cabinet equipment identification. Cabinets shall be identified in an approved manner by a permanently attached sign with letters not less than 2 inches (51 mm) high in a color that contrasts with the background color, indicating the equipment contained therein.

Exceptions:

  1. Doors not large enough to accommodate a written sign shall be marked with a permanently attached pictogram of the equipment contained therein.
  2. Doors that have either an approved visual identification clear glass panel or a complete glass door panel are not required to be marked.

905.7.2 Locking cabinet doors. Cabinets shall be unlocked.

Exceptions:

  1. Visual identification panels of glass or other approved transparent frangible material that is easily broken and allows access.
  2. Approved locking arrangements.
  3. Group 1-3 occupancies.

905.8 Dry standpipes. Dry standpipes shall not be installed.

Exception: Where subject to freezing and in accordance with NFPA 14.

905.9 Valve supervision. Valves controlling water supplies shall be supervised in the open position so that a change in the normal position of the valve will generate a supervisory signal at the supervising station required by Section 903.4. Where a fire alarm system is provided, a signal shall also be transmitted to the control unit.

Exceptions:

  1. Valves to underground key or hub valves in roadway boxes provided by the municipality or public utility do not require supervision.
  2. Valves locked in the normal position and inspected as provided in this code in buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system.

905.10 During construction. Standpipe systems required during construction and demolition operations shall be provided in accordance with Section 1413.

905.11 Existing buildings. Where required in Chapter 46, existing structures shall be equipped with standpipes installed in accordance with Section 905.

SECTION 906
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

906.1 Where required. Portable fire extinguishers shall be installed in the following locations.

  1. In new and existing Group A, B, E, F, H, I, M, R-l, R-2, R-4 and S occupancies.

    Exception: In new and existing Group A, Band E occupancies equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers, portable fire extinguishers shall be required only in locations specified in Items 2 through 6.

  2. Within 30 feet (9144 mm) of commercial cooking equipment.
  3. In areas where flammable or combustible liquids are stored, used or dispensed.
  4. On each floor of structures under construction, except Group R-3 occupancies, in accordance with Section 1415.1.
  5. Where required by the sections indicated in Table 906.1.
  6. Special-hazard areas, including but not limited to laboratories, computer rooms and generator rooms, where required by the fire code official.
TABLE 906.1
ADDITIONAL REQUIRED PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
SECTION SUBJECT
303.5 Asphalt kettles
307.5 Open burning
308.1.3 Open flames-torches
309.4 Powered industrial trucks
1105.2 Aircraft towing vehicles
1105.3 Aircraft welding apparatus
1105.4 Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles
1105.5 Aircraft hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles
1105.6 Aircraft fuel-dispensing stations
1107.7 Heliports and helistops
1208.4 Dry cleaning plants
1415.1 Buildings under construction or demolition
1417.3 Roofing operations
1504.4.1 Spray-finishing operations
1505.4.2 Dip-tank operations
1506.4.2 Powder-coating areas
1904.2 Lumberyards/woodworking facilities
1908.8 Recycling facilities
1909.5 Exterior lumber storage 89
2003.5 Organic-coating areas
2106.3 Industrial ovens
2205.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2210.6.4 Marine motor fuel-dispensing facilities
2211.6 Repair garages
2306.10 Rack storage
2404.12 Tents and membrane structures
2508.2 Tire rebuilding/storage
2604.2.6 Welding and other hot work
2903.6 Combustible fibers
3403.2.1 Flammable and combustible liquids, general
3404.3.3.1 Indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids
3404.3.7.5.2 Liquid storage rooms for flammable and combustible liquids
3405.4.9 Solvent distillation units
3406.2.7 Farms and construction sites-flammable and combustible liquids storage
3406.4.10.1 Bulk plants and terminals for flammable and combustible liquids
3406.5.4.5 Commercial, industrial, governmental or manufacturing establishments-fuel dispensing
3406.6.4 Tank vehicles for flammable and combustible liquids
3606.5.7 Flammable solids
3808.2 LP-gas
4504.4 Marinas

906.2 General requirements. Portable fire extinguishers shall be selected, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and NFPA 10.

Exceptions:

  1. The travel distance to reach an extinguisher shall not apply to the spectator seating portions of Group A-5 occupancies.
  2. Thirty-day inspections shall not be required and maintenance shall be allowed to be once every three years for dry-chemical or halogenated agent portable fire extinguishers that are supervised by a listed and approved electronic monitoring device, provided that all of the following conditions are met

    2.1. Electronic monitoring shall confirm that extinguishers are properly positioned, properly charged and unobstructed.

    2.2. Loss of power or circuit continuity to the electronic monitoring device shall initiate a trouble signal.

    2.3. The extinguishers shall be installed inside of a building or cabinet in a noncorrosive environment.

    2.4. Electronic monitoring devices and supervisory circuits shall be tested every three years when extinguisher maintenance is performed.

    2.5. A written log of required hydrostatic test dates for extinguishers shall be maintained by the owner to verify that hydrostatic tests are conducted at the frequency required by NFPA 10.

  3. In Group 1-3, portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be located at staff locations.

906.3 Size and distribution. The size and distribution of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.3.1 through 906.3.4.

906.3.1 Class A fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies that involve primarily Class A fire hazards, the minimum sizes and distribution shall comply with Table 906.3(1).

TABLE 906.3(1)
FIRE EXTINGUISHERS FOR CLASS A FIRE HAZARDS
  LIGHT (Low) HAZARD OCCUPANCY ORDINARY (Moderate) HAZARD OCCUPANCY EXTRA (High) HAZARD OCCUPANCY
Minimum Rated Single Extinguisher 2-Ac 2-A 4-Aa
Maximum Floor Area Per Unit of A 3,000 square feet 1,500 square feet 1,000 square feet
Maximum Floor Area For Extinguisherb 11 ,250 square feet 11 ,250 square feet 11 ,250 square feet
Maximum Travel Distance to Extinguisher 75 feet 75 feet 75 feet
For 51: I foot = 304.8 mm, I square foot = 0.0929 mZ, I gallon = 3.785 L.
a. Two 2 ½-gallon water-type extinguishers shall be deemed the eqUivalent of one 4-A rated extinguisher.
b. Annex E.3.3 ofNFPA 10 provides more details concerning application ofthe maximum floor area criteria.
c. Two water-type extinguishers each with a I-A rating shall be deemed the equivalent of one 2-A rated extinguisher for Light (Low) Hazard Occupancies.

906.3.2 Class B fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquidswith depths ofless than or equal to 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with Table 906.3(2).

Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving flammable or combustible liquids with a depth of greater than 0.25-inch (6.35 mm) shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.

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TABLE 906.3(2)
FLAMMABLE OR COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS WITH DEPTHS OF LESS THAN OR EQUAL TO 0.25-INCH
TYPE OF HAZARD BASIC MINIMUM EXTINGUISHER RATING MAXIMUM TRAVEL DISTANCE TO EXTINGUISHERS (feet)
Light (Low) 5-B
10-B
30
50
Ordinary (Moderate) 10-B
20-B
30
50
Extra (High) 40-B
80-B
30
50
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
NOTE. For requirements on water-soluble flammable liquids and alternative sizing criteria, see Section 5.5 of NFPA 10.

906.3.3 Class C fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers for Class C fire hazards shall be selected and placed on the basis of the anticipated Class A or B hazard.

906.3.4 Class D fire hazards. Portable fire extinguishers for occupancies involving combustible metals shall be selected and placed in accordance with NFPA 10.

906.4 Cooking grease fires. Fire extinguishers provided for the protection of cooking grease fires shall be of an approved type compatible with the automatic fire-extinguishing system agent and in accordance with Section 904.11.5.

906.5 Conspicuous location. Portable fire extinguishers shall be located in conspicuous locations where they will be readily accessible and immediately available for use. These locations shall be along normal paths of travel, unless the fire code official determines that the hazard posed indicates the need for placement away from normal paths of travel.

906.6 Unobstructed and unobscured. Portable fire extinguishers shall not be obstructed or obscured from view. In rooms or areas in which visual obstruction cannot be completely avoided, means shall be provided to indicate the locations of extinguishers.

906.7 Hangers and brackets. Hand-held portable fire extinguishers, not housed in cabinets, shall be installed on the hangers or brackets supplied. Hangers or brackets shall be securely anchored to the mounting surface in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions.

906.8 Cabinets. Cabinets used to house portable fire extinguishers shall not be locked.

Exceptions:

  1. Where portable fire extinguishers subject to malicious use or damage are provided with a means of ready access.
  2. In Group 1-3 occupancies and in mental health areas in Group 1-2 occupancies, access to portable fire extinguishers shall be permitted to be locked or to be located in staff locations provided the staff has keys.

906.9 Extinguisher installation. The installation of portable fire extinguishers shall be in accordance with Sections 906.9.1 through 906.9.3.

906.9.1 Extinguishers weighing 40 pounds or less. Portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor.

906.9.2 Extinguishers weighing more than 40 pounds. Hand-held portable fire extinguishers having a gross weight exceeding 40 pounds (18 kg) shall be installed so that their tops are not more than 3.5 feet (1067 mm) above the floor.

906.9.3 Floor clearance. The clearance between the floor and the bottom of installed hand-held portable fire extinguishers shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm).

906.10 Wheeled units. Wheeled fire extinguishers shall be conspicuously located in a designated location.

SECTION 907
FIRE ALARM AND DETECTION SYSTEMS

907.1 General. This section covers the application, installation, performance and maintenance of fire alarm systems and their components in new and existing buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.2 are applicable to new buildings and structures. The requirements of Section 907.3 are applicable to existing buildings and structures.

907.1.1 Construction documents. Construction documents for fire alarm systems shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent ofthe work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code, the International BUilding Code, and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the fire code official.

907.1.2 Fire alarm shop drawings. Shop drawings for fire alarm systems shall be submitted for review and approval prior to system installation, and shall include, but not be limited to, all of the following:

  1. A floor plan that indicates the use of all rooms.
  2. Locations of alarm-initiating devices.
  3. Locations of alarm notification appliances, including candela ratings for visible alarm notification appliances.
  4. Location offire alarm control unit, transponders and notification power supplies.
  5. Annunciators.
  6. Power connection.
  7. Battery calculations.
  8. Conductor type and sizes.
  9. Voltage drop calculations.
  10. Manufacturers' data sheets indicating model numbers and listing information for equipment, devices and materials.
  11. Details of ceiling height and construction.
  12. The interface of fire safety control functions.
  13. Classification of the supervising station.
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907.1.3 Equipment. Systems and components shall be listed and approved for the purpose for which they are installed.

907.2 Where required-new buildings and structures. An approved fire alarm system installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 72 shall be provided in new buildings and structures in accordance with Sections 907.2.1 through 907.2.23 and provide occupant notification in accordance with Section 907.6, unless other requirements are provided by another section of this code.

A minimum of one manual fire alarm box shall be provided in an approved location to initiate a fire alarm signal for fire alarm systems employing automatic fire detectors or water-flow detection devices. Where other sections ofthis code allow elimination of fire alarm boxes due to sprinklers, a single fire alarm box shall be installed.

Exceptions:

  1. The manual fire alarm box is not required for fire alarm systems dedicated to elevator recall control and supervisory service.
  2. The manual fire alarm box is not required for Group R-2 occupancies unless required by the fire code official to provide a means for fire watch personnel to initiate an alarm during a sprinkler system impairment event. Where provided, the manual fire alarm box shall not be located in an area that is accessible to the public.

907.2.1 Group A. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group A occupancies having an occupant load of 300 or more. Portions of Group E occupancies occupied for assembly purposes shall be provided with a fire alarm system as required for the Group E occupancy.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

907.2.1.1 System initiation in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more. Activation of the fire alarm in Group A occupancies with an occupant load of 1,000 or more shall initiate a signal using an emergency voice/alarm communications system in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2.

Exception: Where approved, the prerecorded announcement is allowed to be manually deactivated for a period of time, not to exceed 3 minutes, for the sole purpose of allowing a live voice announcement from an approved, constantly attended location.

907.2.2 Group B. A manual fire alarm system shall be installed in Group B occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The combined Group B occupant load of all floors is 500 or more.
  2. The Group B occupantload is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level ofexit discharge.
  3. The Group B fire area contains a Group B ambulatory health care facility.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

907.2.2.1 Group B ambulatory health care facilities. Fire areas containing Group B ambulatory health care facilities shall be provided with an electronically supervised automatic smoke detection system installed within the ambulatory health care facility and in public use areas outside of tenant spaces, including public corridors and elevator lobbies.

Exception: Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 provided the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

907.2.3 Group E. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group E occupancies. When automatic sprinkler systems or smoke detectors are installed, such systems or detectors shall be connected to the building fire alarm system.

Exceptions:

  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in Group E occupancies with an occupant load of less than 50.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required in Group E occupancies where all of the following apply:

    2.1. Interior corridors are protected by smoke detectors.

    2.2. Auditoriums, cafeterias, gymnasiums and similar areas are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.

    2.3. Shops and laboratories involving dusts or vapors are protected by heat detectors or other approved detection devices.

    2.4. The capability to activate the evacuation signal from a central point is provided.

    2.5. In buildings where normally occupied spaces are provided with a two-way communication system between such spaces and a constantly attended receiving station from where a general evacuation alarm can be sounded, except in locations specifically designated by the fire code official.

  3. Manual fire alarm boxes shall not be required in Group E occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 92 903.3.1.1, the notification appliances will activate on sprinkler water flow and manual activation is provided from a normally occupied location.

907.2.4 Group F. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group F occupancies where both of the following conditions exist:

  1. The Group F occupancy is two or more stories in height; and
  2. The Group F occupancy has a combined occupant load of 500 or more above or below the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exception: Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

907.2.5 Group H. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system shall be installed in Group H-5 occupancies and in occupancies used for the manufacture of organic coatings. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system shall be installed for highly toxic gases, organic peroxides and oxidizers in accordance with Chapters 37, 39 and 40, respectively.

907.2.6 Group I. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system shall be installed in Group I occupancies. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.6.1 through 907.2.6.3.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas of Group I-I and 1-2 occupancies shall not be required at exits if located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.5.2 are not exceeded.
  2. Occupant notification systems are not required to be activated where private mode signaling installed in accordance with NFPA 72 is approved by the fire code official.

907.2.6.1 Group 1-1. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.6.

Exceptions:

  1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinklersystem installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Smoke detection is not required for exterior balconies.

907.2.6.1.1 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

907.2.6.2 Group 1-2. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in corridors in nursing homes (both intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities), detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 of the International BUilding Code. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.6. Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in Section 407.2 of the International Building Code.

Exceptions:

  1. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain patient sleeping units where such units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each patient sleeping unit and shall provide an audible and visual alarm at the nursing station attending each unit.
  2. Corridor smoke detection is not required in smoke compartments that contain patient sleeping units where patient sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.

907.2.6.3 Group 1-3 occupancies. Group 1-3 occupancies shall be equipped with a manual fire alarm system and automatic smoke detection system installed for alerting staff.

907.2.6.3.1 System initiation. Actuation of an automatic fire-extinguishing system, a manual fire alarm box or a fire detector shall initiate an approved fire alarm signal which automatically notifies staff.

907.2.6.3.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required to be located in accordance with Section 907.5.2 where the fire alarm boxes are provided at staff-attended locations having direct supervision over areas where manual fire alarm boxes have been omitted.

907.2.6.3.2.1 Manual fire alarms boxes in detainee areas. Manual fire alarm boxes are allowed to be locked in areas occupied by detainees, provided that staff members are present within the subject area and have keys readily available to operate the manual fire alarm boxes.

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907.2.6.3.3 Automatic smoke detection system. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout resident housing areas, including sleeping units and contiguous day rooms, group activity spaces and other common spaces normally accessible to residents.

Exceptions:

  1. Other approved smoke detection arrangements providing equivalent protection, including, but not limited to, placing detectors in exhaust ducts from cells or behind protective guards listed for the purpose, are allowed when necessary to prevent damage or tampering.
  2. Sleeping units in Use Conditions 2 and 3 as described in Section 308 ofthe International Building Code.
  3. Smoke detectors are not required in sleeping units with four or fewer occupants in smoke compartments that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

907.2.7 Group M. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group M occupancies where one of the following conditions exists:

  1. The combined Group M occupant load of all floors is 500 or more persons.
  2. The Group M occupantload is more than 100 persons above or below the lowest level ofexit discharge.

Exceptions:

  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in covered mall buildings complying with Section 402 of the International Building Code.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon sprinkler water flow.

907.2.7.1 Occupant notification. During times that the building is occupied, the initiation of a signal from a manual fire alarm box or from a water flow switch shall not be required to activate the alarm notification appliances when an alarm signal is activated at a constantly attended location from which evacuation instructions shall be initiated over an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2.

907.2.8 Group R-l. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-l occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.8.1 through 907.2.8.3.

907.2.8.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group R-1 occupancies.

Exceptions:

  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least I-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when the following conditions are met:

    2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2;

    2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow; and

    2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.

907.2.8.2 Automatic smoke detection system. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed throughout all interior corridors serving sleeping units.

Exception: An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means ofegress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

907.2.8.3 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

907.2.9 Group R-2. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies as required in Section 907.2.9.1 and 907.2.9.2.

907.2.9.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group R-2 occupancies where:

  1. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located three or more stories above the lowest level ofexit discharge;
  2. Any dwelling unit or sleeping unit is located more than one story below the highest level ofexit discharge of exits serving the dwelling unit or sleeping unit, or 94
  3. The building contains more than 16 dwelling units or sleeping units.

Exceptions:

  1. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all dwelling units or sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least I-hour fire partitions and each dwelling unit or sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the occupant notification appliances will automatically activate throughout the notification zones upon a sprinkler water flow.
  3. A fire alarm system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving dwelling units and are protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that dwelling units either have a means of egress door opening directly to an exterior exit access that leads directly to the exits or are served by open-ended corridors designed in accordance with Section 1026.6, Exception 4.

907.2.9.2 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

907.2.10 Group R-4. Fire alarm systems and smoke alarms shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies as required in Sections 907.2.10.1 through 907.2.10.3.

907.2.10.1 Manual fire alarm system. A manual fire alarm system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in Group R-4 occupancies.

Exceptions:

  1. A manual fire alarm system is not required in buildings not more than two stories in height where all individual sleeping units and contiguous attic and crawl spaces to those units are separated from each other and public or common areas by at least I-hour fire partitions and each individual sleeping unit has an exit directly to a public way, exit court or yard.
  2. Manual fire alarm boxes are not required throughout the building when the following conditions are met:

    2.1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2;

    2.2. The notification appliances will activate upon sprinkler water flow; and

    2.3. At least one manual fire alarm box is installed at an approved location.

  3. Manual fire alarm boxes in resident or patient sleeping areas shall not be required at exits where located at all nurses' control stations or other constantly attended staff locations, provided such stations are visible and continuously accessible and that travel distances required in Section 907.5.2.1 are not exceeded.

907.2.10.2 Automatic smoke detection system. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be installed in corridors, waiting areas open to corridors and habitable spaces other than sleeping units and kitchens.

Exceptions:

  1. Smoke detection in habitable spaces is not required where the facility is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinklersystem installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. An automatic smoke detection system is not required in buildings that do not have interior corridors serving sleeping units and where each sleeping unit has a means of egress door opening directly to an exit or to an exterior exit access that leads directly to an exit.

907.2.10.3 Smoke alarms. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11.

907.2.11 Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms. Listed single- and multiple-station smoke alarms complying with UL 217 shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.2.11.1 through 907.2.11.4 and NFPA 72.

907.2.11.1 Group R-l. Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed in all of the following locations in Group R-1 :

  1. In sleeping areas.
  2. In every room in the path of the means of egress from the sleeping area to the door leading from the sleeping unit.
  3. In each story within the sleeping unit, including basements. For sleeping units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.
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907.2.11.2 Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and 1-1. Single or multiple-station smoke alarms shall be installed and maintained in Groups R-2, R-3, R-4 and I-I regardless of occupant load at all of the following locations:

  1. On the ceiling or wall outside of each separate sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of bedrooms.
  2. In each room used for sleeping purposes.

    Exception: Single- or multiple-station smoke alarms in Group I-I shall not be required where smoke detectors are provided in the sleeping rooms as part of an automatic smoke detection system.

  3. In each story within a dwelling unit, including basements but not including crawl spaces and uninhabitable attics. In dwellings or dwelling units with split levels and without an intervening door between the adjacent levels, a smoke alarm installed on the upper level shall suffice for the adjacent lower level provided that the lower level is less than one full story below the upper level.

907.2.11.3 Interconnection. Where more than one smoke alarm is required to be installed within an individual dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-l, R-2, R-3 or R-4, the smoke alarms shall be interconnected in such a manner that the activation of one alarm will activate all of the alarms in the individual unit. The alarm shall be clearly audible in all bedrooms over background noise levels with all intervening doors closed.

907.2.11.4 Power source. In new construction, required smoke alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery backup. Smoke alarms with integral strobes that are not equipped with battery back-up shall be connected to an emergency electrical system. Smoke alarms shall emit a signal when the batteries are low. Wiring shall be permanent and without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exception: Smoke alarms are not required to be equipped with battery backup where they are connected to an emergency electrical system.

907.2.12 Special amusement buildings. An automatic smoke detection system shall be provided in special amusement buildings in accordance with Sections 907.2.12.1 through 907.2.12.3.

907.2.12.1 Alarm. Activation of any single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or any other automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated, including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.

907.2.12.2 System response. The activation of two or more smoke detectors, a single smoke detector equipped with an alarm verification feature, the automatic sprinkler system or other approved fire detection device shall automatically:

  1. Cause illumination of the means of egress with light of not less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking surface level;
  2. Stop any conflicting or confusing sounds and visual distractions;
  3. Activate an approved directional exitmarking that will become apparent in an emergency; and
  4. Activate a prerecorded message, audible throughout the special amusement building, instructing patrons to proceed to the nearest exit. Alarm signals used in conjunction with the prerecorded message shall produce a sound which is distinctive from other sounds used during normal operation.

907.2.12.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. An emergency voice/alarm communication system, which is also allowed to serve as a public address system, shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2 and be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.

907.2.13 High-rise buildings. Buildings with a floor used for human occupancy located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1, a fire department communication system in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2 and an emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 907.2.22 and Section 412 of the International Building Code.
  2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3 of the International BUilding Code.
  3. Buildings with an occupancy in Group A-5 in accordance with Section 303.1 ofthe International BUilding Code.
  4. Low-hazard special occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1 of the International Building Code.
  5. Buildings with an occupancy in Group H-l, H-2 or H-3 in accordance with Section 415 of the International BUilding Code.
  6. In Group I-I and 1-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound at a constantly attended location and general occupant notification shall be broadcast by the emergency voice/alarm communication system.

907.2.13.1 Automatic smoke detection. Automatic smoke detection in high-rise buildings shall be in accordance with Sections 907.2.13.1.1 and 907.2.13.1.2.

907.2.13.1.1 Area smoke detection. Area smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with this section. Smoke detectors shall be connected to an

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automatic fire alarm system. The activation of any detector required by this section shall operate the emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2. Smoke detectors shall be located as follows:

  1. In each mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment or similar room which is not provided with sprinkler protection.
  2. In each elevator machine room and in elevator lobbies.

907.2.13.1.2 Duct smoke detection. Duct smoke detectors complying with Section 907.4.1 shall be located as follows:

  1. In the main return air and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system having a capacity greater than 2,000 cubic feet per minute (cfm) (0.94 m3/s). Such detectors shall be located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
  2. At each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more stories from a return air duct or plenum of an air-conditioning system. In Group R-l and R-2 occupancies, a smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air-inlet openings.

907.2.13.2 Fire department communication system. Where a wired communication system is approved in lieu of a radio coverage system in accordance with Section 510, the wired fire department communication system shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72 and shall operate between a fire command center complying with Section 508, elevators, elevator lobbies, emergency and standby power rooms, fire pump rooms, areas of refuge and inside enclosed exit stairways. The fire department communication device shall be provided at each floor level within the enclosed exit stairway.

907.2.14 Atriums connecting more than two stories. A fire alarm system shall be installed in occupancies with an atrium that connects more than two stories, with smoke detection installed throughout the atrium. The system shall be activated in accordance with Section 907.6. Such occupancies in Group A, E or M shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system complying with the requirements of Section 907.6.2.2.

907.2.15 High-piled combustible storage areas. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed throughout high-piled combustible storage areas where required by Section 2306.5.

907.2.16 Aerosol storage uses. Aerosol storage rooms and general-purpose warehouses containing aerosols shall be provided with an approved manual fire alarm system where required by this code.

907.2.17 Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills. Lumber, wood structural panel and veneer mills shall be provided with a manual fire alarm system.

907.2.18 Underground buildings with smoke control systems. Where a smoke control system is installed in an underground building in accordance with the International BUilding Code, automatic smoke detectors shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.18.1.

907.2.18.1 Smoke detectors. A minimum of one smoke detector listed for the intended purpose shall be installed in the following areas:

  1. Mechanical equipment, electrical, transformer, telephone equipment, elevator machine or similar rooms.
  2. Elevator lobbies.
  3. The main return and exhaust air plenum of each air-conditioning system serving more than one story and located in a serviceable area downstream of the last duct inlet.
  4. Each connection to a vertical duct or riser serving two or more floors from return air ducts or plenums of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems, except that in Group R occupancies, a listed smoke detector is allowed to be used in each return air riser carrying not more than 5,000 cfm (2.4 m3/s) and serving not more than 10 air inlet openings.

907.2.18.2 Alarm required. Activation of the smoke control system shall activate an audible alarm at a constantly attended location.

907.2.19 Deep underground buildings. Where the lowest level of a structure is more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge, the structure shall be equipped throughout with a manual fire alarm system, including an emergency voice/alarm communication system installed in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2.

907.2.20 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system. An emergency voice/alarm communication system serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2.

907.2.21 Residential aircraft hangars. A minimum of one single-station smoke alarm shall be installed within a residential aircraft hangar as defined in the International Building Code and shall be interconnected into the residential smoke alarm or other sounding device to provide an alarm that will be audible in all sleeping areas of the dwelling.

907.2.22 Airport traffic control towers. An automatic smoke detection system that activates the occupant notification

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system in accordance with Section 907.6 shall be provided in airport control towers in all occupiable and equipment spaces.

Exception: Audible appliances shall not be installed within the control tower cab.

907.2.23 Battery rooms. An automatic smoke detection system shall be installed in areas containing stationary storage battery systems with a liquid capacity of more than 50 gallons (189 L).

907.3 Where required in existing buildings and structures. An approved fire alarm system shall be installed in existing buildings and structures where required in Chapter 46.

907.4 Fire safety functions. Automatic fire detectors utilized for the purpose ofperforming fire safety functions shall be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit where a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Detectors shall, upon actuation, perform the intended function and activate the alarm notification appliances or activate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location. In buildings not equipped with a fire alarm system, the automatic fire detector shall be powered by normal electrical service and, upon actuation, perform the intended function. The detectors shall be located in accordance with NFPA 72.

907.4.1 Duct smoke detectors. Smoke detectors installed in ducts shall be listed for the air velocity, temperature and humidity present in the duct. Duct smoke detectors shall be connected to the building's fire alarm control unit when a fire alarm system is required by Section 907.2. Activation of a duct smoke detector shall initiate a visible and audible supervisory signal at a constantly attended location and shall perform the intended fire safety function in accordance with this code and the International Mechanical Code. Duct smoke detectors shall not be used as a substitute for required open area detection.

Exceptions:

  1. The supervisory signal at a constantly attended location is not required where duct smoke detectors activate the building's alarm notification appliances.
  2. In occupancies not required to be equipped with a fire alarm system, actuation of a smoke detector shall activate a visible and an audible signal in an approved location. Smoke detector trouble conditions shall activate a visible or audible signal in an approved location and shall be identified as air duct detector trouble.

907.4.2 Delayed egress locks. Where delayed egress locks are installed on means of egress doors in accordance with Section 1008.1.8.6, an automatic smoke or heat detection system shall be installed as required by that section.

907.4.3 Elevator emergency operation. Automatic fire detectors installed for elevator emergency operation shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of ASME A17.1 and NFPA 72.

907.4.4 Wiring. The wiring to the auxiliary devices and equipment used to accomplish the above fire safety functions shall be monitored for integrity in accordance with NFPA 72.

907.5 Initiating devices. Where manual or automatic alarm initiation is required as part ofa fire alarm system, the initiating devices shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.5.1 through 907.5.3.

907.5.1 Protection offire alarm control unit. In areas that are not continuously occupied, a single smoke detector shall be provided at the location of each fire alarm control unit, notification appliance circuit power extenders and supervising station transmitting equipment.

Exceptions:

  1. Where ambient conditions prohibit installation of smoke detector, a heatdetectorshall be permitted.
  2. The smoke detector shall not be required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

907.5.2 Manual fire alarm boxes. Where a manual fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Sections 907.5.2.1 through 907.5.2.5.

907.5.2.1 Location. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be located not more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the entrance to each exit. Additional manual fire alarm boxes shall be located so that travel distance to the nearest box does not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

907.5.2.2 Height. The height of the manual fire alarm boxes shall be a minimum of 42 inches (1067 mm) and a maximum of 48 inches (1372 mm) measured vertically, from the floor level to the activating handle or lever ofthe box.

907.5.2.3 Color. Manual fire alarm boxes shall be red in color.

907.5.2.4 Signs. Where fire alarm systems are not monitored by a supervising station, an approved permanent sign shall be installed adjacent to each manual fire alarm box that reads: WHEN ALARM SOUNDS-CALL FIRE DEPARTMENT.

Exception: Where the manufacturer has permanently provided this information on the manual fire alarm box.

907.5.2.5 Protective covers. The fire code official is authorized to require the installation of listed manual fire alarm box protective covers to prevent malicious false alarms or to provide the manual fire alarm box with protection from physical damage. The protective cover shall be transparent or red in color with a transparent face to permit visibility of the manual fire alarm box. Each cover shall include proper operating instructions. A protective cover that emits a local alarm signal shall not be installed unless approved. Protective covers shall not project more than that permitted by Section 1003.3.3.

907.5.3 Automatic smoke detection. Where an automatic smoke detection system is required it shall utilize smoke

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detectors unless ambient conditions prohibit such an installation. In spaces where smoke detectors cannot be utilized due to ambient conditions, approved automatic heat detectors shall be permitted.

907.5.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system. For conditions other than specific fire safety functions noted in Section 907.4, in areas where ambient conditions prohibit the installation of smoke detectors, an automatic sprinkler system installed in such areas in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and that is connected to the fire alarm system shall be approved as automatic heat detection.

907.6 Occupant notification systems. A fire alarm system shall annunciate at the panel and shall initiate occupant notification upon activation, in accordance with Sections 907.6.1 through 907.6.2.3.4. Where a fire alarm system is required by another section of this code, it shall be activated by:

  1. Automatic fire detectors.
  2. Sprinkler waterflow devices.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes.
  4. Automatic fire-extinguishing systems.

Exception: Where notification systems are allowed elsewhere in Section 907 to annunciate at a constantly attended location.

907.6.1 Presignal feature. A presignal feature shall not be installed unless approved by the fire code official and the fire department. Where a presignal feature is provided, a signal shall be annunciated at a constantly attended location approvedby the fire department, in order that occupant notification can be activated in the event of fire or other emergency.

907.6.2 Alarm notification appliances. Alarm notification appliances shall be provided and shall be listedfor their purpose.

907.6.2.1 Audible alarms. Audible alarm notification appliances shall be provided and emit a distinctive sound that is not to be used for any purpose other than that of a fire alarm.

Exception: Visible alarm notification appliances shall be allowed in lieu of audible alarm notification appliances in critical care areas of Group 1-2 occupancies.

907.6.2.1.1 Average sound pressure. The audible alarm notification appliances shall provide a sound pressure level of 15 decibels (dBA) above the average ambient sound level or 5 dBA above the maximum sound level having a duration of at least 60 seconds, whichever is greater, in every occupiable space within the building. The minimum sound pressure levels shall be: 75 dBA in occupancies in Groups Rand 1-1; 90 dBA in mechanical equipment rooms; and 60 dBA in other occupancies.

907.6.2.1.2 Maximum sound pressure. The maximum sound pressure level for audible alarm notification appliances shall be 110 dBA at the minimum hearing distance from the audible appliance. Where the average ambient noise is greater than 95 dBA, visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with NFPA 72 and audible alarm notification appliances shall not be required.

907.6.2.2 Emergency voice/alarm communication systems. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems required by this code shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 72. The operation of any automatic fire detector, sprinkler waterflow device or manual fire alarm box shall automatically sound an alert tone followed by voice instructions giving approved information and directions for a general or staged evacuation in accordance with the building's fire safety and evacuation plans required by Section 404. In high-rise buildings, the system shall operate on a minimum ofthe alarming floor, the floor above and the floor below. Speakers shall be provided throughout the building by paging zones. At a minimum, paging zones shall be provided as follows:

  1. Elevator groups.
  2. Exit stairways.
  3. Each floor.
  4. Areas ofrefuge as defined in Section 1002.1.

Exception: In Group 1-1 and 1-2 occupancies, the alarm shall sound in a constantly attended area and a general occupant notification shall be broadcast over the overhead page.

907.6.2.2.1 Manual override. A manual override for emergency voice communication shall be provided on a selective and all-call basis for all paging zones.

907.6.2.2.2 Live voice messages. The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall also have the capability to broadcast live voice messages by paging zones on a selective and all-call basis.

907.6.2.2.3 Alternate uses. The emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be allowed to be used for other announcements, provided the manual fire alarm use takes precedence over any other use.

907.6.2.2.4 Emergency power. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems shall be provided with an approved emergency power source.

907.6.2.3 Visible alarms. Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.6.2.3.1 through 907.6.2.3.4.

Exceptions:

  1. Visible alarm notification appliances are not required in alterations, except where an existing fire alarm system is upgraded or replaced, or a new fire alarm system is installed.
  2. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in exits as defined in Section 1002.1.
  3. Visible alarm notification appliances shall not be required in elevator cars.
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907.6.2.3.1 Public and common areas. Visible alarm notification appliances shall be provided in public areas and common areas.

907.6.2.3.2 Employee work areas. Where employee work areas have audible alarm coverage, the notification appliance circuits serving the employee work areas shall be initially designed with a minimum of 20-percent spare capacity to account for the potential of adding visible notification appliances in the future to accommodate hearing impaired employee(s).

907.6.2.3.3 Groups 1-1 and R-l. Group I-I and R-l dwelling units or sleeping units in accordance with Table 907.6.2.3.3 shall be provided with a visible alarm notification appliance, activated by both the in-room smoke alarm and the building fire alarm system.

TABLE 907.6.2.3.3
VISIBLE ALARMS
NUMBER OF SLEEPING UNITS SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS WITH VISIBLE ALARMS
6 to 25 2
26 to 50 4
51 to 75 7
76 to 100 9
101 to 150 12
151 to 200 14
201 to 300 17
301 to 400 20
401 to 500 22
501 to 1,000 5% of total
1,001 and over 50 plus 3 for each 100 over 1,000

907.6.2.3.4 Group R-2. In Group R-2 occupancies required by Section 907 to have a fire alarm system, all dwelling units and sleeping units shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with ICC A117.1.

