PREAMBLE (NOT PART OF THE STANDARD)

In order to promote public education and public safety, equal justice for all, a better informed citizenry, the rule of law, world trade and world peace, this legal document is hereby made available on a noncommercial basis, as it is the right of all humans to know and speak the laws that govern them.

END OF PREAMBLE (NOT PART OF THE STANDARD)

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IECC®
INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE®

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2009 International Energy Conservation Code®

First Printing: January 2009

ISBN: 978-1-58001-742-8 (soft-cover edition)

COPYRIGHT © 2009
by
INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2009 International Energy Conservation Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example, and not limitation, photocopying or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233).

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Energy Conservation Code" are trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc.

PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.

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PREFACE

Introduction

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date energy conservation code addressing the design of energy-efficient building envelopes and installation of energy efficient mechanical, lighting and power systems through requirements emphasizing performance. The International Energy Conservation Code®, in this 2009 edition, is designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that will result in the optimal utilization of fossil fuel and nondepletable resources in all communities' large and small.

This comprehensive energy conservation code establishes minimum regulations for energy efficient buildings using prescriptive and performance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new energy efficient designs. This 2009 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes® (I-Codes®) published by the International Code Council (ICC) ®, including: the International Building Code®, International Existing Building Code®, International Fire Code®, International Fuel Gas Code®, International Mechanical Code®, ICC Performance Code®, International Plumbing Code®, International Private Sewage Disposal Code®, International Property Maintenance Code®, International Residential Code®, International Wildland-Urban Interface Code™ and International Zoning Code®.

The International Energy Conservation Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that offers an international forum for energy professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of provisions.

Development

The first edition of the International Energy Conservation Code (1998) was based on the 1995 edition of the Model Energy Code promulgated by the Council of American Building Officials (CABO) and included changes approved through the CABO Code Development Procedures through 1997. CABO assigned all rights and responsibilities to the International Code Council and its three statutory members at that time, including Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (lCBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). This 2009 edition presents the code as originally issued, with changes reflected in the 2000, 2003 and 2006 editions and further changes approved through the ICC Code Development Process through 2008. A new edition such as this is promulgated every three years.

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of an energy conservation code that adequately conserves energy; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to particular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction.

Adoption

The International Energy Conservation Code is available for adoption and use byjurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing the jurisdiction's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local information, such as the name of the adoptingjurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page vii addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text.

Maintenance

The International Energy Conservation Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate.

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Development Department of the International Code Council.

While the development procedure of the International Energy Conservation Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC, its members and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provisions because ICC and its members do not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority.

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Marginal Markings

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2006 edition. Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow ( • ) are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has been deleted or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted.

Italicized Terms

Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text. Such terms are not italicized where the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions which the user should read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code.

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Effective Use of the International Energy Conservation Code

The International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) is a model code that regulates minimum energy conservation requirements for new buildings. The IECC addresses energy conservation requirements for all aspects of energy uses in both commercial and residential construction, including heating and ventilating, lighting, water heating, and power usage for appliances and building systems.

The IECC is a design document. For example, before one constructs a building, the designer must determine the minimum insulation R-values and fenestration V-factors for the building exterior envelope. Depending on whether the building is for residential use or for commercial use, the IECC sets forth minimum requirements for exterior envelope insulation, window and door V-factors and SHGC ratings, duct insulation, lighting and power efficiency, and water distribution insulation.

Arrangement and Format of the 2009 IECC

Before applying the requirements of the IECC it is beneficial to understand its arrangement and format. The IECC, like other codes published by ICC, is arranged and organized to follow sequential steps that generally occur during a plan review or inspection. The IECC is divided into five different parts:

Chapters Subjects
1-2 Administration and definitions
3 Climate zones and general materials requirements
4 Energy efficiency for residential buildings
5 Energy efficiency for commercial buildings
6 Referenced standards

The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the International Energy Conservation Code:

Chapter 1 Administration. This chapter contains provisions for the application, enforcement and administration of subsequent requirements of the code. In addition to establishing the scope of the code, Chapter 1 identifies which buildings and structures come under its purview. Chapter 1 is largely concerned with maintaining "due process of law" in enforcing the energy conservation criteria contained in the body of the code. Only through careful observation of the administrative provisions can the building official reasonably expect to demonstrate that" equal protection under the law" has been provided.

Chapter 2 Definitions. All terms that are defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 2. While a defined term may be used in one chapter or another, the meaning provided in Chapter 2 is applicable throughout the code.

Additional definitions regarding climate zones are found in Tables 301.3(1) and (2). These are not listed in Chapter 2.

Where understanding of a term's definition is especially key to or necessary for understanding of a particular code provision, the term is show in italics wherever it appears in the code. This is true only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the generally understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning prescribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known.

Guidance regarding tense, gender and plurality of defined terms as well as guidance regarding terms not defined in this code is provided.

Chapter 3 Climate Zones. Chapter 3 specifies the climate zones that will serve to establish the exterior design conditions. In addition, Chapter 3 provides interior design conditions that are used as a basis for assumptions in heating and cooling load calculations, and provides basic material requirements for insulation materials and fenestration materials.

Climate has a major impact on the energy use of most buildings. The code establishes many requirements such as wall and roof insulation R-values, window and door thermal transmittance requirement (V-factors) as well as provisions that affect the mechanical systems based upon the climate where the building is located. This chapter will contain the information that will be used to properly assign the building location into the correct climate zone and will then be used as the basis for establishing requirements or elimination of requirements.

Chapter 4 Residential Energy Efficiency. Chapter 4 contains the energy-efficiency-related requirements for the design and construction of residential buildings regulated under this code. It should be noted that the definition of a residential bUilding in this code is unique for this code. In this code, a residential bUilding is an R-2, R-3 or R-4 building three stories or less in height. All other buildings, including residential buildings greater than three stories in height, are regulated by the energy conservation requirements of Chapter 5. The applicable portions of a residential building must comply with the provisions within this chapter for energy efficiency.

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This chapter defines requirements for the portions of the building and building systems that impact energy use in new residential construction and promotes the effective use of energy. The provisions within the chapter promote energy efficiency in the building envelope, the heating and cooling system and the service water heating system of the building.

Chapter 5 Commercial Energy Efficiency. Chapter 5 contains the energy-efficiency-related requirements for the design and construction of most types of commercial buildings and residential buildings greater than three stories in height above grade. Residential buildings, townhouses and garden apartments three stories or less in height are covered in Chapter 4. Like Chapter 4, this chapter defines requirements for the portions of the building and building systems that impact energy use in new commercial construction and new residential construction greater than three stories in height, and promotes the effective use of energy. The provisions within the chapter promote energy efficiency in the building envelope, the heating and cooling system and the service water heating system of the building.

Chapter 6 Referenced Standards. The code contains numerous references to standards that are used to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 6 contains a comprehensive list of all standards that are referenced in the code. The standards are part of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard. Compliance with the referenced standard is necessary for compliance with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and installation requirements necessary for compliance with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal basis to the code official, contractor, designer and owner.

Chapter 6 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all ofthe referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based upon the standard identification. The list also contains the title of the standard; the edition (date) ofthe standard referenced; any addenda included as part ofthe ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this code that reference the standard.

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ORDINANCE

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code as an enforceable regulation governing energy efficient building envelopes and installation of energy efficient mechanical, lighting and power systems should ensure that certain factual information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text.

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF
THE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY CONSERVATION CODE
ORDINANCE NO.-------

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2009 edition of the International Energy Conservation Code, regulating and governing energy efficient building envelopes and installation of energy efficient mechanical, lighting and power systems in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No. of the [JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith.

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows:

Section I. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Energy Conservation Code, 2009 edition, as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Energy Conservation Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing energy efficient building envelopes and installation of energy efficient mechanical, lighting and power systems as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Energy Conservation Code on file in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance.

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised:

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION].

Section 108.4. Insert: [DOLLAR AMOUNT] in two places.

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all other ordinances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed.

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective ofthe fact that anyone or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional.

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Energy Conservation Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes ofaction acquired or existing, under any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character be lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance.

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.)

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I ADMINISTRATION I
PART I-SCOPE AND APPLICATION I
Section
101 Scope and General Requirements 1
102 Alternate Materials-Method of Construction, Design or Insulating Systems 2
PART 2-ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 2
103 Construction Documents 2
104 Inspections 3
105 Validity 3
106 Referenced Standards 3
107 Fees 3
108 Stop Work Order 3
109 Board of Appeals 4
CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 5
Section
201 General 5
202 General Definitions 5
CHAPTER 3 CLIMATE ZONES 9
Section
301 Climate Zones 9
302 Design Conditions 25
303 Materials, Systems and Equipment 25
CHAPTER 4 RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 27
Section
401 General 27
402 Building Thermal Envelope 27
403 Systems 30
404 Electrical Power and Lighting Systems 32
405 Simulated Performance Alternative 32
CHAPTER 5 COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY 37
Section
501 General 37
502 Building Envelope Requirements 37
503 Building Mechanical Systems 42
504 Service Water Heating 55
505 Electrical Power and Lighting Systems 57
506 Total Building Performance 60
CHAPTER 6 REFERENCED STANDARDS 71
INDEX 75
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CHAPTER 1
ADMINISTRATION

PART 1-SCOPE AND APPLICATION

SECTION 101
SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS

101.1 Title. This code shall be known as the International Energy Conservation Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], and shall be cited as such. It is referred to herein as "this code."

101.2 Scope. This code applies to residential and commercial buildings.

101.3 Intent. This code shall regulate the design and construction of buildings for the effective use of energy. This code is intended to provide flexibility to permit the use of innovative approaches and techniques to achieve the effective use of energy. This code is not intended to abridge safety, health or environmental requirements contained in other applicable codes or ordinances.

101.4 Applicability. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall govern.

101.4.1 Existing buildings. Except as specified in this chapter, this code shall not be used to require the removal, alteration or abandonment of, nor prevent the continued use and maintenance of, an existing building or building system lawfully in existence at the time of adoption of this code.

101.4.2 Historic buildings. Any building or structure that is listed in the State or National Register of Historic Places; designated as a historic property under local or state designation law or survey; certified as a contributing resource with a National Register listed or locally designated historic district; or with an opinion or certification that the property is eligible to be listed on the National or State Registers of Historic Places either individually or as a contributing building to a historic district by the State Historic Preservation Officer or the Keeper of the National Register of Historic Places, are exempt from this code.

101.4.3 Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs. Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs to an existing building, building system or portion thereof shall conform to the provisions of this code as they relate to new construction without requiring the unaltered portion(s) of the existing building or building system to comply with this code. Additions, alterations, renovations or repairs shall not create an unsafe or hazardous condition or overload existing building systems. An addition shall be deemed to comply with this code if the addition alone complies or if the existing building and addition comply with this code as a single building.

Exception: The following need not comply provided the energy use of the building is not increased:

  1. Storm windows installed over existing fenestration.
  2. Glass only replacements in an existing sash and frame.
  3. Existing ceiling, wall or floor cavities exposed during construction provided that these cavities are filled with insulation.
  4. Construction where the existing roof, wall or floor cavity is not exposed.
  5. Reroofing for roofs where neither the sheathing nor the insulation is exposed. Roofs without insu-1ation in the cavity and where the sheathing or insulation is exposed during reroofing shall be insulated either above or below the sheathing.
  6. Replacement of existing doors that separate conditioned space from the exterior shall not require the installation of a vestibule or revolving door, provided, however, that an existing vestibule that separates a conditioned space from the exterior shall not be removed,
  7. Alterations that replace less than 50 percent of the luminaires in a space, provided that such alterations do not increase the installed interior lighting power.
  8. Alterations that replace only the bulb and ballast within the existing luminaires in a space provided that the alteration does not increase the installed interior lighting power.

101.4.4 Change in occupancy or use. Spaces undergoing a change in occupancy that would result in an increase in demand for either fossil fuel or electrical energy shall comply with this code. Where the use in a space changes from one use in Table 505.5.2 to another use in Table 505.5.2, the installed lighting wattage shall comply with Section 505.5.

101.4.5 Change in space conditioning. Any nonconditioned space that is altered to become conditioned space shall be required to be brought into full compliance with this code.

101.4.6 Mixed occupancy. Where a building includes both residential and commercial occupancies, each occupancy shall be separately considered and meet the applicable provisions of Chapter 4 for residential and Chapter 5 for commercial.

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101.5 Compliance. Residential buildings shall meet the provisions of Chapter 4. Commercial bUildings shall meet the provisions of Chapter 5.

101.5.1 Compliance materials. The code official shall be permitted to approve specific computer software, work-sheets, compliance manuals and other similar materials that meet the intent of this code.

101.5.2 Low energy buildings. The following buildings, or portions thereof, separated from the remainder of the building by bUilding thermal envelope assemblies complying with this code shall be exempt from the bUilding thermal envelope provisions of this code:

  1. Those with a peak design rate of energy usage less than 3.4 Btu/h·ft2 (10.7 W/m2) or 1.0 watt/ft2 (10.7 W1m2) of floor area for space conditioning purposes.
  2. Those that do not contain conditioned space.

SECTION 102
ALTERNATE MATERIALS-METHOD OF CONSTRUCTION, DESIGN OR INSULATING SYSTEMS

102.1 General. This code is not intended to prevent the use of any material, method of construction, design or insulating system not specifically prescribed herein, provided that such construction, design or insulating system has been approvedby the code official as meeting the intent of this code.

102.1.1 Above code programs. The code official or other authority having jurisdiction shall be permitted to deem a national, state or local energy efficiency program to exceed the energy efficiency required by this code. Buildings approved in writing by such an energy efficiency program shall be considered in compliance with this code. The requirements identified as "mandatory" in Chapters 4 and 5 of this code, as applicable, shall be met.

PART 2-ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT

SECTION 103
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS

103.1 General. Construction documents and other supporting data shall be submitted in one or more sets with each application for a permit. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the code official is authorized to require necessary construction documents to be prepared by a registered design professional.

Exception: The code official is authorized to waive the requirements for construction documents or other supporting data if the code official determines they are not necessary to confirm compliance with this code.

103.2 Information on construction documents. Construction documents shall be drawn to scale upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted when approved by the code official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed, and show in sufficient detail pertinent data and features of the building, systems and equipment as herein governed. Details shall include, but are not limited to, as applicable, insulation materials and their R-values; fenestration V-factors and SHGCs; area-weighted V-factor and SHGC calculations; mechanical system design criteria; mechanical and service water heating system and equipment types, sizes and efficiencies; economizer description; equipment and systems controls; fan motor horsepower (hp) and controls; duct sealing, duct and pipe insulation and location; lighting fixture schedule with wattage and control narrative; and air sealing details.

103.3 Examination of documents. The code official shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying construction documents and shall ascertain whether the construction indicated and described is in accordance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws or ordinances.

103.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the code official issues a permit where construction documents are required, the construction documents shall be endorsed in writing and stamped "Reviewed for Code Compliance." Such approved construction documents shall not be changed, modified or altered without authorization from the code official. Work shall be done in accordance with the approved construction documents.

One set of construction documents so reviewed shall be retained by the code official. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by the code official or a duly authorized representative.

103.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require changes in the construction documents, construction or designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the construction of which has been pursued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has not been abandoned.

103.3.3 Phased approval. The code official shall have the authority to issue a permit for the construction of part of an energy conservation system before the construction documents for the entire system have been submitted or approved, provided adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with all pertinent requirements of this code. The holders of such permit shall proceed at their own risk without assurance that the permit for the entire energy conservation system will be granted.

103.4 Amended construction documents. Changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction documents.

103.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of approved construction documents shall be retained by the code official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws.

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SECTION 104
INSPECTIONS

104.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the code official.

104.2 Required approvals. Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the code official. The code official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the code official.

104.3 Final inspection. The building shall have a final inspection and not be occupied until approved.

104.4 Reinspection. A building shall be reinspected when determined necessary by the code official.

104.5 Approved inspection agencies. The code official is authorized to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, provided such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reliability.

104.6 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of the permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the code official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code.

104.7 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or installation does not pass an initial test or inspection, the necessary corrections shall be made so as to achieve compliance with this code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to the code official for inspection and testing.

104.8 Approval. After the prescribed tests and inspections indicate that the work complies in all respects with this code, a notice of approval shall be issued by the code official.

104.8.1 Revocation. The code official is authorized to, in writing, suspend or revoke a notice of approval issued under the provisions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure, premise, or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

SECTION 105
VALIDITY

105.1 General. If a portion of this code is held to be illegal or void, such a decision shall not affect the validity of the remainder of this code.

SECTION 106
REFERENCED STANDARDS

106.1 General. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be those listed in Chapter 6, and such codes and standards shall be considered as part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference.

106.2 Conflicting requirements. Where the provisions of this code and the referenced standards conflict, the provisions of this code shall take precedence.

106.3 Application ofreferences. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

106.4 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions oflocal, state or federal law.

SECTION 107
FEES

107.1 Fees. A permit shall not be issued until the fees prescribed in Section 107.2 have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid.

107.2 Schedule of permit fees. A fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority.

107.3 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person who commences any work before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to an additional fee established by the code official, which shall be in addition to the required permit fees.

107.4 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition ofwork done in connection to or concurrently with the work or activity authorized by a permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law.

107.5 Refunds. The code official is authorized to establish a refund policy.

SECTION 108
STOP WORK ORDER

108.1 Authority. Whenever the code official finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, the code official is authorized to issue a stop work order.

108.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to resume.

108.3 Emergencies. Where an emergency exists, the code official shall not be required to give a written notice prior to stopping the work.

108.4 Failure to comply. Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation

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or unsafe condition, shall be liable to a fine of not less than [AMOUNT] dollars or more than [AMOUNT] dollars.

SECTION 109
BOARD OF APPEALS

109.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the code official relative to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The code official shall be an ex officio member of said board but shall have no vote on any matter before the board. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the governing body and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business, and shall render all decisions and findings in writing to the appellant with a duplicate copy to the code official.

109.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this code.

109.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training and are not employees of the jurisdiction.

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CHAPTER 2
DEFINITIONS

SECTION 201
GENERAL

201.1 Scope. Unless stated otherwise, the following words and terms in this code shall have the meanings indicated in this chapter.

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense include the future; words in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural includes the singular.

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Terms that are not defined in this code but are defined in the International Building Code, International Fire Code, International Fuel Gas Code, International Mechanical Code, International Plumbing Code or the International Residential Code shall have the meanings ascribed to them in those codes.

201.4 Terms not defined. Terms not defined by this chapter shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.

SECTION 202
GENERAL DEFINITIONS

ABOVE-GRADE WALL. A wall more than 50 percent above grade and enclosing conditioned space. This includes between-floor spandrels, peripheral edges of floors, roof and basement knee walls, dormer walls, gable end walls, walls enclosing a mansard roof and skylight shafts.

ACCESSIBLE. Admitting close approach as a result of not being guarded by locked doors, elevation or other effective means (see "Readily accessible").

ADDITION. An extension or increase in the conditioned space floor area or height of a building or structure.

AIR BARRIER. Material(s) assembled andjoined together to provide a barrier to air leakage through the building envelope. An air barrier may be a single material or a combination of materials.

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition that requires a permit. Also, a change in a mechanical system that involves an extension, addition or change to the arrangement, type or purpose of the original installation that requires a permit.

APPROVED. Approval by the code official as a result of investigation and tests conducted by him or her, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by nationally recognized organizations.

AUTOMATIC. Self-acting, operating by its own mechanism when actuated by some impersonal influence, as, for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature or mechanical configuration (see "Manual").

BASEMENT WALL. A wall 50 percent or more below grade and enclosing conditioned space.

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.

BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE. The basement walls, exterior walls, floor, roof, and any other building element that enclose conditioned space. This boundary also includes the boundary between conditioned space and any exempt or unconditioned space.

C-FACTOR (THERMAL CONDUCTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (surface to surface) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and the unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side surfaces (Btu/h ft2 x OF) [W/(m2 × K)].

CODE OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.

COMMERCIAL BUILDING. For this code, all buildings that are not included in the definition of "Residential buildings."

CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA. The horizontal projection of the floors associated with the conditioned space.

CONDITIONED SPACE. An area or room within a building being heated or cooled, containing uninsulated ducts, or with a fixed opening directly into an adjacent conditioned space.

CRAWL SPACE WALL. The opaque portion of a wall that encloses a crawl space and is partially or totally below grade.

CURTAIN WALL. Fenestration products used to create an external nonload-bearing wall that is designed to separate the exterior and interior environments.

DAYLIGHT ZONE.

  1. Under skylights. The area under skylights whose horizontal dimension, in each direction, is equal to the skylight dimension in that direction plus either the floor-to-ceiling height or the dimension to a ceiling height opaque partition, or one-half the distance to adjacent skylights or vertical fenestration, whichever is least.
  2. Adjacent to vertical fenestration. The area adjacent to vertical fenestration which receives daylight through the fenestration. For purposes of this definition and unless more detailed analysis is provided, the daylight zone depth is assumed to extend into the space a distance of 15 feet (4572 mm) or to the nearest ceiling height opaque partition, whichever is less. The daylight zone width is assumed to be the width of the window plus 2 feet (610 mm) on each side, or the window width plus the distance to an opaque partition, or the window width plus one-half the distance to adjacent skylight or vertical fenestration, whichever is least.
5

DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION (DCV). A ventilation system capability that provides for the automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when the actual occupancy of spaces served by the system is less than design occupancy.

DUCT. A tube or conduit utilized for conveying air. The air passages of self-contained systems are not to be construed as air ducts.

DUCT SYSTEM. A continuous passageway for the transmission of air that, in addition to ducts, includes duct fittings, dampers, plenums, fans and accessory air-handling equipment and appliances.

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

ECONOMIZER, AIR. A duct and damper arrangement and automatic control system that allows a cooling system to supply outside air to reduce or eliminate the need for mechanical cooling during mild or cold weather.

ECONOMIZER, WATER. A system where the supply air of a cooling system is cooled indirectly with water that is itself cooled by heat or mass transfer to the environment without the use of mechanical cooling.

ENERGY ANALYSIS. A method for estimating the annual energy use of the proposed design and standard reference design based on estimates of energy use.

ENERGY COST. The total estimated annual cost for purchased energy for the building functions regulated by this code, including applicable demand charges.

ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION SYSTEM. Systems that employ air-to-air heat exchangers to recover energy from exhaust air for the purpose of preheating, precooling, humidifying or dehumidifying outdoor ventilation air prior to supplying the air to a space, either directly or as part of an HVAC system.

ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL. An approved software program or calculation-based methodology that projects the annual energy use of a building.

ENTRANCE DOOR. Fenestration products used for ingress, egress and access in nonresidential buildings, including, but not limited to, exterior entrances that utilize latching hardware and automatic closers and contain over 50-percent glass specifically designed to withstand heavy use and possibly abuse.

EXTERIOR WALL. Walls including both above-grade walls and basement walls.

FAN BRAKE HORSEPOWER (BHP). The horsepower delivered to the fan's shaft. Brake horsepower does not include the mechanical drive losses (belts, gears, etc.).

FAN SYSTEM BHP. The sum of the fan brake horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at fan system design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned spacers) and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.

FAN SYSTEM DESIGN CONDITIONS. Operating conditions that can be expected to occur during normal system operation that result in the highest supply fan airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system.