907.7 Installation. A fire alarm system shall be installed in accordance with Sections 907.7.1 through 907.7.5.1 and NFPA 72.

907.7.1 Wiring. Wiring shall comply with the requirements ofNFPA 70 and NFPA 72. Wireless protection systems utilizing radio-frequency transmitting devices shall comply with the special requirements for supervision of low-power wireless systems in NFPA 72.

907.7.2 Power supply. The primary and secondary power supply for the fire alarm system shall be provided in accor dance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Backup power for single-station and multi pIe-station smoke alarms as required in Section 907.2.11.4.

907.7.3 Zones. Each floor shall be zoned separately and a zone shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m2). The length of any zone shall not exceed 300 feet (91 440 mm) in any direction.

Exception: Automatic sprinkler system zones shall not exceed the area permitted by NFPA 13.

907.7.3.1 Zoning indicator panel. A zoning indicator panel and the associated controls shall be provided in an approved location. The visual zone indication shall lock in until the system is reset and shall not be canceled by the operation of an audible alarm-silencing switch.

907.7.3.2 High-rise buildings. In high-rise buildings, a separate zone by floor shall be provided for each of the following types of alarm-initiating devices where provided:

  1. Smoke detectors.
  2. Sprinkler water-flow devices.
  3. Manual fire alarm boxes.
  4. Other approved types of automatic fire detection devices or suppression systems.

907.7.4 Access. Access shall be provided to each fire alarm device and notification appliance for periodic inspection, maintenance and testing.

907.7.5 Monitoring. Fire alarm systems required by this chapter or by the International Building Code shall be monitored by an approved supervising station in accordance with NFPA 72.

Exception: Monitoring by a supervising station is not required for:

  1. Single- and multiple-station smoke alarms required by Section 907.2.11.
  2. Smoke detectors in Group 1-3 occupancies.
  3. Automatic sprinkler systems in one- and two-family dwellings.

907.7.5.1 Automatic telephone-dialing devices. Automatic telephone-dialing devices used to transmit an emergency alarm shall not be connected to any fire department telephone number unless approved by the fire chief.

907.8 Acceptance tests and completion. Upon completion of the installation, the fire alarm system and all fire alarm components shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 72.

907.8.1 Single- and multiple-station alarm devices. When the installation of the alarm devices is complete, each device and interconnecting wiring for multiple-station alarm devices shall be tested in accordance with the smoke alarm provisions of NFPA 72.

907.8.2 Record of completion. A record of completion in accordance with NFPA 72 verifying that the system has been installed and tested in accordance with the approved plans and specifications shall be provided.

907.8.3 Instructions. Operating, testing and maintenance instructions and record drawings ("as builts") and equipment specifications shall be provided at an approved location.

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907.9 Inspection, testing and maintenance. The maintenance and testing schedules and procedures for fire alarm and fire detection systems shall be in accordance with Sections 907.9.1 through 907.9.5 and NFPA 72.

907.9.1 Maintenance required. Whenever required for compliance with the provisions of this code, devices, equipment, systems, conditions, arrangements, levels of protection or other features shall thereafter be continuously maintained in accordance with applicable NFPA requirements or as directed by the fire code official.

907.9.2 Testing. Testing shall be performed in accordance with the schedules in NFPA 72 or more frequently where required by the fire code official.

Exception: Devices or equipment that are inaccessible for safety considerations shall be tested during scheduled shutdowns where approved by the fire code official, but not less than every 18 months.

907.9.3 Smoke detector sensitivity. Smoke detector sensitivity shall be checked within one year after installation and every alternate year thereafter. After the second calibration test, where sensitivity tests indicate that the detector has remained within its listed and marked sensitivity range (or 4-percent obscuration light grey smoke, if not marked), the length oftime between calibration tests shall be permitted to be extended to a maximum of five years. Where the frequency is extended, records of detector-caused nuisance alarms and subsequent trends of these alarms shall be maintained. In zones or areas where nuisance alarms show any increase over the previous year, calibration tests shall be performed.

907.9.4 Method. To verify that each smoke detector is within its listed and marked sensitivity range, it shall be tested using one of the following methods:

  1. A calibrated test method;
  2. The manufacturer's calibrated sensitivity test instrument;
  3. Listed control equipment arranged for the purpose;
  4. A smoke detector/control unit arrangement whereby the detector causes a signal at the control unit where the detector's sensitivity is outside its acceptable sensitivity range; or
  5. Another calibrated sensitivity test method acceptable to the fire code official.

Detectors found to have a sensitivity outside the listed and marked sensitivity range shall be cleaned and recalibrated or replaced.

Exceptions:

  1. Detectors listed as field adjustable shall be permitted to be either adjusted within the listed and marked sensitivity range and cleaned and recalibrated or they shall be replaced.
  2. This requirement shall not apply to single-station smoke alarms.

907.9.4.1 Testing device. Smoke detector sensitivity shall not be tested or measured using a device that administers an unmeasured concentration of smoke or other aerosol into the detector.

907.9.5 Maintenance, inspection and testing. The building owner shall be responsible to maintain the fire and life safety systems in an operable condition at all times. Service personnel shall meet the qualification requirements of NFPA 72 for maintaining, inspecting and testing such systems. A written record shall be maintained and shall be made available to the fire code official.

SECTION 908
EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEMS

908.1 Group H occupancies. Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as required in Chapter 27.

908.2 Group H-5 occupancy. Emergency alarms for notification of an emergency condition in an HPM facility shall be provided as required in Section 1803.12. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases in accordance with Section 1803.13.

908.3 Highly toxic and toxic materials. Where required by Section 3704.2.2.10, a gas detection system shall be provided for indoor storage and use of highly toxic and toxic compressed gases.

908.4 Ozone gas-generator rooms. A gas detection system shall be provided in ozone gas-generator rooms in accordance with Section 3705.3.2.

908.5 Repair garages. A flammable-gas detection system shall be provided in repair garages for vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases in accordance with Section 2211.7.2.

908.6 Refrigeration systems. Refrigeration system machinery rooms shall be provided with a refrigerant detector in accordance with Section 606.8.

SECTION 909
SMOKE CONTROL SYSTEMS

909.1 Scope and purpose. This section applies to mechanical or passive smoke control systems when they are required for new buildings or portions thereof by provisions of the International BUilding Code or this code. The purpose of this section is to establish minimum requirements for the design, installation and acceptance testing of smoke control systems that are intended to provide a tenable environment for the evacuation or relocation of occupants. These provisions are not intended for the preservation of contents, the timely restoration of operations, or for assistance in fire suppression or overhaul activities. Smoke control systems regulated by this section serve a different purpose than the smoke- and heat-venting provisions found in Section 910. Mechanical smoke control systems shall not be considered exhaust systems under Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code.

909.2 General design requirements. Buildings, structures, or parts thereof required by the International BUilding Code or

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this code to have a smoke control system or systems shall have such systems designed in accordance with the applicable requirements of Section 909 and the generally accepted and well-established principles of engineering relevant to the design. The construction documents shall include sufficient information and detail to describe adequately the elements of the design necessary for the proper implementation of the smoke control systems. These documents shall be accompanied with sufficient information and analysis to demonstrate compliance with these provisions.

909.3 Special inspection and test requirements. In addition to the ordinary inspection and test requirements to which buildings' structures and parts thereof are required to undergo, smoke control systems subject to the provisions of Section 909 shall undergo special inspections and tests sufficient to verify the proper commissioning of the smoke control design in its final installed condition. The design submission accompanying the construction documents shall clearly detail procedures and methods to be used and the items subject to such inspections and tests. Such commissioning shall be in accordance with generally accepted engineering practice and, where possible' based on published standards for the particular testing involved. The special inspections and tests required by this section shall be conducted under the same terms as in Section 1704 of the International BUilding Code.

909.4 Analysis. A rational analysis supporting the types of smoke control systems to be employed, the methods of their operations, the systems supporting them, and the methods of construction to be utilized shall accompany the construction documents submission and include, but not be limited to, the items indicated in Sections 909.4.1 through 909.4.6.

909.4.1 Stack effect. The system shall be designed such that the maximum probable normal or reverse stack effect will not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities. In determining the maximum probable stack effect, altitude, elevation, weather history and interior temperatures shall be used.

909.4.2 Temperature effect of fire. Buoyancy and expansion caused by the design fire in accordance with Section 909.9 shall be analyzed. The system shall be designed such that these effects do not adversely interfere with the system's capabilities.

909.4.3 Wind effect. The design shall consider the adverse effects of wind. Such consideration shall be consistent with the wind-loading provisions of the International BUilding Code.

909.4.4 Systems. The design shall consider the effects of the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems on both smoke and fire transport. The analysis shall include all permutations of systems status. The design shall consider the effects ofthe fire on the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems.

909.4.5 Climate. The design shall consider the effects of low temperatures on systems, property and occupants. Air inlets and exhausts shall be located so as to prevent snow or ice blockage.

909.4.6 Duration of operation. All portions of active or passive smoke control systems shall be capable ofcontinued operation after detection of the fire event for a period of not less than either 20 minutes or 1.5 times the calculated egress time, whichever is less.

909.5 Smoke barrier construction. Smoke barriers shall comply with the International BUilding Code. Smoke barriers shall be constructed and sealed to limit leakage areas exclusive of protected openings. The maximum allowable leakage area shall be the aggregate area calculated using the following leakage area ratios:

1. Walls: A/Aw = 0.00100
2. Exit enclosures: A/Aw = 0.00035
3. All other shafts: A/Aw = 0.00150
4. Floors and roofs: A/Ap = 0.00050

where:

A   = Total leakage area, square feet (m2).

Ap = Unit floor or roof area of barrier, square feet (m2).

Aw = Unit wall area of barrier, square feet (m2).

The leakage area ratios shown do not include openings due to doors, operable windows or similar gaps. These shall be included in calculating the total leakage area.

909.5.1 Leakage area. Total leakage area of the barrier is the product of the smoke barriergross area multiplied by the allowable leakage area ratio, plus the area of other openings such as gaps and operable windows. Compliance shall be determined by achieving the minimum air pressure difference across the barrier with the system in the smoke control mode for mechanical smoke control systems. Passive smoke control systems tested using other approved means, such as door fan testing, shall be as approvedby the fire code official.

909.5.2 Opening protection. Openings in smoke barriers shall be protected by automatic-closing devices actuated by the required controls for the mechanical smoke control system. Door openings shall be protected by fire door assemblies complying with Section 715.4.3 of the International BUilding Code.

Exceptions:

  1. Passive smoke control systems with automatic-closing devices actuated by spot-type smoke detectors listed for releasing service installed in accordance with Section 907.10.
  2. Fixed openings between smoke zones that are protected utilizing the airflow method.
  3. In Group 1-2, where such doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with fire protection-rated glazing materials in fire protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close-fitting within operational tolerances and shall not have undercuts, louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-closing 102 by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3 of the International Building Code. Positive-latching devices are not required.
  4. Group 1-3.
  5. Openings between smoke zones with clear ceiling heights of 14 feet (4267 mm) or greater and bank-down capacity of greater than 20 minutes as determined by the design fire size.

909.5.2.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and air transfer openings are required to be protected with a minimum Class II, 250°F (121°C) smoke damper complying with Section 716 of the International BUilding Code.

909.6 Pressurization method. The primary mechanical means of controlling smoke shall be by pressure differences across smoke barriers. Maintenance of a tenable environment is not required in the smoke-control zone of fire origin.

909.6.1 Minimum pressure difference. The minimum pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be 0.05-inch water gage (0.0124 kPa) in fully sprinklered buildings.

In buildings allowed to be other than fully sprinklered, the smoke control system shall be designed to achieve pressure differences at least two times the maximum calculated pressure difference produced by the design fire.

909.6.2 Maximum pressure difference. The maximum air pressure difference across a smoke barrier shall be determined by required door-opening or closing forces. The actual force required to open exit doors when the system is in the smoke control mode shall be in accordance with Section 1008.1.3. Opening and closing forces for other doors shall be determined by standard engineering methods for the resolution of forces and reactions. The calculated force to set a side-hinged, swinging door in motion shall be determined by:

F = Fdc + K(WAΔP)/2(W−d)                         (Equation 9-1)

where:

A    =    Door area, square feet (m2).

d    =    Distance from door handle to latch edge of door, feet (m).

F    =    Total door opening force, pounds (N).

Fdc =    Force required to overcome closing device, pounds (N).

K    =    Coefficient 5.2 (1.0).

W    =    Door width, feet (m).

ΔP  =    Design pressure difference, inches of water (Pa).

909.7 Airflow design method. When approved by the fire code official, smoke migration through openings fixed in a permanently open position, which are located between smoke-control zones by the use of the airflow method, shall be permitted. The design airflow shall be in accordance with this section. Airflow shall be directed to limit smoke migration from the fire zone. The geometry of openings shall be considered to prevent flow reversal from turbulent effects.

909.7.1 Velocity. The minimum average velocity through a fixed opening shall not be less than:

v = 217.2 [h (Tf− To)/(Tf + 460)] ½                (Equation 9-2)

For SI: v = 119.9 [h (Tr− To)/Tf] ½

where:

h   =  Height of opening, feet (m).

Tr = Temperature of smoke, of (K).

To = Temperature of ambient air, of (K).

v   =  Air velocity, feet per minute (m/minute).

909.7.2 Prohibited conditions. This method shall not be employed where either the quantity of air or the velocity of the airflow will adversely affect other portions of the smoke control system, unduly intensify the fire, disrupt plume dynamics or interfere with exiting. In no case shall airflow toward the fire exceed 200 feet per minute (1.02 m/s). Where the formula in Section 909.7.1 requires airflows to exceed this limit, the airflow method shall not be used.

909.8 Exhaust method. When approved by the fire code official, mechanical smoke control for large enclosed volumes, such as in atriums or malls, shall be permitted to utilize the exhaust method. Smoke control systems using the exhaust method shall be designed in accordance with NFPA 92B.

909.8.1 Smoke layer. The height of the lowest horizontal surface of the smoke layer interface shall be maintained at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above any walking surface that forms a portion ofa required egress system within the smoke zone.

909.9 Design fire. The design fire shall be based on a rational analysis performed by the registered design professional and approvedby the fire code official. The design fire shall be based on the analysis in accordance with Section 909.4 and this section.

909.9.1 Factors considered. The engineering analysis shall include the characteristics of the fuel, fuel load, effects included by the fire, and whether the fire is likely to be steady or unsteady.

909.9.2 Separation distance. Determination of the design fire shall include consideration of the type of fuel, fuel spacing and configuration.

909.9.3 Heat-release assumptions. The analysis shall make use of best available data from approved sources and shall not be based on excessively stringent limitations of combustible material.

909.9.4 Sprinkler effectiveness assumptions. A documented engineering analysis shall be provided for conditions that assume fire growth is halted at the time of sprinkler activation.

909.10 Equipment. Equipment including, but not limited to, fans, ducts, automatic dampers and balance dampers shall be suitable for their intended use, suitable for the probable exposure

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temperatures that the rational analysis indicates, and as approved by the fire code official.

909.10.1 Exhaust fans. Components of exhaust fans shall be rated and certified by the manufacturer for the probable temperature rise to which the components will be exposed. This temperature rise shall be computed by:

Ts = (Qc/mc) + (Ta)                     (Equation 9-3)

where:

c    =    Specific heat of smoke at smokelayer temperature, Btu/lb of. (kJ/kg. K).

m    =    Exhaust rate, pounds per second (kg/s).

Qc  =    Convective heat output of fire, Btu/s (kW).

Ta   =    Ambient temperature, of (K).

Ts   =    Smoke temperature, of (K).

Exception: Reduced Ts as calculated based on the assurance of adequate dilution air.

909.10.2 Ducts. Duct materials and joints shall be capable of withstanding the probable temperatures and pressures to which they are exposed as determined in accordance with Section 909.10.1. Ducts shall be constructed and supported in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Ducts shall be leak tested to 1.5 times the maximum design pressure in accordance with nationally accepted practices. Measured leakage shall not exceed 5 percent of design flow. Results of such testing shall be a part of the documentation procedure. Ducts shall be supported directly from fire-resistance-rated structural elements of the building by substantial, noncombustible supports.

Exception: Flexible connections (for the purpose of vibration isolation) complying with the International Mechanical Code and which are constructed of approved fire-resistance-rated materials.

909.10.3 Equipment, inlets and outlets. Equipment shall be located so as to not expose uninvolved portions of the building to an additional fire hazard. Outside air inlets shall be located so as to minimize the potential for introducing smoke or flame into the building. Exhaust outlets shall be so located as to minimize reintroduction of smoke into the building and to limit exposure of the building or adjacent buildings to an additional fire hazard.

909.10.4 Automatic dampers. Automatic dampers, regardless of the purpose for which they are installed within the smoke control system, shall be listed and conform to the requirements of approved recognized standards.

909.10.5 Fans. In addition to other requirements, belt-driven fans shall have 1.5 times the number of belts required for the design duty with the minimum number of belts being two. Fans shall be selected for stable performance based on normal temperature and, where applicable, elevated temperature. Calculations and manufacturer's fan curves shall be part of the documentation procedures. Fans shall be supported and restrained by noncombustible devices in accordance with the structural design requirements of Chapter 16 of the International BUilding Code.

Motors driving fans shall not be operated beyond their nameplate horsepower (kilowatts) as determined from measurement of actual current draw and shall have a minimum service factor of 1.15.

909.11 Power systems. The smoke control system shall be supplied with two sources of power. Primary power shall be from the normal building power systems. Secondary power shall be from an approved standby source complying with Section 604 and NFPA 70. The standby power source and its transfer switches shall be in a room separate from the normal power transformers and switch gears and ventilated directly to and from the exterior. The room shall be enclosed with not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International BUilding Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the International BUilding Code, or both.

909.11.1 Power sources and power surges. Elements of the smoke management system relying on volatile memories or the like shall be supplied with uninterruptable power sources of sufficient duration to span IS-minute primary power interruption. Elements of the smoke management system susceptible to power surges shall be suitably protected by conditioners, suppressors or other approved means.

909.12 Detection and control systems. Fire detection systems providing control input or output signals to mechanical smoke control systems or elements thereof shall comply with the requirements of Section 907. Such systems shall be equipped with a control unit complying with UL 864 and listed as smoke control equipment.

Control systems for mechanical smoke control systems shall include provisions for verification. Verification shall include positive confirmation of actuation, testing, manual override, the presence of power downstream of all disconnects and, through a preprogrammed weekly test sequence, report abnormal conditions audibly, visually and by printed report.

909.12.1 Wiring. In addition to meeting requirements of NFPA 70, all wiring, regardless of voltage, shall be fully enclosed within continuous raceways.

909.12.2 Activation. Smoke control systems shall be activated in accordance with this section.

909.12.2.1 Pressurization, airflow or exhaust method. Mechanical smoke control systems using the pressurization' airflow or exhaust method shall have completely automatic control.

909.12.2.2 Passive method. Passive smoke control systems actuated by approved spot-type detectors listed for releasing service shall be permitted.

909.12.3 Automatic control. Where completely automatic control is required or used, the automatic-control sequences shall be initiated from an appropriately zoned automatic sprinkler system complying with Section 903.3.1.1, manual controls that are readily accessible to the fire department, and any smoke detectors required by the engineering analysis.

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909.13 Control air tubing. Control air tubing shall be of sufficient size to meet the required response times. Tubing shall be flushed clean and dry prior to final connections and shall be adequately supported and protected from damage. Tubing passing through concrete or masonry shall be sleeved and protected from abrasion and electrolytic action.

909.13.1 Materials. Control air tubing shall be hard drawn copper, Type L, ACR in accordance with ASTM B 42, ASTM B 43, ASTM B 68, ASTM B 88, ASTM B 251 and ASTM B 280. Fittings shall be wrought copper or brass, solder type, in accordance with ASME B 16.18 or ASME B 16.22. Changes in direction shall be made with appropriate tool bends. Brass compression-type fittings shall be used at final connection to devices; other joints shall be brazed using a BCuP5 brazing alloy with solidus above 1,1OO°F (593°C) and liquidus below 1,500°F (816°C). Brazing flux shall be used on copper-to-brass joints only.

Exception: Nonmetallic tubing used within control panels and at the final connection to devices, provided all of the following conditions are met:

  1. Tubing shall be Jisted by an approved agency for flame and smoke characteristics.
  2. Tubing and the connected device shall be completely enclosed within a galvanized or paint-grade steel enclosure having a minimum thickness of 0.0296 inches (0.7534 mm) (No. 22 gage). Entry to the enclosure shall be by copper tubing with a protective grommet of neoprene or teflon or by suitable brass compression to male-barbed adapter.
  3. Tubing shall be identified by appropriately documented coding.
  4. Tubing shall be neatly tied and supported within enclosure. Tubing bridging cabinet and door or moveable device shall be of sufficient length to avoid tension and excessive stress. Tubing shall be protected against abrasion. Tubing serving devices on doors shall be fastened along hinges.

909.13.2 Isolation from other functions. Control tubing serving other than smoke control functions shall be isolated by automatic isolation valves or shall be an independent system.

909.13.3 Testing. Control air tubing shall be tested at three times the operating pressure for not less than 30 minutes without any noticeable loss in gauge pressure prior to final connection to devices.

909.14 Marking and identification. The detection and control systems shall be clearly marked at all junctions, accesses and terminations.

909.15 Control diagrams. Identical control diagrams showing all devices in the system and identifying their location and function shall be maintained current and kept on file with the fire code officiaJ, the fire department and in the fire command center in a format and manner approved by the fire chief.

909.16 Fire-fighter's smoke control panel. A fire-fighter's smoke control panel for fire department emergency response purposes only shall be provided and shall include manual control or override of automatic control for mechanical smoke control systems. The panel shall be located in a fire command center complying with Section 508 in high-rise buildings or buildings with smoke-protected assembly seating. In all other buildings, the fire-fighter's smoke control panel shall be installed in an approved location adjacent to the fire alarm control panel. The fire-fighter's smoke control panel shall comply with Sections 909.16.1 through 909.16.3.

909.16.1 Smoke control systems. Fans within the building shall be shown on the fire-fighter's control panel. A clear indication of the direction of airflow and the relationship of components shall be displayed. Status indicators shall be provided for all smoke control equipment, annunciated by fan and zone and by pilot-lamp-type indicators as follows:

  1. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their normal status-WHITE.
  2. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their off or closed status-RED.
  3. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in their on or open status-GREEN.
  4. Fans, dampers and other operating equipment in a fault status-YELLOW/AMBER.

909.16.2 Smoke control panel. The fire-fighter's control panel shall provide control capability over the complete smoke-control system equipment within the building as follows:

  1. ON-AUTO-OFF control over each individual piece ofoperating smoke control equipment that can also be controlled from other sources within the building. This includes stairway pressurization fans; smoke exhaust fans; supply, return and exhaust fans; elevator shaft fans; and other operating equipment used or intended for smoke control purposes.
  2. OPEN-AUTO-CLOSE control over individual dampers relating to smoke control and that are also controlled from other sources within the building.
  3. ON-OFF or OPEN-CLOSE control over smoke control and other critical equipment associated with a fire or smoke emergency and that can only be controlled from the fire-fighter' s control panel.

Exceptions:

  1. Complex systems, where approved, where the controls and indicators are combined to control and indicate all elements of a single smoke zone as a unit.
  2. Complex systems, where approved, where the control is accomplished by computer interface using approved, plain English commands.

909.16.3 Control action and priorities. The fire-fighter's control panel actions shall be as follows:

  1. ON-OFF and OPEN-CLOSE control actions shall have the highest priority of any control point within the building. Once issued from the fire-fighter's control 105 panel, no automatic or manual control from any other control point within the building shall contra-diet the control action. Where automatic means are provided to interrupt normal, nonemergency equipment operation or produce a specific result to safeguard the building or equipment (Le., duct freezestats, duct smoke detectors, high-temperature cutouts, temperature-actuated linkage and similar devices), such means shall be capable of being overridden by the fire-fighter's control panel. The last control action as indicated by each fire-fighter' s control panel switch position shall prevail. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at anyone time.

    Exception: Power disconnects required by NFPA 70.

  2. Only the AUTO position of each three-position fire-fighter's control panel switch shall allow automatic or manual control action from other control points within the building. The AUTO position shall be the NORMAL, nonemergency, building control position. Where a fire-fighter' s control panel is in the AUTO position, the actual status of the device (on, off, open, closed) shall continue to be indicated by the status indicator described above. When directed by an automatic signal to assume an emergency condition, the NORMAL position shall become the emergency condition for that device or group of devices within the zone. In no case shall control actions require the smoke control system to assume more than one configuration at anyone time.

909.17 System response time. Smoke-control system activation shall be initiated immediately after receipt of an appropriate automatic or manual activation command. Smoke control systems shall activate individual components (such as dampers and fans) in the sequence necessary to prevent physical damage to the fans, dampers, ducts and other equipment. For purposes of smoke control, the fire-fighter's control panel response time shall be the same for automatic or manual smoke control action initiated from any other building control point. The total response time, including that necessary for detection, shutdown of operating equipment and smoke control system startup, shall allow for full operational mode to be achieved before the conditions in the space exceed the design smoke condition. The system response time for each component and their sequential relationships shall be detailed in the required rational analysis and verification of their installed condition reported in the required final report.

909.18 Acceptance testing. Devices, equipment, components and sequences shall be individually tested. These tests, in addition to those required by other provisions of this code, shall consist of determination of function, sequence and, where applicable, capacity of their installed condition.

909.18.1 Detection devices. Smoke or fire detectors that are a part of a smoke control system shall be tested in accordance with Chapter 9 in their installed condition. When applicable, this testing shall include verification of airflow in both minimum and maximum conditions.

909.18.2 Ducts. Ducts that are part of a smoke control system shall be traversed using generally accepted practices to determine actual air quantities.

909.18.3 Dampers. Dampers shall be tested for function in their installed condition.

909.18.4 Inlets and outlets. Inlets and outlets shall be read using generally accepted practices to determine air quantities.

909.18.5 Fans. Fans shall be examined for correct rotation. Measurements of voltage, amperage, revolutions per minute and belt tension shall be made.

909.18.6 Smoke barriers. Measurements using inclined manometers or other approved calibrated measuring devices shall be made of the pressure differences across smoke barriers. Such measurements shall be conducted for each possible smoke control condition.

909.18.7 Controls. Each smoke zone equipped with an automatic-initiation device shall be put into operation by the actuation of one such device. Each additional device within the zone shall be verified to cause the same sequence without requiring the operation of fan motors in order to prevent damage. Control sequences shall be verified throughout the system, including verification of override from the fire-fighter's control panel and simulation of standby power conditions.

909.18.8 Special inspections for smoke control. Smoke control systems shall be tested by a special inspector.

909.18.8.1 Scope oftesting. Special inspections shall be conducted in accordance with the following:

  1. During erection of ductwork and prior to concealment for the purposes of leakage testing and recording of device location.
  2. Prior to occupancy and after sufficient completion for the purposes of pressure-difference testing, flow measurements, and detection and control verification.

909.18.8.2 Qualifications. Special inspection agencies for smoke control shall have expertise in fire protection engineering, mechanical engineering and certification as air balancers.

909.18.8.3 Reports. A complete report of testing shall be prepared by the special inspector or special inspection agency. The report shall include identification of all devices by manufacturer, nameplate data, design values, measured values and identification tag or mark. The report shall be reviewed by the responsible registered design professional and, when satisfied that the design intent has been achieved, the responsible registered design professional shall seal, sign and date the report.

909.18.8.3.1 Report filing. A copy of the final report shall be filed with the fire code official and an identical copy shall be maintained in an approved location at the building.

909.18.9 Identification and documentation. Charts, drawings and other documents identifying and locating

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each component of the smoke control system, and describing their proper function and maintenance requirements, shall be maintained on file at the building as an attachment to the report required by Section 909.18.8.3. Devices shall have an approved identifying tag or mark on them consistent with the other required documentation and shall be dated indicating the last time they were successfully tested and by whom.

909.19 System acceptance. Buildings, or portions thereof, required by this code to comply with this section shall not be issued a certificate of occupancy until such time that the fire code official determines that the provisions of this section have been fully complied with and that the fire department has received satisfactory instruction on the operation, both automatic and manual, of the system.

Exception: In buildings of phased construction, a temporary certificate of occupancy, as approved by the fire code official, shall be allowed, provided that those portions of the building to be occupied meet the requirements of this section and that the remainder does not pose a significant hazard to the safety of the proposed occupants or adjacent buildings.

909.20 Maintenance. Smoke control systems shall be maintained to ensure to a reasonable degree that the system is capable of controlling smoke for the duration required. The system shall be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Sections 909.20.1 through 909.20.5.

909.20.1 Schedule. A routine maintenance and operational testing program shall be initiated immediately after the smoke control system has passed the acceptance tests. A written schedule for routine maintenance and operational testing shall be established.

909.20.2 Written record. A written record of smoke control system testing and maintenance shall be maintained on the premises. The written record shall include the date of the maintenance, identification of the servicing personnel and notification of any unsatisfactory condition and the corrective action taken, including parts replaced.

909.20.3 Testing. Operational testing of the smoke control system shall include all equipment such as initiating devices, fans, dampers, controls, doors and windows.

909.20.4 Dedicated smoke control systems. Dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence semiannually. The system shall also be tested under standby power conditions.

909.20.5 Nondedicated smoke control systems. Non-dedicated smoke control systems shall be operated for each control sequence annually. The system shall also be tested under standby power conditions.

SECTION 910
SMOKE AND HEAT VENTS

910.1 General. Where required by this code or otherwise installed, smoke and heat vents or mechanical smoke exhaust systems and draft curtains shall conform to the requirements of this section.

Exceptions:

  1. Frozen food warehouses used solely for storage of Class I and II commodities where protected by an approved automatic sprinkler system.
  2. Where areas of buildings are equipped with early suppression fast-response (ESFR) sprinklers, automatic smoke and heat vents shall not be required within these areas.

910.2 Where required. Smoke and heat vents shall be installed in the roofs of one-story buildings or portions thereof occupied for the uses set forth in Sections 910.2.1 and 910.2.2.

910.2.1 Group F-l or S-I. Buildings and portions thereof used as a Group F-lor S-l occupancy having more than 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) of undivided area.

Exception: Group S-l aircraft repair hangars.

910.2.2 High-piled combustible storage. Buildings and portions thereof containing high-piled combustible stock or rack storage in any occupancy group when required by Section 2306.7.

910.3 Design and installation. The design and installation of smoke and heat vents and draft curtains shall be as specified in Sections 910.3.1 through 910.3.5.2 and Table 910.3.

910.3.1 Design. Smoke and heat vents shall be listed and labeled to indicate compliance with UL 793.

910.3.2 Vent operation. Smoke and heat vents shall be capable of being operated by approved automatic and manual means. Automatic operation of smoke and heat vents shall conform to the provisions of Sections 910.3.2.1 through 910.3.2.3.

910.3.2.1 Gravity-operated drop out vents. Automatic smoke and heat vents containing heat-sensitive glazing designed to shrink and drop out ofthe vent opening when exposed to fire shall fully open within 5 minutes after the vent cavity is exposed to a simulated fire represented by a time-temperature gradient that reaches an air temperature of 500°F (260°C) within 5 minutes.

910.3.2.2 Sprinklered buildings. Where installed in buildings equipped with an approved automatic sprinkler system, smoke and heat vents shall be designed to operate automatically.

910.3.2.3 Nonsprinklered buildings. Where installed in buildings not equipped with an approvedautomatic sprinkler system, smoke and heat vents shall operate automatically by actuation of a heat-responsive device rated at between 100°F (56°C) and 220°F (122°C) above ambient.

Exception: Gravity-operated drop out vents complying with Section 910.3.2.1.

910.3.3 Vent dimensions. The effective venting area shall not be less than 16 square feet (1.5 m2) with no dimension less than 4 feet (1219 mm), excluding ribs or gutters having a total width not exceeding 6 inches (152 mm).

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TABLE 910.3
REQUIREMENTS FOR DRAFT CURTAINS AND SMOKE AND HEAT VENTsa
OCCUPANCY GROUP AND COMMODITY CLASSIFICATION DESIGNATED STORAGE HEIGHT (feet) MINIMUM DRAFT CURTAIN DEPTH (feet) MAXIMUM AREA FORMED BY DRAFT CURTAINS (square feet) VENT-AREA-TO FLOOR-AREA RATIOc MAXIMUM SPACING OF VENT CENTERS (feet) MAXIMUM DISTANCE FROM VENTS TO WALL OR DRAFT CURTAINb (feet)
Group F-1 and S-l - 0.2 x Hd but ≥ 4 50,000 1:100 120 60
High-piled storage
(see Section 910.2.2)
Class I-IV Commodities
(Option 1)
≤ 20 6 10,000 1:100 100 60
> 20 ≤ 40 6 8,000 1:75 100 55
High-piled storage
(see Section 910.2.2)
Class I-IV Commodities
(Option 2)
≤ 20 4 3,000 1:75 100 55
> 20 ≤ 40 4 3,000 1:50 100 50
High-piled storage
(see Section 910.2.2)
High-hazard Commodities
(Option 1)
≤ 20 6 6,000 1:50 100 50
> 20 ≤ 30 6 6,000 1:40 90 45
High-piled storage
(see Section 910.2.2)
High-hazard Commodities
(Option 2)
≤ 20 4 4,000 1:50 100 50
> 20 ≤ 30 4 2,000 1:30 75 40
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Additional requirements for rack storage heights in excess of those indicated shall be in accordance with Chapter 23. For solid-piled storage heights in excess of those indicated, an approved engineered deSign shall be used.
b. Vents adjacent to walls or draft curtains shall be located within a horizontal distance not greater than the maximum distance specified in this column as measured perpendicular to the wall or draft curtain that forms the perimeter of the draft curtained area.
c. Where draft curtains are not required, the vent area to floor area ratio shall be calculated based on a minimum draft curtain depth of 6 feet (Option 1).
d. "H" is the height of the vent, in feet, above the floor.

910.3.4 Vent locations. Smoke and heat vents shall be located 20 feet (6096 mm) or more from adjacent lot lines and fire walls and 10 feet (3048 mm) or more from fire barriers. Vents shall be uniformly located within the roof in the areas of the building where the vents are required to be installed by Section 910.2, with consideration given to roof pitch, draft curtain location, sprinkler location and structural members.

910.3.5 Draft curtains. Where required by Table 910.3, draft curtains shall be installed on the underside of the roof in accordance with this section.

Exception: Where areas of buildings are equipped with ESFR sprinklers, draft curtains shall not be provided within these areas. Draft curtains shall only be provided at the separation between the ESFR sprinklers and the non-ESFR sprinklers.

910.3.5.1 Construction. Draft curtains shall be constructed of sheet metal, lath and plaster, gypsum board or other approved materials that provide equivalent performance to resist the passage of smoke. Joints and connections shall be smoke tight.

910.3.5.2 Location and depth. The location and minimum depth of draft curtains shall be in accordance with Table 910.3.

910.4 Mechanical smoke exhaust. Where approved by the fire code official, engineered mechanical smoke exhaust shall be an acceptable alternative to smoke and heat vents.

910.4.1 Location. Exhaust fans shall be uniformly spaced within each draft-curtained area and the maximum distance between fans shall not be greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm).

910.4.2 Size. Fans shall have a maximum individual capacity of 30,000 cfm (14.2 m3/s). The aggregate capacity of smoke exhaust fans shall be determined by the equation:

C=Ax 300                                            (Equation 9-4)

where:

C = Capacity of mechanical ventilation required, in cubic feet per minute (m3/s).

A = Area of roof vents provided in square feet (m2) in accordance with Table 910.3.

910.4.3 Operation. Mechanical smoke exhaust fans shall be automatically activated by the automatic sprinkler system or by heat detectors having operating characteristics equivalent to those described in Section 910.3.2. Individual manual controls for each fan unit shall also be provided.

910.4.4 Wiring and control. Wiring for operation and control of smoke exhaust fans shall be connected ahead of the main disconnect and protected against exposure to temperatures in excess of 1,000°F (538°C) for a period of not less than 15 minutes. Controls shall be located so as to be immediately accessible to the fire service from the exterior of the building and protected against interior fire exposure by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

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910.4.5 Supply air. Supply air for exhaust fans shall be provided at or near the floor level and shall be sized to provide a minimum of 50 percent of required exhaust. Openings for supply air shall be uniformly distributed around the periphery of the area served.

910.4.6 Interlocks. On combination comfort air-handling/smoke removal systems or independent comfort air-handling systems, fans shall be controlled to shut down in accordance with the approved smoke control sequence.

SECTION 911
EXPLOSION CONTROL

911.1 General. Explosion control shall be provided in the following locations:

  1. Where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as identified in Table 911.1.
  2. Where quantities of hazardous materials specified in Table 911.1 exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 2703.1.1 (1).

Such areas shall be provided with explosion (defJagration) venting, explosion (defJagration) prevention systems, or barricades in accordance with this section and NFPA 69, or NFPA 495 as applicable. DefJagration venting shall not be utilized as a means to protect buildings from detonation hazards.

911.2 Required deflagration venting. Areas that are required to be provided with defJagration venting shall comply with the following:

  1. Walls, ceilings and roofs exposing surrounding areas shall be designed to resist a minimum internal pressure of 100 pounds per square foot (psf) (4788 Pa). The minimum internal design pressure shall not be less than five times the maximum internal relief pressure specified in Section 911.2, Item 5.
  2. DefJagration venting shall be provided only in exterior walls and roofs.

    Exception: Where sufficient exterior wall and roof venting cannot be provided because of inadequate exterior wall or roof area, defJagration venting shall be allowed by specially designed shafts vented to the exterior of the building.

  3. DefJagration venting shall be designed to prevent unacceptable structural damage. Where relieving a defJagration, vent closures shall not produce projectiles of sufficient velocity and mass to cause life threatening injuries to the occupants or other persons on the property or adjacent public ways.
  4. The aggregate clear area of vents and venting devices shall be governed by the pressure resistance of the construction assemblies specified in Item 1 of this section and the maximum internal pressure allowed by Item 5 of this section.
  5. Vents shall be designed to withstand loads in accordance with the International BUilding Code. Vents shall consist ofanyone or any combination of the following to relieve at a maximum internal pressure of 20 pounds per square foot (958 Pa), but not less than the loads required by the International BUilding Code:

    5.1. Exterior walls designed to release outward.

    5.2. Hatch covers.

    5.3. Outward swinging doors.

    5.4. Roofs designed to uplift.

    5.5. Venting devices listedfor the purpose.

  6. Vents designed to release from the exterior walls or roofs of the building when venting a defJagration shall discharge directly to the exterior of the building where an unoccupied space not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) in width is provided between the exterior walls of the building and the property line.

    Exception: Vents complying with Item 7 ofthis section.

  7. Vents designed to remain attached to the building when venting a defJagration shall be so located that the discharge opening shall not be less than 10 feet (3048 mm) vertically from window openings and exits in the building and 20 feet (6096 mm) horizontally from exits in the building, from window openings and exits in adjacent buildings on the same property, and from the property line.
  8. Discharge from vents shall not be into the interior of the building.

911.3 Explosion prevention systems. Explosion prevention systems shall be of an approved type and installed in accordance with the provisions of this code and NFPA 69.

911.4 Barricades. Barricades shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 495.

SECTION 912
FIRE DEPARTMENT CONNECTIONS

912.1 Installation. Fire department connections shall be installed in accordance with the NFPA standard applicable to the system design and shall comply with Sections 912.2 through 912.6.

912.2 Location. With respect to hydrants, driveways, buildings and landscaping, fire department connections shall be so located that fire apparatus and hose connected to supply the system will not obstruct access to the buildings for other fire apparatus. The location of fire department connections shall be approved by the fire chief.

912.2.1 Visible location. Fire department connections shall be located on the street side ofbuildings, fully visible and recognizable from the street or nearest point of fire department vehicle access or as otherwise approved by the fire chief.

912.2.2 Existing buildings. On existing buildings, wherever the fire department connection is not visible to approaching fire apparatus, the fire department connection shall be indicated by an approved sign mounted on the street front or on the side of the building. Such sign shall have the letters "FDC" at least 6 inches (152 mm) high and words in letters at least 2 inches (51 mm) high or an arrow to indicate the location. All such signs shall be subject to the approval of the fire code off1cial.

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TABLE 911.1
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTS
MATERIAL CLASS EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS
Barricade construction Explosion (deflagration) venting or explosion (deflagration) prevention systems
Hazard Category
Combustible dustsa - Not required Required
Cryogenic fluids Flammable Not required Required
Explosives Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.5
Division 1.6
Required
Required
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Not required
Not required
Flammable gas Gaseous
Liquefied
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Flammable liquids lAb
lBe
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Organic peroxides Unclassified detonable
I
Required
Required
Not permitted
Not permitted
Oxidizer liquids and solids 4 Required Not permitted
Pyrophoric Gases Not required Required
Unstable (reactive) 4
3 detonable
3 nondetonable
Required
Required
Not required
Not permitted
Not permitted
Required
Water-reactive liquids and solids 3
2e
Not required
Not required
Required
Required
Special Uses
Acetylene generator rooms - Not required Required
Grain processing - Not required Required
Liquefied petroleum gas distribution facilities - Not required Required
Where explosion hazards existd Detonation
Deflagration
Required
Not required
Not permitted
Required
a. Combustible dusts that are generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of Combustible Dust in Chapter 2.
b. Storage or use.
c. In open use or dispensing.
d. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
e. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially exploSive mixtures.

912.3 Access. Immediate access to fire department connections shall be maintained at all times and without obstruction by fences, bushes, trees, walls or any other fixed or moveable object. Access to fire department connections shall be approved by the fire chief.

Exception: Fences, where provided with an access gate equipped with a sign complying with the legend requirements of Section 912.4 and a means of emergency operation. The gate and the means of emergency operation shall be approved by the fire chief and maintained operational at all times.

912.3.1 Locking fire department connection caps. The fire code officialis authorized to require locking caps on fire department connections for water-based fire protection systems where the responding fire department carries appropriate key wrenches for removal.

912.3.2 Clear space around connections. A working space of not less than 36 inches (762 mm) in width, 36 inches (914 mm) in depth and 78 inches (1981 mm) in height shall be provided and maintained in front of and to the sides of wall-mounted fire department connections and around the circumference of free-standing fire department

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connections, except as otherwise required or approved by the fire chief.

912.3.3 Physical protection. Where fire department connections are subject to impact by a motor vehicle, vehicle impact protection shall be provided in accordance with Section 312.

912.4 Signs. A metal sign with raised letters at least 1 inch (25 mm) in size shall be mounted on all fire department connections serving automatic sprinklers, standpipes or fire pump connections. Such signs shall read: AUTOMATIC SPRINKLERS or STANDPIPES or TEST CONNECTION or a combination thereof as applicable. Where the fire department connection does not serve the entire building, a sign shall be provided indicating the portions of the building served.

912.5 Backflow protection. The potable water supply to automatic sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be protected against backflow as required by the International Plumbing Code.

912.6 Inspection, testing and maintenance. All fire department connections shall be periodically inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with NFPA 25.

SECTION 913
FIRE PUMPS

913.1 General. Where provided, fire pumps shall be installed in accordance with this section and NFPA 20.

913.2 Protection against interruption of service. The fire pump, driver, and controller shall be protected in accordance with NFPA 20 against possible interruption of service through damage caused by explosion, fire, flood, earthquake, rodents, insects, windstorm, freezing, vandalism and other adverse conditions.

913.2.1 Protection of fire pump rooms. Rooms where fire pumps are located shall be separated from all other areas of the building in accordance with Section 913.2.1 ofthe International BUilding Code.

913.3 Temperature of pump room. Suitable means shall be provided for maintaining the temperature of a pump room or pump house, where required, above 40°F (5°C).

913.3.1 Engine manufacturer's recommendation. Temperature of the pump room, pump house or area where engines are installed shall never be less than the minimum recommended by the engine manufacturer. The engine manufacturer's recommendations for oil heaters shall be followed.

913.4 Valve supervision. Where provided, the fire pump suction, discharge and bypass valves, and the isolation valves on the backflow prevention device or assembly shall be supervised open by one of the following methods.

  1. Central-station, proprietary or remote-station signaling service.
  2. Local signaling service that will cause the sounding of an audible signal at a constantly attended location.
  3. Locking valves open.
  4. Sealing of valves and approvedweekly recorded inspection where valves are located within fenced enclosures under the control of the owner.

913.4.1 Test outlet valve supervision. Fire pump test outlet valves shall be supervised in the closed position.

913.5 Testing and maintenance. Fire pumps shall be inspected, tested and maintained in accordance with the requirements of this section and NFPA 25.

913.5.1 Acceptance test. Acceptance testing shall be done in accordance with the requirements of NFPA 20.

913.5.2 Generator sets. Engine generator sets supplying emergency or standby power to fire pump assemblies shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110.

913.5.3 Transfer switches. Automatic transfer switches shall be periodically tested in accordance with NFPA 110.

913.5.4 Pump room environmental conditions. Tests of pump room environmental conditions, including heating, ventilation and illumination shall be made to ensure proper manual or automatic operation ofthe associated equipment.

SECTION 914
FIRE PROTECTION BASED ON SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS OF USE AND OCCUPANCY

914.1 General. This section shall specify where fire protection systems are required based on the detailed requirements of use and occupancy of the International BUilding Code.

914.2 Covered mall buildings. Covered mall buildings shall comply with Sections 914.2.1 through 914.2.4.

914.2.1 Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall building and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.1.1, which shall comply with the following:

  1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the covered mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.
  2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages constructed in accordance with Section 406.2 of the International Building Code.

914.2.2 Standpipe system. The covered mall building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance with Section 905.

914.2.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/

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alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2.

914.2.4 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire department.

914.3 High-rise buildings. High-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 914.3.1 through 914.3.5.

914.3.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary water supply where required by Section 903.3.5.2.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of:

  1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3 of the International BUilding Code.
  2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International BUilding Code or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the International BUilding Code, or both.

914.3.1.1 Number of sprinkler risers and system design. Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in height shall be supplied by a minimum of two risers. Each riser shall supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not be supplied from the same riser.

914.3.1.1.1 Riser location. Sprinkler risers shall be placed in stair enclosures which are remotely located in accordance with Section 1015.2.

914.3.1.2 Water supply to required fire pumps. Required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to a minimum of two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through at least one of the connections.

914.3.2 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.

914.3.3 Automatic smoke detection. Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1.

914.3.4 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.6.2.2.

914.3.5 Fire department communication system. A two-way fire department communication system shall be provided for fire department use in accordance with Section 907.2.13.2.

914.3.6 Fire command. A fire command center complying with Section 508 shall be provided in a location approvedby the fire department.

914.4 Atriums. Atriums shall comply with Sections 914.4.1 and 914.4.2.

914.4.1 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building.

Exceptions:

  1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered, provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than a 2-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International BUilding Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the International BUilding Code, or both.
  2. Where the ceiling ofthe atrium is more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required.

914.4.2 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Section 907.2.14.

914.5 Underground buildings. Underground buildings shall comply with Sections 914.5.1 through 914.5.5.

914.5.1 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in accordance with Section 903.4.

914.5.2 Smoke control system. A smoke control system is required to control the migration of products of combustion in accordance with Section 909 and provisions of this section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain means ofegress in a usable condition.

914.5.3 Compartment smoke control system. Where compartmentation is required by Section 405.4 of the International BUilding Code, each compartment shall have an independent smoke-control system. The system shall be automatically activated and capable of manual operation in accordance with Section 907.2.18.

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914.5.4 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Section 907.2.19.

914.5.5 Standpipe system. The underground building shall be provided throughout with a standpipe system in accordance with Section 905.

914.6 Stages. Stages shall comply with Sections 914.6.1 and 914.6.2.

914.6.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such stages.

Exceptions:

  1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height utilized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by not less than 5/s-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board.
  2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less in height where curtains, scenery or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a single main curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop.
  3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra enclosures on stages.

914.6.2 Standpipe system. Standpipe systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.

914.7 Special amusement buildings. Special amusement buildings shall comply with Sections 914.7.1 and 914.7.2.

914.7.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means.

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and the travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm).

914.7.2 Automatic smoke detection. Special amusement buildings shall be equipped with an automatic smoke detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.

914.8 Aircraft-related occupancies. Aircraft-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 914.8.1 through 914.8.5.

914.8.1 Automatic smoke detection systems. Airport traffic control towers shall be provided with an automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.22.

914.8.2 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be provided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar given in Table 914.8.2.

Exception: When a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system shall be exempt from foam requirements.

914.8.2.1 Hazardous operations. Any Group III aircraft hangar according to Table 914.8.2 that contains hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire suppression

TABLE 914.8.2
HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTS a, b, c
MAXIMUM SINGLE FIRE AREA, SQUARE FEET INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
IA IB IIA lIB IlIA IIIB IV VA VB
> 40,001 Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I
40,000 Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
30,000 Group III Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
20,000 Group III Group III Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
15,000 Group III Group III Group III Group II Group III Group II Group III Group II Group II
12,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group II Group II
8,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group II
5,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area.
b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409.

c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 of the International BUilding Code shall be classified as a Group IV hangar.
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system in accordance with NFPA 409 as applicable:

  1. Doping.
  2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, torch cutting and torch soldering.
  3. Fuel transfer.
  4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled.
  5. Spray finishing operations.
  6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 gallons (6057 L).
  7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maximum single fire area in excess of7,500 gallons (28 390 L) for a hangar equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

914.8.2.2 Separation of maximum single fire areas. Maximum single fire areas established in accordance with hangar classification and construction type in Table 914.8.2 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls constructed in accordance with Section 706 of the International BUilding Code.

914.8.3 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving the use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting shall be carried on in a separate detached building equipped with automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with Section 903.

914.8.4 Residential aircraft hangar smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be provided within residential aircraft hangars in accordance with Section 907.2.21.

914.8.5 Aircraft paint hangar fire suppression. Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409.

914.9 Application of flammable finishes. An automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in all spray, dip and immersing spaces and storage rooms, and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 9.

914.10 Drying rooms. Drying rooms designed for high-hazard materials and processes, including special occupancies as provided for in Chapter 4 of the International BUilding Code, shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of Chapter 9.

914.11 Group B ambulatory health care facilities. Occupancies classified as Group B ambulatory health care facilities shall comply with Sections 914.11.1 through 914.11.3.

914.11.1 Automatic sprinkler systems. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided for Group B ambulatory health care facilities in accordance with Section 903.2.2.

914.11.2 Manual fire alarm systems. A manual fire alarm system shall be provided for Group B ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 907.2.2.

914.11.3 Fire alarm systems. An automatic smoke detection system shall be provided for Group B ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 907.2.2.1.

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CHAPTER 10
MEANS OF EGRESS

SECTION 1001
ADMINISTRATION

1001.1 General. Buildings or portions thereof shall be provided with a means ofegress system as required by this chapter. The provisions of this chapter shall control the design, construction and arrangement of means of egress components required to provide an approved means of egress from structures and portions thereof. Sections 1003 through 1029 shall apply to new construction. Section 1030 shall apply to existing buildings.

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with the International Residential Code.

1001.2 Minimum requirements. It shall be unlawful to alter a building or structure in a manner that will reduce the number of exits or the capacity of the means ofegress to less than required by this code.

[8] SECTION 1002
DEFINITIONS

1002.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed way of egress travel from any accessible point in a building or facility to a public way:

AISLE. An unenclosed exitaccess component that defines and provides a path of egress travel.

AISLE ACCESSWAY. That portion of an exit access that leads to an aisle.

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. A device that has a series of steps between 50 and 70 degrees (0.87 and 1.22 rad) from horizontal, usually attached to a center support rail in an alternating manner so that the user does not have both feet on the same level at the same time.

AREA OF REFUGE. An area where persons unable to use stairways can remain temporarily to await instructions or assistance during emergency evacuation.

BLEACHERS. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see "Grandstands").

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. That portion of exit access which the occupants are required to traverse before two separate and distinct paths of egress travel to two exits are available. Paths that merge are common paths of travel. Common paths of egress travel shall be included within the permitted travel distance.

CORRIDOR. An enclosed exit access component that defines and provides a path of egress travel to an exit.

DOOR, BALANCED. A door equipped with double-pivoted hardware so designed as to cause a semicounter balanced swing action when opening.

EGRESS COURT. A court or yard which provides access to a public wayfor one or more exits.

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. An operable window, door or other similar device that provides for a means of escape and access for rescue in the event ofan emergency.

EXIT. That portion of a means ofegress system which is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives as required to provide a protected path of egress travel between the exitaccess and the exit discharge. Exits include exterior exit doors at the level ofexit discharge, vertical exit enclosures, exit passageways, exterior exit stairways, exterior exit ramps and horizontal exits.

EXIT ACCESS. That portion of a means ofegress system that leads from any occupied portion of a building or structure to an exit.

EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. A door or access point along the path of egress travel from an occupied room, area or space where the path of egress enters an intervening room, corridor, unenclosed exit access stair or unenclosed exit access ramp.

EXIT DISCHARGE. That portion of a means ofegress system between the termination of an exit and a public way:

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. The story at the point at which an exit terminates and an exit discharge begins.

EXIT ENCLOSURE. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path ofegress travel in a vertical or horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way:

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. A path of egress travel from one building to an area in another building on approximately the same level, or a path of egress travel through or around a wall or partition to an area on approximately the same level in the same building, which affords safety from fire and smoke from the area of incidence and areas communicating therewith.

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. An exit component that is separated from other interior spaces of a building or structure by fire-resistance-rated construction and opening protectives, and provides for a protected path of egress travel in a horizontal direction to the exit discharge or the public way:

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. Panic hardware that is listed for use on fire door assemblies.

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FLIGHT. A continuous run of rectangular treads, winders or combination thereof from one landing to another.

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. The floor area within the inside perimeter of the exterior walls ofthe building under consideration, exclusive ofvent shafts and courts, without deduction for corridors' stairways, closets, the thickness of interior walls, columns or other features. The floor area of a building, or portion thereof, not provided with surrounding exterior walls shall be the usable area under the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above. The gross floor area shall not include shafts with no openings or interior courts.

FLOOR AREA, NET. The actual occupied area not including unoccupied accessory areas such as corridors, stairways, toilet rooms, mechanical rooms and closets.

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. Tiered seating having an overall shape and size that is capable of being reduced for purposes of moving or storing and is not a building element.

GRANDSTAND. Tiered seating supported on a dedicated structural system and two or more rows high and is not a building element (see" Bleachers").

GUARD. A building component or a system of building components located at or near the open sides of elevated walking surfaces that minimizes the possibility of a fall from the walking surface to a lower level.

HANDRAIL. A horizontal or sloping rail intended for grasping by the hand for guidance or support.

MEANS OF EGRESS. A continuous and unobstructed path of vertical and horizontal egress travel from any occupied portion of a building or structure to a public way. A means of egress consists of three separate and distinct parts: the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge.

MERCHANDISE PAD. A merchandise pad is an area for display of merchandise surrounded by aisles, permanent fixtures or walls. Merchandise pads contain elements such as nonfixed and moveable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions as indicated in Section 105.2 of the International BUilding Code from which customers browse or shop.

NOSING. The leading edge of treads of stairs and of landings at the top of stairway flights.

OCCUPANT LOAD. The number of persons for which the means ofegress of a building or portion thereof is designed.

PANIC HARDWARE. A door-latching assembly incorporating a device that releases the latch upon the application of a force in the direction of egress travel.

PHOTOLUMINESCENT. Having the property of emitting light that continues for a length of time after excitation by visible or invisible light has been removed.

PUBLIC WAY. A street, alley or other parcel of land open to the outside air leading to a street, that has been deeded, dedicated or otherwise permanently appropriated to the public for public use and which has a clear width and height of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm).

RAMP. A walking surface that has a running slope steeper than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (S-percent slope).

SCISSOR STAIR. Two interlocking stairways providing two separate paths ofegress located within one stairwell enclosure.

SELF-LUMINOUS. Illuminated by a self-contained power source, other than batteries, and operated independently of external power sources.

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. Seating served by means ofegress that is not subject to smoke accumulation within or under a structure.

STAIR. A change in elevation, consisting of one or more risers.

STAIRWAY. One or more flights of stairs, either exterior or interior, with the necessary landings and platforms connecting them, to form a continuous and uninterrupted passage from one level to another.

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. A stairway that is open on at least one side, except for required structural columns, beams, hand-rails and guards. The adj oining open areas shall be either yards, courts or public ways. The other sides of the exterior stairway need not be open.

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. A stairwaynot meeting the definition of an exterior stairway.

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. A stairway having a closed circular form in its plan view with uniform section-shaped treads attached to and radiating from a minimum-diameter supporting column.

SUITE. A group of patient treatment rooms or patient sleeping rooms within Group 1-2 occupancies where staff are in attendance within the suite, for supervision of all patients within the suite and the suite is in compliance with the requirements of Sections 1014.2.2 through 1014.2.7.

WINDER. A tread with nonparallel edges.

[8] SECTION 1003
GENERAL MEANS OF EGRESS

1003.1 Applicability. The general requirements specified in Sections 1003 through 1013 shall apply to all three elements of the means of egress system, in addition to those specific requirements for the exit access, the exit and the exit discharge detailed elsewhere in this chapter.

1003.2 Ceiling height. The means ofegress shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. Sloped ceilings in accordance with Section 1208.2 of the International BUilding Code.
  2. Ceilings of dwelling units and sleeping units within residential occupancies in accordance with Section 1208.2 of the International BUilding Code.
  3. Allowable projections in accordance with Section 1003.3. 116
  4. Stair headroom in accordance with Section 1009.2.
  5. Door height in accordance with Section 1008.1.1.
  6. Ramp headroom in accordance with Section 1010.5.2.
  7. The clear height of floor levels in vehicular and pedestrian traffic areas in parking garages in accordance with Section 406.2.2 of the International BUilding Code.
  8. Areas above and below mezzanine floors in accordance with Section 505.1 of the International Building Code.

1003.3 Protruding objects. Protruding objects shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4.

1003.3.1 Headroom. Protruding objects are permitted to extend below the minimum ceiling height required by Section 1003.2 provided a minimum headroom of 80 inches (2032 mm) shall be provided for any walking surface, including walks, corridors, aisles and passageways. Not more than 50 percent of the ceiling area of a means ofegress shall be reduced in height by protruding objects.

Exception: Door closers and stops shall not reduce headroom to less than 78 inches (1981 mm).

A barrier shall be provided where the vertical clearance is less than 80 inches (2032 mm) high. The leading edge of such a barrier shall be located 27 inches (686 mm) maximum above the floor.

1003.3.2 Post-mounted objects. A free-standing object mounted on a post or pylon shall not overhang that post or pylon more than 4 inches (102 mm) where the lowest point of the leading edge is more than 27 inches (686 mm) and less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface. Where a sign or other obstruction is mounted between posts or pylons and the clear distance between the posts or pylons is greater than 12 inches (305 mm), the lowest edge of such sign or obstruction shall be 27 inches (686 mm) maximum or 80 inches (2032 mm) minimum above the finished floor or ground.

Exception: These requirements shall not apply to sloping portions of handrails between the top and bottom riser of stairs and above the ramp run.

1003.3.3 Horizontal projections. Structural elements, fixtures or furnishings shall not project horizontally from either side more than 4 inches (102 mm) over any walking surface between the heights of 27 inches (686 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the walking surface.

Exception: Handrails are permitted to protrude 4½ inches (114 mm) from the wall.

1003.3.4 Clear width. Protruding objects shall not reduce the minimum clear width of accessible routes.

1003.4 Floor surface. Walking surfaces of the means ofegress shall have a slip-resistant surface and be securely attached.

1003.5 Elevation change. Where changes in elevation of less than 12 inches (305 mm) exist in the means ofegress, sloped surfaces shall be used. Where the slope is greater than one unit vertical in 20 units horizontal (5-percent slope), ramps complying with Section 1010 shall be used. Where the difference in elevation is 6 inches (152 mm) or less, the ramp shall be equipped with either handrails or floor finish materials that contrast with adjacent floor finish materials.

Exceptions:

  1. A single step with a maximum riser height of 7 inches (178 mm) is permitted for buildings with occupancies in Groups F, H, R-2, R-3, Sand U at exterior doors not required to be accessible by Chapter 11 of the International BUilding Code.
  2. A stair with a single riser or with two risers and a tread is permitted at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 11 of the International BUilding Code, provided that the risers and treads comply with Section 1009.4, the minimum depth of the tread is 13 inches (330 mm) and at least one handrail complying with Section 1012 is provided within 30 inches (762 mm) of the centerline of the normal path of egress travel on the stair.
  3. A step is permitted in aisles serving seating that has a difference in elevation less than 12 inches (305 mm) at locations not required to be accessible by Chapter 11 of the International BUilding Code, provided that the risers and treads comply with Section 1028.11 and the aisle is provided with a handrail complying with Section 1028.13.

Throughout a story in a Group 1-2 occupancy, any change in elevation in portions of the exit access that serve nonambulatory persons shall be by means of a ramp or sloped walkway.

1003.6 Means of egress continuity. The path of egress travel along a means ofegress shall not be interrupted by any building element other than a means ofegress component as specified in this chapter. Obstructions shall not be placed in the required width of a means ofegress except projections permitted by this chapter. The required capacity of a means of egress system shall not be diminished along the path of egress travel.

1003.7 Elevators, escalators and moving walks. Elevators, escalators and moving walks shall not be used as a component of a required means ofegress from any other part of the building.

Exception: Elevators used as an accessible means ofegress in accordance with Section 1007.4.

[8] SECTION 1004
OCCUPANT LOAD

1004.1 Design occupant load. In determining means ofegress requirements, the number of occupants for whom means of egress facilities shall be provided shall be determined in accordance with this section. Where occupants from accessory areas egress through a primary space, the calculated occupant load for the primary space shall include the total occupant load of the primary space plus the number of occupants egressing through it from the accessory area.

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1004.1.1 Areas without fixed seating. The number of occupants shall be computed at the rate of one occupant per unit of area as prescribed in Table 1004.1.1. For areas without fixed seating, the occupant load shall not be less than that number determined by dividing the floor area under consideration by the occupant per unit of area factor assigned to the occupancy as set forth in Table 1004.1.1. Where an intended use is not listed in Table 1004.1.1, the building official shall establish a use based on a listed use that most nearly resembles the intended use.

Exception: Where approvedby the building official, the actual number of occupants for whom each occupied space, floor or building is designed, although less than those determined by calculation, shall be permitted to be used in the determination of the design occupant load.

1004.2 Increased occupant load. The occupantload permitted in any building, or portion thereof, is permitted to be increased from that number established for the occupancies in Table 1004.1.1, provided that all other requirements of the code are also met based on such modified number and the occupant load does not exceed one occupant per 7 square feet (0.65 m2) of occupiable floor space. Where required by the building official, an approvedaisle, seating or fixed equipment diagram substantiating any increase in occupant load shall be submitted. Where required by the building official, such diagram shall be posted.

1004.3 Posting of occupant load. Every room or space that is an assembly occupancy shall have the occupant load of the room or space posted in a conspicuous place, near the main exit or exit access doorway from the room or space. Posted signs shall be of an approved legible permanent design and shall be maintained by the owner or authorized agent.

1004.4 Exiting from multiple levels. Where exits serve more than one floor, only the occupantload of each floor considered individually shall be used in computing the required capacity of the exits at that floor, provided that the exit capacity shall not decrease in the direction of egress travel.

1004.5 Egress convergence. Where means of egress from floors above and below converge at an intermediate level, the capacity of the means ofegress from the point of convergence shall not be less than the sum of the two floors.

1004.6 Mezzanine levels. The occupant load of a mezzanine level with egress onto a room or area below shall be added to that room or area's occupantload, and the capacity ofthe exits shall be designed for the total occupantloadthus established.

1004.7 Fixed seating. For areas having fixed seats and aisles, the occupant load shall be determined by the number of fixed seats installed therein. The occupant load for areas in which fixed seating is not installed, such as waiting spaces and wheel-chair spaces, shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004.1.1 and added to the number of fixed seats.

For areas having fixed seating without dividing arms, the occupant load shall not be less than the number of seats based on one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) ofseating length.

The occupant load of seating booths shall be based on one person for each 24 inches (610 mm) of booth seat length measured at the backrest of the seating booth.

TABLE 1004.1.1
MAXIMUM FLOOR AREA ALLOWANCES PER OCCUPANT
FUNCTION OF SPACE FLOOR AREA IN SQ. FT. PER OCCUPANT
Accessory storage areas, mechanical equipment room 300 gross
Agricultural building 300 gross
Aircraft hangars 500 gross
Airport terminal
    Baggage claim
    Baggage handling
    Concourse
    Waiting areas
20 gross
300 gross
100 gross
15 gross
Assembly
    Gaming floors (keno, slots, etc.)
11 gross
Assembly with fixed seats See Section 1004.7
Assembly without fixed seats
    Concentrated (chairs only-not fixed)
    Standing space
    Unconcentrated (tables and chairs)
7 net
5 net
15 net
Bowling centers, allow 5 persons for each lane including 15 feet of runway, and for additional areas 7 net
Business areas 100 gross
Courtrooms-other than fixed seating areas 40 net
Day care 35 net
Dormitories 50 gross
Educational
    Classroom area
    Shops and other vocational room areas
20 net
50 net
Exercise rooms 50 gross
H-5 Fabrication and manufacturing areas 200 gross
Industrial areas 100 gross
Institutional areas
    Inpatient treatment areas
    Outpatient areas
    Sleeping areas
240 gross
100 gross
120 gross
Kitchens, commercial 200 gross
Library
    Reading rooms
    Stack area
50 net
100 gross
Locker rooms 50 gross
Mercantile
    Areas on other floors
    Basement and grade floor areas
    Storage, stock, shipping areas
60 gross
30 gross
300 gross
Parking garages 200 gross
Residential 200 gross
Skating rinks, swimming pools
    Rink and pool
    Decks
15 gross
50 gross
Stages and platforms 15 net
Warehouses 500 gross
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
118

1004.8 Outdoor areas. Yards, patios, courts and similar outdoor areas accessible to and usable by the building occupants shall be provided with means ofegress as required by this chapter. The occupant load of such outdoor areas shall be assigned by the building official in accordance with the anticipated use. Where outdoor areas are to be used by persons in addition to the occupants of the building, and the path of egress travel from the outdoor areas passes through the building, means of egress requirements for the building shall be based on the sum of the occupant loads of the building plus the outdoor areas.

Exceptions:

  1. Outdoor areas used exclusively for service of the building need only have one means ofegress.
  2. Both outdoor areas associated with Group R-3 and individual dwelling units of Group R-2.

1004.9 Multiple occupancies. Where a building contains two or more occupancies, the means of egress requirements shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy of that space. Where two or more occupancies utilize portions of the same means of egress system, those egress components shall meet the more stringent requirements of all occupancies that are served.

[8] SECTION 1005
EGRESS WIDTH

1005.1 Minimum required egress width. The means of egress width shall not be less than required by this section. The total width of means ofegress in inches (mm) shall not be less than the total occupantload served by the means ofegress multiplied by 0.3 inches (7.62 mm) per occupant for stairways and by 0.2 inches (5.08 mm) per occupant for other egress components. The width shall not be less than specified elsewhere in this code. Multiple means ofegress shall be sized such that the loss of anyone means ofegress shall not reduce the available capacity to less than 50 percent of the required capacity. The maximum capacity required from any story of a building shall be maintained to the termination of the means ofegress.

Exception: Means ofegress complying with Section 1028.

1005.2 Door encroachment. Doors, when fully opened, and handrails shall not reduce the required means ofegress width by more than 7 inches (178 mm). Doors in any position shall not reduce the required width by more than one-half. Other nonstructural projections such as trim and similar decorative features shall be permitted to project into the required width a maximum of 1½ inches (38 mm) on each side.

Exception: The restrictions on a door swing shall not apply to doors within individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R-2 and dwelling units of Group R-3.

1005.3 Door hardware encroachment. Surface-mounted latch release hardware shall be exempt from inclusion in the 7-inch (178 mm) maximum projection requirement of Section 1005.2 when:

  1. The hardware is mounted to the side of the door facing the corridor width when the door is in the open position; and
  2. The hardware is mounted not less than 34 inches (865 mm) or more than 48 inches (1220 mm) above the finished floor.

[8] SECTION 1006
MEANS OF EGRESS ILLUMINATION

1006.1 Illumination required. The means ofegress, including the exit discharge, shall be illuminated at all times the building space served by the means ofegress is occupied.

Exceptions:

  1. Occupancies in Group U.
  2. Aisle accessways in Group A.
  3. Dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-l, R-2 and R-3.
  4. Sleeping units of Group I occupancies.

1006.2 Illumination level. The means ofegress illumination level shall not be less than 1 foot-candle (11 lux) at the walking surface.

Exception: For auditoriums, theaters, concert or opera halls and similar assembly occupancies, the illumination at the walking surface is permitted to be reduced during performances to not less than 0.2 foot-candle (2.15 lux), provided that the required illumination is automatically restored upon activation of a premises' fire alarm system where such system is provided.

1006.3 Illumination emergency power. The power supply for means ofegress illumination shall normally be provided by the premises' electrical supply.

In the event of power supply failure, an emergency electrical system shall automatically illuminate all of the following areas:

  1. Aisles and unenclosed egress stairways in rooms and spaces that require two or more means ofegress.
  2. Corridors, exit enclosures and exit passageways in buildings required to have two or more exits.
  3. Exterior egress components at other than their levels of exit discharge until exit discharge is accomplished for buildings required to have two or more exits.
  4. Interior exit discharge elements, as permitted in Section 1027.1, in buildings required to have two or more exits.
  5. Exterior landings as required by Section 1008.1.6 for exit discharge doorways in buildings required to have two or more exits.

The emergency power system shall provide power for a duration of not less than 90 minutes and shall consist ofstorage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Chapter 27 of the International BUilding Code.