FAN SYSTEM MOTOR NAMEPLATE HP. The sum of the motor nameplate horsepower of all fans that are required to operate at design conditions to supply air from the heating or cooling source to the conditioned spacers) and return it to the source or exhaust it to the outdoors.

FENESTRATION. Skylights, roof windows, vertical windows (fixed or moveable), opaque doors, glazed doors, glazed block and combination opaque/glazed doors. Fenestration includes products with glass and nonglass glazing materials.

F-FACTOR. The perimeter heat loss factor for slab-on-grade floors (Btu/h × ft × OF) [W/(m × K)].

HEAT TRAP. An arrangement of piping and fittings, such as elbows, or a commercially available heat trap that prevents thermosyphoning of hot water during standby periods.

HEATED SLAB. Slab-on-grade construction in which the heating elements, hydronic tubing, or hot air distribution system is in contact with, or placed within or under, the slab.

HIGH-EFFICACY LAMPS. Compact fluorescent lamps, T-8 or smaller diameter linear fluorescent lamps, or lamps with a minimum efficacy of:

  1. 60 lumens per watt for lamps over 40 watts,
  2. 50 lumens per watt for lamps over 15 watts to 40 watts, and
  3. 40 lumens per watt for lamps 15 watts or less.

HUMIDISTAT. A regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for automatic control of relative humidity.

INFILTRATION. The uncontrolled inward air leakage into a building caused by the pressure effects of wind or the effect of differences in the indoor and outdoor air density or both.

INSULATING SHEATHING. An insulating board with a core material having a minimum R-value of R-2.

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which have been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LOW-VOLTAGE LIGHTING. Lighting equipment powered through a transformer such as a cable conductor, a rail conductor and track lighting.

6

MANUAL. Capable of being operated by personal intervention (see "Automatic").

NAMEPLATE HORSEPOWER. The nominal motor horse-power rating stamped on the motor nameplate.

PROPOSED DESIGN. A description of the proposed building used to estimate annual energy use for determining compliance based on total building performance.

READILY ACCESSIBLE. Capable of being reached quickly for operation, renewal or inspection without requiring those to whom ready access is requisite to climb over or remove obstacles or to resort to portable ladders or access equipment (see "Accessible").

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal ofany part ofan existing building.

RESIDENTIAL BUILDING. For this code, includes R-3 buildings, as well as R-2 and R-4 buildings three stories or less in height above grade.

ROOF ASSEMBLY. A system designed to provide weather protection and resistance to design loads. The system consists of a roof covering and roof deck or a single component serving as both the roof covering and the roof deck. A roof assembly includes the roof covering, underlayment, roof deck, insulation, vapor retarder and interior finish.

R-VALUE (THERMAL RESISTANCE). The inverse of the time rate of heat flow through a body from one of its bounding surfaces to the other surface for a unit temperature difference between the two surfaces, under steady state conditions, per unit area (h . ft2. of/Btu) [(m2. K)/W].

SCREW LAMP HOLDERS. A lamp base that requires a screw-in-type lamp, such as a compact-fluorescent, incandescent, or tungsten-halogen bulb.

SERVICE WATER HEATING. Supply of hot water for purposes other than comfort heating.

SKYLIGHT. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls is included in this definition.

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.

SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC). The ratio of the solar heat gain entering the space through the fenestration assembly to the incident solar radiation. Solar heat gain includes directly transmitted solar heat and absorbed solar radiation which is then reradiated, conducted or convected into the space.

STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN. A version of the proposed design that meets the minimum requirements of this code and is used to determine the maximum annual energy use requirement for compliance based on total building performance.

STOREFRONT. A nonresidential system of doors and windows mulled as a composite fenestration structure that has been designed to resist heavy use. Storefrontsystems include, but are not limited to, exterior fenestration systems that span from the floor level or above to the ceiling of the same story on commercial buildings.

SUNROOM. A one-story structure attached to a dwelling with a glazing area in excess of 40 percent of the gross area of the structure's exterior walls and roof.

THERMAL ISOLATION. Physical and space conditioning separation from conditioned space (s). The conditioned space(s) shall be controlled as separate zones for heating and cooling or conditioned by separate equipment.

THERMOSTAT. An automatic control device used to maintain temperature at a fixed or adjustable set point.

V-FACTOR (THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE). The coefficient of heat transmission (air to air) through a building component or assembly, equal to the time rate of heat flow per unit area and unit temperature difference between the warm side and cold side air films (Btu/h· ft2. OF) [W/(m2 . K)].

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.

VENTILATION AIR. That portion of supply air that comes from outside (outdoors) plus any recirculated air that has been treated to maintain the desired quality of air within a designated space.

ZONE. A space or group of spaces within a building with heating or cooling requirements that are sufficiently similar so that desired conditions can be maintained throughout using a single controlling device.

7 8

CHAPTER 3
CLIMATE ZONES

SECTION 301
CLIMATE ZONES

301.1 General. Climate zones from Figure 301.1 or Table 301.1 shall be used in determining the applicable requirements from Chapters 4 and 5. Locations not in Table 301.1 (outside the United States) shall be assigned a climate zone based on Section 301.3.

301.2 Warm humid counties. Warm humid counties are identified in Table301.1 by an asterisk.

301.3 International climate zones. The climate zone for any location outside the United States shall be determined by applying Table 301.3(1) and then Table 301.3(2).