1006.4 Performance ofsystem. Emergency lighting facilities shall be arranged to provide initial illumination that is at least an average of 1 foot-candle (11 lux) and a minimum at any point of 0.1 foot-candle (1 lux) measured along the path of egress at floor level. Illumination levels shall be permitted to decline to 0.6 foot-candle (6 lux) average and a minimum at any point of 0.06 foot-candle (0.6 lux) at the end of the emergency lighting time duration. A maximum-to-minimum illumination uniformity ratio of 40 to 1 shall not be exceeded.

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[B] SECTION 1007
ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS

1007.1 Accessible means of egress required. Accessible means of egress shall comply with this section. Accessible spaces shall be provided with not less than one accessible means of egress. Where more than one means of egress are required by Section 1015.1 or 1021.1 from any accessible space, each accessible portion of the space shall be served by not less than two accessible means ofegress.

Exceptions:

  1. Accessible means ofegress are not required in alterations to existing buildings.
  2. One accessible means of egress is required from an accessible mezzanine level in accordance with Section 1007.3, 1007.4 or 1007.5.
  3. In assembly areas with sloped or stepped aisles, one accessible means of egress is permitted where the common path of travel is accessible and meets the requirements in Section 1028.8.

1007.2 Continuity and components. Each required accessible means of egress shall be continuous to a public way and shall consist of one or more of the following components:

  1. Accessible routes complying with Section 1104 of the International BUilding Code.
  2. Interior exit stairways complying with Sections 1007.3 and 1022.
  3. Exterior exit stairways complying with Sections 1007.3 and 1026.
  4. Elevators complying with Section 1007.4.
  5. Platform lifts complying with Section 1007.5.
  6. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1025.
  7. Ramps complying with Section 1010.
  8. Areas ofrefuge complying with Section 1007.6.

Exceptions:

  1. Where the exit discharge is not accessible, an exterior area for assisted rescue must be provided in accordance with Section 1007.7.
  2. Where the exit stairway is open to the exterior, the accessible means of egress shall include either an area ofrefuge in accordance with Section 1007.6 or an exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Section 1007.7.

1007.2.1 Elevators required. In buildings where a required accessible floor is four or more stories above or below a level of exit discharge, at least one required accessible means ofegress shall be an elevator complying with Section 1007.4.

Exceptions:

  1. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a horizontal exitand located at or above the levels ofexit discharge.
  2. In buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the elevator shall not be required on floors provided with a ramp conforming to the provisions of Section 1010.

1007.3 Stairways. In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress, an exit access stairway as permitted by Section 1016.1 or exit stairway shall have a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum between handrails and shall either incorporate an area of refuge within an enlarged floor-level landing or shall be accessed from either an area ofrefuge complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal exit.

Exceptions:

  1. The area ofrefuge is not required at open exit access or exit stairways as permitted by Sections 1016.1 and 1022.1 in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  2. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails is not required at exit access stairway as permitted by Section 1016.1 or exit stairways in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  3. Areas ofrefuge are not required at exit stairways in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  4. The clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails is not required for exit stairways accessed from a horizontal exit.
  5. Areas ofrefuge are not required at exitstairwaysserving open parking garages.
  6. Areas ofrefuge are not required for smoke protected seating areas complying with Section 1028.6.2.
  7. The areas of refuge are not required in Group R-2 occupancies.

1007.4 Elevators. In order to be considered part of an accessible means of egress, an elevator shall comply with the emergency operation and signaling device requirements of Section 2.27 of ASME A17.1. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Section 604.2.5 of this code and Section 3003 of the International BUilding Code. The elevator shall be accessed from either an area ofrefuge complying with Section 1007.6 or a horizontal exit.

Exceptions:

  1. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area ofrefuge or horizontal exitin openparkinggarages.
  2. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area ofrefuge or horizontal exit in buildings and facilities equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system 120 installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  3. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in accordance with Section 708.2 of the International Building Code are not required to be accessed from an area ofrefuge or horizontal exit.
  4. Elevators are not required to be accessed from an area ofrefuge or horizontal exit for smoke-protected seating areas complying with Section 1028.6.2.

1007.5 Platform lifts. Platform (wheelchair) lifts shall not serve as part of an accessible means of egress, except where allowed as part of a required accessible route in Section 1109.7, Items 1 through 9, of the International BUilding Code. Standby power shall be provided in accordance with Section 604.2.6 of this code for platform lifts permitted to serve as part of a means ofegress.

1007.5.1 Openness. Platform lifts on an accessible means ofegress shall not be installed in a fully enclosed hoistway.

1007.6 Areas ofrefuge. Every required area ofrefuge shall be accessible from the space it serves by an accessible means of egress. The maximum travel distance from any accessible space to an area ofrefuge shall not exceed the travel distance permitted for the occupancy in accordance with Section 1016.1. Every required area ofrefuge shall have direct access to a stairwaywithin an exit enclosure complying with Sections 1007.3 and 1022 or an elevator complying with Section 1007.4. Where an elevator lobby is used as an area ofrefuge, the shaft and lobby shall comply with Section 1022.9 for smokeproof enclosures except where the elevators are in an area ofrefuge formed by a horizontal exit or smoke barrier:

Exceptions:

  1. A stairwayserving an area ofrefuge is not required to be enclosed where permitted in Sections 1016.1 and 1022.1.
  2. Smokeproofenclosure is not required for an elevator lobby used as an area of refuge not required to be enclosed.

1007.6.1 Size. Each area ofrefuge shall be sized to accommodate one wheelchair space of 30 inches by 48 inches (762 mm by 1219 mm) for each 200 occupants or portion thereof, based on the occupantloadofthe area ofrefuge and areas served by the area ofrefuge. Such wheelchair spaces shall not reduce the required means ofegress width. Access to any of the required wheelchair spaces in an area ofrefuge shall not be obstructed by more than one adjoining wheel-chair space.

1007.6.2 Separation. Each area ofrefuge shall be separated from the remainder of the story by a smoke barrier complying with Section 710 of the International Building Code or a horizontal exit complying with Section 1025. Each area of refuge shall be designed to minimize the intrusion ofsmoke.

Exception: Areas ofrefuge located within an exit enclosure.

1007.6.3 Two-way communication. Areas ofrefuge shall be provided with a two-way communication system complying with Sections 1007.8.1 and 1007.8.2.

1007.7 Exterior area for assisted rescue. The exterior area for assisted rescue must be open to the outside air and meet the requirements of Section 1007.6.1. Separation walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 of the International BUilding Code for exterior walls. Where walls or openings are between the area for assisted rescue and the interior of the building, the building exterior walls within 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour. This construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor level ofthe area for assisted rescue or to the roof line, whichever is lower.

1007.7.1 Openness. The exterior area for assisted rescue shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.

1007.7.2 Exterior exit stairway. Exterior exit stairways that are part of the means ofegress for the exterior area for assisted rescue shall provide a clear width of 48 inches (1219 mm) between handrails.

1007.8 Two-way communication. A two-way communication system shall be provided at the elevator landing on each accessible floor that is one or more stories above or below the story of exit discharge complying with Sections 1007.8.1 and 1007.8.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Two-way communication systems are not required at the elevator landing where the two-way communication system is provided within areas of refuge in accordance with Section 1007.6.3.
  2. Two-way communication systems are not required on floors provided with exit ramps conforming to the provisions of Section 1010.

1007.8.1 System requirements. Two-way communication systems shall provide communication between each required location and the fire command center or a central control point location approved by the fire department. Where the central control point is not constantly attended, a two-way communication system shall have a timed automatic telephone dial-out capability to a monitoring location or 911. The two-way communication system shall include both audible and visible signals.

1007.8.2 Directions. Directions for the use of the two-way communication system, instructions for summoning assistance via the two-way communication system and written identification of the location shall be posted adjacent to the two-way communication system.

1007.9 Signage. Signage indicating special accessibility provisions shall be provided as shown:

  1. Each door providing access to an area ofrefuge from an adjacent floor area shall be identified by a sign stating: AREA OF REFUGE. 121
  2. Each door providing access to an exterior area for assisted rescue shall be identified by a sign stating: EXTERIOR AREA FOR ASSISTED RESCUE.

Signage shall comply with the ICC A117.1 requirements for visual characters and include the International Symbol of Accessibility. Where exit sign illumination is required by Section 1011.2, the signs shall be illuminated. Additionally, tactile signage complying with ICC All 7.1 shall be located at each door to an area ofrefuge and exterior area for assisted rescue in accordance with Section 1011.3.

1007.10 Directional signage. Direction signage indicating the location of the other means ofegress and which are accessible means ofegress shall be provided at the following:

  1. At exits serving a required accessible space but not providing an approved accessible means ofegress.
  2. At elevator landings.
  3. Within areas ofrefuge.

1007.11 Instructions. In areas ofrefuge and exterior areas for assisted rescue, instructions on the use of the area under emergency conditions shall be posted. The instructions shall include all of the following:

  1. Persons able to use the exit stairway do so as soon as possible, unless they are assisting others.
  2. Information on planned availability of assistance in the use ofstairs or supervised operation ofelevators and how to summon such assistance.
  3. Directions for use of the two-way communications system where provided.

[8] SECTION 1008
DOORS, GATES AND TURNSTILES

1008.1 Doors. Means of egress doors shall meet the requirements of this section. Doors serving a means ofegress system shall meet the requirements of this section and Section 1020.2. Doors provided for egress purposes in numbers greater than required by this code shall meet the requirements of this section.

Means ofegress doors shall be readily distinguishable from the adjacent construction and finishes such that the doors are easily recognizable as doors. Mirrors or similar reflecting materials shall not be used on means ofegress doors. Means of egress doors shall not be concealed by curtains, drapes, decorations or similar materials.

1008.1.1 Size of doors. The minimum width of each door opening shall be sufficient for the occupantloadthereof and shall provide a clear width of 32 inches (813 mm). Clear openings of doorways with swinging doors shall be measured between the face of the door and the stop, with the door open 90 degrees (1.57 rad). Where this section requires a minimum clear width of 32 inches (813 mm) and a door opening includes two door leaves without a mullion, one leaf shall provide a clear opening width of 32 inches (813 mm). The maximum width of a swinging door leaf shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) nominal. Means ofegress doors in a Group 1-2 occupancy used for the movement of beds shall provide a clear width not less than 41 ½ inches (1054 mm). The height of door openings shall not be less than 80 inches (2032 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. The minimum and maximum width shall not apply to door openings that are not part of the required means ofegress in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies.
  2. Door openings to resident sleeping units in Group I-3 occupancies shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).
  3. Door openings to storage closets less than 10 square feet (0.93 m2) in area shall not be limited by the minimum width.
  4. Width of door leaves in revolving doors that comply with Section 1008.1.4.1 shall not be limited.
  5. Door openings within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit shall not be less than 78 inches (1981 mm) in height.
  6. Exterior door openings in dwelling units and sleeping units, other than the required exit door, shall not be less than 76 inches (1930 mm) in height.
  7. In other than Group R-1 occupancies, the minimum widths shall not apply to interior egress doors within a dwelling unit or sleeping unit that is not required to be an Accessible unit, Type A unit or TypeB unit.

1008.1.1.1 Projections into clear width. There shall not be projections into the required clear width lower than 34 inches (864 mm) above the floor or ground. Projections into the clear opening width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) above the floor or ground shall not exceed 4 inches (102 mm).

Exception: Door closers and door stops shall be permitted to be 78 inches (1980 mm) minimum above the floor.

1008.1.2 Door swing. Egress doors shall be of the pivoted or side-hinged swinging type.

Exceptions:

  1. Private garages, office areas, factory and storage areas with an occupant load of 10 or less.
  2. Group 1-3 occupancies used as a place of detention.
  3. Critical or intensive care patient rooms within suites of health care facilities. 122
  4. Doors within or serving a single dwelling unit in Groups R-2 and R-3.
  5. In other than Group H occupancies, revolving doors complying with Section 1008.1.4.1.
  6. In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.4.3 are permitted in a means ofegress.
  7. Power-operated doors in accordance with Section 1008.1.4.2.
  8. Doors serving a bathroom within an individual sleeping unit in Group R-l.
  9. In other than Group H occupancies, manually operated horizontal sliding doors are permitted in a means of egress from spaces with an occupant load of 10 or less.

Doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel where serving an occupant load of 50 or more persons or a Group H occupancy.

1008.1.3 Door opening force. The force for pushing or pulling open interior swinging egress doors, other than fire doors, shall not exceed 5 pounds (22 N). For other swinging doors, as well as sliding and folding doors, the door latch shall release when subjected to a IS-pound (67 N) force. The door shall be set in motion when subjected to a 30-pound (133 N) force. The door shall swing to a full-open position when subjected to a IS-pound (67 N) force.

1008.1.3.1 Location of applied forces. Forces shall be applied to the latch side of the door.

1008.1.4 Special doors. Special doors and security grilles shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1008.1.4.1 through 1008.1.4.5.

1008.1.4.1 Revolving doors. Revolving doors shall comply with the following:

  1. Each revolving door shall be capable of collapsing into a bookfold position with parallel egress paths providing an aggregate width of 36 inches (914 mm).
  2. A revolving door shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the foot of or top of stairs or escalators. A dispersal area shall be provided between the stairs or escalators and the revolving doors.
  3. The revolutions per minute (rpm) for a revolving door shall not exceed those shown in Table 1008.1.4.1.
  4. Each revolving door shall have a side-hinged swinging door which complies with Section 1008.1 in the same wall and within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the revolving door.
  5. Revolving doors shall not be part of an accessible route required by Section 1007 and Chapter 11 of the International BUilding Code.
TABLE 1008.1.4.1
REVOLVING DOOR SPEEDS
INSIDE DIAMETER (feet-inches) POWER-DRIVEN-TYPE SPEED CONTROL (rpm) MANUAL-TYPE SPEED CONTROL (rpm)
6-6 11 12
7-0 10 11
7-6 9 11
8-0 9 10
8-6 8 9
9-0 8 9
9-6 7 8
10-0 7 8
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.

1008.1.4.1.1 Egress component. A revolving door used as a component of a means ofegress shall comply with Section 1008.1.4.1 and the following three conditions:

  1. Revolving doors shall not be given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.
  2. Each revolving door shall be credited with no more than a 50-person capacity.
  3. Each revolving door shall be capable of being collapsed when a force of not more than 130 pounds (578 N) is applied within 3 inches (76 mm) of the outer edge of a wing.

1008.1.4.1.2 Other than egress component. A revolving door used as other than a component of a means of egress shall comply with Section 1008.1.4.1. The collapsing force of a revolving door not used as a component of a means ofegress shall not be more than 180 pounds (801 N).

Exception: A collapsing force in excess of 180 pounds (801 N) is permitted if the collapsing force is reduced to not more than 130 pounds (578 N) when at least one ofthe following conditions is satisfied:

  1. There is a power failure or power is removed to the device holding the door wings in position.
  2. There is an actuation of the automatic sprinkler system where such system is provided.
  3. There is an actuation of a smoke detection system which is installed in accordance with Section 907 to provide coverage in areas within the building which are within 75 feet (22 860 mm) of the revolving doors.
  4. There is an actuation of a manual control switch, in an approved location and clearly 123 defined, which reduces the holding force to below the 130-pound (578 N) force level.

1008.1.4.2 Power-operated doors. Where means of egress doors are operated by power, such as doors with a photoelectric-actuated mechanism to open the door upon the approach of a person, or doors with power-assisted manual operation, the design shall be such that in the event of power failure, the door is capable of being opened manually to permit means of egress travel or closed where necessary to safeguard means of egress. The forces required to open these doors manually shall not exceed those specified in Section 1008.1.3, except that the force to set the door in motion shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N). The door shall be capable of swinging from any position to the full width of the opening in which such door is installed when a force is applied to the door on the side from which egress is made. Full-power-operated doors shall comply with BHMA A156.1 O. Power-assisted and low-energy doors shall comply with BHMA A156.19.

Exceptions:

  1. Occupancies in Group 1-3.
  2. Horizontal sliding doors complying with Section 1008.1.4.3.
  3. For a biparting door in the emergency breakout mode, a door leaf located within a multiple-leaf opening shall be exempt from the minimum 32-inch (813 mm) single-leaf requirement of Section 1008.1.1, provided a minimum 32-inch (813 mm) clear opening is provided when the two biparting leaves meeting in the center are broken out.

1008.1.4.3 Horizontal sliding doors. In other than Group H occupancies, horizontal sliding doors permitted to be a component of a means of egress in accordance with Exception 6 to Section 1008.1.2 shall comply with all of the following criteria:

  1. The doors shall be power operated and shall be capable of being operated manually in the event of power failure.
  2. The doors shall be openable by a simple method from both sides without special knowledge or effort.
  3. The force required to operate the door shall not exceed 30 pounds (133 N) to set the door in motion and 15 pounds (67 N) to close the door or open it to the minimum required width.
  4. The door shall be openable with a force not to exceed 15 pounds (67 N) when a force of 250 pounds (1100 N) is applied perpendicular to the door adjacent to the operating device.
  5. The door assembly shall comply with the applicable fire protection rating and, where rated, shall be self-closing or automatic closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3, shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 80 and shall comply with Section 715 of the International BUilding Code.
  6. The door assembly shall have an integrated standby power supply.
  7. The door assembly power supply shall be electrically supervised.
  8. The door shall open to the minimum required width within 10 seconds after activation of the operating device.

1008.1.4.4 Access-controlled egress doors. The entrance doors in a means ofegress in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E, 1-2, M, R-1 or R-2 and entrance doors to tenant spaces in occupancies in Groups A, B, E, 1-2, M, R-1 and R-2 are permitted to be equipped with an approved entrance and egress access control system which shall be installed in accordance with all of the following criteria:

  1. A sensor shall be provided on the egress side arranged to detect an occupant approaching the doors. The doors shall be arranged to unlock by a signal from or loss of power to the sensor.
  2. Loss of power to that part of the access control system which locks the doors shall automatically unlock the doors.
  3. The doors shall be arranged to unlock from a manual unlocking device located 40 inches to 48 inches (1016 mm to 1219 mm) vertically above the floor and within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the secured doors. Ready access shall be provided to the manual unlocking device and the device shall be clearly identified by a sign that reads "PUSH TO EXIT." When operated, the manual unlocking device shall result in direct interruption of power to the lock-independent of the access control system electronics-and the doors shall remain unlocked for a minimum of 30 seconds.
  4. Activation of the building fire alarm system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors, and the doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.
  5. Activation of the building automatic sprinkler or fire detection system, if provided, shall automatically unlock the doors. The doors shall remain unlocked until the fire alarm system has been reset.
  6. Entrance doors in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E or M shall not be secured from the egress side during periods that the building is open to the general public.

1008.1.4.5 Security grilles. In Groups B, F, M and S, horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles are permitted at the main exit and shall be openable from the inside without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort during periods that the space is occupied. The grilles shall remain secured in the full-open position during the period of occupancy by the general public. Where two or more means ofegress are required, not more than one-halfofthe

124

exits or exit access doorways shall be equipped with horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles.

1008.1.5 Floor elevation. There shall be a floor or landing on each side of a door. Such floor or landing shall be at the same elevation on each side of the door. Landings shall be level except for exterior landings, which are permitted to have a slope not to exceed 0.25 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope).

Exceptions:

  1. Doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 where the following apply:

    1.1. A door is permitted to open at the top step of an interior flight of stairs, provided the door does not swing over the top step.

    1.2. Screen doors and storm doors are permitted to swing over stairs or landings.

  2. Exterior doors as provided for in Section 1003.5, Exception 1, and Section 1020.2, which are not on an accessible route.
  3. In Group R-3 occupancies not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units, the landing at an exterior doorway shall not be more than 7¾ inches (197 mm) below the top of the threshold, provided the door, other than an exterior storm or screen door, does not swing over the landing.
  4. Variations in elevation due to differences in finish materials, but not more than ½ inch (12.7 mm).
  5. Exterior decks, patios or balconies that are part of Type B dwelling units, have impervious surfaces and that are not more than 4 inches (102 mm) below the finished floor level of the adjacent interior space of the dwelling unit.

1008.1.6 Landings at doors. Landings shall have a width not less than the width of the stairway or the door, whichever is greater. Doors in the fully open position shall not reduce a required dimension by more than 7 inches (178 mm). When a landing serves an occupant load of 50 or more, doors in any position shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half its required width. Landings shall have a length measured in the direction of travel of not less than 44 inches (1118 mm).

Exception: Landing length in the direction of travel in Groups R-3 and U and within individual units of Group R-2 need not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).

1008.1.7 Thresholds. Thresholds at doorways shall not exceed ¾ inch (19.1 mm) in height for sliding doors serving dwelling units or ½ inch (12.7 mm) for other doors. Raised thresholds and floor level changes greater than ¼ inch (6.4 mm) at doorways shall be beveled with a slope not greater than one unit vertical in two units horizontal (50-percent slope).

Exception: The threshold height shall be limited to 7¾ inches (197 mm) where the occupancy is Group R-2 or R-3; the door is an exterior door that is not a component of the required means ofegress; the door, other than an exterior storm or screen door, does not swing over the landing or step; and the doorway is not on an accessible route as required by Chapter 11 of the International BUilding Code and is not part of an Accessible unit, Type A unit or Type B unit.

1008.1.8 Door arrangement. Space between two doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm) minimum plus the width of a door swinging into the space. Doors in a series shall swing either in the same direction or away from the space between the doors.

Exceptions:

  1. The minimum distance between horizontal sliding power-operated doors in a series shall be 48 inches (1219 mm).
  2. Storm and screen doors serving individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 need not be spaced 48 inches (1219 mm) from the other door.
  3. Doors within individual dwelling units in Groups R-2 and R-3 other than within Type A dwelling units.

1008.1.9 Door operations. Except as specifically permitted by this section egress doors shall be readily openable from the egress side without the use ofa key or special knowledge or effort.

1008.1.9.1 Hardware. Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices on doors required to be accessible by Chapter 11 of the International BUilding Code shall not require tight grasping, tight pinching or twisting of the wrist to operate.

1008.1.9.2 Hardware height. Door handles, pulls, latches, locks and other operating devices shall be installed 34 inches (864 mm) minimum and 48 inches (1219 mm) maximum above the finished floor. Locks used only for security purposes and not used for normal operation are permitted at any height.

Exception: Access doors or gates in barrier walls and fences protecting pools, spas and hot tubs shall be permitted to have operable parts of the release of latch on self-latching devices at 54 inches (1370 mm) maximum above the finished floor or ground, provided the self-latching devices are not also self-locking devices operated by means of a key, electronic opener or integral combination lock.

1008.1.9.3 Locks and latches. Locks and latches shall be permitted to prevent operation of doors where any of the following exists:

  1. Places of detention or restraint.
  2. In buildings in occupancy Group A having an occupant load of 300 or less, Groups B, F, M and S, and in places of religious worship, the main exterior door or doors are permitted to be equipped with key-operated locking devices from the egress side provided:

    2.1. The locking device is readily distinguishable as locked;

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    2.2. A readily visible durable sign is posted on the egress side on or adjacent to the door stating: THIS DOOR TO REMAIN UNLOCKED WHEN BUILDING IS OCCUPIED. The sign shall be in letters 1 inch (25 mm) high on a contrasting background; and

    2.3. The use of the key-operated locking device is revokable by the building official for due cause.

  3. Where egress doors are used in pairs, approved automatic flush bolts shall be permitted to be used, provided that the door leaf having the automatic flush bolts has no doorknob or surface-mounted hardware.
  4. Doors from individual dwelling or sleeping units of Group R occupancies having an occupant load of 10 or less are permitted to be equipped with a night latch, dead bolt or security chain, provided such devices are openable from the inside without the use of a key or tool.
  5. Fire doors after the minimum elevated temperature has disabled the unlatching mechanism in accordance with listed fire door test procedures.

1008.1.9.4 Bolt locks. Manually operated flush bolts or surface bolts are not permitted.

Exceptions:

  1. On doors not required for egress in individual dwelling units or sleeping units.
  2. Where a pair of doors serves a storage or equipment room, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf.
  3. Where a pair of doors serves an occupant load of less than 50 persons in a Group B, F or S occupancy, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf. The inactive leaf shall contain no doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.
  4. Where a pair of doors serves a Group B, F or S occupancy, manually operated edge- or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf provided such inactive leaf is not needed to meet egress width requirements and the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The inactive leaf shall contain no doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.
  5. Where a pair of doors serves patient care rooms in Group 1-2 occupancies, self-latching edge-or surface-mounted bolts are permitted on the inactive leaf provided that the inactive leaf is not needed to meet egress width requirements and the inactive leaf contains no doorknobs, panic bars or similar operating hardware.

1008.1.9.5 Unlatching. The unlatching of any door or leaf shall not require more than one operation.

Exceptions:

  1. Places of detention or restraint.
  2. Where manually operated bolt locks are permitted by Section 1008.1.9.4.
  3. Doors with automatic flush bolts as permitted by Section 1008.1.9.3, Exception 3.
  4. Doors from individual dwelling units and sleeping units of Group R occupancies as permitted by Section 1008.1.9.3, Exception 4.

1008.1.9.5.1 Closet and bathroom doors in Group R-4 occupancies. In Group R-4 occupancies, closet doors that latch in the closed position shall be openable from inside the closet, and bathroom doors that latch in the closed position shall be capable of being unlocked from the ingress side.

1008.1.9.6 Special locking arrangements in Group I -2. Approved delayed egress locks shall be permitted in a Group 1-2 occupancy where the clinical needs of persons receiving care require such locking. Delayed egress locks shall be permitted in such occupancies where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an exit.

  1. The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system.
  2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism.
  3. The door locks shall have the capability of being unlocked by a signal from the fire command center, a nursing station or other approved location.
  4. The procedures for the operation(s) of the unlocking system shall be described and approved as part of the emergency planning and preparedness required by Chapter 4.
  5. All clinical staffshall have the keys, codes or other means necessary to operate the locking devices.
  6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door.

Exception: Items 1 through 3 shall not apply to doors to areas where persons, because of clinical needs, require restraint or containment as part of the function of a mental hospital.

1008.1.9.7 Delayed egress locks. Approved, listed, delayed egress locks shall be permitted to be installed on doors serving any occupancy except Group A, E and H

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occupancies in buildings that are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or an approved automatic smoke or heat detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, provided that the doors unlock in accordance with Items 1 through 6 below. A building occupant shall not be required to pass through more than one door equipped with a delayed egress lock before entering an exit.

  1. The doors unlock upon actuation of the automatic sprinkler system or automatic fire detection system.
  2. The doors unlock upon loss of power controlling the lock or lock mechanism.
  3. The door locks shall have the capability of being unlocked by a signal from the fire command center.
  4. The initiation of an irreversible process which will release the latch in not more than 15 seconds when a force of not more than 15 pounds (67 N) is applied for 1 second to the release device. Initiation of the irreversible process shall activate an audible signal in the vicinity of the door. Once the door lock has been released by the application of force to the releasing device, relocking shall be by manual means only.

    Exception: Where approved, a delay of not more than 30 seconds is permitted.

  5. A sign shall be provided on the door located above and within 12 inches (305 mm) ofthe release device reading: PUSH UNTIL ALARM SOUNDS. DOOR CAN BE OPENED IN 15 [30] SECONDS.
  6. Emergency lighting shall be provided at the door.

1008.1.9.8 Electromagnetically locked egress doors. Doors in the means of egress that are not otherwise required to have panic hardware in buildings with an occupancy in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 and doors to tenant spaces in Group A, B, E, M, R-1 or R-2 shall be permitted to be electromagnetically locked if equipped with listed hardware that incorporates a built-in switch and meet the requirements below:

  1. The listedhardware that is affixed to the door leaf has an obvious method of operation that is readily operated under all lighting conditions.
  2. The listed hardware is capable of being operated with one hand.
  3. Operation of the listed hardware releases to the electromagnetic lock and unlocks the door immediately.
  4. Loss of power to the listedhardware automatically unlocks the door.

1008.1.9.9 Locking arrangements in correctional facilities. In occupancies in Groups A-2, A-3, A-4, B, E, F, 1-2, 1-3, M and S within correctional and detention facilities, doors in means of egress serving rooms or spaces occupied by persons whose movements are controlled for security reasons shall be permitted to be locked when equipped with egress control devices which shall unlock manually and by at least one of the following means:

  1. Activation of an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1;
  2. Activation of an approved manual alarm box; or
  3. A signal from a constantly attended location.

1008.1.9.10 Stairway doors. Interior stairwaymeans of egress doors shall be openable from both sides without the use of a key or special knowledge or effort.

Exceptions:

  1. Stairway discharge doors shall be openable from the egress side and shall only be locked from the opposite side.
  2. This section shall not apply to doors arranged in accordance with Section 403.5.3 of the International BUilding Code.
  3. In stairways serving not more than four stories, doors are permitted to be locked from the side opposite the egress side, provided they are openable from the egress side and capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center, if present, or a signal by emergency personnel from a single location inside the main entrance to the building.

1008.1.10 Panic and fire exit hardware. Doors serving a Group H occupancy and doors serving rooms or spaces with an occupantload of 50 or more in a Group A or E occupancy shall not be provided with a latch or lock unless it is panic hardware or fire exit hardware.

Exception: A main exit of a Group A occupancy in compliance with Section 1008.1.9.3, Item 2.

Electrical rooms with equipment rated 1,200 amperes or more and over 6 feet (1829 mm) wide that contain overcurrent devices, switching devices or control devices with exit or exit access doors shall be equipped with panic hardware or fire exithardware. The doors shall swing in the direction of egress travel.

1008.1.10.1 Installation. Where panic or fire exit hardware is installed, it shall comply with the following:

  1. Panic hardware shall be listed in accordance with UL 305;
  2. Fire exit hardware shall be listed in accordance with UL 10C and UL 305;
  3. The actuating portion of the releasing device shall extend at least one-halfofthe door leafwidth; and
  4. The maximum unlatching force shall not exceed 15 pounds (67 N).

1008.1.10.2 Balanced doors. If balanced doors are used and panic hardware is required, the panic hardware shall be the push-pad type and the pad shall not extend

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more than one-half the width of the door measured from the latch side.

1008.2 Gates. Gates serving the means of egress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Gates used as a component in a means ofegress shall conform to the applicable requirements for doors.

Exception: Horizontal sliding or swinging gates exceeding the 4-foot (1219 mm) maximum leaf width limitation are permitted in fences and walls surrounding a stadium.

1008.2.1 Stadiums. Panic hardware is not required on gates surrounding stadiums where such gates are under constant immediate supervision while the public is present, and where safe dispersal areas based on 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per occupant are located between the fence and enclosed space. Such required safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the enclosed space. See Section 1027.6 for means ofegress from safe dispersal areas.

1008.3 Turnstiles. Turnstiles or similar devices that restrict travel to one direction shall not be placed so as to obstruct any required means ofegress.

Exception: Each turnstile or similar device shall be credited with no more than a 50-person capacity where all of the following provisions are met:

  1. Each device shall turn free in the direction of egress travel when primary power is lost, and upon the manual release by an employee in the area.
  2. Such devices are not given credit for more than 50 percent of the required egress capacity.
  3. Each device is not more than 39 inches (991 mm) high.
  4. Each device has at least 16½ inches (419 mm) clear width at and below a height of 39 inches (991 mm) and at least 22 inches (559 mm) clear width at heights above 39 inches (991 mm).

Where located as part of an accessible route, turnstiles shall have at least 36 inches (914 mm) clear at and below a height of 34 inches (864 mm), at least 32 inches (813 mm) clear width between 34 inches (864 mm) and 80 inches (2032 mm) and shall consist of a mechanism other than a revolving device.

1008.3.1 High turnstile. Turnstiles more than 39 inches (991 mm) high shall meet the requirements for revolving doors.

1008.3.2 Additional door. Where serving an occupantload greater than 300, each turnstile that is not portable shall have a side-hinged swinging door which conforms to Section 1008.1 within 50 feet (15 240 mm).

[8] SECTION 1009
STAIRWAYS

1009.1 Stairway width. The width of stairways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm). See Section 1007.3 for accessible means ofegress stairways.

Exceptions:

  1. Stairways serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall have a width of not less than 36 inches (914 mm).
  2. Spiral stairways as provided for in Section 1009.9.
  3. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1028.
  4. Where an incline platform lift or stairway chairlift is installed on stairways serving occupancies in Group R-3, or within dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, a clear passage width not less than 20 inches (508 mm) shall be provided. If the seat and platform can be folded when not in use, the distance shall be measured from the folded position.

1009.2 Headroom. Stairways shall have a minimum headroom clearance of 80 inches (2032 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the edge of the nosings. Such headroom shall be continuous above the stairway to the point where the line intersects the landing below, one tread depth beyond the bottom riser. The minimum clearance shall be maintained the full width of the stairway and landing.

Exceptions:

  1. Spiral stairways complying with Section 1009.9 are permitted a 78-inch (1981 mm) headroom clearance.
  2. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; where the nosings of treads at the side of a /light extend under the edge of a floor opening through which the stairpasses, the floor opening shall be allowed to project horizontally into the required headroom a maximum of 4¾ inches (121 mm).

1009.3 Walkline. The walkline across winder treads shall be concentric to the direction of travel through the turn and located 12 inches (305 mm) from the side where the winders are narrower. The 12-inch (305 mm) dimension shall be measured from the widest point of the clear stair width at the walking surface of the winder. If winders are adjacent within the /light, the point of the widest clear stair width of the adjacent winders shall be used.

1009.4 Stair treads and risers. Stair treads and risers shall comply with Sections 1009.4.1 through 1009.4.5.

1009.4.1 Dimension reference surfaces. For the purpose of this section, all dimensions are exclusive of carpets, rugs or runners.

1009.4.2 Riser height and tread depth. Stair riser heights shall be 7 inches (178 mm) maximum and 4 inches (102 mm) minimum. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent treads. Rectangular tread depths shall be 11 inches (279 mm) minimum measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads and at a right angle to the tread's leading edge. Winder treads shall have a minimum

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tread depth of 11 inches (279 mm) measured between the vertical planes of the foremost projection of adjacent treads at the intersections with the walkline and a minimum tread depth of 10 inches (254 mm) within the clear width of the stair.

Exceptions:

  1. Alternating tread devices in accordance with Section 1009.10.
  2. Ship ladders in accordance with Section 1009.11.
  3. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.9.
  4. Aisle stairs in assembly seating areas where the stair pitch or slope is set, for sightline reasons, by the slope ofthe adjacent seating area in accordance with Section 1028.11.2.
  5. In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; the maximum riser height shall be 7¾ inches (197 mm) ; the minimum tread depth shall be 10 inches (254 mm); the minimum winder tread depth at the walkline shall be 10 inches (254 mm); and the minimum winder tread depth shall be 6 inches (152 mm). A nosingnot less than ¾ inch (19.1 mm) but not more than 1¼ inches (32 mm) shall be provided on stairways with solid risers where the tread depth is less than 11 inches (279 mm).
  6. See Section 3404.1 of the International BUilding Code for the replacement of existing stairways.
  7. In Group 1-3 facilities, stairways providing access to guard towers, observation stations and control rooms, not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area, shall be permitted to have a maximum riser height of 8 inches (203 mm) and a minimum tread depth of 9 inches (229 mm).

1009.4.3 Winder treads. Windertreads are not permitted in means ofegress stairways except within a dwelling unit.

Exceptions:

  1. Curved stairways in accordance with Section 1009.8.
  2. Spiral stairways in accordance with Section 1009.9.

1009.4.4 Dimensional uniformity. Stair treads and risers shall be of uniform size and shape. The tolerance between the largest and smallest riser height or between the largest and smallest tread depth shall not exceed ⅜ inch (9.5 mm) in any flight of stairs. The greatest winder tread depth at the walkline within any flight of stairs shall not exceed the smallest by more than ⅜ inch (9.5 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. Nonuniform riser dimensions of aisle stairs complying with Section 1028.11.2.
  2. Consistently shaped winders, complying with Section 1009.4.2, differing from rectangular treads in the same stairway flight.

Where the bottom or top riser adjoins a sloping public way, walkway or driveway having an established grade and serving as a landing, the bottom or top riser is permitted to be reduced along the slope to less than 4 inches (102 mm) in height, with the variation in height of the bottom or top riser not to exceed one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope) of stairwaywidth. The nosings or leading edges of treads at such nonuniform height risers shall have a distinctive marking stripe, different from any other nosing marking provided on the stair flight. The distinctive marking stripe shall be visible in descent of the stair and shall have a slip-resistant surface. Marking stripes shall have a width of at least 1 inch (25 mm) but not more than 2 inches (51 mm).

1009.4.5 Profile. The radius ofcurvature at the leading edge of the tread shall be not greater than 9/16 inch (14.3 mm). Beveling of nosings shall not exceed 9/16 inch (14.3 mm). Risers shall be solid and vertical or sloped under the tread above from the underside ofthe nosingabove at an angle not more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) from the vertical. The leading edge (nosings) of treads shall project not more than 1¼ inches (32 mm) beyond the tread below and all projections of the leading edges shall be of uniform size, including the leading edge of the floor at the top of a flight.

Exceptions:

  1. Solid risers are not required for stairways that are not required to comply with Section 1007.3, provided that the opening between treads does not permit the passage of a sphere with a diameter of 4 inches (102 mm).
  2. Solid risers are not required for occupancies in Group 1-3 or in Group F, Hand S occupancies other than areas accessible to the public. There are no restrictions on the size of the opening in the riser.
  3. Solid risers are not required for spiral stairways constructed in accordance with Section 1009.9.
  4. Solid risers are not required for alternating tread devices constructed in accordance with Section 1009.10.

1009.5 Stairway landings. There shall be a floor or landing at the top and bottom of each stairway. The width of landings shall not be less than the width of stairways they serve. Every landing shall have a minimum dimension measured in the direction of travel equal to the width of the stairway. Such dimension need not exceed 48 inches (1219 mm) where the stairwayhas a straight run. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the landing to less than one-half the required width. When fully open, the door shall not project more than 7 inches (178 mm) into a landing. When wheelchair spaces are required on the stairway landing in accordance with Section 1007.6.1, the wheelchair space shall not be located in the required width

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of the landing and doors shall not swing over the wheelchair spaces.

Exception: Aisle stairs complying with Section 1028.

1009.6 Stairway construction. All stairways shall be built of materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall be permitted for all types of construction.

1009.6.1 Stairway walking surface. The walking surface of treads and landings of a stairway shall not be sloped steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in any direction. Stairway treads and landings shall have a solid surface. Finish floor surfaces shall be securely attached.

Exceptions:

  1. Openings in stair walking surfaces shall be a size that does not permit the passage of½ inch-diameter (12.7 mm) sphere. Elongated opening shall be placed so that the long dimension is perpendicular to the direction of travel.
  2. In Group F, Hand S occupancies, other than areas of parking structures accessible to the public, openings in treads and landings shall not be prohibited provided a sphere with a diameter of 1⅛ inches (29 mm) cannot pass through the opening.

1009.6.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor stairways and outdoor approaches to stairways shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces.

1009.6.3 Enclosures under stairways. The walls and soffits within enclosed usable spaces under enclosed and unen-closed stairways shall be protected by I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or the fire-resistance rating of the stairway enclosure, whichever is greater. Access to the enclosed space shall not be directly from within the stair enclosure.

Exception: Spaces under stairways serving and contained within a single residential dwelling unit in Group R-2 or R-3 shall be permitted to be protected on the enclosed side with ½- inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.

There shall be no enclosed usable space under exterior exit stairways unless the space is completely enclosed in I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. The open space under exteriorstairways shall not be used for any purpose.

1009.7 Vertical rise. A flight of stairs shall not have a vertical rise greater than 12 feet (3658 mm) between floor levels or landings.

Exceptions:

  1. Aisle stairs complying with Section 1028.
  2. Alternating tread devices used as a means of egress shall not have a rise greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) between floor levels or landings.

1009.8 Curved stairways. Curved stairways with winder treads shall have treads and risers in accordance with Section 1009.4 and the smallest radius shall not be less than twice the required width of the stairway.

Exception: The radius restriction shall not apply to curved stairways for occupancies in Group R-3 and within individual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2.

1009.9 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways are permitted to be used as a component in the means ofegress only within dwelling units or from a space not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area and serving not more than five occupants, or from galleries, catwalks and gridirons in accordance with Section 1015.6.

A spiral stairway shall have a 7½-inch (191 mm) minimum clear tread depth at a point 12 inches (305 mm) from the narrow edge. The risers shall be sufficient to provide a headroom of 78 inches (1981 mm) minimum, but riser height shall not be more than inches (241 mm). The minimum stairway clear width at and below the handrail shall be 26 inches (660 mm).

1009.10 Alternating tread devices. Alternating tread devices are limited to an element of a means ofegress in buildings of Groups F, Hand S from a mezzanine not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area and which serves not more than five occupants; in buildings of Group 1-3 from a guard tower, observation station or control room not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area and for access to unoccupied roofs.

1009.10.1 Handrails of alternating tread devices. Hand-rails shall be provided on both sides of alternating tread devices and shall comply with Section 1012.

1009.10.2 Treads of alternating tread devices. Alternating tread devices shall have a minimum projected tread of 5 inches (127 mm), a minimum tread depth of8½ inches (216 mm), a minimum tread width of 7 inches (178 mm) and a maximum riser height of inches (241 mm). The projected tread depth shall be measured horizontally between the vertical planes of the foremost projections of adjacent treads. The riser height shall be measured vertically between the leading edges of adjacent treads. The combination of riser height and projected tread depth provided shall result in an alternating tread device angle that complies with Section 1002. The initial tread of the device shall begin at the same elevation as the platform, landing or floor surface.

Exception: Alternating tread devices used as an element of a means ofegress in buildings from a mezzanine area not more than 250 square feet (23 m2) in area which serves not more than five occupants shall have a minimum projected tread of8½ inches (216 mm) with a minimum tread depth of 10½ inches (267 mm). The rise to the next alternating tread surface should not be more than 8 inches (203 mm).

1009.11 Ship ladders. Ship ladders are permitted to be used in Group 1-3 as a component ofa means ofegress to and from control rooms or elevated facility observation stations not more

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than 250 square feet (23 m2) with not more than three occupants and for access to unoccupied roofs.

Ship ladders shall have a minimum tread depth of 5 inches (127 mm). The tread shall be projected such that the total of the tread depth plus the nosing projection is not less than 8½ inches (216 mm). The maximum riser height shall be 9½ inches (241 mm).

Handrails shall be provided on both sides of ship ladders. The minimum clear width at and below the handrails shall be 20 inches (508 mm).

1009.12 Handrails. Stairways shall have handrails on each side and shall comply with Section 1012. Where glass is used to provide the handrail, the handrail shall also comply with Section 2407.

Exceptions:

  1. Handrails for aisle stairs are not required where permitted by Section 1028.13.
  2. Stairways within dwelling units, spiral stairways and aisle stairs serving seating only on one side are permitted to have a handrail on one side only.
  3. Decks, patios and walkways that have a single change in elevation where the landing depth on each side of the change of elevation is greater than what is required for a landing do not require handrails.
  4. In Group R-3 occupancies, a change in elevation consisting of a single riser at an entrance or egress door does not require handrails.
  5. Changes in room elevations of three or fewer risers within dwelling units and sleeping units in Groups R-2 and R-3 do not require handrails.

1009.13 Stairway to roof. In buildings four or more stories above grade plane, one stairway shall extend to the roof surface, unless the roof has a slope steeper than four units vertical in 12 units horizontal (33-percent slope). In buildings without an occupied roof, access to the roof from the top story shall be permitted to be by an alternating tread device.

1009.13.1 Roof access. Where a stairway is provided to a roof, access to the roof shall be provided through a penthouse complying with Section 1509.2 of the International BUilding Code.

Exception: In buildings without an occupied roof, access to the roof shall be permitted to be a roof hatch or trap door not less than 16 square feet (1.5 m2) in area and having a minimum dimension of 2 feet (610 mm).

1009.13.2 Protection at roof hatch openings. Where the roof hatch opening providing the required access is located within 10 feet (3049 mm) of the roof edge, such roof access or roof edge shall be protected by guards installed in accordance with the provisions of Section 1013.

1009.14 Stairway to elevator equipment. Roofs and penthouses containing elevator equipment that must be accessed for maintenance are required to be accessed by a stairway.

[8] SECTION 1010
RAMPS

1010.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to ramps used as a component of a means ofegress.

Exceptions:

  1. Other than ramps that are part of the accessible routes providing access in accordance with Sections 1108.2 through 1108.2.4 and 1108.2.6 of the International BUilding Code, ramped aisles within assembly rooms or spaces shall conform with the provisions in Section 1028.11.
  2. Curb ramps shall comply with ICC Al17.1.
  3. Vehicle ramps in parking garages for pedestrian exit access shall not be required to comply with Sections 1010.3 through 1010.9 when they are not an accessible route serving accessible parking spaces, other required accessible elements or part of an accessible means ofegress.

1010.2 Slope. Ramps used as part of a means of egress shall have a running slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope). The slope of other pedestrian ramps shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope).

Exception: Aisle ramp slope in occupancies of Group A or assembly occupancies accessory to Group E occupancies shall comply with Section 1028.11.

1010.3 Cross slope. The slope measured perpendicular to the direction of travel of a ramp shall not be steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope).

1010.4 Vertical rise. The rise for any ramp run shall be 30 inches (762 mm) maximum.

1010.5 Minimum dimensions. The minimum dimensions of means of egress ramps shall comply with Sections 1010.5.1 through 1010.5.3.

1010.5.1 Width. The minimum width of a means ofegress ramp shall not be less than that required for corridors by Section 1018.2. The clear width of a ramp between hand-rails, if provided, or other permissible projections shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum.

1010.5.2 Headroom. The minimum headroom in all parts of the means ofegress ramp shall not be less than 80 inches (2032 mm).

1010.5.3 Restrictions. Means of egress ramps shall not reduce in width in the direction of egress travel. Projections into the required ramp and landing width are prohibited. Doors opening onto a landing shall not reduce the clear width to less than 42 inches (1067 mm).

1010.6 Landings. Ramps shall have landings at the bottom and top ofeach ramp, points ofturning, entrance, exits and at doors. Landings shall comply with Sections 1010.6.1 through 1010.6.5.

1010.6.1 Slope. Landings shall have a slope not steeper than one unit vertical in 48 units horizontal (2-percent slope) in any direction. Changes in level are not permitted.

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1010.6.2 Width. The landing shall be at least as wide as the widest ramp run adjoining the landing.

1010.6.3 Length. The landing length shall be 60 inches (1525 mm) minimum.

Exceptions:

  1. In Group R-2 and R-3 individual dwelling and sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units in accordance with Section 1107 of the International BUilding Code, landings are permitted to be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum.
  2. Where the ramp is not a part ofan accessible route, the length of the landing shall not be required to be more than 48 inches (1220 mm) in the direction of travel.

1010.6.4 Change in direction. Where changes in direction of travel occur at landings provided between ramp runs, the landing shall be 60 inches by 60 inches (1524 mm by 1524 mm) minimum.

Exception: In Group R-2 and R-3 individual dwelling or sleeping units that are not required to be Accessible units, Type A units or Type B units in accordance with Section 1107 of the International BUilding Code, landings are permitted to be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) minimum.

1010.6.5 Doorways. Where doorways are located adjacent to a ramp landing, maneuvering clearances required by ICC Al17.1 are permitted to overlap the required landing area.

1010.7 Ramp construction. All ramps shall be built of materials consistent with the types permitted for the type of construction of the building, except that wood handrails shall be permitted for all types of construction. Ramps used as an exit shall conform to the applicable requirements of Sections 1022.1 through 1022.6 for exit enclosures.

1010.7.1 Ramp surface. The surface of ramps shall be of slip-resistant materials that are securely attached.

1010.7.2 Outdoor conditions. Outdoor ramps and outdoor approaches to ramps shall be designed so that water will not accumulate on walking surfaces.

1010.8 Handrails. Ramps with a rise greater than 6 inches (152 mm) shall have handrails on both sides. Handrails shall comply with Section 1012.

Exception: Handrails for ramped aisles are not required where permitted by Section 1028.13.

1010.9 Edge protection. Edge protection complying with Section 1010.9.1 or 1010.9.2 shall be provided on each side of ramp runs and at each side of ramp landings.

Exceptions:

  1. Edge protection is not required on ramps that are not required to have handrails, provided they have flared sides that comply with the ICC Al17.1 curb ramp provisions.
  2. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp landings serving an adjoining ramp run or stairway.
  3. Edge protection is not required on the sides of ramp landings having a vertical drop off of not more than ½ inch (12.7 mm) within 10 inches (254 mm) horizontally of the required landing area.
  4. In assembly spaces with fixed seating, edge protection is not required on the sides of ramps where the ramps provide access to the adjacent seating and aisle accessways.

1010.9.1 Curb, rail, wall or barrier. A curb, rail, wall or barrier shall be provided to serve as edge protection. A curb must be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) in height. Barriers must be constructed so that the barrier prevents the passage ofa 4-inch-diameter (102 mm) sphere, where any portion of the sphere is within 4 inches (102 mm) ofthe floor or ground surface.

1010.9.2 Extended floor or ground surface. The floor or ground surface of the ramp run or landing shall extend 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the inside face of a handrail complying with Section 1012.

1010.10 Guards. Guards shall be provided where required by Section 1013 and shall be constructed in accordance with Section 1013.

[8] SECTION 1011
EXIT SIGNS

1011.1 Where required. Exits and exit access doors shall be marked by an approved exit sign readily visible from any direction of egress travel. The path of egress travel to exits and within exits shall be marked by readily visible exit signs to clearly indicate the direction of egress travel in cases where the exit or the path of egress travel is not immediately visible to the occupants. Intervening means ofegress doors within exits shall be marked by exit signs. Exit sign placement shall be such that no point in an exit access corridor or exit passageway is more than 100 feet (30 480 mm) or the listedviewing distance for the sign, whichever is less, from the nearest visible exit sign.

Exceptions:

  1. Exit signs are not required in rooms or areas that require only one exit or exit access.
  2. Main exterior exit doors or gates that are obviously and clearly identifiable as exits need not have exit signs where approved by the building official.
  3. Exitsigns are not required in occupancies in Group U and individual sleeping units or dwelling units in Group R-1, R-2 or R-3.
  4. Exit signs are not required in dayrooms, sleeping rooms or dormitories in occupancies in Group I-3.
  5. In occupancies in Groups A-4 and A-5, exitsigns are not required on the seating side ofvomitories or openings into seating areas where exitsigns are provided in the concourse that are readily apparent from the vomitories. Egress lighting is provided to identify each vomitory or opening within the seating area in an emergency.
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1011.2 Illumination. Exit signs shall be internally or externally illuminated.

Exception: Tactile signs required by Section 1011.3 need not be provided with illumination.

1011.3 Tactile exit signs. A tactile sign stating EXIT and complying with ICC Al17.1 shall be provided adjacent to each door to an area ofrefuge, an exterior area for assisted rescue, an exit stairway, an exit ramp, an exitpassageway and the exit discharge.

1011.4 Internally illuminated exit signs. Electrically powered, self-luminous and photoluminescent exit signs shall be listed and labeled in accordance with UL 924 and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and Chapter 27 of the International BUilding Code. EXitsigns shall be illuminated at all times.

1011.5 Externally illuminated exit signs. Externally illuminated exit signs shall comply with Sections 1011.5.1 through 1011.5.3.

1011.5.1 Graphics. Every exitsign and directional exitsign shall have plainly legible letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high with the principal strokes of the letters not less than ¾ inch (19.1 mm) wide. The word "EXIT" shall have letters having a width not less than 2 inches (51 mm) wide, except the letter" I," and the minimum spacing between letters shall not be less than ⅜ inch (9.5 mm). Signs larger than the minimum established in this section shall have letter widths, strokes and spacing in proportion to their height.

The word" EXIT" shall be in high contrast with the background and shall be clearly discernible when the means of exit sign illumination is or is not energized. If a chevron directional indicator is provided as part of the exit sign, the construction shall be such that the direction of the chevron directional indicator cannot be readily changed.

1011.5.2 Exit sign illumination. The face of an exit sign illuminated from an external source shall have an intensity of not less than 5 foot-candles (54 lux).

1011.5.3 Power source. Exitsigns shall be illuminated at all times. To ensure continued illumination for a duration ofnot less than 90 minutes in case of primary power loss, the sign illumination means shall be connected to an emergency power system provided from storage batteries, unit equipment or an on-site generator. The installation of the emergency power system shall be in accordance with Chapter 27 of the International BUilding Code.

Exception: Approved exit sign illumination means that provide continuous illumination independent of external power sources for a duration of not less than 90 minutes, in case of primary power loss, are not required to be connected to an emergency electrical system.

[8] SECTION 1012
HANDRAILS

1012.1 Where required. Handrails for stairways and ramps shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 1607.7 of the International BUilding Code. Handrails required for stairways by Section 1009.12 shall comply with Sections 1012.2 through 1012.9. Handrails required for ramps by Section 1010.8 shall comply with Sections 1012.2 through 1012.8.

1012.2 Height. Handrailheight, measured above stairtread nosings, or finish surface of ramp slope, shall be uniform, not less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm). Handrail height of alternating tread devices and ship ladders, measured above tread nosings, shall be uniform, not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more than 34 inches (864 mm).

1012.3 Handrail graspability. All required handrails shall comply with Section 1012.3.1 or shall provide equivalent graspability.

Exception: In Group R-3 occupancies; within dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; and in Group U occupancies that are accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy or accessory to individual dwelling units in Group R-2 occupancies; handrails shall be Type I in accordance with Section 1012.3.1, Type II in accordance with Section 1012.3.2 or shall provide equivalent graspability.

1012.3.1 Type I. Handrails with a circular cross section shall have an outside diameter ofat least 1¼ inches (32 mm) and not greater than 2 inches (51 mm). If the handrail is not circular, it shall have a perimeter dimension of at least 4 inches (102 mm) and not greater than 6¼ inches (160 mm) with a maximum cross-section dimension of 2¼ inches (57 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).

1012.3.2 Type II. Handrails with a perimeter greater than 61¼ inches (160 mm) shall provide a graspable finger recess area on both sides of the profile. The finger recess shall begin within a distance of ¾ inch (19 mm) measured vertically from the tallest portion of the profile and achieve a depth of at least 5/16 inch (8 mm) within ⅞ inch (22 mm) below the widest portion of the profile. This required depth shall continue for at least ⅜ inch (10 mm) to a level that is not less than 1¾ inches (45 mm) below the tallest portion of the profile. The minimum width of the handrail above the recess shall be 1¼ inches (32 mm) to a maximum of 2¾ inches (70 mm). Edges shall have a minimum radius of 0.01 inch (0.25 mm).

1012.4 Continuity. Handrail-gripping surfaces shall be continuous, without interruption by newel posts or other obstructions.

Exceptions:

  1. Handrails within dwelling units are permitted to be interrupted by a newel post at a turn or landing.
  2. Within a dwelling unit, the use of a volute, turnout, starting easing or starting newel is allowed over the lowest tread.
  3. Handrailbrackets or balusters attached to the bottom surface of the handrail that do not project horizontally beyond the sides of the handrail within 1½ inches (38 mm) of the bottom of the handrail shall not be considered obstructions. For each ½ inch (12.7 mm) of additional handrail perimeter dimension 133 above 4 inches (102 mm), the vertical clearance dimension of 1½ inches (38 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced by l/S inch (3 mm).
  4. Where handrails are provided along walking surfaces with slopes not steeper than 1:20, the bottoms of the handrail gripping surfaces shall be permitted to be obstructed along their entire length where they are integral to crash rails or bumper guards.

1012.5 Fittings. Handrails shall not rotate within their fittings.

1012.6 Handrail extensions. Handrails shall return to a wall, guard or the walking surface or shall be continuous to the hand-rail of an adjacent stair flight or ramp run. Where handrails are not continuous between flights, the handrails shall extend horizontally at least 12 inches (305 mm) beyond the top riser and continue to slope for the depth of one tread beyond the bottom riser. At ramps where handrails are not continuous between runs, the handrails shall extend horizontally above the landing 12 inches (305 mm) minimum beyond the top and bottom of ramp runs. The extensions of handrails shall be in the same direction of the stair flights at stairways and the ramp runs at ramps.

Exceptions:

  1. Handrails within a dwelling unit that is not required to be accessible need extend only from the top riser to the bottom riser.
  2. Aisle handrails in Group A and E occupancies in accordance with Section 1028.13.
  3. Handrails for alternating tread devices and ship ladders are permitted to terminate at a location vertically above the top and bottom risers. Handrails for alternating tread devices and ship ladders are not required to be continuous between flights or to extend beyond the top or bottom risers.

1012.7 Clearance. Clear space between a handrail and a wall or other surface shall be a minimum of 1½ inches (38 mm). A handrail and a wall or other surface adjacent to the handrail shall be free of any sharp or abrasive elements.

1012.8 Projections. On ramps, the clear width between hand-rails shall be 36 inches (914 mm) minimum. Projections into the required width of stairways and ramps at each handrail shall not exceed 4½ inches (114 mm) at or below the handrail height. Projections into the required width shall not be limited above the minimum headroom height required in Section 1009.2.

1012.9 Intermediate handrails. Stairways shall have intermediate handrails located in such a manner that all portions of the stairway width required for egress capacity are within 30 inches (762 mm) of a handrail. On monumental stairs, hand-rails shall be located along the most direct path ofegress travel.

[8] SECTION 1013
GUARDS

1013.1 Where required. Guards shall be located along open-sided walking surfaces, including mezzanines, equipment platforms, stairs, ramps and landings that are located more than 30 inches (762 mm) measured vertically to the floor or grade below at any point within 36 inches (914 mm) horizontally to the edge of the open side. Guards shall be adequate in strength and attachment in accordance with Section 1607.7 of the International BUilding Code.

Exception: Guards are not required for the following locations:

  1. On the loading side of loading docks or piers.
  2. On the audience side of stages and raised platforms, including steps leading up to the stage and raised platforms.
  3. On raised stage and platform floor areas, such as run-ways, ramps and side stages used for entertainment or presentations.
  4. At vertical openings in the performance area of stages and platforms.
  5. At elevated walking surfaces appurtenant to stages and platforms for access to and utilization of special lighting or equipment.
  6. Along vehicle service pits not accessible to the public.
  7. In assembly seating where guards in accordance with Section 1028.14 are permitted and provided.

1013.1.1 Glazing. Where glass is used to provide a guard or as a portion ofthe guardsystem, the guardshall also comply with Section 2407 of the International BUilding Code. Where the glazing provided does not meet the strength and attachment requirements in Section 1607.7 of the International BUilding Code, complying guards shall also be located along glazed sides ofopen-sided walking surfaces.

1013.2 Height. Required guards shall be not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, measured vertically above the adjacent walking surfaces, adjacent fixed seating or the line connecting the leading edges of the treads.

Exceptions:

  1. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, guards on the open sides of stairs shall have a height not less than 34 inches (864 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.
  2. For occupancies in Group R-3, and within individual dwelling units in occupancies in Group R-2, where the top of the guard also serves as a handrail on the open sides of stairs, the top of the guard shall not be less than 34 inches (864 mm) and not more than 38 inches (965 mm) measured vertically from a line connecting the leading edges of the treads.
  3. The height in assembly seating areas shall be in accordance with Section 1028.14.
  4. Along alternating tread devices and ship ladders, guards whose top rail also serves as a handrail, shall have height not less than 30 inches (762 mm) and not more than 34 inches (864 mm), measured vertically from the leading edge of the device tread nosing.
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1013.3 Opening limitations. Required guards shall not have openings which allow passage ofa sphere 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter from the walking surface to the required guardheight.

Exceptions:

  1. From a height of 36 inches (914 mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm), guards shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 4⅜ inches (111 mm) in diameter.
  2. The triangular openings at the open sides of a stair, formed by the riser, tread and bottom rail shall not allow passage of a sphere 6 inches (152 mm) in diameter.
  3. At elevated walking surfaces for access to and use of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment, guards shall not have openings which allow passage ofa sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter.
  4. In areas that are not open to the public within occupancies in Group 1-3, F, H or S, and for alternating tread devices and ship ladders, guards shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter.
  5. In assembly seating areas, guards at the end of aisles where they terminate at a fascia of boxes, balconies and galleries shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 4 inches in diameter (102 mm) up to a height of 26 inches (660 mm). From a height of 26 inches (660 mm) to 42 inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent walking surfaces, guards shall not have openings which allow passage of a sphere 8 inches (203 mm) in diameter.
  6. Within individual dwelling units and sleeping units in Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, guards on the open sides of stairs shall not have openings which allow passage ofa sphere 4⅜ (111 mm) inches in diameter.

1013.4 Screen porches. Porches and decks which are enclosed with insect screening shall be provided with guards where the walking surface is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below.

1013.5 Mechanical equipment. Guards shall be provided where appliances, equipment, fans, roof hatch openings or other components that require service are located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter. The guard shall extend not less than 30 inches (762 mm) beyond each end of such appliance, equipment, fan or component.

1013.6 Roof access. Guards shall be provided where the roof hatch opening is located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of a roof edge or open side of a walking surface and such edge or open side is located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor, roof or grade below. The guard shall be constructed so as to prevent the passage of a sphere 21 inches (533 mm) in diameter.

[8] SECTION 1014
EXIT ACCESS

1014.1 General. The exitaccess shall comply with the apPlicable provisions of Sections 1003 through 1013. Exit access arrangement shall comply with Sections 1014 through 1019.

1014.2 Egress through intervening spaces. Egress through intervening spaces shall comply with this section.

  1. Egress from a room or space shall not pass through adjoining or intervening rooms or areas, except where such adjoining rooms or areas and the area served are accessory to one or the other, are not a Group H occupancy and provide a discernible path of egress travel to an exit.

    Exception: Means of egress are not prohibited through adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces in a Group H, S or F occupancy when the adjoining or intervening rooms or spaces are the same or a lesser hazard occupancy group.

  2. An exit access shall not pass through a room that can be locked to prevent egress.
  3. Means of egress from dwelling units or sleeping areas shall not lead through other sleeping areas, toilet rooms or bathrooms.
  4. Egress shall not pass through kitchens, storage rooms, closets or spaces used for similar purposes.

    Exceptions:

    1. Means of egress are not prohibited through a kitchen area serving adjoining rooms constituting part of the same dwelling unit or sleeping unit.
    2. Means of egress are not prohibited through stockrooms in Group M occupancies when all of the following are met:

      2.1. The stock is of the same hazard classification as that found in the main retail area;

      2.2. Not more than 50 percent of the exit access is through the stockroom;

      2.3. The stockroom is not subject to locking from the egress side; and

      2.4. There is a demarcated, minimum 44-inch-wide (1118 mm) aisle defined by full- or partial-height fixed walls or similar construction that will maintain the required width and lead directly from the retail area to the exit without obstructions.

1014.2.1 Multiple tenants. Where more than one tenant occupies anyone floor of a building or structure, each tenant space, dwelling unit and sleeping unit shall be provided with access to the required exits without passing through adjacent tenant spaces, dwelling units and sleeping units.

Exception: The means of egress from a smaller tenant space shall not be prohibited from passing through a

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larger adjoining tenant space where such rooms or spaces of the smaller tenant occupy less than 10 percent of the area of the larger tenant space through which they pass; are the same or similar occupancy group; a discernable path of egress travel to an exit is provided; and the means of egress into the adjoining space is not subject to locking from the egress side. A required means of egress serving the larger tenant space shall not pass through the smaller tenant space or spaces.

1014.2.2 Group 1-2. Habitable rooms or suites in Group 1-2 occupancies shall have an exit access door leading directly to a corridor:

Exception: Rooms with exit doors opening directly to the outside at ground level.

1014.2.3 Suites in patient sleeping areas. Patient sleeping areas in Group 1-2 occupancies shall be permitted to be divided into suites with one intervening room if one of the following conditions is met:

  1. The intervening room within the suite is not used as an exit access for more than eight patient beds.
  2. The arrangement of the suite allows for direct and constant visual supervision by nursing personnel.

1014.2.3.1 Area. Suites of sleeping rooms shall not exceed 5,000 square feet (465 m2).

1014.2.3.2 Exit access. Any patient sleeping room, or any suite that includes patient sleeping rooms, of more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have at least two exit access doors remotely located from each other.

1014.2.3.3 Travel distance. The travel distance between any point in a suite of sleeping rooms and an exit access door ofthat suite shall not exceed 100 feet (30 480 mm).

1014.2.4 Suites in areas other than patient sleeping areas. Areas other than patient sleeping areas in Group 1-2 occupancies shall be permitted to be divided into suites.

1014.2.4.1 Area. Suites of rooms, other than patient sleeping rooms, shall not exceed 10,000 square feet (929 m2).

1014.2.4.2 Exit access. Any room or suite of rooms, other than patient sleeping rooms, of more than 2,500 square feet (232 m2) shall have at least two exit access doors remotely located from each other.

1014.2.4.3 One intervening room. For rooms other than patient sleeping rooms, suites of rooms are permitted to have one intervening room if the travel distance within the suite to the exit access door is not greater than 100 feet (30 480 mm).

1014.2.4.4 Two intervening rooms. For rooms other than patient sleeping rooms located within a suite, exit access travel from within the suite shall be permitted through two intervening rooms where the travel distance to the exit access door is not greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm).

1014.2.5 Exit access through suites. Exit access from all other portions of a building not classified as a suite in a Group 1-2 occupancy shall not pass through a suite.

1014.2.6 Travel distance. The travel distance between any point in a Group I-2 occupancy patient sleeping room and an exitaccess door in that room shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

1014.2.7 Separation. Suites in Group 1-2 occupancies shall be separated from other portions of the building by a smoke partition complying with Section 711 of the International BUilding Code.

1014.3 Common path of egress travel. In occupancies other than Groups H-1, H-2 and H-3, the common path of egress travelshall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). In Group H-1, H-2 and H-3 occupancies, the common path of egress travel shall not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm). For common path of egress travel in Group A occupancies and assembly occupancies accessory to Group E occupancies having fixed seating, see Section 1028.8.

Exceptions:

  1. The length of a common path of egress travel in Group B, F and S occupancies shall not be more than 100 feet (30 480 mm), provided that the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinklersystem installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Where a tenant space in Group B, Sand U occupancies has an occupant load of not more than 30, the length of a common path ofegress travel shall not be more than 100 feet (30 480 mm).
  3. The length of a common path of egress travel in a Group 1-3 occupancy shall not be more than 100 feet (30480 mm).
  4. The length of a common path of egress travel in a Group R-2 occupancy shall not be more than 125 feet (38 100 mm), provided that the building is protected throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

[8] SECTION 1015
EXIT AND EXIT ACCESS DOORWAYS

1015.1 Exits or exit access doorways from spaces. Two exits or exit access doorways from any space shall be provided where one of the following conditions exists:

Exception: Group 1-2 occupancies shall comply with Sections 1014.2.2 through 1014.2.7.

  1. The occupantload of the space exceeds one of the values in Table 1015.1.

    Exception: In Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, one means ofegress is permitted within and from individual dwelling units with a maximum occupant load of 20 where the dwelling unit is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

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  2. The common path of egress travel exceeds one of the limitations of Section 1014.3.
  3. Where required by Section 1015.3,1015.4,1015.5,1015.6 or 1015.6.1.

Where a building contains mixed occupancies, each individual occupancy shall comply with the applicable requirements for that occupancy. Where applicable, cumulative occupant loads from adjacent occupancies shall be considered in accordance with the provisions of Section 1004.1.

TABLE 1015.1
SPACES WITH ONE EXIT OR EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY
OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM OCCUPANT LOAD
A, B, Ea, F, M, U 49
H-l, H-2, H-3 3
H-4, H-S, I-I, 1-3, 1-4, R 10
S 29
a. Day care maximum occupant load is 10.

1015.1.1 Three or more exits or exit access doorways. Three exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load of 501 to 1,000. Four exits or exit access doorways shall be provided from any space with an occupant load greater than 1,000.

1015.2 Exit or exit access doorway arrangement. Required exits shall be located in a manner that makes their availability obvious. Exits shall be unobstructed at all times. Exit and exit access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with Sections 1015.2.1 and 1015.2.2.

1015.2.1 Two exits or exit access doorways. Where two exits or exitaccess doorways are required from any portion of the exit access, the exit doors or exit access doorways shall be placed a distance apart equal to not less than one-half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served measured in a straight line between exit doors or exit access doorways. Interlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted as one exit stairway.

Exceptions:

  1. Where exit enclosures are provided as a portion of the required exit and are interconnected by a I-hour fire-resistance-rated corridorconforming to the requirements of Section 1018, the required exitseparation shall be measured along the shortest direct line of travel within the corridor.
  2. Where a building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinklersystem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, the separation distance ofthe exitdoors or exitaccess doorways shall not be less than one-third of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the area served.

1015.2.2 Three or more exits or exit access doorways. Where access to three or more exits is required, at least two exit doors or exit access doorways shall be arranged in accordance with the provisions of Section 1015.2.1.

1015.3 Boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms. Two exit access doorways are required in boiler, incinerator and furnace rooms where the area is over 500 square feet (46 m2) and any fuel-fired equipment exceeds 400,000 British thermal units (Btu) (422 000 K]) input capacity. Where two exit access doorways are required, one is permitted to be a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the room.

1015.4 Refrigeration machinery rooms. Machinery rooms larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) shall have not less than two exits or exit access doors. Where two exit access doorways are required, one such doorway is permitted to be served by a fixed ladder or an alternating tread device. Exit access doorways shall be separated by a horizontal distance equal to one-half the maximum horizontal dimension of room.

All portions of machinery rooms shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) ofan exitor exitaccess doorway. An increase in travel distance is permitted in accordance with Section 1016.1.

Doors shall swing in the direction ofegress travel, regardless of the occupant load served. Doors shall be tight fitting and self-closing.