9

FIGURE 301.1 CLIMATE ZONES

FIGURE 301.1 CLIMATE ZONES

10
TABLE 301.1
CLIMATE IONES, MOISTURE REGIMES, AND WARM-HUMID DESIGNATIONS BY STATE, COUNTY AND TERRITORY
Note: Table 301.1 in the 2006 edition has been replaced in its entirety. Margin lines are omitted for clarity.
Key: A - Moist, B - Dry, C - Marine. Absence of moisture designation indicates moisture regime is irrelevant. Asterisk (*) indicates a warm-humid location.
US STATES
ALABAMA
3A Autauga*
2A Baldwin*
3A Barbour*
3A Bibb
3A Blount
3A Bullock*
3A Butler*
3A Calhoun
3A Chambers
3A Cherokee
3A Chilton
3A Choctaw*
3A Clarke*
3A Clay
3A Cleburne
3A Coffee*
3A Colbert
3A Conecuh*
3A Coosa
3A Covington*
3A Crenshaw*
3A Cullman
3A Dale*
3A Dallas*
3A DeKalb
3A Elmore*
3A Escambia*
3A Etowah
3A Fayette
3A Franklin
3A Geneva*
3A Greene
3A Hale
3A Henry*
3A Houston*
3AJackson
3A Jefferson
3A Lamar
3A Lauderdale
3A Lawrence
3A Lee
3A Limestone
3A Lowndes*
3A Macon*
3A Madison
3A Marengo*
3A Marion
3A Marshall
2A Mobile*
3A Monroe*
3A Montgomery*
3A Morgan
3A Perry*
3A Pickens
3A Pike*
3A Randolph
3A Russell*
3A Shelby
3A St. Clair
3A Sumter
3A Talladega
3A Tallapoosa
3A Tuscaloosa
3A Walker
3A Washington*
3A Wilcox*
3A Winston
ALASKA
7 Aleutians East
7 Aleutians West
7 Anchorage
8 Bethel
7 Bristol Bay
7 Denali
8 Dillingham
8 Fairbanks North Star
7 Haines
7 Juneau
7 Kenai Peninsula
7 Ketchikan Gateway
7 Kodiak Island
7 Lake and Peninsula
7 Matanuska-Susitna
8 Nome
8 North Slope
8 Northwest Arctic
7 Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan
7 Sitka
7 Skagway-Hoonah-Angoon
8 Southeast Fairbanks
7 Valdez-Cordova
8 Wade Hampton
7 Wrangell-Petersburg
7 Yakutat
8 Yukon-Koyukuk
ARIZONA
SB Apache
3B Cochise
SB Coconino
4B Gila
3B Graham
3B Greenlee
2B La Paz
2B Maricopa
3B Mohave
SB Navajo
2B Pima
2B Pinal
3B Santa Cruz
4B Yavapai
2B Yuma
ARKANSAS
3A Arkansas
3A Ashley
4A Baxter
4A Benton
4A Boone
3A Bradley
3A Calhoun
4A Csarroll
3A Chicot
3A Clark
3A Clay
3A Cleburne
3A Cleveland
3A Columbia*
3A Conway
3A Craighead
3A Crawford
3A Crittenden
3A Cross
3A Dallas
3A Desha
3A Drew
3A Faulkner
3A Franklin
4A Fulton
3A Garland
3A Grant
3A Greene
3A Hempstead*
3A Hot Spring
3A Howard
3A Independence
4A Izard
3A Jackson
3A Jefferson
3AJohnson
3A Lafayette*
3A Lawrence
3ALee
3A Lincoln
3A Little River*
3A Logan
3A Lonoke
4A Madison
4A Marion
3A Miller*
3A Mississippi
3A Monroe
3A Montgomery
3A Nevada
4A Newton
3A Ouachita
3A Perry
3A Phillips 11
3A Pike
3A Poinsett
3A Polk
3A Pope
3A Prairie
3A Pulaski
3A Randolph
3A Saline
3A Scott
4A Searcy
3A Sebastian
3A Sevier*
3A Sharp
3A St. Francis
4A Stone
3A Union*
3A Van Buren
4A Washington
3A White
3A Woodruff
3A Yell
CALIFORNIA
3C Alameda
6B Alpine
4B Amador
3B Butte
4B Calaveras
3B Colusa
3B Contra Costa
4C Del Norte
4B EI Dorado
3B Fresno
3B Glenn
4C Humboldt
2B Imperial
4B Inyo
3B Kern
3B Kings
4B Lake
5B Lassen
3B Los Angeles
3B Madera
3C Marin
4B Mariposa
3C Mendocino
3B Merced
5B Modoc
6B Mono
3C Monterey
3C Napa
5B Nevada
3B Orange
3B Placer
5B Plumas
3B Riverside
3B Sacramento
3C San Benito
3B San Bernardino
3B San Diego
3C San Francisco
3B San Joaquin
3C San Luis Obispo
3C San Mateo
3C Santa Barbara
3C Santa Clara
3C Santa Cruz
3B Shasta
5B Sierra
5B Siskiyou
3B Solano
3C Sonoma
3B Stanislaus
3B Sutter
3B Tehama
4B Trinity
3B Tulare
4B Tuolumne
3C Ventura
3B Yolo
3B Yuba
COLORADO
5B Adams
6B Alamosa
5B Arapahoe
6B Archuleta
4B Baca
5B Bent
5B Boulder
6B Chaffee
5B Cheyenne
7 Clear Creek
6B Conejos
6B Costilla
5B Crowley
6B Custer
5B Delta
5B Denver
6B Dolores
5B Douglas
6B Eagle
5B Elbert
5B EI Paso
5B Fremont
5B Garfield
5B Gilpin
7 Grand
7 Gunnison
7 Hinsdale
5B Huerfano
7 Jackson
5B Jefferson
5B Kiowa
5B Kit Carson
7 Lake
5B La Plata
5B Larimer
4B Las Animas
5B Lincoln
5B Logan
5B Mesa
7 Mineral
6B Moffat
5B Montezuma
5B Montrose
5B Morgan
4B Otero
6B Ouray
7 Park
5B Phillips
7 Pitkin
5B Prowers
5B Pueblo
6B Rio Blanco
7 Rio Grande
7 Routt
6B Saguache
7 San Juan
6B San Miguel
5B Sedgwick
7 Summit
5B Teller
5B Washington
5B Weld
5B Yuma
CONNECTICUT
5A (all)
DELAWARE
4A (all)
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
4A (all)
FLORIDA
2A Alachua*
2A Baker*
2A Bay*
2A Bradford*
2A Brevard*
lA Broward*
2A Calhoun*
2A Charlotte*
2A Citrus*
2A Clay*
2A Collier*
2A Columbia*
2A DeSoto*
2A Dixie*
2A Duval*
2A Escambia*
2A Flagler*
2A Franklin*
2A Gadsden*
2A Gilchrist*
2A Glades*
2A Gulf*
2A Hamilton*
2A Hardee*
2A Hendry*
2A Hernando*
2A Highlands*
2A Hillsborough*
2A Holmes*
2A Indian River*
2A Jackson*
2A Jefferson*
2A Lafayette*
2A Lake*
2A Lee*
2A Leon*
2A Levy*
2A Liberty*
2A Madison*
2A Manatee*
2A Marion*
2A Martin*
lA Miami-Dade*
lA Monroe*
2A Nassau*
2A Okaloosa*
2A Okeechobee* 12
2A Orange*
2A Osceola*
2A Palm Beach*
2A Pasco*
2A Pinellas*
2A Polk*
2A Putnam*
2A Santa Rosa*
2A Sarasota*
2A Seminole*
2A St. johns*
2A St. Lucie*
2A Sumter*
2A Suwannee*
2A Taylor*
2A Union*
2A Volusia*
2A Wakulla*
2A Walton*
2A Washington*
GEORGIA
2A Appling*
2A Atkinson*
2A Bacon*
2A Baker*
3A Baldwin
4A Banks
3A Barrow
3A Bartow
3A Ben Hill*
2A Berrien*
3A Bibb
3A Bleckley*
2A Brantley*
2A Brooks*
2A Bryan*
3A Bulloch*
3A Burke
3A Butts
3A Calhoun*
2A Camden*
3A Candler*
3A Carroll
4A Catoosa
2A Charlton*
2A Chatham*
3A Chattahoochee*
4A Chattooga
3A Cherokee
3A Clarke
3A Clay*
3A Clayton
2A Clinch*
3A Cobb
3A Coffee*
2A Colquitt*
3A Columbia
2A Cook*
3A Coweta
3A Crawford
3A Crisp*
4A Dade
4A Dawson
2A Decatur*
3A DeKalb
3A Dodge*
3A Dooly*
3A Dougherty*
3A Douglas
3A Early*
2A Echols*
2A Effingham*
3A Elbert
3A Emanuel*
2A Evans*
4A Fannin
3A Fayette
4A Floyd
3A Forsyth
4A Franklin
3A Fulton
4A Gilmer
3A Glascock
2A Glynn*
4A Gordon
2A Grady*
3A Greene
3A Gwinnett
4A Habersham
4A Hall
3A Hancock
3A Haralson
3A Harris
3A Hart
3A Heard
3A Henry
3A Houston*
3A Irwin*
3Ajackson
3A jasper
2A jeff Davis*
3A jefferson
3A jenkins*
3Ajohnson*
3Ajones
3A Lamar
2A Lanier*
3A Laurens*
3A Lee*
2A Liberty*
3A Lincoln
2A Long*
2A Lowndes*
4A Lumpkin
3A Macon*
3A Madison
3A Marion*
3A McDuffie
2A McIntosh*
3A Meriwether
2A Miller*
2A Mitchell*
3A Monroe
3A Montgomery*
3A Morgan
4A Murray
3A Muscogee
3A Newton
3A Oconee
3A Oglethorpe
3A Paulding
3A Peach*
4A Pickens
2A Pierce*
3A Pike
3A Polk
3A Pulaski*
3A Putnam
3A Quitman*
4A Rabun
3A Randolph*
3A Richmond
3A Rockdale
3A Schley*
3A Screven*
2A Seminole*
3A Spalding
4A Stephens
3A Stewart*
3A Sumter*
3A Talbot
3A Taliaferro
2A Tattnall*
3A Taylor*
3A Telfair*
3A Terrell*
2A Thomas*
3A Tift*
2A Toombs*
4A Towns
3A Treutlen*
3A Troup
3A Turner*
3A Twiggs*
4A Union
3A Upson
4A Walker
3A Walton
2A Ware*
3A Warren
3A Washington
2A Wayne*
3A Webster*
3A Wheeler*
4A White
4A Whitfield
3A Wilcox*
3A Wilkes
3A Wilkinson
3A Worth*
HAWAII
lA (all)*
IDAHO
5B Ada
6B Adams
6B Bannock
6B Bear Lake
5B Benewah
6B Bingham
6B Blaine
6B Boise
6B Bonner
6B Bonneville
6B Boundary
6B Butte
6B Camas
5B Canyon
6B Caribou
5B Cassia
6B Clark
5B Clearwater
6B Custer
5B Elmore 13
6B Franklin
6B Fremont
SBGem
SB Gooding
SB Idaho
6B jefferson
SB jerome
SB Kootenai
SB Latah
6B Lemhi
SB Lewis
SB Lincoln
6B Madison
SB Minidoka
SB Nez Perce
6B Oneida
SB Owyhee
SB Payette
SB Power
SB Shoshone
6B Teton
SB Twin Falls
6B Valley
SB Washington
ILLINOIS
SA Adams
4A Alexander
4A Bond
SA Boone
SA Brown
SA Bureau
SA Calhoun
SA Carroll
SA Cass
SA Champaign
4A Christian
SA Clark
4A Clay
4A Clinton
SA Coles
SA Cook
4A Crawford
SA Cumberland
SA DeKalb
SA De Witt
SA Douglas
SA DuPage
SA Edgar
4A Edwards
4A Effingham
4A Fayette
SA Ford
4A Franklin
SA Fulton
4A Gallatin
SA Greene
SA Grundy
4A Hamilton
SA Hancock
4A Hardin
SA Henderson
SA Henry
SA Iroquois
4Ajackson
4A jasper
4A jefferson
SA jersey
SA jo Daviess
4Ajohnson
SA Kane
SA Kankakee
SA Kendall
SA Knox
SA Lake
SA La Salle
4A Lawrence
SA Lee
SA Livingston
SA Logan
SA Macon
4A Macoupin
4A Madison
4A Marion
SA Marshall
SA Mason
4A Massac
SA McDonough
SA McHenry
SA McLean
SA Menard
SA Mercer
4A Monroe
4A Montgomery
SA Morgan
SA Moultrie
SA Ogle
SA Peoria
4A Perry
SA Piatt
SA Pike
4A Pope
4A Pulaski
SA Putnam
4A Randolph
4A Richland
SA Rock Island
4A Saline
SA Sangamon
SA Schuyler
SA Scott
4A Shelby
SA Stark
4A St. Clair
SA Stephenson
SA Tazewell
4A Union
SA Vermilion
4A Wabash
SA Warren
4A Washington
4A Wayne
4A White
SA Whiteside
SA Will
4A Williamson
SA Winnebago
SA Woodford
INDIANA
SA Adams
SA Allen
SA Bartholomew
SA Benton
SA Blackford
SA Boone
4A Brown
SA Carroll
SA Cass
4A Clark
SA Clay
SA Clinton
4A Crawford
4A Daviess
4A Dearborn
SA Decatur
SA De Kalb
SA Delaware
4A Dubois
SA Elkhart
SA Fayette
4A Floyd
SA Fountain
SA Franklin
SA Fulton
4A Gibson
SA Grant
4A Greene
SA Hamilton
SA Hancock
4A Harrison
SA Hendricks
SA Henry
SA Howard
SA Huntington
4Ajackson
SA jasper
SA jay
4A jefferson
4A jennings
SA johnson
4A Knox
SA Kosciusko
SA Lagrange
SA Lake
SA La Porte
4A Lawrence
SA Madison
SA Marion
SA Marshall
4A Martin
SA Miami
4A Monroe
SA Montgomery
SA Morgan
SA Newton
SA Noble
4A Ohio
4A Orange
SA Owen
SA Parke
4A Perry
4A Pike
SA Porter
4A Posey
SA Pulaski
SA Putnam
SA Randolph
4A Ripley
SA Rush
4A Scott
SA Shelby 14
4A Spencer
SA Starke
SA Steuben
SA St. joseph
4A Sullivan
4A Switzerland
SA Tippecanoe
SA Tipton
SA Union
4A Vanderburgh
SA Vermillion
SA Vigo
SA Wabash
SA Warren
4A Warrick
4A Washington
SA Wayne
SA Wells
SA White
SA Whitley
IOWA
SA Adair
SA Adams
6A Allamakee
SA Appanoose
SA Audubon
SA Benton
6A Black Hawk
SA Boone
6A Bremer
6A Buchanan
6A Buena Vista
6A Butler
6A Calhoun
SA Carroll
SA Cass
SA Cedar
6A Cerro Gordo
6A Cherokee
6A Chickasaw
SA Clarke
6A Clay
6A Clayton
SA Clinton
SA Crawford
SA Dallas
SA Davis
SA Decatur
6A Delaware
SA Des Moines
6A Dickinson
SA Dubuque
6A Emmet
6A Fayette
6A Floyd
6A Franklin
SA Fremont
SA Greene
6A Grundy
SA Guthrie
6A Hamilton
6A Hancock
6A Hardin
SA Harrison
SA Henry
6A Howard
6A Humboldt
6A Ida
SA Iowa
SA jackson
SA jasper
SA jefferson
SA johnson
SA jones
SA Keokuk
6A Kossuth
SA Lee
SA Linn
SA Louisa
SA Lucas
6A Lyon
SA Madison
SA Mahaska
SA Marion
SA Marshall
SA Mills
6A Mitchell
SA Monona
SA Monroe
SA Montgomery
SA Muscatine
6A O'Brien
6A Osceola
SA Page
6A Palo Alto
6A Plymouth
6A Pocahontas
SA Polk
SA Pottawattamie
SA Poweshiek
SA Ringgold
6ASac
SA Scott
SA Shelby
6A Sioux
SA Story
SA Tama
SA Taylor
SA Union
SA Van Buren
SA Wapello
SA Warren
SA Washington
SA Wayne
6A Webster
6A Winnebago
6A Winneshiek