1015.5 Refrigerated rooms or spaces. Rooms or spaces having a floor area larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2), containing a refrigerant evaporator and maintained at a temperature below 68°F (20°C), shall have access to not less than two exits or exit access doors.

Travel distance shall be determined as specified in Section 1016.1, but all portions of a refrigerated room or space shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of an exit or exit access door where such rooms are not protected by an approved automatic sprinklersystem. Egress is allowed through adjoining refrigerated rooms or spaces.

Exception: Where using refrigerants in quantities limited to the amounts based on the volume set forth in the International Mechanical Code.

1015.6 Stage means ofegress. Where two means ofegress are required, based on the stage size or occupant load, one means ofegress shall be provided on each side of the stage.

1015.6.1 Gallery, gridiron and catwalk means of egress. The means ofegress from lighting and access catwalks, galleries and gridirons shall meet the requirements for occupancies in Group F-2.

Exceptions:

  1. A minimum width of 22 inches (559 mm) is permitted for lighting and access catwalks.
  2. Spiral stairsare permitted in the means ofegress.
  3. Stairways required by this subsection need not be enclosed.
  4. Stairwayswith a minimum width of22 inches (559 mm), ladders or spiral stairs are permitted in the means ofegress.
  5. A second means ofegress is not required from these areas where a means of escape to a floor or to a roof 137 is provided. Ladders, alternating tread devices or spiral stairs are permitted in the means of escape.
  6. Ladders are permitted in the means ofegress.

[8] SECTION 1016
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCE

1016.1 Travel distance limitations. Exits shall be so located on each story such that the maximum length of exit access travel, measured from the most remote point within a story along the natural and unobstructed path of egress travel to an exterior exitdoor at the level ofexit discharge, an entrance to a vertical exit enclosure, an exitpassageway, a horizontal exit, an exterior exit stairwayor an exterior exit ramp, shall not exceed the distances given in Table 1016.1.

Exceptions:

  1. Travel distance in open parkinggarages is permitted to be measured to the closest riser of open exit stairways.
  2. In outdoor facilities with open exit access components and open exterior exit stairways or exit ramps, travel distance is permitted to be measured to the closest riser of an exit stairway or the closest slope of the exit ramp.
  3. In other than occupancy Groups H and I, the exit access travel distance to a maximum of 50 percent of the exits is permitted to be measured from the most remote point within a building to an exit using unen-closed exit access stairways or ramps when connecting a maximum of two stories. The two connected stories shall be provided with at least two means of egress. Such interconnected stories shall not be open to other stories.
  4. In other than occupancy Groups H and I, exit access travel distance is permitted to be measured from the most remote point within a building to an exit using unenclosed exit access stairways or ramps in the first and second stories above grade plane in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinklersystem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The first and second stories above grade plane shall be provided with at least two means of egress. Such interconnected stories shall not be open to other stories.

Where applicable, travel distance on unenclosed exit access stairways or ramps and on connecting stories shall also be included in the travel distance measurement. The measurement along stairwaysshall be made on a plane parallel and tangent to the stair tread nosings in the center of the stairway.

1016.2 Exterior egress balcony increase. Travel distances specified in Section 1016.1 shall be increased up to an additional 100 feet (30 480 mm) provided the last portion of the exit access leading to the exit occurs on an exterior egress balcony constructed in accordance with Section 1019. The length of such balcony shall not be less than the amount ofthe increase taken.

TABLE 1016.1
EXIT ACCESS TRAVEL DISTANCEa
OCCUPANCY WITHOUT SPRINKLER SYSTEM (feet) WITH SPRINKLER SYSTEM (feet)
A, E, F-l, M, R, 5-1 200 250b
I-I Nat Permitted 250e
B 200 300e
F-2, 5-2, U 300 400e
H-l Nat Permitted 75e
H-2 Nat Permitted looe
H-3 Nat Permitted l50e
H-4 Nat Permitted l75e
H-5 Nat Permitted 200e
1-2,1-3,1-4 Nat Permitted 200e
For SI:      1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. See the following sections for modifications to exit access travel distance requirements:

Section 402.4 ofthe InternationalBUildingCode: For the distance limitation in malls.
Section 404.9 ofthe InternationalBuildingCode:For the distance limitation through an atrium space.
Section 407.4 ofthe InternationalBuilding Code:For the distance limitation in Group 1-2.
Sections 408.6.1 and 408.8.1 ofthe InternationalBUilding Code:For the distance limitations in Group 1-3.

Section 411.4 ofthe InternationalBUildingCode: For the distance limitation in special amusement buildings.
Section 1014.2.2: For the distance limitation in Group 1-2 hospital suites.
Section 1015.4: For the distance limitation in refrigeration machinery rooms.
Section 1015.5: For the distance limitation in refrigerated rooms and spaces.
Section 1021.2: For buildings with one exit.
Section 1028.7: For increased limitation in assembly seating.
Section 1028.7: For increased limitation for assembly open-air seating
Section 3103.4 ofthe InternationalBuilding Code:For temporary structures.
Section 3104.9 ofthe InternationalBuildingCode: For pedestrian walkways.

b. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. See Section 903 for occupancies where automatic sprinkler systems are permitted in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2.
c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

[8] SECTION 1017
AISLES

1017.1 General. Aisles serving as a portion of the exit access in the means ofegress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. Aislesshall be provided from all occupied portions of the exit access which contain seats, tables, furnishings, displays and similar fIXtures or equipment. Aisles serving assembly areas shall comply with Section 1028. Aisles serving reviewing stands, grandstands and bleachers shall also comply with Section 1028. The required width of aisles shall be unobstructed.

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2.

1017.2 Aisles in Groups Band M. In Group Band M occupancies, the minimum clear aisle width shall be determined by Section 1005.1 for the occupant load served, but shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm).

Exception: Nonpublic aisles serving less than 50 people and not required to be accessible by Chapter 11 of the International

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BUilding Code need not exceed 28 inches (711 mm) in width.

1017.3 Aisle accessways in Group M. An aisle accesswayshall be provided on at least one side of each element within the merchandise pad The minimum clear width for an aisle accessway not required to be accessible shall be 30 inches (762 mm). The required clear width of the aisle accessway shall be measured perpendicular to the elements and merchandise within the merchandisepad The 30-inch (762 mm) minimum clear width shall be maintained to provide a path to an adjacent aisle or aisle accessway. The common path of travel shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any point in the merchandise pad.

Exception: For areas serving not more than 50 occupants, the common path of travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 880 mm).

1017.4 Seating at tables. Where seating is located at a table or counter and is adjacent to an aisle or aisle accessway, the measurement of required clear width of the aisle or aisle accessway shall be made to a line 19 inches (483 mm) away from and parallel to the edge of the table or counter. The 19-inch (483 mm) distance shall be measured perpendicular to the side ofthe table or counter. In the case of other side boundaries for aisle or aisle accessways, the clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of seating and tread edges, except that handrailprojections are permitted.

Exception: Where tables or counters are served by fixed seats, the width of the aisle accessway shall be measured from the back of the seat.

1017.4.1 Aisle accessway for tables and seating. Aisle accessways serving arrangements of seating at tables or counters shall have sufficient clear width to conform to the capacity requirements of Section 1005.1 but shall not have less than the appropriate minimum clear width specified in Section 1017.4.2.

1017.4.2 Table and seating accessway width. Aisle accessways shall provide a minimum of 12 inches (305 mm) ofwidth plus ½ inch (12.7 mm) of width for each additional 1 foot (305 mm), or fraction thereof, beyond 12 feet (3658 mm) of aisle accesswaylength measured from the center of the seat farthest from an aisle.

Exception: Portions of an aisle accessway having a length not exceeding 6 feet (1829 mm) and used by a total of not more than four persons.

1017.4.3 Table and seating aisle accessway length. The length of travel along the aisle accessway shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat to the point where a person has a choice of two or more paths of egress travel to separate exits.

[8] SECTION 1018
CORRIDORS

1018.1 Construction. Corridors shall be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Table 1018.1. The corridorwalls required to be fire-resistance rated shall comply with Section 709 of the International BUilding Code for fire partitions.

Exceptions:

  1. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in an occupancy in Group E where each room that is used for instruction has at least one door opening directly to the exterior and rooms for assembly purposes have at least one-half of the required means of egress doors opening directly to the exterior. Exterior doors specified in this exception are required to be at ground level.
  2. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors contained within a dwelling or sleeping unit in an occupancy in GroupR.
  3. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in open parking garages.
  4. A fire-resistance rating is not required for corridors in an occupancy in Group B which is a space requiring only a single means ofegress complying with Section 1015.1.
TABLE 1018.1
CORRIDOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING
OCCUPANCY OCCUPANT LOAD SERVED BY CORRIDOR REQUIRED FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
Without sprinkler system With sprinkler systemc
H-l, H-2, H-3 All Nat Permitted 1
H-4, H-5 Greater than 30 Nat Permitted 1
A, B, E, F, M, S, U Greater than 30 1 0
R Greater than 10 Nat Permitted 0.5
1-23, 1-4 All Nat Permitted 0
1-1,1-3 All Nat Permitted I b
a. For requirements for occupancies in Group 1-2, see Sections 407.2 and 407.3 of the International BUilding Code.
b. For a reduction in the fire-resistance rating for occupancies in Group 1-3, see Section 408.8 of the International BUilding Code.
c. Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 where allowed.
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1018.2 Corridor width. The minimum corridorwidth shall be as determined in Section 1005.1, but not less than 44 inches (1118 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. Twenty-four inches (610 mm)-For access to and utilization of electrical, mechanical or plumbing systems or equipment.
  2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm)-With a required occupant capacity of less than 50.
  3. Thirty-six inches (914 mm)-Withinadwellingunit.
  4. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm)-In Group E with a corridor having a required capacity of 100 or more.
  5. Seventy-two inches (1829 mm)-In corridors and areas serving gurney traffic in occupancies where patients receive outpatient medical care, which causes the patient to be not capable of self-preservation.
  6. Ninety-six inches (2438 mm)-In Group 1-2 in areas where required for bed movement.

1018.3 Corridor obstruction. The required width of corridors shall be unobstructed.

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2.

1018.4 Dead ends. Where more than one exit or exit access doorway is required, the exit access shall be arranged such that there are no dead ends in corridors more than 20 feet (6096 mm) in length.

Exceptions:

  1. In occupancies in Group 1-3 of Occupancy Condition 2,3 or 4 (see Section 202), the dead end in a corridor shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
  2. In occupancies in Groups B, E, F, 1-1, M, R-1, R-2, R-4, Sand U, where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the length of the dead-end corridors shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).
  3. A dead-end corridor shall not be limited in length where the length of the dead-end corridoris less than 2.5 times the least width of the dead-end corridor.

1018.5 Air movement in corridors. Corridors shall not serve as supply, return, exhaust, relief or ventilation air ducts.

Exceptions:

  1. Use of a corridor as a source of makeup air for exhaust systems in rooms that open directly onto such corridors, including toilet rooms, bathrooms, dressing rooms, smoking lounges andjanitor closets, shall be permitted, provided that each such corridor is directly supplied with outdoor air at a rate greater than the rate of makeup air taken from the corridor.
  2. Where located within a dwelling unit, the use of corridorsfor conveying return air shall not be prohibited.
  3. Where located within tenant spaces of 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or less in area, utilization of corridors for conveying return air is permitted.
  4. Incidental air movement from pressurized rooms within health care facilities, provided that the corridoris not the primary source of supply or return air to the room.

1018.5.1 Corridor ceiling. Use of the space between the corridor ceiling and the floor or roof structure above as a return air plenum is permitted for one or more of the following conditions:

  1. The corridor is not required to be of fire-resistance-rated construction;
  2. The corridor is separated from the plenum by fire-resistance-rated construction;
  3. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut down upon activation of the air-handling unit smoke detectors required by the International Mechanical Code;
  4. The air-handling system serving the corridor is shut down upon detection of sprinkler waterflow where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system; or
  5. The space between the corridorceiling and the floor or roof structure above the corridor is used as a component ofan approvedengineered smoke control system.

1018.6 Corridor continuity. Fire-resistance-rated corridors shall be continuous from the point of entry to an exit, and shall not be interrupted by intervening rooms.

Exception: Foyers, lobbies or reception rooms constructed as required for corridors shall not be construed as intervening rooms.

[B] SECTION 1019
EGRESS BALCONIES

1019.1 General. Balconies used for egress purposes shall conform to the same requirements as corridors for width, headroom, dead ends and projections.

1019.2 Wall separation. Exterior egress balconies shall be separated from the interior ofthe building by walls and opening protectives as required for corridors.

Exception: Separation is not required where the exterior egress balcony is served by at least two stairsand a dead-end travel condition does not require travel past an unprotected opening to reach a stair.

1019.3 Openness. The long side of an egress balcony shall be at least 50 percent open, and the open area above the guards shall be so distributed as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.

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[B] SECTION 1020
EXITS

1020.1 General. Exits shall comply with Sections 1020 through 1026 and the applicable requirements ofSections 1003 through 1013. An exit shall not be used for any purpose that interferes with its function as a means ofegress. Once a given level of exit protection is achieved, such level of protection shall not be reduced until arrival at the exit discharge.

1020.2 Exterior exit doors. Buildings or structures used for human occupancy shall have at least one exterior door that meets the requirements of Section 1008.1.1.

1020.2.1 Detailed requirements. Exterior exit doors shall comply with the applicable requirements of Section 1008.1.

1020.2.2 Arrangement. Exterior exit doors shall lead directly to the exit discharge or the public way.

[B] SECTION 1021
NUMBER OF EXITS AND CONTINUITY

1021.1 Exits from stories. All spaces within each story shall have access to the minimum number of approved independent exitsas specified in Table 1021.1 based on the occupantloadof the story: For the purposes of this chapter, occupied roofs shall be provided with exits as required for stories.

Exceptions:

  1. As modified by Section 403.5.2 of the International BUilding Code.
  2. As modified by Section 1021.2.
  3. Exit access stairways and ramps that comply with Exception 3 or 4 of Section 1016.1 shall be permitted to provide the minimum number of approved independent exitsrequired by Table 1021.1 on each story.
  4. In Group R-2 and R-3 occupancies, one means of egress is permitted within and from individual dwelling units with a maximum occupant load of 20 where the dwelling unit is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  5. Within a story, rooms and spaces complying with Section 1015.1 with exitsthat discharge directly to the exterior at the level ofexit discharge, are permitted to have one exit.
TABLE 1021.1
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS FOR OCCUPANT LOAD
OCCUPANT LOAD
(persons per story)
MINIMUM NUMBER OF EXITS
(per story)
1-500 2
501-1,000 3
More than 1,000 4

1021.1.1 Exits maintained. The required number of exits from any story shall be maintained until arrival at grade or the public way.

1021.1.2 Parking structures. Parking structures shall not have less than two exits from each parking tier, except that only one exit is required where vehicles are mechanically parked. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided.

1021.1.3 Helistops. The means of egress from helistops shall comply with the provisions of this chapter, provided that landing areas located on buildings or structures shall have two or more exits. For landing platforms or roof areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) long, or less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area, the second means ofegress is permitted to be a fire escape, alternating tread device or ladder leading to the floor below.

1021.2 Single exits. Only one exit shall be required from Group R-3 occupancy buildings or from stories of other buildings as indicated in Table 1021.2. Occupancies shall be permitted to have a single exit in buildings otherwise required to have

TABLE 1021.2
STORIES WITH ONE EXIT
STORY OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM OCCUPANTS (OR DWELLING UNITS) PER FLOOR AND TRAVEL DISTANCE
First story or basement A, Bd, Ee, Fd, M, U, Sd 49 occupants and 75 feet travel distance
H-2, H-3 3 occupants and 25 feet travel distance
H-4, H-5, I, R 10 occupants and 75 feet travel distance
sa 29 occupants and 100 feet travel distance
Second story Bb, F, M, sa 29 occupants and 75 feet travel distance
R-2 4 dwelling units and 50 feet travel distance
Third story R-2c 4 dwelling units and 50 feet travel distance
For SI:      1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. For the required number of exits for parking structures, see Section 1021.1.2.
b. For the required number of exits for air traffic control towers, see Section 412.3 of the International BUilding Code.
c. Buildings classified as Group R-2 equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and provided with emergency escape and rescue openings in accordance with Section 1029.
d. Group B, F and S occupancies in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall have a maximum travel distance of 100 feet.
e. Day care occupancies shall have a maximum occupant load of 10.
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more than one exit if the areas served by the single exit do not exceed the limitations of Table 1021.2. Mixed occupancies shall be permitted to be served by single exits provided each individual occupancy complies with the applicable requirements of Table 1021.2 for that occupancy. Where applicable, cumulative occupant loads from adjacent occupancies shall be considered in accordance with the provisions of Section 1004.1. Basements with a single exit shall not be located more than one story below grade plane.

1021.3 Exit continuity. Exits shall be continuous from the point of entry into the exit to the exit discharge.

1021.4 Exit door arrangement. Exit door arrangement shall meet the requirements of Sections 1015.2 through 1015.2.2.

[8] SECTION 1022
EXIT ENCLOSURES

1022.1 Enclosures required. Interior exit stairways and interior exit ramps shall be enclosed with fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International BUilding Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the International BUilding Code, or both. Exit enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting four stories or more and not less than 1 hour where connecting less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the exit enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezzanines. Exit enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 hours. Exit enclosures shall lead directly to the exterior of the building or shall be extended to the exterior of the building with an exit passageway conforming to the requirements of Section 1023, except as permitted in Section 1027.1. An exit enclosureshall not be used for any purpose other than means ofegress.

Exceptions:

  1. In all occupancies, other than Group H and I occupancies, a stairway is not required to be enclosed when the stairway serves an occupant load of less than 10 and the stairwaycomplies with either Item 1.1 or 1.2. In all cases, the maximum number of connecting open stories shall not exceed two.

    1.1. The stairway is open to not more than one story above its level ofexit discharge; or

    1.2. The stairway is open to not more than one story below its level ofexit discharge.

  2. Exits in buildings of Group A-5 where all portions of the means ofegress are essentially open to the outside need not be enclosed.
  3. Stairways serving and contained within a single residential dwelling unit or sleeping unit in Group R-1, R-2 or R-3 occupancies are not required to be enclosed.
  4. Stairways in open parking structures that serve only the parking structure are not required to be enclosed.
  5. Stairways in Group 1-3 occupancies, as provided for in Section 408.3.8 of the International BUilding Code, are not required to be enclosed.
  6. Means of egress stairways as required by Section 1015.6.1 of this code and Section 410.5.3 of the International BUilding Code are not required to be enclosed.
  7. Means of egress stairways from balconies, galleries or press boxes as provided for in Section 1028.5.1 are not required to be enclosed.

1022.2 Termination. Exit enclosures shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way.

Exception: An exit enclosure shall be permitted to terminate at an exit passageway complying with Section 1023, provided the exitpassagewayterminates at an exit discharge or a public way.

1022.2.1 Extension. Where an exit enclosure is extended to an exit discharge or a public wayby an exitpassageway, the exit enclosure shall be separated from the exit passageway by a fire barrierconstructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International BUilding Code or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the International BUilding Code, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be at least equal to that required for the exit enclosure. A fire door assembly complying with Section 715.4 of the International BUilding Code shall be installed in the fire barrierto provide a means ofegress from the exit enclosure to the exit passageway. Openings in the fire barrier other than the fire door assembly are prohibited. Penetrations of the fire barrier are prohibited.

Exception: Penetrations ofthe fire barrierin accordance with Section 1022.4 shall be permitted.

1022.3 Openings and penetrations. Exit enclosure opening protectives shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 715 of the International BUilding Code.

Openings in exit enclosures other than unprotected exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access to the enclosure from normally occupied spaces and for egress from the enclosure.

Elevators shall not open into an exit enclosure.

1022.4 Penetrations. Penetrations into and openings through an exit enclosure are prohibited except for required exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent ventilation or pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical race-way for fire department communication systems and electrical raceway serving the exit enclosure and terminating at a steel box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 m2). Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 713 of the International Building Code. There shall be no penetrations or communication openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent exit enclosures.

1022.5 Ventilation. Equipment and ductwork for exit enclosure ventilation as permitted by Section 1022.4 shall comply with one of the following items:

  1. Such equipment and ductwork shall be located exterior to the building and shall be directly connected to the exit 142 enclosure by ductwork enclosed in construction as required for shafts.
  2. Where such equipment and ductwork is located within the exit enclosure, the intake air shall be taken directly from the outdoors and the exhaust air shall be discharged directly to the outdoors, or such air shall be conveyed through ducts enclosed in construction as required for shafts.
  3. Where located within the building, such equipment and ductwork shall be separated from the remainder of the building, including other mechanical equipment, with construction as required for shafts.

In each case, openings into the fire-resistance-rated construction shall be limited to those needed for maintenance and operation and shall be protected by opening protectives in accordance with Section 715 of the International BUilding Code for shaft enclosures.

Exit enclosure ventilation systems shall be independent of other building ventilation systems.

1022.6 Exit enclosure exterior walls. Exterior walls of an exit enclosure shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 of the International BUilding Code for exterior walls. Where nonrated walls or unprotected openings enclose the exterior of the stairwayand the walls or openings are exposed by other parts ofthe building at an angle ofless than 180 degrees (3.14 rad), the building exterior wallswithin 10 feet (3048 mm) horizontally of a nonrated wall or unprotected opening shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection ratingof not less than ¾ hour. This construction shall extend vertically from the ground to a point 10 feet (3048 mm) above the topmost landing of the stairway or to the roof line, whichever is lower.

1022.7 Discharge identification. A stairwayin an exit enclosure shall not continue below its level ofexit discharge unless an approved barrier is provided at the level ofexit discharge to prevent persons from unintentionally continuing into levels below. Directional exit signs shall be provided as specified in Section 1011.

1022.8 Floor identification signs. A sign shall be provided at each floor landing in exit enclosures connecting more than three stories designating the floor level, the terminus of the top and bottom of the exit enclosure and the identification of the stair or ramp. The signage shall also state the storyof, and the direction to, the exit discharge and the availability of roof access from the enclosure for the fire department. The sign shall be located 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor landing in a position that is readily visible when the doors are in the open and closed positions. Floor level identification signs in tactile characters complying with ICC Al17.1 shall be located at each floor level landing adjacent to the door leading from the enclosure into the corridor to identify the floor level.

1022.8.1 Signage requirements. Stairway identification signs shall comply with all of the following requirements:

  1. The signs shall be a minimum size of 18 inches (457 mm) by 12 inches (305 mm).
  2. The letters designating the identification of the stair enclosure shall be a minimum of 1½ inches (38 mm) in height.
  3. The number designating the floor level shall be a minimum of 5 inches (127 mm) in height and located in the center of the sign.
  4. All other lettering and numbers shall be a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) in height.
  5. Characters and their background shall have a nonglare finish. Characters shall contrast with their background, with either light characters on a dark background or dark characters on a light background.
  6. When signs required by Section 1022.8 are installed in interior exit enclosures of buildings subject to Section 1024, the signs shall be made of the same materials as required by Section 1024.4.

1022.9 Smokeproof enclosures and pressurized stairways. In buildings required to comply with Section 403 or 405 of the International BUilding Code, each of the exit enclosures serving a storywith a floor surface located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access or more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of a level of exit discharge serving such stories shall be a smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway in accordance with Section 909.20 of the International BUilding Code.

1022.9.1 Termination and extension. A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way. The smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairwayshall be permitted to be extended by an exit passageway in accordance with Section 1022.2. The exit passageway shall be without openings other than the fire door assembly required by Section 1022.2 and those necessary for egress from the exitpassageway. The exitpassagewayshall be separated from the remainder of the building by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 of the International BUilding Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the International BUilding Code, or both.

Exceptions:

  1. Openings in the exit passageway serving a smokeproofenclosure are permitted where the exit passageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the smokeproof enclosure, and openings are protected as required for access from other floors.
  2. Openings in the exit passageway serving a pressurized stairwayare permitted where the exitpassageway is protected and pressurized in the same manner as the pressurized stairway.
  3. The fire barrier separating the smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairwayfrom the exitpassagewayis not required, provided the exitpassagewayis protected and pressurized in the same manner as the smokeproofenclosure or pressurized stairway.
  4. A smokeproof enclosure or pressurized stairway shall be permitted to egress through areas on the 143 level of discharge or vestibules as permitted by Section 1027.

1022.9.2 Enclosure access. Access to the stairwaywithin a smokeproof enclosure shall be by way of a vestibule or an open exterior balcony.

Exception: Access is not required by way of a vestibule or exterior balcony for stairwaysusing the pressurization alternative complying with Section 909.20.5 ofthe International BUilding Code.

[8] SECTION 1023
EXIT PASSAGEWAYS

1023.1 Exit passageway. Exit passageways serving as an exit component in a means ofegress system shall comply with the requirements of this section. An exit passageway shall not be used for any purpose other than as a means ofegress.

1023.2 Width. The width of exit passageways shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1 but such width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except that exitpassageways serving an occupant load of less than 50 shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. The required width of exit passageways shall be unobstructed.

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2.

1023.3 Construction. Exit passageway enclosures shall have walls, floors and ceilings of not less than I-hour fire-resistance rating, and not less than that required for any connecting exit enclosure. Exit passageways shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 of the International Building Code or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 of the International BUilding Code, or both.

1023.4 Termination. Exit passageways shall terminate at an exit discharge or a public way.

1023.5 Openings and penetrations. Exitpassagewayopening protectives shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 715 of the International BUilding Code.

Except as permitted in Section 402.4.6 of the International BUilding Code, openings in exit passageways other than exterior openings shall be limited to those necessary for exit access to the exitpassagewayfrom normally occupied spaces and for egress from the exit passageway.

Where an exit enclosure is extended to an exit discharge or a public way by an exit passageway, the exit passageway shall also comply with Section 1022.2.1.

Elevators shall not open into an exit passageway.

1023.6 Penetrations. Penetrations into and openings through an exit passageway are prohibited except for required exit doors, equipment and ductwork necessary for independent pressurization, sprinkler piping, standpipes, electrical raceway for fire department communication and electrical raceway serving the exit passagewayand terminating at a steel box not exceeding 16 square inches (0.010 m2). Such penetrations shall be protected in accordance with Section 713 of the International BUilding Code. There shall be no penetrations or communicating openings, whether protected or not, between adjacent exit passageways.

[8] SECTION 1024
LUMINOUS EGRESS PATH MARKINGS

1024.1 General. Approved luminous egress path markings delineating the exit path shall be provided in buildings of Groups A, B, E, I, M and R-1 having occupied floors located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access in accordance with Sections 1024.1 through 1024.5.

Exceptions:

  1. Luminous egress path markings shall not be required on the level ofexit discharge in lobbies that serve as part of the exit path in accordance with Section 1027.1, Exception 1.
  2. Luminous egress path markings shall not be required in areas of open parkinggarages that serve as part of the exit path in accordance with Section 1027.1, Exception 3.

1024.2 Markings within exit enclosures. Egress path markings shall be provided in exit enclosures, including vertical exit enclosures and exit passageways, in accordance with Sections 1024.2.1 through 1024.2.6.

1024.2.1 Steps. A solid and continuous stripe shall be applied to the horizontal leading edge of each step and shall extend for the full length of the step. Outlining stripes shall have a minimum horizontal width of 1 inch (25 mm) and a maximum width of 2 inches (51 mm). The leading edge of the stripe shall be placed at a maximum of ½ inch (12.7 mm) from the leading edge of the step and the stripe shall overlap the leading edge of the step by not more than ½ inch (12.7 mm) down the vertical face of the step.

Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994.

1024.2.2 Landings. The leading edge of landings shall be marked with a stripe consistent with the dimensional requirements for steps.

1024.2.3 Handrails. All handrails and handrailextensions shall be marked with a solid and continuous stripe having a minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm). The stripe shall be placed on the top surface of the handrailfor the entire length of the handrail, including extensions and newel post caps. Where handrails or handrail extensions bend or turn corners, the stripe shall not have a gap of more than 4 inches (102 mm).

Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994.

1024.2.4 Perimeter demarcation lines. Stair landings and other floor areas within exit enclosures, with the exception of the sides ofsteps, shall be provided with solid and continuous demarcation lines on the floor or on the walls or a combination

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of both. The stripes shall be 1 to 2 inches (25 mm to 51 mm) wide with interruptions not exceeding 4 inches (102 mm).

Exception: The minimum width of 1 inch (25 mm) shall not apply to outlining stripes listed in accordance with UL 1994.

1024.2.4.1 Floor-mounted demarcation lines. Perimeter demarcation lines shall be placed within 4 inches (102 mm) of the wall and shall extend to within 2 inches (51 mm) of the markings on the leading edge of landings. The demarcation lines shall continue across the floor in front of all doors.

Exception: Demarcation lines shall not extend in front of exit doors that lead out of an exit enclosure and through which occupants must travel to complete the exit path.

1024.2.4.2 Wall-mounted demarcation lines. Perimeter demarcation lines shall be placed on the wall with the bottom edge of the stripe no more than 4 inches (102 mm) above the finished floor. At the top or bottom of the stairs, demarcation lines shall drop vertically to the floor within 2 inches (51 mm) of the step or landing edge. Demarcation lines on walls shall transition vertically to the floor and then extend across the floor where a line on the floor is the only practical method of outlining the path. Where the wall line is broken by a door, demarcation lines on walls shall continue across the face of the door or transition to the floor and extend across the floor in front of such door.

Exception: Demarcation lines shall not extend in front of exit doors that lead out of an exit enclosure and through which occupants must travel to complete the exit path.

1024.2.4.3 Transition. Where a wall-mounted demarcation line transitions to a floor-mounted demarcation line, or vice versa, the wall-mounted demarcation line shall drop vertically to the floor to meet a complementary extension of the floor-mounted demarcation line, thus forming a continuous marking.

1024.2.5 Obstacles. Obstacles at or below 6 feet 6 inches (1981 mm) in height and projecting more than 4 inches (102 mm) into the egress path shall be outlined with markings no less than 1 inch (25 mm) in width comprised of a pattern of alternating equal bands, of luminescent luminous material and black, with the alternating bands no more than 2 inches (51 mm) thick and angled at 45 degrees (0.79 rad). Obstacles shall include, but are not limited to, standpipes, hose cabinets, wall projections and restricted height areas. However, such markings shall not conceal any required information or indicators including, but not limited to, instructions to occupants for the use of standpipes.

1024.2.6 Doors from exit enclosures. Doors through which occupants within an exit enclosure must pass in order to complete the exit path shall be provided with markings complying with Sections 1024.2.6.1 through 1024.2.6.3.

1024.2.6.1 Emergency exit symbol. The doors shall be identified by a low-location luminous emergency exit symbol complying with NFPA 170. The exit symbol shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) in height and shall be mounted on the door, centered horizontally, with the top of the symbol no higher than 18 inches (457 mm) above the finished floor.

1024.2.6.2 Door hardware markings. Door hardware shall be marked with no less than 16 square inches (406 mm2) of luminous material. This marking shall be located behind, immediately adjacent to or on the door handle and/or escutcheon. Where a panic bar is installed, such material shall be no less than 1 inch (25 mm) wide for the entire length of the actuating bar or touchpad.

1024.2.6.3 Door frame markings. The top and sides of the door frame shall be marked with a solid and continu0us I-inch to 2-inch-wide (25 mm to 51 mm) stripe. Where the door molding does not provide sufficient flat surface on which to locate the stripe, the stripe shall be permitted to be located on the wall surrounding the frame.

1024.3 Uniformity. Placement and dimensions of markings shall be consistent and uniform throughout the same exit enclosure.

1024.4 Self-luminous and photoluminescent. Luminous egress path markings shall be permitted to be made of any material, including paint, provided that an electrical charge is not required to maintain the required luminance. Such materials shall include, but are not limited to, self-luminous materials and photoluminescent materials. Materials shall comply with either:

  1. UL 1994; or
  2. ASTM E 2072, except that the charging source shall be 1 foot-candle (11 lux) of fluorescent illumination for 60 minutes, and the minimum luminance shall be 30 millicandelas per square meter at 10 minutes and 5 millicandelas per square meter after 90 minutes.

1024.5 Illumination. Exit enclosureswhere photoluminescent exit path markings are installed shall be provided with the minimum means of egress illumination required by Section 1006 for at least 60 minutes prior to periods when the building is occupied.

[8] SECTION 1025
HORIZONTAL EXITS

1025.1 Horizontal exits. Horizontal exits serving as an exit in a means ofegresssystem shall comply with the requirements of this section. A horizontal exit shall not serve as the only exit from a portion of a building, and where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the total number of exits or total exit width shall be horizontal exits.

Exceptions:

  1. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise two-thirds of the required exits from any building or floor area for occupancies in Group 1-2.
  2. Horizontal exits are permitted to comprise 100 percent of the exits required for occupancies in Group 145 I-3. At least 6 square feet (0.6 m2) of accessible space per occupant shall be provided on each side of the horizontal exit for the total number of people in adjoining compartments.

1025.2 Separation. The separation between buildings or refuge areas connected by a horizontal exitshall be provided by a fire wall complying with Section 706 of the International Building Code; or it shall be provided by a fire barriercomplying with Section 707 of the International Building Code or a horizontal assembly complying with Section 712 of the International BUilding Code, or both. The minimum fire-resistance ratingofthe separation shall be 2 hours. Opening protectives in horizontal exitsshall also comply with Section 715 ofthe International BUilding Code. Duct and air transfer openings in a fire wall or fire barrier that serves as a horizontal exit shall also comply with Section 716 of the International Building Code. The horizontal exit separation shall extend vertically through all levels of the building unless floor assemblies have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours with no unprotected openings.

Exception: A fire-resistance rating is not required at horizontal exits between a building area and an above-grade pedestrian walkwayconstructed in accordance with Section 3104 of the International Building Code, provided that the distance between connected buildings is more than 20 feet (6096 mm).

Horizontal exits constructed as fire barriersshall be continuous from exterior wall to exterior wall so as to divide completely the floor served by the horizontal exit.

1025.3 Opening protectives. Fire doors in horizontal exits shall be self-closing or automatic-closing when activated by a smoke detector in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3 of the International Building Code. Doors, where located in a cross-corridor condition, shall be automatic-closing by activation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3 of the International Building Code.

1025.4 Capacity ofrefuge area. The refuge area of a horizontal exitshall be a space occupied by the same tenant or a public area and each such refuge area shall be adequate to accommodate the original occupantloadofthe refuge area plus the occupant load anticipated from the adjoining compartment. The anticipated occupant load from the adjoining compartment shall be based on the capacity of the horizontal exitdoors entering the refuge area. The capacity of the refuge area shall be computed based on a net floor area allowance of 3 square feet (0.2787 m2) for each occupant to be accommodated therein.

Exception: The net floor area allowable per occupant shall be as follows for the indicated occupancies:

  1. Six square feet (0.6 m2) per occupant for occupancies in Group 1-3.
  2. Fifteen square feet (1.4 m2) per occupant for ambulatory occupancies in Group 1-2.
  3. Thirty square feet (2.8 m2) per occupant for non-ambulatory occupancies in Group 1-2.