SA Woodbury
6A Worth
6A Wright
KANSAS
4A Allen
4A Anderson
4A Atchison
4A Barber
4A Barton
4A Bourbon
4A Brown
4A Butler
4A Chase
4A Chautauqua
4A Cherokee
SA Cheyenne
4A Clark
4A Clay
SA Cloud
4A Coffey
4A Comanche
4A Cowley
4A Crawford
SA Decatur
4A Dickinson
4A Doniphan
4A Douglas
4A Edwards
4A Elk
SA Ellis
4A Ellsworth
4A Finney
4A Ford
4A Franklin
4A Geary
SA Gove
SA Graham
4A Grant
4A Gray
SA Greeley
4A Greenwood
SA Hamilton
4A Harper
4A Harvey
4A Haskell
4A Hodgeman
4Ajackson
4A jefferson
SA jewell
4A johnson
4A Kearny
4A Kingman
4A Kiowa
4A Labette
SA Lane
4A Leavenworth
4A Lincoln
4A Linn
SA Logan
4A Lyon
4A Marion
4A Marshall
4A McPherson
4A Meade
4A Miami
SA Mitchell
4A Montgomery
4A Morris
4A Morton
4A Nemaha
4A Neosho
SA Ness
SA Norton
4A Osage
SA Osborne
4A Ottawa
4A Pawnee
SA Phillips
4A Pottawatomie
4A Pratt
SA Rawlins
4A Reno
SA Republic 15
4A Rice
4A Riley
SA Rooks
4A Rush
4A Russell
4A Saline
SA Scott
4A Sedgwick
4A Seward
4A Shawnee
SA Sheridan
SA Sherman
SA Smith
4A Stafford
4A Stanton
4A Stevens
4A Sumner
SA Thomas
SA Trego
4A Wabaunsee
SA Wallace
4A Washington
SA Wichita
4A Wilson
4A Woodson
4A Wyandotte
KENTUCKY
4A (all)
LOUISIANA
2A Acadia*
2A Allen*
2A Ascension*
2A Assumption*
2A Avoyelles*
2A Beauregard*
3A Bienville*
3A Bossier*
3A Caddo*
2A Calcasieu*
3A Caldwell*
2A Cameron*
3A Catahoula*
3A Claiborne*
3A Concordia*
3A De Soto*
2A East Baton Rouge*
3A East Carroll
2A East Feliciana*
2A Evangeline*
3A Franklin*
3A Grant*
2A Iberia*
2A Iberville*
3A jackson*
2A jefferson*
2A jefferson Davis*
2A Lafayette*
2A Lafourche*
3A La Salle*
3A Lincoln*
2A Livingston*
3A Madison*
3A Morehouse
3A Natchitoches*
2A Orleans*
3A Ouachita*
2A Plaquemines*
2A Pointe Coupee*
2A Rapides*
3A Red River*
3A Richland*
3A Sabine*
2A St. Bernard*
2A St. Charles*
2A St. Helena*
2A St. james*
2A St. john the Baptist*
2A St. Landry*
2A St. Martin*
2A St. Mary*
2A St. Tammany*
2A Tangipahoa*
3A Tensas*
2A Terrebonne*
3A Union*
2A Vermilion*
3A Vernon*
2A Washington*
3A Webster*
2A West Baton Rouge*
3A West Carroll
2A West Feliciana*
3A Winn*
MAINE
6A Androscoggin
7 Aroostook
6A Cumberland
6A Franklin
6A Hancock
6A Kennebec
6A Knox
6A Lincoln
6A Oxford
6A Penobscot
6A Piscataquis
6A Sagadahoc
6A Somerset
6A Waldo
6A Washington
6A York
MARYLAND
4A Allegany
4A Anne Arundel
4A Baltimore
4A Baltimore (city)
4A Calvert
4A Caroline
4A Carroll
4A Cecil
4A Charles
4A Dorchester
4A Frederick
SA Garrett
4A Harford
4A Howard
4A Kent
4A Montgomery
4A Prince George's
4A Queen Anne's
4A Somerset
4A St. Mary's
4A Talbot
4A Washington
4A Wicomico
4A Worcester
MASSACHUSETTS
SA (all)
MICHIGAN
6A Alcona
6A Alger
SA Allegan
6A Alpena
6A Antrim
6A Arenac
7 Baraga
SA Barry
SA Bay
6A Benzie
SA Berrien
SA Branch
SA Calhoun
SA Cass
6A Charlevoix
6A Cheboygan
7 Chippewa
6A Clare
SA Clinton
6A Crawford
6A Delta
6A Dickinson
SA Eaton
6AEmmet
SA Genesee
6A Gladwin
7 Gogebic
6A Grand Traverse
SA Gratiot
SA Hillsdale
7 Houghton
6A Huron
SA Ingham
SA Ionia
6A Iosco
7 Iron
6A Isabella
SA jackson
SA Kalamazoo
6A Kalkaska
SA Kent
7 Keweenaw
6A Lake
SA Lapeer
6A Leelanau
SA Lenawee
SA Livingston
7 Luce
7 Mackinac
SA Macomb
6A Manistee
6A Marquette
6A Mason
6A Mecosta
6A Menominee
SA Midland
6A Missaukee
SA Monroe
SA Montcalm 16
6A Montmorency
SA Muskegon
6A Newaygo
SA Oakland
6A Oceana
6A Ogemaw
7 Ontonagon
6A Osceola
6A Oscoda
6A Otsego
SA Ottawa
6A Presque Isle
6A Roscommon
SA Saginaw
6A Sanilac
7 Schoolcraft
SA Shiawassee
SA St. Clair
SA St. Joseph
SA Tuscola
SA Van Buren
SA Washtenaw
SA Wayne
6A Wexford
MINNESOTA
7 Aitkin
6A Anoka
7 Becker
7 Beltrami
6A Benton
6A Big Stone
6A Blue Earth
6A Brown
7 Carlton
6A Carver
7 Cass
6A Chippewa
6A Chisago
7 Clay
7 Clearwater
7 Cook
6A Cottonwood
7 Crow Wing
6A Dakota
6A Dodge
6A Douglas
6A Faribault
6A Fillmore
6A Freeborn
6A Goodhue
7 Grant
6A Hennepin
6A Houston
7 Hubbard
6A Isanti
7 Itasca
6AJackson
7 Kanabec
6A Kandiyohi
7 Kittson
7 Koochiching
6A Lac qui Parle
7 Lake
7 Lake of the Woods
6A Le Sueur
6A Lincoln
6A Lyon
7 Mahnomen
7 Marshall
6A Martin
6A McLeod
6A Meeker
7 Mille Lacs
6A Morrison
6AMower
6A Murray
6A Nicollet
6A Nobles
7 Norman
6A Olmsted
7 Otter Tail
7 Pennington
7 Pine
6A Pipestone
7 Polk
6A Pope
6A Ramsey
7 Red Lake
6A Redwood
6A Renville
6A Rice
6A Rock
7 Roseau
6A Scott
6A Sherburne
6A Sibley
6A Stearns
6A Steele
6A Stevens
7 St. Louis
6A Swift
6A Todd
6A Traverse
6A Wabasha
7 Wadena
6A Waseca
6A Washington
6A Watonwan
7 Wilkin
6A Winona
6A Wright
6A Yellow Medicine
MISSISSIPPI
3A Adams*
3A Alcorn
3A Amite*
3A Attala
3A Benton
3A Bolivar
3A Calhoun
3A Carroll
3A Chickasaw
3A Choctaw
3A Claiborne*
3A Clarke
3A Clay
3A Coahoma
3A Copiah*
3A Covington*
3A DeSoto
3A Forrest*
3A Franklin*
3A George*
3A Greene*
3A Grenada
2A Hancock*
2A Harrison*
3A Hinds*
3A Holmes
3A Humphreys
3A Issaquena
3A Itawamba
2A Jackson*
3A Jasper
3A Jefferson*
3A Jefferson Davis*
3A Jones*
3A Kemper
3A Lafayette
3A Lamar*
3A Lauderdale
3A Lawrence*
3A Leake
3A Lee
3A Leflore
3A Lincoln*
3A Lowndes
3A Madison
3A Marion*
3A Marshall
3A Monroe
3A Montgomery
3A Neshoba
3A Newton
3A Noxubee
3A Oktibbeha
3A Panola
2A Pearl River*
3A Perry*
3A Pike*
3A Pontotoc
3A Prentiss
3A Quitman
3A Rankin*
3A Scott
3A Sharkey
3A Simpson*
3A Smith*
2A Stone*
3A Sunflower
3A Tallahatchie
3A Tate
3A Tippah
3A Tishomingo
3A Tunica
3A Union
3A Walthall*
3A Warren*
3A Washington
3A Wayne*
3A Webster
3A Wilkinson*
3A Winston
3A Yalobusha
3A Yazoo
MISSOURI
SA Adair
SA Andrew
SA Atchison
4A Audrain
4A Barry 17
4A Barton
4A Bates
4A Benton
4A Bollinger
4A Boone
SA Buchanan
4A Butler
SA Caldwell
4A Callaway
4A Camden
4A Cape Girardeau
4A Carroll
4A Carter
4A Cass
4A Cedar
SA Chariton
4A Christian
SA Clark
4A Clay
SA Clinton
4A Cole
4A Cooper
4A Crawford
4A Dade
4A Dallas
SA Daviess
SA DeKalb
4A Dent
4A Douglas
4A Dunklin
4A Franklin
4A Gasconade
SA Gentry
4A Greene
SA Grundy
SA Harrison
4A Henry
4A Hickory
SA Holt
4A Howard
4A Howell
4A Iron
4Ajackson
4A jasper
4A jefferson
4Ajohnson
SA Knox
4A Laclede
4A Lafayette
4A Lawrence
SA Lewis
4A Lincoln
SA Linn
SA Livingston
SA Macon
4A Madison
4A Maries
SA Marion
4A McDonald
SA Mercer
4A Miller
4A Mississippi
4A Moniteau
4A Monroe
4A Montgomery
4A Morgan
4A New Madrid
4A Newton
SA Nodaway
4A Oregon
4A Osage
4A Ozark
4A Pemiscot
4A Perry
4A Pettis
4A Phelps
SA Pike
4A Platte
4A Polk
4A Pulaski
SA Putnam
SA Ralls
4A Randolph
4ARay
4A Reynolds
4A Ripley
4A Saline
SA Schuyler
SA Scotland
4A Scott
4A Shannon
SA Shelby
4A St. Charles
4A St. Clair
4A Ste. Genevieve
4A St. Francois
4A St. Louis
4A St.Louis (city)
4A Stoddard
4A Stone
SA Sullivan
4A Taney
4A Texas
4A Vernon
4A Warren
4A Washington
4A Wayne
4A Webster
SA Worth
4A Wright
MONTANA
6B (all)
NEBRASKA
SA (all)
NEVADA
SB Carson City (city)
SB Churchill
3B Clark
SB Douglas
SB Elko
SB Esmeralda
SB Eureka
SB Humboldt
SB Lander
SB Lincoln
SB Lyon
SB Mineral
SB Nye
SB Pershing
SB Storey
SB Washoe
SB White Pine
NEW HAMPSHIRE
6A Belknap
6A Carroll
SA Cheshire
6A Coos
6A Grafton
SA Hillsborough
6A Merrimack
SA Rockingham
SA Strafford
6A Sullivan
NEW JERSEY
4A Atlantic
SA Bergen
4A Burlington
4A Camden
4A Cape May
4A Cumberland
4A Essex
4A Gloucester
4A Hudson
SA Hunterdon
SA Mercer
4A Middlesex
4A Monmouth
SA Morris
4A Ocean
SA Passaic
4A Salem
SA Somerset
SA Sussex
4A Union
SA Warren
NEW MEXICO
4B Bernalillo
SB Catron
3B Chaves
4B Cibola
SB Colfax
4B Curry
4B DeBaca
3B Dona Ana
3B Eddy
4B Grant
4B Guadalupe
SB Harding
3B Hidalgo
3B Lea
4B Lincoln
SB Los Alamos
3B Luna
SB McKinley
SB Mora
3B Otero
4B Quay
SB Rio Arriba
4B Roosevelt
SB Sandoval
SB San juan
SB San Miguel
SB Santa Fe
4B Sierra
4B Socorro
SB Taos
SB Torrance
4B Union
4B Valencia 18
NEW YORK
SA Albany
6A Allegany
4A Bronx
6A Broome
6A Cattaraugus
SA Cayuga
SA Chautauqua
SA Chemung
6A Chenango
6A Clinton
SA Columbia
SA Cortland
6A Delaware
SA Dutchess
SA Erie
6A Essex
6A Franklin
6A Fulton
SA Genesee
SA Greene
6A Hamilton
6A Herkimer
6A Jefferson
4A Kings
6A Lewis
SA Livingston
6A Madison
SA Monroe
6A Montgomery
4A Nassau
4A New York
SA Niagara
6A Oneida
SA Onondaga
SA Ontario
SA Orange
SA Orleans
SA Oswego
6A Otsego
SA Putnam
4A Queens
SA Rensselaer
4A Richmond
SA Rockland
SA Saratoga
SA Schenectady
6A Schoharie
6A Schuyler
SA Seneca
6A Steuben
6A St. Lawrence
4A Suffolk
6A Sullivan
SA Tioga
6A Tompkins
6A Ulster
6A Warren
SA Washington
SA Wayne
4A Westchester
6A Wyoming
SA Yates
NORTH CAROLINA
4A Alamance
4A Alexander
SA Alleghany
3A Anson
SA Ashe
SA Avery
3A Beaufort
4A Bertie
3A Bladen
3A Brunswick*
4A Buncombe
4A Burke
3A Cabarrus
4A Caldwell
3A Camden
3A Carteret*
4A Caswell
4A Catawba
4A Chatham
4A Cherokee
3A Chowan
4A Clay
4A Cleveland
3A Columbus*
3A Craven
3A Cumberland
3A Currituck
3A Dare
3A Davidson
4A Davie
3A Duplin
4A Durham
3A Edgecombe
4A Forsyth
4A Franklin
3A Gaston
4A Gates
4A Graham
4A Granville
3A Greene
4A Guilford
4A Halifax
4A Harnett
4A Haywood
4A Henderson
4A Hertford
3A Hoke
3A Hyde
4A Iredell
4A Jackson
3A Johnston
3AJones
4ALee
3A Lenoir
4A Lincoln
4A Macon
4A Madison
3A Martin
4A McDowell
3A Mecklenburg
SA Mitchell
3A Montgomery
3A Moore
4A Nash
3A New Hanover*
4A Northampton
3A Onslow*
4A Orange
3A Pamlico
3A Pasquotank
3A Pender*
3A Perquimans
4A Person
3A Pitt
4A Polk
3A Randolph
3A Richmond
3A Robeson
4A Rockingham
3A Rowan
4A Rutherford
3A Sampson
3A Scotland
3A Stanly
4A Stokes
4A Surry
4A Swain
4A Transylvania
3A Tyrrell
3A Union
4A Vance
4A Wake
4A Warren
3A Washington
SA Watauga
3A Wayne
4A Wilkes
3A Wilson
4A Yadkin
SA Yancey
NORTH DAKOTA
6A Adams
7 Barnes
7 Benson
6A Billings
7 Bottineau
6ABowman
7 Burke
6A Burleigh
7 Cass
7 Cavalier
6A Dickey
7 Divide
6A Dunn
7 Eddy
6A Emmons
7 Foster
6A Golden Valley
7 Grand Forks
6A Grant
7 Griggs
6A Hettinger
7 Kidder
6A LaMoure
6A Logan
7 McHenry
6A McIntosh
6A McKenzie
7 McLean
6A Mercer
6A Morton
7 Mountrail
7 Nelson
6A Oliver
7 Pembina
7 Pierce
7 Ramsey 19
6A Ransom
7 Renville
6A Richland
7 Rolette
6A Sargent
7 Sheridan
6A Sioux
6A Slope
6A Stark
7 Steele
7 Stutsman
7 Towner
7 Traill
7 Walsh
7 Ward
7 Wells
7 Williams
OHIO
4A Adams
SA Allen
SA Ashland
SA Ashtabula
SA Athens
SA Auglaize
SA Belmont
4A Brown
SA Butler
SA Carroll
SA Champaign
SA Clark
4A Clermont
SA Clinton
SA Columbiana
SA Coshocton
SA Crawford
SA Cuyahoga
SA Darke
SA Defiance
SA Delaware
SA Erie
SA Fairfield
SA Fayette
SA Franklin