The refuge area into which a horizontal exit leads shall be provided with exits adequate to meet the occupant requirements of this chapter, but not including the added occupant load imposed by persons entering it through horizontal exits from other areas. At least one refuge area exitshall lead directly to the exterior or to an exit enclosure.

Exception: The adjoining compartment shall not be required to have a stairwayor door leading directly outside, provided the refuge area into which a horizontal exit leads has stairways or doors leading directly outside and are so arranged that egress shall not require the occupants to return through the compartment from which egress originates.

[8] SECTION 1026
EXTERIOR EXIT RAMPS AND STAIRWAYS

1026.1 Exterior exit ramps and stairways. Exterior exit ramps and stairways serving as an element of a required means ofegress shall comply with this section.

Exception: Exterior exit ramps and stairways for outdoor stadiums complying with Section 1022.1, Exception 2.

1026.2 Use in a means of egress. Exterior exit stairways shall not be used as an element of a required means of egress for Group 1-2 occupancies. For occupancies in other than Group 1-2, exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be permitted as an element of a required means ofegress for buildings not exceeding six stories above grade plane or having occupied floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

1026.3 Open side. Exterior exit ramps and stairways serving as an element of a required means ofegress shall be open on at least one side. An open side shall have a minimum of 35 square feet (3.3 m2) of aggregate open area adjacent to each floor level and the level of each intermediate landing. The required open area shall be located not less than 42 inches (1067 mm) above the adjacent floor or landing level.

1026.4 Side yards. The open areas adjoining exterior exit ramps or stairways shall be either yards, courts or public ways; the remaining sides are permitted to be enclosed by the exterior walls of the building.

1026.5 Location. Exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be located in accordance with Section 1027.3.

1026.6 Exterior ramps and stairway protection. Exterior exit ramps and stairways shall be separated from the interior of the building as required in Section 1022.1. Openings shall be limited to those necessary for egress from normally occupied spaces.

Exceptions:

  1. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for occupancies, other than those in Group R-1 or R-2, in buildings that are no more than two stories above grade plane where a level ofexit discharge serving such occupancies is the first story above grade plane.
  2. Separation from the interior of the building is not required where the exterior ramp or stairway is served by an exterior ramp or balcony that connects two remote exterior stairways or other approved 146 exits, with a perimeter that is not less than 50 percent open. To be considered open, the opening shall be a minimum of 50 percent of the height of the enclosing wall, with the top of the openings no less than 7 feet (2134 mm) above the top of the balcony.
  3. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for an exterior ramp or stairwaylocated in a building or structure that is permitted to have unen-closed interior stairways in accordance with Section 1022.1.
  4. Separation from the interior of the building is not required for exteriorramps or stairways connected to open-ended corridors, provided that Items 4.1 through 4.4 are met:

    4.1. The building, including corridors and ramps and stairs, shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

    4.2. The open-ended corridors comply with Section 1018.

    4.3. The open-ended corridors are connected on each end to an exterior exit ramp or stairway complying with Section 1026.

    4.4. At any location in an open-ended corridor where a change of direction exceeding 45 degrees (0.79 rad) occurs, a clear opening of not less than 35 square feet (3.3 m2) or an exterior ramp or stairway shall be provided. Where clear openings are provided, they shall be located so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke or toxic gases.

[8] SECTION 1027
EXIT DISCHARGE

1027.1 General. Exitsshall discharge directly to the exterior of the building. The exit discharge shall be at grade or shall provide direct access to grade. The exit discharge shall not reenter a building. The combined use of Exceptions 1 and 2 below shall not exceed 50 percent of the number and capacity of the required exits.

Exceptions:

  1. A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through areas on the level of discharge provided all of the following are met:

    1.1. Such exit enclosures egress to a free and un-obstructed path of travel to an exterior exit door and such exitis readily visible and identifiable from the point of termination of the exit enclosure.

    1.2. The entire area of the level ofexit discharge is separated from areas below by construction conforming to the fire-resistance rating for the exit enclosure.

    1.3. The egress path from the exit enclosure on the level ofexit discharge is protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system. All portions of the level ofexit discharge with access to the egress path shall either be protected throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, or separated from the egress path in accordance with the requirements for the enclosure of exits.

  2. A maximum of 50 percent of the number and capacity of the exit enclosures is permitted to egress through a vestibule provided all of the following are met:

    2.1. The entire area of the vestibule is separated from areas below by construction conforming to the fire-resistance rating for the exit enclosure.

    2.2. The depth from the exterior of the building is not greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) and the length is not greater than 30 feet (9144 mm).

    2.3. The area is separated from the remainder of the level ofexit discharge by construction providing protection at least the equivalent of approved wired glass in steel frames.

    2.4. The area is used only for means ofegress and exits directly to the outside.

  3. Stairways in open parking garages complying with Section 1022.1, Exception 4, are permitted to egress through the open parkinggarage at their levels ofexit discharge.
  4. Horizontal exits complying with Section 1025 shall not be required to discharge directly to the exterior of the building.

1027.2 Exit discharge capacity. The capacity of the exit discharge shall be not less than the required discharge capacity of the exits being served.

1027.3 Exit discharge location. Exterior balconies, stairways and ramps shall be located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from adjacent lot lines and from other buildings on the same lot unless the adjacent building exterior walls and openings are protected in accordance with Section 704 of the International Building Code based on fire separation distance.

1027.4 Exit discharge components. Exit discharge components shall be sufficiently open to the exterior so as to minimize the accumulation of smoke and toxic gases.

1027.5 Egress courts. Egress courts serving as a portion of the exit discharge in the means ofegress system shall comply with the requirements of Section 1027.

1027.5.1 Width. The width of egress courts shall be determined as specified in Section 1005.1, but such width shall not be less than 44 inches (1118 mm), except as specified herein. Egress courts serving Group R-3 and U occupancies shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width. The

147

required width of egress courts shall be unobstructed to a height of 7 feet (2134 mm).

Exception: Doors complying with Section 1005.2.

Where an egress court exceeds the minimum required width and the width of such egress court is then reduced along the path of exit travel, the reduction in width shall be gradual. The transition in width shall be affected by a guard not less than 36 inches (914 mm) in height and shall not create an angle of more than 30 degrees (0.52 rad) with respect to the axis of the egress courtalong the path of egress travel. In no case shall the width of the egress courtbe less than the required minimum.

1027.5.2 Construction and openings. Where an egress court serving a building or portion thereof is less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in width, the egress court walls shall have not less than I-hour fire-resistance- rated construction for a distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) above the floor of the court. Openings within such walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection ratingof not less than ¾ hour.

Exceptions:

  1. Egress courts serving an occupant load of less than 10.
  2. Egress courts serving Group R-3.

1027.6 Access to a public way. The exit discharge shall provide a direct and unobstructed access to a public way.

Exception: Where access to a public way cannot be provided, a safe dispersal area shall be provided where all of the following are met:

  1. The area shall be of a size to accommodate at least 5 square feet (0.46 m2) for each person.
  2. The area shall be located on the same lot at least 50 feet (15 240 mm) away from the building requiring egress.
  3. The area shall be permanently maintained and identified as a safe dispersal area.
  4. The area shall be provided with a safe and unobstructed path of travel from the building.

[B] SECTION 1028
ASSEMBLY

1028.1 General. Occupancies in Group A and assembly occupancies accessory to Group E which contain seats, tables, displays, equipment or other material shall comply with this section.

1028.1.1 Bleachers. Bleachers, grandstands and folding and telescopic seating, that are not building elements, shall comply with ICC 300.

1028.2 Assembly main exit. Group A occupancies and assembly occupancies accessory to Group E occupancies that have an occupantloadofgreater than 300 shall be provided with a main exit. The main exitshall be of sufficient width to accommodate not less than one-half of the occupantload, but such width shall not be less than the total required width of all means ofegress leading to the exit. Where the building is classified as a Group A occupancy, the main exitshall front on at least one street or an unoccupied space of not less than 10 feet (3048 mm) in width that adjoins a street or public way.

Exception: In assembly occupancies where there is no well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are provided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the perimeter of the building provided that the total width of egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width.

1028.3 Assembly other exits. In addition to having access to a main exit, each level in Group A occupancies or assembly occupancies accessory to Group E occupancies having an occupant load greater than 300, shall be provided with additional means ofegress that shall provide an egress capacity for at least one-half of the total occupant load served by that level and comply with Section 1015.2.

Exception: In assembly occupancies where there is no well-defined main exit or where multiple main exits are provided, exits shall be permitted to be distributed around the perimeter of the building, provided that the total width of egress is not less than 100 percent of the required width.

1028.4 Foyers and lobbies. In Group A-I occupancies, where persons are admitted to the building at times when seats are not available, such persons shall be allowed to wait in a lobby or similar space, provided such lobby or similar space shall not encroach upon the required clear width of the means ofegress. Such foyer, if not directly connected to a public street by all the main entrances or exits, shall have a straight and unobstructed corridor or path of travel to every such main entrance or exit.

1028.5 Interior balcony and gallery means of egress. For balconies, galleries or press boxes having a seating capacity of 50 or more located in Group A occupancies, at least two means ofegress shall be provided, with one from each side of every balcony, gallery or press box and at least one leading directly to an exit.

1028.5.1 Enclosure of openings. Interior stairways and other vertical openings shall be enclosed in an exit enclosure as provided in Section 1022.1, except that stairwaysare permitted to be open between the balcony, gallery or press box and the main assembly floor in occupancies such as theaters, places ofreligious worship, auditoriums and sports facilities. At least one accessible means ofegress is required from a balcony, gallery or press box level containing accessible seating locations in accordance with Section 1007.3 or 1007.4.

1028.6 Width ofmeans ofegress for assembly. The clear width of aisles and other means of egress shall comply with Section 1028.6.1 where smoke-protectedseatingis not provided and with Section 1028.6.2 or 1028.6.3 where smoke-protected seating is provided. The clear width shall be measured to walls, edges of seating and tread edges except for permitted projections.

1028.6.1 Without smoke protection. The clear width of the means of egress shall provide sufficient capacity in accordance with all of the following, as applicable:

  1. At least 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) of width for each occupant served shall be provided on stairs having riser heights 7 inches (178 mm) or less and tread depths 11 inches 148 (279 mm) or greater, measured horizontally between tread nosings.
  2. At least 0.005 inch (0.127 mm) of additional stair width for each occupant shall be provided for each 0.10 inch (2.5 mm) ofriser height above 7 inches (1 78 mm).
  3. Where egress requires stair descent, at least 0.075 inch (1.9 mm) of additional width for each occupant shall be provided on those portions of stairwidth having no handrail within a horizontal distance of 30 inches (762 mm).
  4. Ramped means of egress, where slopes are steeper than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope), shall have at least 0.22 inch (5.6 mm) of clear width for each occupant served. Level or ramped means ofegress, where slopes are not steeper than one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope), shall have at least 0.20 inch (5.1 mm) of clear width for each occupant served.

1028.6.2 Smoke-protected seating. The clear width of the means ofegress for smoke-protected assembly seatingshall not be less than the occupant load served by the egress element multiplied by the appropriate factor in Table 1028.6.2. The total number of seats specified shall be those within the space exposed to the same smoke-protected environment. Interpolation is permitted between the specific values shown. A life safety evaluation, complying with NFPA 101, shall be done for a facility utilizing the reduced width requirements of Table 1028.6.2 for smoke-protectedassembly seating.

Exception: For an outdoor smoke-protected assembly with an occupant load not greater than 18,000, the clear width shall be determined using the factors in Section 1028.6.3.

1028.6.2.1 Smoke control. Means of egress serving a smoke-protectedassemblyseatingarea shall be provided with a smoke control system complying with Section 909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the smoke level at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of the means ofegress.

1028.6.2.2 Roof height. A smoke-protected assembly seating area with a roof shall have the lowest portion of the roof deck not less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the highest aisle or aisle accessway.

Exception: A roof canopy in an outdoor stadium shall be permitted to be less than 15 feet (4572 mm) above the highest aisle or aisle accessway provided that there are no objects less than 80 inches (2032 mm) above the highest aisle or aisle accessway.

1028.6.2.3 Automatic sprinklers. Enclosed areas with walls and ceilings in buildings or structures containing smoke-protected assembly seating shall be protected with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

Exceptions:

  1. The floor area used for contests, performances or entertainment provided the roof construction is more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) above the floor level and the use is restricted to low fire hazard uses.
  2. Press boxes and storage facilities less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area.
  3. Outdoor seating facilities where seating and the means of egress in the seating area are essentially open to the outside.

1028.6.3 Width of means of egress for outdoor smoke-protected assembly. The clear width in inches (mm) of aisles and other means of egress shall be not less than the total occupant load served by the egress element multiplied by 0.08 (2.0 mm) where egress is by aisles and stairs and multiplied by 0.06 (1.52 mm) where egress is by ramps, corridors, tunnels or vomitories.

Exception: The clear width in inches (mm) of aisles and other means ofegress shall be permitted to comply with Section 1028.6.2 for the number of seats in the outdoor smoke-protected assembly where Section 1028.6.2 permits less width.

1028.7 Travel distance. Exits and aisles shall be so located that the travel distance to an exit door shall not be greater than 200 feet (60 960 mm) measured along the line of travel in nonsprinklered buildings. Travel distance shall not be more than 250 feet (76200 mm) in sprinklered buildings. Where aislesare

TABLE 1028.6.2
WIDTH OF AISLES FOR SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY
TOTAL NUMBER OF SEATS IN THE SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY OCCUPANCY INCHES OF CLEAR WIDTH PER SEAT SERVED
Stairs and aisle steps with handrails within 30 inches Stairs and aisle steps without handrails within 30 inches Passageways, doorways and ramps not steeper than 1 in 10 in slope Ramps steeper than 1 in 10 in slope
Equal to or less than 5,000 0.200 0.250 0.150 0.165
10,000 0.130 0.163 0.100 0.110
15,000 0.096 0.120 0.070 0.077
20,000 0.076 0.095 0.056 0.062
Equal to or greater than 25,000 0.060 0.075 0.044 0.048
For SI:     1 inch = 25.4 mm.
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provided for seating, the distance shall be measured along the aisles and aisle accesswaywithout travel over or on the seats.

Exceptions:

  1. Smoke-protectedassemblyseating. The travel distance from each seat to the nearest entrance to a vomitory or concourse shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The travel distance from the entrance to the vomitory or concourse to a stair, ramp or walk on the exterior ofthe building shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).
  2. Open-air seating: The travel distance from each seat to the building exterior shall not exceed 400 feet (122 m). The travel distance shall not be limited in facilities of Type I or II construction.

1028.8 Common path of egress travel. The common path of egress travel shall not exceed 30 feet (9144 mm) from any seat to a point where an occupant has a choice of two paths of egress travel to two exits.

Exceptions:

  1. For areas serving less than 50 occupants, the common path ofegress travel shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm).
  2. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the common path ofegress travel shall not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm).

1028.8.1 Path through adjacent row. Where one of the two paths of travel is across the aisle through a row of seats to another aisle, there shall be not more than 24 seats between the two aisles, and the minimum clear width between rows for the row between the two aisles shall be 12 inches (305 mm) plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each additional seat above seven in the row between aisles.

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating there shall not be more than 40 seats between the two aisles and the minimum clear width shall be 12 inches (305 mm) plus 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) for each additional seat.

1028.9 Assembly aisles are required. Every occupied portion of any occupancy in Group A or assembly occupancies accessory to Group E that contains seats, tables, displays, similar fixtures or equipment shall be provided with aisles leading to exits or exit access doorways in accordance with this section. Aisle accessways for tables and seating shall comply with Section 1017.4.

1028.9.1 Minimum aisle width. The minimum clear width for aisles shall be as shown:

  1. Forty-eight inches (1219 mm) for aisle stairs having seating on each side.

    Exception: Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle serves less than 50 seats.

  2. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for aisle stairs having seating on only one side.
  3. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between an aisle stair handrail or guard and seating where the aisle is subdivided by a handrail.
  4. Forty-two inches (1067 mm) for level or ramped aisles having seating on both sides.

    Exceptions:

    1. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) where the aisle serves less that 50 seats.
    2. Thirty inches (762 mm) where the aisle does not serve more than 14 seats.
  5. Thirty-six inches (914 mm) for level or ramped aisles having seating on only one side.

    Exceptions:

    1. Thirty inches (762 mm) where the aisle does not serve more than 14 seats.
    2. Twenty-three inches (584 mm) between an aisle stair handrail and seating where an aisle does not serve more than five rows on one side.

1028.9.2 Aisle width. The aisle width shall provide sufficient egress capacity for the number of persons accommodated by the catchment area served by the aisle. The catchment area served by an aisle is that portion of the total space that is served by that section of the aisle. In establishing catchment areas, the assumption shall be made that there is a balanced use of all means ofegress, with the number of persons in proportion to egress capacity.

1028.9.3 Converging aisles. Where aisles converge to form a single path of egress travel, the required egress capacity of that path shall not be less than the combined required capacity of the converging aisles.

1028.9.4 Uniform width. Those portions of aisles, where egress is possible in either of two directions, shall be uniform in required width.

1028.9.5 Assembly aisle termination. Each end of an aisle shall terminate at cross aisle, foyer, doorway, vomitory or concourse having access to an exit.

Exceptions:

  1. Dead-end aisles shall not be greater than 20 feet (6096 mm) in length.
  2. Dead-end aisles longer than 20 feet (6096 mm) are permitted where seats beyond the 20-foot (6096 mm) dead-end aisle are no more than 24 seats from another aisle, measured along a row of seats having a minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) plus 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for each additional seat above seven in the row.
  3. For smoke-protected assembly seating, the dead-end aisle length of vertical aisles shall not exceed a distance of 21 rows.
  4. For smoke-protected assembly seating, a longer dead-end aisle is permitted where seats beyond the 21-row dead-end aisle are not more than 40 seats from another aisle, measured along a row of seats having an aisle accessway with a minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) plus 0.3 inch (7.6 150 mm) for each additional seat above seven in the row.

1028.9.6 Assembly aisle obstructions. There shall be no obstructions in the required width of aisles except for hand-rails as provided in Section 1028.13.

1028.10 Clear width of aisle accessways serving seating. Where seating rows have 14 or fewer seats, the minimum clear aisle accessway width shall not be less than 12 inches (305 mm) measured as the clear horizontal distance from the back of the row ahead and the nearest projection of the row behind. Where chairs have automatic or self-rising seats, the measurement shall be made with seats in the raised position. Where any chair in the row does not have an automatic or self-rising seat, the measurements shall be made with the seat in the down position. For seats with folding tablet arms, row spacing shall be determined with the tablet arm in the used position.

Exception: For seats with folding tablet arms, row spacing is permitted to be determined with the tablet arm in the stored position where the tablet arm when raised manually to vertical position in one motion automatically returns to the stored position by force of gravity.

1028.10.1 Dual access. For rows of seating served by aisles or doorways at both ends, there shall not be more than 100 seats per row. The minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) between rows shall be increased by 0.3 inch (7.6 mm) for every additional seat beyond 14 seats, but the minimum clear width is not required to exceed 22 inches (559 mm).

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the row length limits for a 12-inch-wide (305 mm) aisle accessway, beyond which the aisle accesswayminimum clear width shall be increased, are in Table 1028.10.1.

TABLE 1028.10.1
SMOKE-PROTECTED
ASSEMBLY AISLE ACCESSWAYS
TOTAL NUMBER OF SEATS IN THE SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY OCCUPANCY MAXIMUM NUMBER OF SEATS PER ROW PERMITTED TO HAVE A MINIMUM 12·INCH CLEAR WIDTH AISLE ACCESSWAY
Aisle or doorway at both ends of row Aisle or doorway at one end of row only
Less than 4,000 14 7
4,000 15 7
7,000 16 8
10,000 17 8
13,000 18 9
16,000 19 9
19,000 20 10
22,000 and greater 21 11
For 51:     1 inch = 25.4 mm.

1028.10.2 Single access. For rows of seating served by an aisle or doorway at only one end of the row, the minimum clear width of 12 inches (305 mm) between rows shall be increased by 0.6 inch (15.2 mm) for every additional seat beyond seven seats, but the minimum clear width is not required to exceed 22 inches (559 mm).

Exception: For smoke-protected assembly seating, the row length limits for a 12-inch-wide (305 mm) aisle accessway, beyond which the aisle accesswayminimum clear width shall be increased, are in Table 1028.10.1.

1028.11 Assembly aisle walking surfaces. Aisleswith a slope not exceeding one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope) shall consist of a ramp having a slip-resistant walking surface. Aisles with a slope exceeding one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope) shall consist of a series of risers and treads that extends across the full width of aisles and complies with Sections 1028.11.1 through 1028.11.3.

1028.11.1 Treads. Tread depths shall be a minimum of 11 inches (279 mm) and shall have dimensional uniformity.

Exception: The tolerance between adjacent treads shall not exceed 0.188 inch (4.8 mm).

1028.11.2 Risers. Where the gradient of aisle stairs is to be the same as the gradient of adjoining seating areas, the riser height shall not be less than 4 inches (102 mm) nor more than 8 inches (203 mm) and shall be uniform within each flight.

Exceptions:

  1. Riser height nonuniformity shall be limited to the extent necessitated by changes in the gradient of the adjoining seating area to maintain adequate sightlines. Where nonuniformities exceed 0.188 inch (4.8 mm) between adjacent risers, the exact location ofsuch nonuniformities shall be indicated with a distinctive marking stripe on each tread at the nosing or leading edge adjacent to the nonuniform risers. Such stripe shall be a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm), and a maximum of 2 inches (51 mm), wide. The edge marking stripe shall be distinctively different from the contrasting marking stripe.
  2. Riser heights not exceeding 9 inches (229 mm) shall be permitted where they are necessitated by the slope of the adjacent seating areas to maintain sightlines.

1028.11.3 Tread contrasting marking stripe. A contrasting marking stripe shall be provided on each tread at the nosing or leading edge such that the location of each tread is readily apparent when viewed in descent. Such stripe shall be a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm), and a maximum of 2 inches (51 mm), wide.

Exception: The contrasting marking stripe is permitted to be omitted where tread surfaces are such that the location of each tread is readily apparent when viewed in descent.

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1028.12 Seat stability. In places of assembly, the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor.

Exceptions:

  1. In places of assembly or portions thereof without ramped or tiered floors for seating and with 200 or fewer seats, the seats shall not be required to be fastened to the floor.
  2. In places of assembly or portions thereof with seating at tables and without ramped or tiered floors for seating' the seats shall not be required to be fastened to the floor.
  3. In places of assembly or portions thereof without ramped or tiered floors for seating and with greater than 200 seats, the seats shall be fastened together in groups of not less than three or the seats shall be securely fastened to the floor.
  4. In places of assembly where flexibility of the seating arrangement is an integral part of the design and function of the space and seating is on tiered levels, a maximum of 200 seats shall not be required to be fastened to the floor. Plans showing seating, tiers and aisles shall be submitted for approval.
  5. Groups of seats within a place of assembly separated from other seating by railings, guards, partial height walls or similar barriers with level floors and having no more than 14 seats per group shall not be required to be fastened to the floor.
  6. Seats intended for musicians or other performers and separated by railings, guards, partial height walls or similar barriers shall not be required to be fastened to the floor.

1028.13 Handrails. Ramped aisles having a slope exceeding one unit vertical in 15 units horizontal (6.7-percent slope) and aisle stairs shall be provided with handrails located either at the side or within the aisle width.

Exceptions:

  1. Handrails are not required for ramped aisles having a gradient no greater than one unit vertical in eight units horizontal (12.5-percent slope) and seating on both sides.
  2. Handrails are not required if, at the side of the aisle, there is a guard that complies with the graspability requirements of handrails.
  3. Handrail extensions are not required at the top and bottom of aisle stairs and aisle ramp runs to permit crossovers within the aisles.

1028.13.1 Discontinuous handrails. Where there is seating on both sides ofthe aisle, the handrailsshall be discontinuous with gaps or breaks at intervals not exceeding five rows to facilitate access to seating and to permit crossing from one side of the aisle to the other. These gaps or breaks shall have a clear width of at least 22 inches (559 mm) and not greater than 36 inches (914 mm), measured horizontally, and the handrail shall have rounded terminations or bends.

1028.13.2 Intermediate handrails. Where handrails are provided in the middle of aisle stairs, there shall be an additional intermediate handraillocated approximately 12 inches (305 mm) below the main handrail.

1028.14 Assembly guards. Assembly guards shall comply with Sections 1028.14.1 through 1028.14.3.

1028.14.1 Cross aisles. Cross aisles located more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below shall have guards in accordance with Section 1013.

Where an elevation change of 30 inches (762 mm) or less occurs between a cross aisle and the adjacent floor or grade below, guards not less than 26 inches (660 mm) above the aisle floor shall be provided.

Exception: Where the backs of seats on the front of the cross aisle project 24 inches (610 mm) or more above the adjacent floor ofthe aisle, a guardneed not be provided.

1028.14.2 Sightline-constrained guard heights. Unless subject to the requirements of Section 1028.14.3, a fascia or railing system in accordance with the guardrequirements of Section 1013 and having a minimum height of 26 inches (660 mm) shall be provided where the floor or footboard elevation is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below and the fascia or railing would otherwise interfere with the sightlines of immediately adjacent seating. At bleachers, a guardmust be provided where required by ICC 300.

1028.14.3 Guards at the end of aisles. A fascia or railing system complying with the guard requirements of Section 1013 shall be provided for the full width of the aisle where the foot of the aisle is more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the floor or grade below. The fascia or railing shall be a minimum of 36 inches (914 mm) high and shall provide a minimum 42 inches (1067 mm) measured diagonally between the top of the rail and the nosing of the nearest tread.

1028.15 Bench seating. Where bench seating is used, the number of persons shall be based on one person for each 18 inches (457 mm) of length of the bench.

[8] SECTION 1029
EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE

1029.1 General. In addition to the means ofegress required by this chapter, provisions shall be made for emergency escape and rescue in Group R and I-I occupancies. Basements and sleeping rooms below the fourth storyabove grade plane shall have at least one exterior emergency escape and rescue opening in accordance with this section. Where basements contain one or more sleeping rooms, emergency escape and rescue openings shall be required in each sleeping room, but shall not be required in adjoining areas of the basement. Such openings shall open directly into a public way or to a yard or court that opens to a public way.

Exceptions:

  1. In other than Group R-3 occupancies, buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic 152 sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  2. In other than Group R-3 occupancies, sleeping rooms provided with a door to a fire-resistance-rated corridor having access to two remote exits in opposite directions.
  3. The emergency escape and rescue openingis permitted to open onto a balcony within an atrium in accordance with the requirements of Section 404 of the International BUilding Code, provided the balcony provides access to an exit and the dwelling unit or sleeping unit has a means ofegress that is not open to the atrium.
  4. Basements with a ceiling height of less than 80 inches (2032 mm) shall not be required to have emergency escape and rescue windows.
  5. High-rise buildings in accordance with Section 403 of the International BUilding Code.
  6. Emergency escape and rescue openings are not required from basements or sleeping rooms that have an exitdoor or exitaccess door that opens directly into a public way or to a yard, court or exterior exit balcony that opens to a public way.
  7. Basements without habitable spaces and having no more than 200 square feet (18.6 m2) in floor area shall not be required to have emergency escape windows.

1029.2 Minimum size. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall have a minimum net clear opening of 5.7 square feet (0.53 m2).

Exception: The minimum net clear opening for emergency escape and rescue grade-floor openings shall be 5 square feet (0.46 m2).

1029.2.1 Minimum dimensions. The minimum net clear opening height dimension shall be 24 inches (610 mm). The minimum net clear opening width dimension shall be 20 inches (508 mm). The net clear opening dimensions shall be the result of normal operation of the opening.

1029.3 Maximum height from floor. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall have the bottom of the clear opening not greater than 44 inches (1118 mm) measured from the floor.

1029.4 Operational constraints. Emergency escape and rescue openings shall be operational from the inside of the room without the use of keys or tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are permitted to be placed over emergency escape and rescue openings provided the minimum net clear opening size complies with Section 1029.2 and such devices shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal operation of the escape and rescue opening. Where such bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are installed in existing buildings, smoke alarms shall be installed in accordance with Section 907.2.11 regardless of the valuation of the alteration.

1029.5 Window wells. An emergencyescape andrescue opening with a finished sill height below the adjacent ground level shall be provided with a window well in accordance with Sections 1029.5.1 and 1029.5.2.

1029.5.1 Minimum size. The minimum horizontal area of the window well shall be 9 square feet (0.84 m2), with a minimum dimension of 36 inches (914 mm). The area of the window well shall allow the emergency escape and rescue opening to be fully opened.

1029.5.2 Ladders or steps. Window wells with a vertical depth of more than 44 inches (1118 mm) shall be equipped with an approved permanently affixed ladder or steps. Ladders or rungs shall have an inside width of at least 12 inches (305 mm), shall project at least 3 inches (76 mm) from the wall and shall be spaced not more than 18 inches (457 mm) on center (o.c.) vertically for the full height of the window well. The ladder or steps shall not encroach into the required dimensions of the window well by more than 6 inches (152 mm). The ladder or steps shall not be obstructed by the emergency escape and rescue opening. Ladders or steps required by this section are exempt from the stairway requirements of Section 1009.

SECTION 1030
MAINTENANCE OF THE MEANS OF EGRESS

1030.1 General. The means of egress for buildings or portions thereof shall be maintained in accordance with this section.

1030.2 Reliability. Required exit accesses, exits or exit discharges shall be continuously maintained free from obstructions or impediments to full instant use in the case of fire or other emergency when the areas served by such exits are occupied. Security devices affecting means of egress shall be subject to approval of the fire code official.

1030.3 Obstructions. A means of egress shall be free from obstructions that would prevent its use, including the accumulation of snow and ice.

1030.4 Exit signs. Exit signs shall be installed and maintained in accordance with Section 1011. Decorations, furnishings, equipment or adjacent signage that impairs the visibility of exit signs, creates confusion or prevents identification of the exit shall not be allowed.

1030.5 Nonexit identification. Where a door is adjacent to, constructed similar to and can be confused with a means of egress door, that door shall be identified with an approved sign that identifies the room name or use of the room.

1030.6 Furnishings and decorations. Furnishings, decorations or other objects shall not be placed so as to obstruct exits, access thereto, egress therefrom, or visibility thereof. Hangings and draperies shall not be placed over exit doors or otherwise be located to conceal or obstruct an exit. Mirrors shall not be placed on exit doors. Mirrors shall not be placed in or adjacent to any exit in such a manner as to confuse the direction of exit.

1030.7 Emergency escape openings. Required emergency escape openings shall be maintained in accordance with the code in effect at the time of construction, and the following: Required emergency escape and rescue openings shall be operational from the inside of the room without the use of keys or tools. Bars, grilles, grates or similar devices are allowed to be placed over emergency escape and rescue openings provided

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the minimum net clear opening size complies with the code that was in effect at the time of construction and such devices shall be releasable or removable from the inside without the use of a key, tool or force greater than that which is required for normal operation of the escape and rescue opening.

1030.8 Testing and maintenance. All two-way communication systems for areas of refuge shall be inspected and tested on a yearly basis to verify that all components are operational. When required, the tests shall be conducted in the presence of the fire code official.

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CHAPTER 11
AVIATION FACILITIES

SECTION 1101
GENERAL

1101.1 Scope. Airports, heliports, helistops and aircraft hangars shall be in accordance with this chapter.

1101.2 Regulations not covered. Regulations not specifically contained herein pertaining to airports, aircraft maintenance, aircraft hangars and appurtenant operations shall be in accordance with nationally recognized standards.

1101.3 Permits. For permits to operate aircraft-refueling vehicles, application of flammable or combustible finishes and hot work, see Section 105.6.

SECTION 1102
DEFINITIONS

1102.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

AIRCRAFT OPERATION AREA (AOA). Any area used or intended for use for the parking, taxiing, takeoff, landing or other ground-based aircraft activity.

AIRPORT. An area of land or structural surface that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off of aircraft with an overall length greater than 39 feet (11 887 mm) and an overall exterior fuselage width greater than 6.6 feet (2012 mm), and any appurtenant areas that are used or intended for use for airport buildings and other airport facilities.

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is used, or intended for use, for the landing and taking off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas which are used, or intended for use, for heliport buildings and other heliport facilities.

HELISTOP. The same as "Heliport," except that no fueling, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is permitted.

SECTION 1103
GENERAL PRECAUTIONS

1103.1 Sources of ignition. Open flames, flame-producing devices and other sources of ignition shall not be permitted in a hangar, except in approved locations or in any location within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of an aircraft-fueling operation.

1103.2 Smoking. Smoking shall be prohibited in aircraft-refueling vehicles, aircraft hangars and aircraft operation areas used for cleaning, paint removal, painting operations or fueling. "No Smoking" signs shall be provided in accordance with Section 310.

Exception: Designated and approved smoking areas.

1103.3 Housekeeping. The aircraft operation area (AOA) and related areas shall be kept free from combustible debris at all times.

1103.4 Fire department access. Fire apparatus access roads shall be provided and maintained in accordance with Chapter 5. Fire apparatus access roads and aircraft parking positions shall be designed in a manner so as to preclude the possibility offire vehicles traveling under any portion ofa parked aircraft.

1103.5 Dispensing of flammable and combustible liquids. The dispensing, transferring and storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with this chapter and Chapter 34. Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Chapter 22.

1103.6 Combustible storage. Combustible materials stored in aircraft hangars shall be stored in approved locations and containers.

1103.7 Hazardous material storage. Hazardous materials shall be stored in accordance with Chapter 27.

SECTION 1104
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE

1104.1 Transferring flammable and combustible liquids. Flammable and combustible liquids shall not be dispensed into or removed from a container, tank, vehicle or aircraft except in approved locations.

1104.2 Application of flammable and combustible liquid finishes. The application of flammable or Class II combustible liquidfinishes is prohibited unless both of the following conditions are met:

  1. The application of the liquid finish is accomplished in an approved location.
  2. The application methods and procedures are in accordance with Chapter 15.

1104.3 Cleaning parts. Class IA flammable liquids shall not be used to clean aircraft, aircraft parts or aircraft engines. Cleaning with other flammable and combustible liquids shall be in accordance with Section 3405.3.6.

1104.4 Spills. This section shall apply to spills of flammable and combustible liquids and other hazardous materials. Fuel spill control shall also comply with Section 1106.11.

1104.4.1 Cessation ofwork. Activities in the affected area not related to the mitigation of the spill shall cease until the spilled material has been removed or the hazard has been mitigated.

1104.4.2 Vehicle movement. Aircraft or other vehicles shall not be moved through the spill area until the spilled material has been removed or the hazard has been mitigated.

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1104.4.3 Mitigation. Spills shall be reported, documented and mitigated in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and Section 2703.3.

1104.5 Running engines. Aircraft engines shall not be run in aircraft hangars except in approved engine test areas.

1104.6 Open flame. Repairing of aircraft requiring the use of open flames, spark-producing devices or the heating of parts above 500°F (260°C) shall only be done outdoors or in an area complying with the provisions of the International BUilding Code for a Group F-1 occupancy.