SA Fulton
4A Gallia
SA Geauga
SA Greene
SA Guernsey
4A Hamilton
SA Hancock
SA Hardin
SA Harrison
SA Henry
SA Highland
SA Hocking
SA Holmes
SA Huron
SA Jackson
SA Jefferson
SA Knox
SA Lake
4A Lawrence
SA Licking
SA Logan
SA Lorain
SA Lucas
SA Madison
SA Mahoning
SA Marion
SA Medina
SA Meigs
SA Mercer
SA Miami
SA Monroe
SA Montgomery
SA Morgan
SA Morrow
SA Muskingum
SA Noble
SA Ottawa
SA Paulding
SA Perry
SA Pickaway
4A Pike
SA Portage
SA Preble
SA Putnam
SA Richland
SA Ross
SA Sandusky
4A Scioto
SA Seneca
SA Shelby
SA Stark
SA Summit
SA Trumbull
SA Tuscarawas
SA Union
SA Van Wert
SA Vinton
SA Warren
4A Washington
SA Wayne
SA Williams
SA Wood
SA Wyandot
OKLAHOMA
3A Adair
3A Alfalfa
3A Atoka
4B Beaver
3A Beckham
3A Blaine
3A Bryan
3A Caddo
3A Canadian
3A Carter
3A Cherokee
3A Choctaw
4B Cimarron
3A Cleveland
3A Coal
3A Comanche
3A Cotton
3A Craig
3A Creek
3A Custer
3A Delaware
3A Dewey
3A Ellis
3A Garfield
3A Garvin
3A Grady
3A Grant
3A Greer
3A Harmon
3A Harper
3A Haskell
3A Hughes
3A Jackson
3A Jefferson
3A Johnston
3AKay
3A Kingfisher
3A Kiowa
3A Latimer
3A Le Flore
3A Lincoln
3A Logan
3A Love
3A Major
3A Marshall
3A Mayes
3A McClain
3A McCurtain
3A McIntosh
3A Murray
3A Muskogee
3A Noble
3A Nowata
3A Okfuskee
3A Oklahoma
3A Okmulgee
3A Osage
3A Ottawa
3A Pawnee
3A Payne
3A Pittsburg
3A Pontotoc
3A Pottawatomie
3A Pushmataha
3A Roger Mills
3A Rogers
3A Seminole
3A Sequoyah
3A Stephens
4B Texas
3A Tillman
3A Tulsa
3A Wagoner
3A Washington
3A Washita
3A Woods
3A Woodward
OREGON
SB Baker
4C Benton
4C Clackamas
4C Clatsop
4C Columbia
4C Coos
SB Crook
4C Curry
SB Deschutes
4C Douglas
SB Gilliam
SB Grant
SB Harney
SB Hood River
4C Jackson
SB Jefferson
4C Josephine 20
SB Klamath
SB Lake
4C Lane
4C Lincoln
4C Linn
SB Malheur
4C Marion
SB Morrow
4C Multnomah
4C Polk
SB Sherman
4C Tillamook
SB Umatilla
SB Union
SB Wallowa
SB Wasco
4C Washington
SB Wheeler
4C Yamhill
PENNSYLVANIA
SA Adams
SA Allegheny
SA Armstrong
SA Beaver
SA Bedford
SA Berks
SA Blair
SA Bradford
4A Bucks
SA Butler
SA Cambria
6A Cameron
SA Carbon
SA Centre
4A Chester
SA Clarion
6A Clearfield
SA Clinton
SA Columbia
SA Crawford
SA Cumberland
SA Dauphin
4A Delaware
6A Elk
SA Erie
SA Fayette
SA Forest
SA Franklin
SA Fulton
SA Greene
SA Huntingdon
SA Indiana
SA jefferson
SA juniata
SA Lackawanna
SA Lancaster
SA Lawrence
SA Lebanon
SA Lehigh
SA Luzerne
SA Lycoming
6A McKean
SA Mercer
SA Mifflin
SA Monroe
4A Montgomery
SA Montour
SA Northampton
SA Northumberland
SA Perry
4A Philadelphia
SA Pike
6A Potter
SA Schuylkill
SA Snyder
SA Somerset
SA Sullivan
6A Susquehanna
6A Tioga
SA Union
SA Venango
SA Warren
SA Washington
6A Wayne
SA Westmoreland
SA Wyoming
4A York
RHODE ISLAND
SA (all)
SOUTH CAROLINA
3A Abbeville
3A Aiken
3A Allendale*
3A Anderson
3A Bamberg*
3A Barnwell*
3A Beaufort*
3A Berkeley*
3A Calhoun
3A Charleston*
3A Cherokee
3A Chester
3A Chesterfield
3A Clarendon
3A Colleton*
3A Darlington
3A Dillon
3A Dorchester*
3A Edgefield
3A Fairfield
3A Florence
3A Georgetown*
3A Greenville
3A Greenwood
3A Hampton*
3A Horry*
3A jasper*
3A Kershaw
3A Lancaster
3A Laurens
3A Lee
3A Lexington
3A Marion
3A Marlboro
3A McCormick
3A Newberry
3A Oconee
3A Orangeburg
3A Pickens
3A Richland
3A Saluda
3A Spartanburg
3A Sumter
3A Union
3A Williamsburg
3A York
SOUTH DAKOTA
6A Aurora
6A Beadle
SA Bennett
SA Bon Homme
6A Brookings
6A Brown
6A Brule
6A Buffalo
6A Butte
6A Campbell
SA Charles Mix
6A Clark
SA Clay
6A Codington
6A Corson
6A Custer
6A Davison
6ADay
6A Deuel
6A Dewey
SA Douglas
6A Edmunds
6A Fall River
6A Faulk
6A Grant
SA Gregory
6A Haakon
6A Hamlin
6A Hand
6A Hanson
6A Harding
6A Hughes
SA Hutchinson
6A Hyde
SA jackson
6A jerauld
6A jones
6A Kingsbury
6A Lake
6A Lawrence
6A Lincoln
6A Lyman
6A Marshall
6A McCook
6A McPherson
6A Meade
SA Mellette
6A Miner
6A Minnehaha
6AMoody
6A Pennington
6A Perkins
6A Potter
6A Roberts
6A Sanborn
6A Shannon
6A Spink
6A Stanley
6A Sully
SA Todd
SA Tripp
6A Turner
SA Union
6A Walworth 21
SA Yankton
6A Ziebach
TENNESSEE
4A Anderson
4A Bedford
4A Benton
4A Bledsoe
4A Blount
4A Bradley
4A Campbell
4A Cannon
4A Carroll
4A Carter
4A Cheatham
3A Chester
4A Claiborne
4A Clay
4A Cocke
4A Coffee
3A Crockett
4A Cumberland
4A Davidson
4A Decatur
4A DeKalb
4A Dickson
3A Dyer
3A Fayette
4A Fentress
4A Franklin
4A Gibson
4A Giles
4A Grainger
4A Greene
4A Grundy
4A Hamblen
4A Hamilton
4A Hancock
3A Hardeman
3A Hardin
4A Hawkins
3A Haywood
3A Henderson
4A Henry
4A Hickman
4A Houston
4A Humphreys
4A jackson
4A jefferson
4Ajohnson
4A Knox
3A Lake
3A Lauderdale
4A Lawrence
4A Lewis
4A Lincoln
4A Loudon
4A Macon
3A Madison
4A Marion
4A Marshall
4A Maury
4A McMinn
3A McNairy
4A Meigs
4A Monroe
4A Montgomery
4A Moore
4A Morgan
4A Obion
4A Overton
4A Perry
4A Pickett
4A Polk
4A Putnam
4A Rhea
4A Roane
4A Robertson
4A Rutherford
4A Scott
4A Sequatchie
4A Sevier
3A Shelby
4A Smith
4A Stewart
4A Sullivan
4A Sumner
3A Tipton
4A Trousdale
4A Unicoi
4A Union
4A Van Buren
4A Warren
4A Washington
4A Wayne
4A Weakley
4A White
4A Williamson
4A Wilson
TEXAS
2A Anderson*
3B Andrews
2A Angelina*
2A Aransas*
3A Archer
4B Armstrong
2A Atascosa*
2A Austin*
4B Bailey
2B Bandera*
2A Bastrop*
3B Baylor
2A Bee*
2A Bell*
2A Bexar*
3A Blanco*
3B Borden
2A Bosque*
3A Bowie*
2A Brazoria*
2A Brazos*
3B Brewster
4B Briscoe
2A Brooks*
3A Brown*
2A Burleson*
3A Burnet*
2A Caldwell*
2A Calhoun*
3B Callahan
2A Cameron*
3A Camp*
4B Carson
3A Cass*
4B Castro
2A Chambers*
2A Cherokee*
3B Childress
3A Clay
4B Cochran
3B Coke
3B Coleman
3A Collin*
3B Collingsworth
2A Colorado*
2A Comal*
3A Comanche*
3B Concho
3A Cooke
2A Coryell*
3B Cottle
3B Crane
3B Crockett
3B Crosby
3B Culberson
4B Dallam
3A Dallas*
3B Dawson
4B Deaf Smith
3A Delta
3A Denton*
2A DeWitt*
3B Dickens
2B Dimmit*
4B Donley
2A Duval*
3A Eastland
3B Ector
2B Edwards*
3A Ellis*
3B EI Paso
3A Erath*
2A Falls*
3A Fannin
2A Fayette*
3B Fisher
4B Floyd
3B Foard
2A Fort Bend*
3A Franklin*
2A Freestone*
2B Frio*
3B Gaines
2A Galveston*
3B Garza
3A Gillespie*
3B Glasscock
2A Goliad*
2A Gonzales*
4B Gray
3A Grayson
3A Gregg*
2A Grimes*
2A Guadalupe*
4B Hale
3B Hall
3A Hamilton*
4B Hansford
3B Hardeman
2A Hardin*
2A Harris*
3A Harrison*
4B Hartley
3B Haskell 22
2A Hays*
3B Hemphill
3A Henderson*
2A Hidalgo*
2A Hill*
4B Hockley
3A Hood*
3A Hopkins*
2A Houston*
3B Howard
3B Hudspeth
3A Hunt*
4B Hutchinson
3B Irion
3A Jack
2A Jackson*
2A Jasper*
3B Jeff Davis
2A Jefferson*
2AJim Hogg*
2A Jim Wells*
3A Johnson*
3B Jones
2A Karnes*
3A Kaufman*
3A Kendall*
2A Kenedy*
3B Kent
3B Kerr
3B Kimble
3B King
2B Kinney*
2A Kleberg*
3B Knox
3A Lamar*
4B Lamb
3A Lampasas*
2B La Salle*
2A Lavaca*
2A Lee*
2A Leon*
2A Liberty*
2A Limestone*
4B Lipscomb
2A Live Oak*
3A Llano*
3B Loving
3B Lubbock
3B Lynn
2A Madison*
3A Marion*
3B Martin
3B Mason
2A Matagorda*
2B Maverick*
3B McCulloch
2A McLennan*
2A McMullen*
2B Medina*
3B Menard
3B Midland
2A Milam*
3A Mills*
3B Mitchell
3A Montague
2A Montgomery*
4B Moore
3A Morris*
3B Motley
3A Nacogdoches*
3A Navarro*
2A Newton*
3B Nolan
2A Nueces*
4B Ochiltree
4B Oldham
2A Orange*
3A Palo Pinto*
3A Panola*
3A Parker*
4B Parmer
3B Pecos
2A Polk*
4B Potter
3B Presidio
3A Rains*
4B Randall
3B Reagan
2B Real*
3A Red River*
3B Reeves
2A Refugio*
4B Roberts
2A Robertson*
3A Rockwall*
3B Runnels
3A Rusk*
3A Sabine*
3A San Augustine*
2A San Jacinto*
2A San Patricio*
3A San Saba*
3B Schleicher
3B Scurry
3B Shackelford
3A Shelby*
4B Sherman
3A Smith*
3A Somervell*
2A Starr*
3A Stephens
3B Sterling
3B Stonewall
3B Sutton
4B Swisher
3A Tarrant*
3B Taylor
3B Terrell
3B Terry
3B Throckmorton
3A Titus*
3B Tom Green
2A Travis*
2A Trinity*
2A Tyler*
3A Upshur*
3B Upton
2B Uvalde*
2B Val Verde*
3A Van Zandt*
2A Victoria*
2A Walker*
2A Waller*
3B Ward
2A Washington*
2B Webb*
2A Wharton*
3B Wheeler
3A Wichita
3B Wilbarger
2A Willacy*
2A Williamson*
2A Wilson*
3B Winkler
3A Wise
3A Wood*
4B Yoakum
3A Young
2B Zapata*
2B Zavala*
UTAH
5B Beaver
6B Box Elder
6B Cache
6B Carbon
6B Daggett
5B Davis
6B Duchesne
5B Emery
5B Garfield
5B Grand
5B Iron
5B Juab
5B Kane
5B Millard
6B Morgan
5B Piute
6B Rich
5B Salt Lake
5B San Juan
5B Sanpete
5B Sevier
6B Summit
5B Tooele
6B Uintah
5B Utah
6B Wasatch
3B Washington
5B Wayne
5B Weber
VERMONT
6A (all)
VIRGINIA
4A (all)
WASHINGTON
5B Adams
5B Asotin
5B Benton
5B Chelan
4C Clallam
4C Clark
5B Columbia
4C Cowlitz
5B Douglas
6B Ferry
5B Franklin
5B Garfield
5B Grant
4C Grays Harbor
4C Island
4C Jefferson
4C King
4C Kitsap 23
SB Kittitas
SB Klickitat
4C Lewis
SB Lincoln
4C Mason
6B Okanogan
4C Pacific
6B Pend Oreille
4C Pierce
4C San Juan
4C Skagit
SB Skamania
4C Snohomish
SB Spokane
6B Stevens
4C Thurston
4C Wahkiakum
SB Walla Walla
4C Whatcom
SB Whitman
SB Yakima
WEST VIRGINIA
SA Barbour
4A Berkeley
4A Boone
4A Braxton
SA Brooke
4A Cabell
4A Calhoun
4A Clay
SA Doddridge
SA Fayette
4A Gilmer
SA Grant
SA Greenbrier
SA Hampshire
SA Hancock
SA Hardy
SA Harrison
4A Jackson
4A Jefferson
4A Kanawha
SA Lewis
4A Lincoln
4A Logan
SA Marion
SA Marshall
4A Mason
4A McDowell
4A Mercer
SA Mineral
4A Mingo
SA Monongalia
4A Monroe
4A Morgan
SA Nicholas
SA Ohio
SA Pendleton
4A Pleasants
SA Pocahontas
SA Preston
4A Putnam
SA Raleigh
SA Randolph
4A Ritchie
4A Roane
SA Summers
SA Taylor
SA Tucker
4A Tyler
SA Upshur
4A Wayne
SA Webster
SA Wetzel
4A Wirt
4A Wood
4A Wyoming
WISCONSIN
6AAdams
7 Ashland
6A Barron
7 Bayfield
6A Brown
6A Buffalo
7 Burnett
6A Calumet
6A Chippewa
6A Clark
6A Columbia
6A Crawford
6A Dane
6A Dodge
6A Door
7 Douglas
6A Dunn
6A Eau Claire
7 Florence
6A Fond du Lac
7 Forest
6A Grant
6A Green
6A Green Lake
6A Iowa
7 Iron
6A Jackson
6A Jefferson
6AJuneau
6A Kenosha
6A Kewaunee
6A La Crosse
6A Lafayette
7 Langlade
7 Lincoln
6A Manitowoc
6A Marathon
6A Marinette
6A Marquette
6A Menominee
6A Milwaukee
6A Monroe
6A Oconto
7 Oneida
6A Outagamie
6A Ozaukee
6A Pepin
6A Pierce
6A Polk
6A Portage
7 Price
6A Racine
6A Richland
6A Rock
6A Rusk
6A Sauk
7 Sawyer
6A Shawano
6A Sheboygan
6A St. Croix
7 Taylor
6A Trempealeau
6A Vernon
7 Vilas
6A Walworth
7 Washburn
6A Washington
6A Waukesha
6A Waupaca
6A Waushara
6A Winnebago
6A Wood
WYOMING
6B Albany
6B Big Horn
6B Campbell
6B Carbon
6B Converse
6B Crook
6B Fremont
SB Goshen
6B Hot Springs
6B Johnson
6B Laramie
7 Lincoln
6B Natrona
6B Niobrara
6B Park
SB Platte
6B Sheridan
7 Sublette
6B Sweetwater
7 Teton
6B Uinta
6B Washakie
6B Weston
US TERRITORIES
AMERICAN SAMOA

lA (all)*
GUAM
lA (all)*
NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS
lA (all)*
PUERTO RICO
lA (all)*
VIRGIN ISLANDS
lA (all)*
24
TABLE 301.3(1)
INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE ZONE DEFINITIONS
MAJOR CLIMATE TYPE DEFINITIONS
Warm-humid Definition-Moist (A) locations where either of the following wet-bulb temperature conditions shall occur during the warmest six consecutive months of the year:
  1. 67°P (19.4°C) or higher for 3,000 or more hours; or
  2. 73°P (22.8°C) or higher for 1,500 or more hours
Dry (B) Definition-Locations meeting the following criteria: Not marine and
   Pin < 0.44 × (TF − 19.5)          [Pern < 2.0 × (TC + 7) in 51 units]
where:
   Pin = Annual precipitation in inches (em)
   T    = Annual mean temperature in of (OC)
Moist (A) Definition-Locations that are not marine and not dry.
For 51: °C = [(OF)-32]/1.8; 1 inch = 2.54 cm.

 

TABLE 301.3(2)
INTERNATIONAL CLIMATE ZONE DEFINITIONS
ZONE NUMBER THERMAL CRITERIA
IP Units 51 Units
1 9000 < CDD500P 5000 < CDD10°C
2 6300 < CDD500P ≤ 9000 3500 < CDD10°C ≤ 5000
3A and 3B 4500 < CDD500P ≤ 6300
AND HDD65°P ≤ 5400
2500 < CDD 10°C ≤ 3500
AND HDD18°C ≤ 3000
4A and 4B CDD500P ≤ 4500 AND
HDD65°P ≤ 5400
CDD10°C ≤ 2500 AND
HDD18°C ≤ 3000
3C HDD65°P ≤ 3600 HDD18°C ≤ 2000
4C 3600 < HDD65°P ≤ 5400 2000 < HDD18°C ≤3000
5 5400 < HDD65°P ≤ 7200 3000 < HDD18°C ≤ 4000
6 7200 < HDD65°P ≤ 9000 4000 < HDD18°C ≤ 5000
7 9000 < HDD65°P ≤ 12600 5000 < HDD18°C ≤ 7000
8 12600 < HDD65°P 7000 < HDD18°C
For 51: °C = [(OF)-32]/1.8

SECTION 302
DESIGN CONDITIONS

302.1 Interior design conditions. The interior design temperatures used for heating and cooling load calculations shall be a maximum of 72°F (22°C) for heating and minimum of 75°F (24°C) for cooling.

SECTION 303
MATERIALS, SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT

303.1 Identification. Materials, systems and equipment shall be identified in a manner that will allow a determination of compliance with the applicable provisions of this code.

303.1.1 Building thermal envelope insulation. An R-value identification mark shall be applied by the manufacturer to each piece of bUilding thermal envelope insulation 12 inches (305 mm) or greater in width. Alternately, the insulation installers shall provide a certification listing the type, manufacturer and R-value of insulation installed in each element of the bUilding thermal envelope. For blown or sprayed insulation (fiberglass and cellulose), the initial installed thickness, settled thickness, settled R-value, installed density, coverage area and number of bags installed shall be listed on the certification. For sprayed polyurethane foam (SPF) insulation, the installed thickness of the areas covered and R-value of installed thickness shall be listed on the certification. The insulation installer shall sign, date and post the certification in a conspicuous location on the job site.

303.1.1.1 Blown or sprayed roof/ceiling insulation. The thickness of blown-in or sprayed roof/ceiling insulation (fiberglass or cellulose) shall be written in inches (mm) on markers that are installed at least one for every 300 square feet (28 m2) throughout the attic space. The markers shall be affixed to the trusses or joists and marked with the minimum initial installed thickness with numbers a minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) in height. Each

25

marker shall face the attic access opening. Spray polyurethane foam thickness and installed R-value shall be listed on certification provided by the insulation installer.