SECTION 1105
PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS

1105.1 General. Portable fire extinguishers suitable for flammable or combustible liquid and electrical-type fires shall be provided as specified in Sections 1105.2 through 1105.6 and Section 906. Extinguishers required by this section shall be inspected and maintained in accordance with Section 906.

1105.2 On towing vehicles. Vehicles used for towing aircraft shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 20-B:C.

1105.3 On welding apparatus. Welding apparatus shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 2-A:20-B:C.

1105.4 On aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles. Aircraft fuel-servicing tank vehicles shall be equipped with a minimum of two listed portable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906, each having a minimum rating of 20-B:C. A portable fire extinguisher shall be readily accessible from either side of the vehicle.

1105.5 On hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles. Hydrant fuel-servicing vehicles shall be equipped with a minimum of one listed portable fire extinguisher complying with Section 906, and having a minimum rating of 20-B:C.

1105.6 At fuel-dispensing stations. Portable fire extinguishers at fuel-dispensing stations shall be located such that pumps or dispensers are not more than 75 feet (22860 mm) from one such extinguisher. Fire extinguishers shall be provided as follows:

  1. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling system is not more than 200 gallons per minute (13 Lis), a minimum of two listedportable fire extinguishers complying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 20-B:C shall be provided.
  2. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling system is more than 200 gallons per minute (13 Lis) but not more than 350 gallons per minute (22 Lis), a minimum of one listedwheeled extinguisher complying with Section 906 and having a minimum extinguishing rating of80-B:C, and a minimum agent capacity of 125 pounds (57 kg), shall be provided.
  3. Where the open-hose discharge capacity of the fueling system is more than 350 gallons per minute (22 Lis), a minimum of two listed wheeled extinguishers complying with Section 906 and having a minimum rating of 80-B:C each, and a minimum capacity agent of 125 pounds (57 kg) of each, shall be provided.

1105.7 Fire extinguisher access. Portable fire extinguishers required by this chapter shall be accessible at all times. Where necessary, provisions shall be made to clear accumulations of snow, ice and other forms of weather-induced obstructions.

1105.7.1 Cabinets. Cabinets and enclosed compartments used to house portable fire extinguishers shall be clearly marked with the words FIRE EXTINGUISHER in letters at least 2 inches (51 mm) high. Cabinets and compartments shall be readily accessible at all times.

1105.8 Reporting use. Use ofa fire extinguisher under any circumstances shall be reported to the manager of the airport and the fire code official immediately after use.

SECTION 1106
AIRCRAFT FUELING

1106.1 Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities. Aircraft motor vehicle fuel-dispensing facilities shall be in accordance with Chapter 22.

1106.2 Airport fuel systems. Airport fuel systems shall be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 407.

1106.3 Construction of aircraft-fueling vehicles and accessories. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall comply with this section and shall be designed and constructed in accordance with NFPA 407.

1106.3.1 Transfer apparatus. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be equipped and maintained with an approvedtransfer apparatus.

1106.3.1.1 Internal combustion type. Where such transfer apparatus is operated by an individual unit of the internal-combustion-motor type, such power unit shall be located as remotely as practicable from pumps, piping, meters, air eliminators, water separators, hose reels and similar equipment, and shall be housed in a separate compartment from any of the aforementioned items. The fuel tank in connection therewith shall be suitably designed and installed, and the maximum fuel capacity shall not exceed 5 gallons (19 L) where the tank is installed on the engine. The exhaust pipe, muffler and tail pipe shall be shielded.

1106.3.1.2 Gear operated. Where operated by gears or chains, the gears, chains, shafts, bearings, housing and all parts thereof shall be of an approved design and shall be installed and maintained in an approved manner.

1106.3.1.3 Vibration isolation. Flexible connections for the purpose ofeliminating vibration are allowed ifthe material used therein is designed, installed and maintained in an approved manner, provided such connections do not exceed 24 inches (610 mm) in length.

1106.3.2 Pumps. Pumps of a positive-displacement type shall be provided with a bypass relief valve set at a pressure of not more than 35 percent in excess of the normal working

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pressure of such unit. Such units shall be equipped and maintained with a pressure gauge on the discharge side of the pump.

1106.3.3 Dispensing hoses and nozzles. Hoses shall be designed for the transferring of hydrocarbon liquids and shall not be any longer than necessary to provide efficient fuel transfer operations. Hoses shall be equipped with an approved shutoff nozzle. Fuel-transfer nozzles shall be self-closing and designed to be actuated by hand pressure only. Notches and other devices shall not be used for holding a nozzle valve handle in the open position. Nozzles shall be equipped with a bonding cable complete with proper attachment for aircraft to be serviced.

1106.3.4 Protection ofelectrical equipment. Electric wiring, switches, lights and other sources of ignition, when located in a compartment housing piping, pumps, air eliminators, water separators, hose reels or similar equipment, shall be enclosed in a vapor-tight housing. Electrical motors located in such a compartment shall be of a type approved for use as specified in NFPA 70.

1106.3.5 Venting ofequipment compartments. Compartments housing piping, pumps, air eliminators, water separators, hose reels and similar equipment shall be adequately ventilated at floor level or within the floor itself.

1106.3.6 Accessory equipment. Ladders, hose reels and similar accessory equipment shall be of an approved type and constructed substantially as follows:

  1. Ladders constructed of noncombustible material are allowed to be used with or attached to aircraft-fueling vehicles, provided the manner of attachment or use of such ladders is approved and does not constitute an additional fire or accident hazard in the operation of such fueling vehicles.
  2. Hose reels used in connection with fueling vehicles shall be constructed of noncombustible materials and shall be provided with a packing gland or other device which will preclude fuel leakage between reels and fuel manifolds.

1106.3.7 Electrical bonding provisions. Transfer apparatus shall be metallically interconnected with tanks, chassis, axles and springs of aircraft-fueling vehicles.

1106.3.7.1 Bonding cables. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be provided and maintained with a substantial heavy-duty electrical cable of sufficient length to be bonded to the aircraft to be serviced. Such cable shall be metallically connected to the transfer apparatus or chassis of the aircraft-fueling vehicle on one end and shall be provided with a suitable metal clamp on the other end, to be fixed to the aircraft.

1106.3.7.2 Bonding cable protection. The bonding cable shall be bare or have a transparent protective sleeve and be stored on a reel or in a compartment provided for no other purpose. It shall be carried in such a manner that it will not be subjected to sharp kinks or accidental breakage under conditions of general use.

1106.3.8 Smoking. Smoking in aircraft-fueling vehicles is prohibited. Signs to this effect shall be conspicuously posted in the driver's compartment of all fueling vehicles.

1106.3.9 Smoking equipment. Smoking equipment such as cigarette lighters and ash trays shall not be provided in aircraft-fueling vehicles.

1106.4 Operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fueling vehicles. The operation, maintenance and use of aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be in accordance with Sections 1106.4.1 through 1106.4.4 and other applicable provisions of this chapter.

1106.4.1 Proper maintenance. Aircraft-fueling vehicles and all related equipment shall be properly maintained and kept in good repair. Accumulations of oil, grease, fuel and other flammable or combustible materials is prohibited. Maintenance and servicing of such equipment shall be accomplished in approved areas.

1106.4.2 Vehicle integrity. Tanks, pipes, hoses, valves and other fuel delivery equipment shall be maintained leak free at all times.

1106.4.3 Removal from service. Aircraft-fueling vehicles and related equipment which are in violation of Section 1106.4.1 or 1106.4.2 shall be immediately defueled and removed from service and shall not be returned to service until proper repairs have been made.

1106.4.4 Operators. Aircraft-fueling vehicles that are operated by a person, firm or corporation other than the permittee or the permittee's authorized employee shall be provided with a legible sign visible from outside the vehicle showing the name of the person, firm or corporation operating such unit.

1106.5 Fueling and defueling. Aircraft-fueling and defueling operations shall be in accordance with Sections 1106.5.1 through 1106.5.5.

1106.5.1 Positioning of aircraft-fueling vehicles. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall not be located, parked or permitted to stand in a position where such unit would obstruct egress from an aircraft should a fire occur during fuel-transfer operations. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall not be located, parked or permitted to stand under any portion ofan aircraft.

Exception: Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be allowed to be located under aircraft wings during underwing fueling of turbine-engine powered aircraft.

1106.5.1.1 Fueling vehicle egress. A clear path shall be maintained for aircraft-fueling vehicles to provide for prompt and timely egress from the fueling area.

1106.5.1.2 Aircraft vent openings. A clear space of at least 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be maintained between aircraft fuel-system vent openings and any part or portion of an aircraft-fueling vehicle.

1106.5.1.3 Parking. Prior to leaving the cab, the aircraft-fueling vehicle operator shall ensure that the parking brake has been set. At least two chock blocks not less than 5 inches by 5 inches by 12 inches (127 mm by 127

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mm by 305 mm) in size and dished to fit the contour of the tires shall be utilized and positioned in such a manner as to preclude movement ofthe vehicle in any direction.

1106.5.2 Electrical bonding. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be electrically bonded to the aircraft being fueled or defueled. Bonding connections shall be made prior to making fueling connections and shall not be disconnected until the fuel-transfer operations are completed and the fueling connections have been removed.

Where a hydrant service vehicle or cart is used for fueling, the hydrant coupler shall be connected to the hydrant system prior to bonding the fueling equipment to the aircraft.

1106.5.2.1 Conductive hose. In addition to the bonding cable required by Section 1106.5.2, conductive hose shall be used for all fueling operations.

1106.5.2.2 Bonding conductors on transfer nozzles. Transfer nozzles shall be equipped with approvedbonding conductors which shall be clipped or otherwise positively engaged with the bonding attachment provided on the aircraft adjacent to the fuel tank cap prior to removal of the cap.

Exception: In the case of overwing fueling where no appropriate bonding attachment adjacent to the fuel fill port has been provided on the aircraft, the fueling operator shall touch the fuel tank cap with the nozzle spout prior to removal of the cap. The nozzle shall be kept in contact with the fill port until fueling is completed.

1106.5.2.3 Funnels. Where required, metal funnels are allowed to be used during fueling operations. Direct contact between the fueling receptacle, the funnel and the fueling nozzle shall be maintained during the fueling operation.

1106.5.3 Training. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be attended and operated only by persons instructed in methods of proper use and operation and who are qualified to use such fueling vehicles in accordance with minimum safety requirements.

1106.5.3.1 Fueling hazards. Fuel-servicing personnel shall know and understand the hazards associated with each type of fuel dispensed by the airport fueling-system operator.

1106.5.3.2 Fire safety training. Employees of fuel agents who fuel aircraft, accept fuel shipments or otherwise handle fuel shall receive approved fire safety training.

1106.5.3.2.1 Fire extinguisher training. Fuel-servicing personnel shall receive approved training in the operation of fire-extinguishing equipment.

1106.5.3.2.2 Documentation. The airport fueling-system operator shall maintain records of all training administered to its employees. These records shall be made available to the fire code official on request.

1106.5.4 Transfer personnel. During fuel-transfer operations, a qualified person shall be in control of each transfer nozzle and another qualified person shall be in immediate control of the fuel-pumping equipment to shut off or otherwise control the flow of fuel from the time fueling operations are begun until they are completed.

Exceptions:

  1. For underwing refueling, the person stationed at the point of fuel intake is not required.
  2. For overwing refueling, the person stationed at the fuel pumping equipment shall not be required where the person at the fuel dispensing device is within 75 feet (22 800 mm) of the emergency shutoff device; is not on the wing of the aircraft and has a clear and unencumbered path to the fuel pumping equipment; and the fuel dispensing line does not exceed 50 feet (15 240 mm) in length.

The fueling operator shall monitor the panel of the fueling equipment and the aircraft control panel during pressure fueling or shall monitor the fill port during overwing fueling.

1106.5.5 Fuel flow control. Fuel flow-control valves shall be operable only by the direct hand pressure of the operator. Removal of the operator's hand pressure shall cause an immediate cessation of the flow of fuel.

1106.6 Emergency fuel shutoff. Emergency fuel shutoff controls and procedures shall comply with Sections 1106.6.1 through 1106.6.4.

1106.6.1 Accessibility. Emergency fuel shutoff controls shall be readily accessible at all times when the fueling system is being operated.

1106.6.2 Notification of the fire department. The fueling-system operator shall establish a procedure by which the fire department will be notified in the event of an activation of an emergency fuel shutoff control.

1106.6.3 Determining cause. Prior to reestablishment of normal fuel flow, the cause of fuel shutoff conditions shall be determined and corrected.

1106.6.4 Testing. Emergency fuel shutoff devices shall be operationally tested at intervals not exceeding three months. The fueling-system operator shall maintain suitable records of these tests.

1106.7 Protection of hoses. Before an aircraft-fueling vehicle is moved, fuel transfer hoses shall be properly placed on the approvedreel or in the compartment provided, or stored on the top decking of the fueling vehicle if proper height rail is provided for security and protection of such equipment. Fuel-transfer hose shall not be looped or draped over any part of the fueling vehicle, except as herein provided. Fuel-transfer hose shall not be dragged when such fueling vehicle is moved from one fueling position to another.

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1106.8 Loading and unloading. Aircraft-fueling vehicles shall be loaded only at an approved loading rack. Such loading racks shall be in accordance with Section 3406.5.1.12.

Exceptions:

  1. Aircraft-refueling units may be loaded from the fuel tanks of an aircraft during defueling operations.
  2. Fuel transfer between tank vehicles is allowed to be performed in accordance with Section 3406.6 when the operation is at least 200 feet (60960 mm) from an aircraft.

The fuel cargo of such units shall be unloaded only by approved transfer apparatus into the fuel tanks of aircraft, underground storage tanks or approved gravity storage tanks.

1106.9 Passengers. Passenger traffic is allowed during the time fuel transfer operations are in progress, provided the following provisions are strictly enforced by the owner of the aircraft or the owner's authorized employee:

  1. Smoking and producing an open flame in the cabin of the aircraft or the outside thereof within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of such aircraft shall be prohibited.
    A qualified employee of the aircraft owner shall be responsible for seeing that the passengers are not allowed to smoke when remaining aboard the aircraft or while going across the ramp from the gate to such aircraft, or vice versa.
  2. Passengers shall not be permitted to linger about the plane, but shall proceed directly between the loading gate and the aircraft.
  3. Passenger loading stands or walkways shall be left in loading position until all fuel transfer operations are completed.
  4. Fuel transfer operations shall not be performed on the main exit side of any aircraft containing passengers except when the owner of such aircraft or a capable and qualified employee of such ownerremains inside the aircraft to direct and assist the escape of such passengers through regular and emergency exits in the event fire should occur during fuel transfer operations.

1106.10 Sources of ignition. Smoking and producing open flames within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of a point where fuel is being transferred shall be prohibited. Electrical and motor-driven devices shall not be connected to or disconnected from an aircraft at any time fueling operations are in progress on such aircraft.

1106.11 Fuel spill prevention and procedures. Fuel spill prevention and the procedures for handling spills shall comply with Sections 1106.11.1 through 1106.11.7.

1106.11.1 Fuel-service equipment maintenance. Aircraft fuel-servicing equipment shall be maintained and kept free from leaks. Fuel-servicing equipment that malfunctions or leaks shall not be continued in service.

1106.11.2 Transporting fuel nozzles. Fuel nozzles shall be carried utilizing appropriate handles. Dragging fuel nozzles along the ground shall be prohibited.

1106.11.3 Drum fueling. Fueling from drums or other containers having a capacity greater than 5 gallons (19 L) shall be accomplished with the use of an approved pump.

1106.11.4 Fuel spill procedures. The fueling-system operator shall establish procedures to follow in the event ofa fuel spill. These procedures shall be comprehensive and shall provide for at least all of the following:

  1. Upon observation of a fuel spill, the aircraft-fueling operator shall immediately stop the delivery of fuel by releasing hand pressure from the fuel flow-control valve.
  2. Failure of the fuel control valve to stop the continued spillage of fuel shall be cause for the activation of the appropriate emergency fuel shutoff device.
  3. A supervisor for the fueling-system operator shall respond to the fuel spill area immediately.

1106.11.5 Notification of the fire department. The fire department shall be notified of any fuel spill which is considered a hazard to people or property or which meets one or more of the following criteria:

  1. Any dimension of the spill is greater than 10 feet (3048 mm).
  2. The spill area is greater than 50 square feet (4.65 m2).
  3. The fuel flow is continuous in nature.

1106.11.6 Investigation required. An investigation shall be conducted by the fueling-system operator of all spills requiring notification of the fire department. The investigation shall provide conclusive proof ofthe cause and verification of the appropriate use of emergency procedures. Where it is determined that corrective measures are necessary to prevent future incidents of the same nature, they shall be implemented immediately.

1106.11.7 Multiple fuel delivery vehicles. Simultaneous delivery of fuel from more than one aircraft-fueling vehicle to a single aircraft-fueling manifold is prohibited unless proper backflow prevention devices are installed to prevent fuel flow into the tank vehicles.

1106.12 Aircraft engines and heaters. Operation of aircraft onboard engines and combustion heaters shall be terminated prior to commencing fuel service operations and shall remain off until the fuel-servicing operation is completed.

Exception: In an emergency, a single jet engine is allowed to be operated during fuel servicing where all of the following conditions are met:

  1. The emergency shall have resulted from an onboard failure of the aircraft's auxiliary power unit.
  2. Restoration of auxiliary power to the aircraft by ground support services is not available.
  3. The engine to be operated is either at the rear of the aircraft or on the opposite side of the aircraft from the fuel service operation.
  4. The emergency operation is in accordance with a written procedure approved by the fire code official.
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1106.13 Vehicle and equipment restrictions. During aircraft-fueling operations, only the equipment actively involved in the fueling operation is allowed within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of the aircraft being fueled. Other equipment shall be prohibited in this area until the fueling operation is complete.

Exception: Aircraft-fueling operations utilizing single-point refueling with a sealed, mechanically locked fuel line connection and the fuel is not a Class I flammable liquid.

A clear space of at least 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be maintained between aircraft fuel-system vent openings and any part or portion of aircraft-servicing vehicles or equipment.

1106.13.1 Overwing fueling. Vehicles or equipment shall not be allowed beneath the trailing edge of the wing when aircraft fueling takes place over the wing and the aircraft fuel-system vents are located on the upper surface of the wing.

1106.14 Electrical equipment. Electrical equipment, including but not limited to, battery chargers, ground or auxiliary power units, fans, compressors or tools, shall not be operated, nor shall they be connected or disconnected from their power source, during fuel service operations.

1106.14.1 Other equipment. Electrical or other spark-producing equipment shall not be used within 10 feet (3048 mm) offueling equipment, aircraft fill or vent points, or spill areas unless that equipment is intrinsically safe and approved for use in an explosive atmosphere.

1106.15 Open flames. Open flames and open-flame devices are prohibited within 50 feet (15 240 mm) of any aircraft fuel-servicing operation or fueling equipment.

1106.15.1 Other areas. The fire code official is authorized to establish other locations where open flames and open-flame devices are prohibited.

1106.15.2 Matches and lighters. Personnel assigned to and engaged in fuel-servicing operations shall not carry matches or lighters on or about their person. Matches or lighters shall be prohibited in, on or about aircraft-fueling equipment.

1106.16 Lightning procedures. The fire code officialis authorized to require the airport authority and the fueling-system operator to establish written procedures to follow when lightning flashes are detected on or near the airport. These procedures shall establish criteria for the suspension and resumption of aircraft-fueling operations.

1106.17 Fuel-transfer locations. Aircraft fuel-transfer operations shall be prohibited indoors.

Exception: In aircraft hangars built in accordance with the provisions of the International BUilding Code for Group F-1 occupancies, aircraft fuel-transfer operations are allowed where:

  1. Necessary to accomplish aircraft fuel-system maintenance operations. Such operations shall be performed in accordance with nationally recognized standards; or
  2. The fuel being used has a flash point greater than 100°F (37.8°C).

1106.17.1 Position of aircraft. Aircraft being fueled shall be positioned such that any fuel system vents and other fuel tank openings are a minimum of:

  1. Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) from buildings or structures other than jet bridges; and
  2. Fifty feet (15 240 mm) from air intake vents for boiler, heater or incinerator rooms.

1106.17.2 Fire equipment access. Access for fire service equipment to aircraft shall be maintained during fuel-servicing operations.

1106.18 Defueling operations. The requirements for fueling operations contained in this section shall also apply to aircraft defueling operations. Additional procedures shall be established by the fueling-system operator to prevent overfilling of the tank vehicle used in the defueling operation.

1106.19 Maintenance ofaircraft-fueling hose. Aircraft-fueling hoses shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 1106.19.1 through 1106.19.4.

1106.19.1 Inspections. Hoses used to fuel or defuel aircraft shall be inspected periodically to ensure their serviceability and suitability for continued service. The fuel-service operator shall maintain records of all tests and inspections performed on fueling hoses. Hoses found to be defective or otherwise damaged shall be immediately removed from service.

1106.19.1.1 Daily inspection. Each hose shall be inspected daily. This inspection shall include a complete visual scan of the exterior for evidence of damage, blistering or leakage. Each coupling shall be inspected for evidence of leaks, slippage or misalignment.

1106.19.1.2 Monthly inspection. A more thorough inspection, including pressure testing, shall be accomplished for each hose on a monthly basis. This inspection shall include examination ofthe fuel delivery inlet screen for rubber particles, which indicates problems with the hose lining.

1106.19.2 Damaged hose. Hose that has been subjected to severe abuse shall be immediately removed from service. Such hoses shall be hydrostatically tested prior to being returned to service.

1106.19.3 Repairing hose. Hoses are allowed to be repaired by removing the damaged portion and recoupling the undamaged end. When recoupling hoses, only couplings designed and approved for the size and type of hose in question shall be used. Hoses repaired in this manner shall be visually inspected and hydrostatically tested prior to being placed back in service.

1106.19.4 New hose. New hose shall be visually inspected prior to being placed into service.

1106.20 Aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles parking. Unattended aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles shall be parked in areas that provide for both the unencumbered dispersal of vehicles in the event of an emergency and the control of leakage such that

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adjacent buildings and storm drains are not contaminated by leaking fuel.

1106.20.1 Parking area design. Parking areas for tank vehicles shall be designed and utilized such that a clearance of 10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained between each parked vehicle for fire department access. In addition, a minimum clearance of 50 feet (15 240 mm) shall be maintained between tank vehicles and parked aircraft and structures other than those used for the maintenance and/or garaging of aircraft fuel-servicing vehicles.

1106.21 Radar equipment. Aircraft fuel-servicing operations shall be prohibited while the weather-mapping radar ofthat aircraft is operating.

Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flammable liquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be conducted within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of an operating aircraft surveillance radar.

Aircraft fuel-servicing operations shall not be conducted within 300 feet (91 440 mm) of airport flight traffic surveillance radar equipment.

Aircraft fuel-servicing or other operations in which flammable liquids, vapors or mists may be present shall not be conducted within 100 feet (30 480 mm) of airport ground traffic surveillance radar equipment.

1106.21.1 Direction of radar beams. The beam from ground radar equipment shall not be directed toward fuel storage or loading racks.

Exceptions:

  1. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 300 feet (91 440 mm) from airport flight traffic surveillance equipment.
  2. Fuel storage and loading racks in excess of 100 feet (30 480 mm) from airport ground traffic surveillance equipment.

SECTION 1107
HELISTOPS AND HELIPORTS

1107.1 General. Helistops and heliports shall be maintained in accordance with Sections 1107.2 through 1107.8. Helistops and heliports on buildings shall be constructed in accordance with the International BUilding Code.

1107.2 Clearances. The touchdown area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm). The clear area shall be maintained.

1107.3 Flammable and Class II combustible liquid spillage. Landing areas on structures shall be maintained so as to confine flammable or Class II combustible liquidspillage to the landing area itself, and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage away from exits or stairways serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway.

1107.4 Exits. Exitsand stairways shall be maintained in accordance with Section 412.5 of the International BUilding Code.

1107.5 Standpipe systems. Where a building with a rooftop helistop or heliport is equipped with a standpipe system, the system shall be extended to the roof level on which the helistop or heliport is located. All portions of the helistop and heliport area shall be within 150 feet (45 720 mm) of a 2 1/z-inch (63.5 mm) outlet on a Class I or III standpipe.

1107.6 Foam protection. Foam fire-protection capabilities shall be provided for rooftop heliports. Such systems shall be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 903,904 and 905.

1107.7 Fire extinguishers. A minimum of one portable fire extinguisher having a minimum 80-B:C rating shall be provided for each permanent takeoff and landing area and for the aircraft parking areas. Installation, inspection and maintenance ofthese extinguishers shall be in accordance with Section 906.

1107.8 Federal approval. Before operating helicopters from helistops and heliports, approval shall be obtained from the Federal Aviation Administration.

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CHAPTER 12
DRY CLEANING

SECTION 1201
GENERAL

1201.1 Scope. Dry cleaning plants and their operations shall comply with the requirements of this chapter.

1201.2 Permit required. Permits shall be required as set forth in Section 105.6.

SECTION 1202
DEFINITIONS

1202.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

DRY CLEANING. The process of removing dirt, grease, paints and other stains from such items as wearing apparel, textiles, fabrics and rugs by use ofnonaqueous liquids (solvents).

DRY CLEANING PLANT. A facility in which dry cleaning and associated operations are conducted, including the office, receiving area and storage rooms.

DRY CLEANING ROOM. An occupiable space within a building used for performing dry cleaning operations, the installation ofsolvent-handling equipment or the storage ofdry cleaning solvents.

DRY CLEANING SYSTEM. Machinery or equipment in which textiles are immersed or agitated in solvent or in which dry cleaning solvent is extracted from textiles.

SOLVENT OR LIQUID CLASSIFICATIONS. A method for classifying solvents or liquids according to the following classes:

Class I solvents. Liquids having a flash point below 100°F (38°C).

Class II solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).

Class IlIA solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).

Class IIIB solvents. Liquids having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).

Class IV solvents. Liquids classified as nonflammable.

SECTION 1203
CLASSIFICATIONS

1203.1 Solvent classification. Dry cleaning solvents shall be classified according to their flash points as follows:

  1. Class I solvents are liquids having a flash point below 100°F (38°C).
  2. Class II solvents are liquids having a flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).
  3. Class IlIA solvents are liquids having a flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).
  4. Class IIIB solvents are liquids having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).
  5. Class IV solvents are liquids classified as nonflammable.

1203.2 Classification of dry cleaning plants and systems. Dry cleaning plants and systems shall be classified based on the solvents used as follows:

  1. Type I-systems using Class I solvents.
  2. Type II-systems using Class II solvents.
  3. Type III-A-systems using Class IlIA solvents.
  4. Type III-B-systems using Class IIIB solvents.
  5. Type IV-systems using Class IV solvents in which dry cleaning is not conducted by the public.
  6. Type V-systems using Class IV solvents in which dry cleaning is conducted by the public.

Spotting and pretreating operations conducted in accordance with Section 1206 shall not change the type of the dry cleaning plant.

1203.2.1 Multiple solvents. Dry cleaning plants using more than one class of solvent for dry cleaning shall be classified based on the numerically lowest solvent class.

1203.3 Design. The occupancy classification, design and construction of dry cleaning plants shall comply with the applicable requirements of the International BUilding Code.

SECTION 1204
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

1204.1 Prohibited use. Type I dry cleaning plants shall be prohibited. Limited quantities of Class I solvents stored and used in accordance with this section shall not be prohibited in dry cleaning plants.

1204.2 Building services. Building services and systems shall be designed, installed and maintained in accordance with this section and Chapter 6.

1204.2.1 Ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with Section 502 of the International Mechanical Code and DOL 29 CFR Part 1910.1000, where applicable.

1204.2.2 Heating. In Type II dry cleaning plants, heating shall be by indirect means using steam, hot water or hot oil only.

1204.2.3 Electrical wiring and equipment. Electrical wiring and equipment in dry cleaning rooms or other locations subject to flammable vapors shall be installed in accordance with NFPA 70.

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1204.2.4 Bonding and grounding. Storage tanks, treatment tanks, filters, pumps, piping, ducts, dry cleaning units, stills, tumblers, drying cabinets and other such equipment, where not inherently electrically conductive, shall be bonded together and grounded. Isolated equipment shall be grounded.

SECTION 1205
OPERATING REQUIREMENTS

1205.1 General. The operation of dry cleaning systems shall comply with the requirements of Sections 1205.1.1 through 1205.3.

1205.1.1 Written instructions. Written instructions covering the proper installation and safe operation and use of equipment and solvent shall be given to the buyer.

1205.1.1.1 Type II, III-A, III-B and IV systems. In Type II, III-A, III-B and IV dry cleaning systems, machines shall be operated in accordance with the operating instructions furnished by the machinery manufacturer. Employees shall be instructed as to the hazards involved in their departments and in the work they perform.

1205.1.1.2 Type V systems. Operating instructions for customer use of Type V dry cleaning systems shall be conspicuously posted in a location near the dry cleaning unit. A telephone number shall be provided for emergency assistance.

1205.1.2 Equipment identification. The manufacturer shall provide nameplates on dry cleaning machines indicating the class ofsolvent for which each machine is designed.

1205.1.3 Open systems prohibited. Dry cleaning by immersion and agitation in open vessels shall be prohibited.

1205.1.4 Prohibited use of solvent. The use of solvents with a flash point below that for which a machine is designed or listed shall be prohibited.

1205.1.5 Equipment maintenance and housekeeping. Proper maintenance and operating practices shall be observed in order to prevent the leakage of solvent or the accumulation of lint. The handling of waste material generated by dry cleaning operations and the maintenance of facilities shall comply with the provisions of this section.

1205.1.5.1 Floors. Class I and II liquids shall not be used for cleaning floors.

1205.1.5.2 Filters. Filter residue and other residues containing solvent shall be handled and disposed of in covered metal containers.

1205.1.5.3 Lint. Lint and refuse shall be removed from traps daily, deposited in approved waste cans, removed from the premises, and disposed of safely. At all other times, traps shall be held securely in place.

1205.1.5.4 Customer areas. In Type V dry cleaning systems, customer areas shall be kept clean.

1205.2 Type II systems. Special operating requirements for Type II dry cleaning systems shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1205.2.1 through 1205.2.3.

1205.2.1 Inspection of materials. Materials to be dry cleaned shall be searched thoroughly and foreign materials, including matches and metallic substances, shall be removed.

1205.2.2 Material transfer. In removing materials from the washer, provisions shall be made for minimizing the dripping of solvent on the floor. Where materials are transferred from a washer to a drain tub, a nonferrous metal drip apron shall be placed so that the apron rests on the drain tub and the cylinder of the washer.

1205.2.3 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system which is designed to exhaust 1 cubic foot of air per minute for each square foot of floor area [0.0058 m31 (s. m2)] shall be installed in dry cleaning rooms and in drying rooms. The ventilation system shall operate automatically when the dry cleaning equipment is in operation and shall have manual controls at an approved location.

1205.3 Type IV and V systems. Type IV and V dry cleaning systems shall be provided with an automatically activated exhaust ventilation system to maintain a minimum of 100 feet per minute (0.51 m/s) air velocity through the loading door when the door is opened. Such systems for dry cleaning equipment shall comply with the International Mechanical Code.

Exception: Dry cleaning units are not required to be provided with exhaust ventilation where an exhaust hood is installed immediately outside of and above the loading door which operates at an airflow rate as follows:

Q= 100 xALD                   (Equation 12-1)

where:

Q = flow rate exhausted through the hood, cubic feet per minute (m3/s).

ALD= area of the loading door, square feet (m2).

SECTION 1206
SPOTTING AND PRETREATING

1206.1 General. Spotting and pretreating operations and equipment shall comply with the provisions of Sections 1206.2 through 1206.5.

1206.2 Type I solvents. The maximum quantity of Type I solvents permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). Class I solvents shall be stored in approved safety cans or in sealed DOTn-approved metal shipping containers of not more than I-gallon (4 L) capacity. Dispensing shall be from approved safety cans.

1206.3 Type II and III solvents. Scouring, brushing, and spotting and pretreating shall be conducted with Class II or III solvents. The maximum quantity of Type II or III solvents permitted at any work station shall be 1 gallon (4 L). In other than a Group H-2 occupancy, the aggregate quantities of solvents shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantity per control area for use-open system.

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1206.3.1 Spotting tables. Scouring, brushing or spotting tables on which articles are soaked in solvent shall have a liquid-tight top with a curb on all sides not less than 1 inch (25 mm) high. The top of the table shall be pitched to ensure thorough draining to a 1½-inch (38 mm) drain connected to an approved container.

1206.3.2 Special handling. When approved, articles that cannot be washed in the usual washing machines are allowed to be cleaned in scrubbing tubs. Scrubbing tubs shall comply with the following:

  1. Only Class II or III liquids shall be used.
  2. The total amount of solvent used in such open containers shall not exceed 3 gallons (11 L).
  3. Scrubbing tubs shall be secured to the floor.
  4. Scrubbing tubs shall be provided with permanent 1 ½-inch (38 mm) drains. Such drain shall be provided with a trap and shall be connected to an approved container.

1206.3.3 Ventilation. Scrubbing tubs, scouring, brushing or spotting operations shall be located such that solvent vapors are captured and exhausted by the ventilating system.

1206.3.4 Bonding and grounding. Metal scouring, brushing and spotting tables and scrubbing tubs shall be permanently and effectively bonded and grounded.

1206.4 Type IV systems. Flammable and combustible liquids used for spotting operations shall be stored in approved safety cans or in sealed DOTn-approvedmetal shipping containers of not more than 1 gallon (4 L) in capacity. Dispensing shall be from approved safety cans. Aggregate amounts shall not exceed 10 gallons (38 L).

1206.5 Type V systems. Spotting operations using flammable or combustible liquids are prohibited in Type V dry cleaning systems.

SECTION 1207
DRY CLEANING SYSTEMS

1207.1 General equipment requirements. Dry cleaning systems, including dry cleaning units, washing machines, stills, drying cabinets, tumblers and their appurtenances, including pumps, piping, valves, filters and solvent coolers, shall be installed and maintained in accordance with NFPA 32. The construction of buildings in which such systems are located shall comply with the requirements of this section and the International BUilding Code.

1207.2 Type II systems. Type II dry cleaning and solvent tank storage rooms shall not be located below grade or above the lowest floor level of the building and shall comply with Sections 1207.2.1 through 1207.2.3.

Exception: Solvent storage tanks installed underground, in vaults or in special enclosures in accordance with Chapter 34.

1207.2.1 Fire-fighting access. Type II dry cleaning plants shall be located so that access is provided and maintained from one side for fire-fighting and fire control purposes in accordance with Section 503.

1207.2.2 Number ofmeans ofegress. Type II dry cleaning rooms shall have not less than two means of egress doors located at opposite ends of the room, at least one of which shall lead directly to the outside.

1207.2.3 Spill control and secondary containment. Curbs, drains or other provisions for spill control and secondary containment shall be provided in accordance with Section 2704.2 to collect solvent leakage and fire protection water and direct it to a safe location.

1207.3 Solvent storage tanks. Solvent storage tanks for Class II, IlIA and IIIB liquids shall conform to the requirements of Chapter 34 and be located underground or outside, above ground.

Exception: A