303.1.2 Insulation mark installation. Insulating materials shall be installed such that the manufacturer's R-value mark is readily observable upon inspection.

303.1.3 Fenestration product rating. V-factors of fenestration products (windows, doors and skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 100 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Products lacking such a labeled V-factor shall be assigned a default V-factor from Table 303.1.3(1) or 303.1.3(2). The solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of glazed fenestration products (windows, glazed doors and skylights) shall be determined in accordance with NFRC 200 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and labeled and certified by the manufacturer. Products lacking such a labeled SHGC shall be assigned a default SHGC from Table 303.1.3(3).

TABLE 303.1.3(1)
DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION U-FACTOR
FRAME TYPE SINGLE PANE DOUBLE PANE SKYLIGHT
Single Double
Metal 1.20 0.80 2.00 1.30
Metal with Thermal Break 1.10 0.65 1.90 1.10
Nonmetal or Metal Clad 0.95 0.55 1.75 1.05
Glazed Block 0.60

 

TABLE 303.1.3(2)
DEFAULT DOOR U-FACTORS
DOOR TYPE U-FACTOR
Uninsulated Metal 1.20
Insulated Metal 0.60
Wood 0.50
Insulated, nonmetal edge, max 45% glazing, any glazing double pane 0.35

 

TABLE 303.1.3(3)
DEFAULT GLAZED FENESTRATION SHGC
SINGLE GLAZED DOUBLE GLAZED GLAZED BLOCK
Clear Tinted Clear Tinted
0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6

303.1.4 Insulation product rating. The thermal resistance (R-value) of insulation shall be determined in accordance with the U.S. Federal Trade Commission R-value rule (CFR Title 16, Part 460, May 31,2005) in units ofh × ft2 × of/Btu at a mean temperature of 75°F (24°C).

303.2 Installation. All materials, systems and equipment shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions and the International Building Code.

303.2.1 Protection of exposed foundation insulation. Insulation applied to the exterior of basement walls, crawlspace walls and the perimeter of slab-on-grade floors shall have a rigid, opaque and weather-resistant protective covering to prevent the degradation of the insulation's thermal performance. The protective covering shall cover the exposed exterior insulation and extend a minimum of 6 inches (153 mm) below grade.

303.3 Maintenance information. Maintenance instructions shall be furnished for equipment and systems that require preventive maintenance. Required regular maintenance actions shall be clearly stated and incorporated on a readily accessible label. The label shall include the title or publication number for the operation and maintenance manual for that particular model and type of product.

26

CHAPTER 4
RESIDENTIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY

SECTION 401
GENERAL

401.1 Scope. This chapter applies to residential buildings.

401.2 Compliance. Projects shall comply with Sections 401, 402.4, 402.5, and 403.1, 403.2.2, 403.2.3, and 403.3 through 403.9 (referred to as the mandatory provisions) and either:

  1. Sections 402.1 through 402.3, 403.2.1 and 404.1 (prescriptive); or
  2. Section 405 (performance).

401.3 Certificate. A permanent certificate shall be posted on or in the electrical distribution panel. The certificate shall not cover or obstruct the visibility of the circuit directory label, service disconnect label or other required labels. The certificate shall be completed by the builder or registered design professional. The certificate shall list the predominant R-values of insulation installed in or on ceiling/roof, walls, foundation (slab, basement wall, crawlspace wall and/or floor) and ducts outside conditioned spaces; U-factors for fenestration and the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) of fenestration. Where there is more than one value for each component, the certificate shall list the value covering the largest area. The certificate shall list the types and efficiencies of heating, cooling and service water heating equipment. Where a gas-fired unvented room heater, electric furnace, or baseboard electric heater is installed in the residence, the certificate shall list "gas-fired unvented room heater," "electric furnace" or "baseboard electric heater," as appropriate. An efficiency shall not be listedfor gas-fired unvented room heaters, electric furnaces or electric baseboard heaters.

SECTION 402
BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE

402.1 General (Prescriptive).

402.1.1 Insulation and fenestration criteria. The building thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Table 402.1.1 based on the climate zone specified in Chapter 3.

402.1.2 R-value computation. Insulation material used in layers, such as framing cavity insulation and insulating sheathing, shall be summed to compute the component R-value. The manufacturer's settled R-value shall be used for blown insulation. Computed R-values shall not include an R-value for other building materials or air films.

TABLE 402.1.1
INSULATION AND FENESTRATION REQUIREMENTS BY COMPONENTa
CLIMATE ZONE FENESTRATION U-FACTORb SKYLlGHTb U-FACTOR GLAZED FENESTRATION SHGCb,e CEILING R-VALUE WOOD FRAME WALL R-VALUE MASS WALL R-VALUEi FLOOR R-VALUE BASEMENTc WALL R-VALUE SLABd R-VALUE & DEPTH CRAWL SPACEc WALL R-VALUE
1 1.2 0.75 0.30 30 13 3/4 13 0 0 0
2 0.65j 0.75 0.30 30 13 4/6 13 0 0 0
3 0.50j 0.65 0.30 30 13 5/8 19 5/13f 0 5/13
4 except Marine 0.35 0.60 NR 38 13 5/10 19 10/13 10, 2 ft 10/13
5 and Marine 4 0.35 0.60 NR 38 20 or 13+5h 13/17 30g 10/13 10, 2 ft 10/13
6 0.35 0.60 NR 49 20 or 13+5h 15/19 30g 15/19 10, 4 ft 10/13
7 and 8 0.35 0.60 NR 49 21 19/21 38g 15/19 10, 4 ft 10/13
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. R-values are minimums. U-factors and SHGC are maximums. R-19 batts compressed into a nominal 2 × 6 framing cavity such that the R-value is reduced by R-l or more shall be marked with the compressed batt R-value in addition to the full thickness R-value.
b. The fenestration U-factor column excludes skylights. The SHGC column applies to all glazed fenestration.
c. "15/19" means R-15 continuous insulated sheathing on the interior or exterior of the home or R-19 cavity insulation at the interior of the basement wall. "15/19" shall be permitted to be met with R-13 cavity insulation on the interior ofthe basement wall plus R-5 continuous insulated sheathing on the interior or exterior ofthe home. "10/13" means R-10 continuous insulated sheathing on the interior or exterior of the home or R-13 cavity insulation at the interior ofthe basement wall.
d. R-5 shall be added to the required slab edge R-values for heated slabs. Insulation depth shall be the depth of the footing or 2 feet, whichever is less in Zones 1 through 3 for heated slabs.
e. There are no SHGC requirements in the Marine Zone.
f. Basement wall insulation is not required in warm-humid locations as defined by Figure 301.1 and Table 301.1.
g. Or insulation sufficient to fill the framing cavity, R-19 minimum.
h. "13+5" means R-13 cavity insulation plus R-5 insulated sheathing. If structural sheathing covers 25 percent or less of the exterior, insulating sheathing is not required where structural sheathing is used. If structural sheathing covers more than 25 percent of exterior, structural sheathing shall be supplemented with insulated sheathing of at least R-2.
i. The second R-value applies when more than half the insulation is on the interior of the mass wall.
j. For impact rated fenestration complying with Section R30 1.2.1.2 ofthe InternationalResidential Code or Section 1608.1.2 of the International Building Code, the maximum U-factor shall be 0.75 in Zone 2 and 0.65 in Zone 3.
27
TABLE 402.1.3
EQUIVALENT U-FACTORsa
CLIMATE ZONE FENESTRATION U-FACTOR SKYLIGHT U-FACTOR CEILING U-FACTOR FRAME WALL U-FACTOR MASS WALL U-FACTORb FLOOR U-FACTOR BASEMENT WALL U-FACTORd CRAWL SPACE WALL U-FACTORc
1 1.20 0.75 0.035 0.082 0.197 0.064 0.360 0.477
2 0.65 0.75 0.035 0.082 0.165 0.064 0.360 0.477
3 0.50 0.65 0.035 0.082 0.141 0.047 0.091 c 0.136
4 except Marine 0.35 0.60 0.030 0.082 0.141 0.047 0.059 0.065
5 and Marine 4 0.35 0.60 0.030 0.057 0.082 0.033 0.059 0.065
6 0.35 0.60 0.026 0.057 0.060 0.033 0.050 0.065
7 and 8 0.35 0.60 0.026 0.057 0.057 0.028 0.050 0.065
a. Nonfenestration Ufactors shall be obtained from measurement, calculation or an approved source.
b. When more than half the insulation is on the interior, the mass wall Ufactors shall be a maximum of 0.17 in Zone 1, 0.14 in Zone 2, 0.12 in Zone 3, 0.10 in Zone 4 except Marine, and the same as the frame wall Ufactor in Marine Zone 4 and Zones 5 through 8.
c. Basement wall Ufactor of 0.360 in warm-humid locations as defined by Figure 301.1 and Table 301.2.
d. Foundation Ufactor requirements shown in Table 402.1.3 include wall construction and interior air films but exclude soil conductivity and exterior air films. Ufactors for determining code compliance in accordance with Section 402.1.4 (total VA alternative) of Section 405 (Simulated Performance Alternative) shall be modified to include soil conductivity and exterior air films.

402.1.3 V-factor alternative. An assembly with a V-factor equal to or less than that specified in Table 402.1.3 shall be permitted as an alternative to the R-value in Table 402.1.1.

402.1.4 Total VA alternative. If the total building thermal envelope VA (sum of V-factor times assembly area) is less than or equal to the total VA resulting from using the V-factors in Table 402.1.3 (multiplied by the same assembly area as in the proposed building), the building shall be considered in compliance with Table 402.1.1. The VA calculation shall be done using a method consistent with the ASHRAE Handbook ofFundamentals and shall include the thermal bridging effects of framing materials. The SHGC requirements shall be met in addition to VA compliance.

402.2 Specific insulation requirements (Prescriptive).

402.2.1 Ceilings with attic spaces. When Section 402.1.1 would require R-38 in the ceiling, R-30 shall be deemed to satisfy the requirement for R-38 wherever the full height of uncompressed R-30 insulation extends over the wall top plate at the eaves. Similarly, R-38 shall be deemed to satisfy the requirement for R-49 wherever the full height of uncompressed R-38 insulation extends over the wall top plate at the eaves. This reduction shall not apply to the V-factor alternative approach in Section 402.1.3 and the total VA alternative in Section 402.1.4.

402.2.2 Ceilings without attic spaces. Where Section 402.1.1 would require insulation levels above R-30 and the design of the roof/ceiling assembly does not allow sufficient space for the required insulation, the minimum required insulation for such roof/ceiling assemblies shall be R-30. This reduction of insulation from the requirements of Section 402.1.1 shall be limited to 500 square feet (46 m2) or 20 percent of the total insulated ceiling area, whichever is less. This reduction shall not apply to the V-factor alternative approach in Section 402.1.3 and the total VA alternative in Section 402.1.4.

402.2.3 Access hatches and doors. Access doors from conditioned spaces to unconditioned spaces (e.g., attics and crawl spaces) shall be weatherstripped and insulated to a level equivalent to the insulation on the surrounding surfaces. Access shall be provided to all equipment that prevents damaging or compressing the insulation. A wood framed or equivalent baffle or retainer is required to be provided when loose fill insulation is installed, the purpose of which is to prevent the loose fill insulation from spilling into the living space when the attic access is opened, and to provide a permanent means of maintaining the installed R-value of the loose fill insulation.

402.2.4 Mass walls. Mass walls for the purposes of this chapter shall be considered above-grade walls of concrete block, concrete, insulated concrete form (ICF), masonry cavity, brick (other than brick veneer), earth (adobe, compressed earth block, rammed earth) and solid timber/logs.

402.2.5 Steel-frame ceilings, walls, and floors. Steel-frame ceilings, walls and floors shall meet the insulation requirements of Table 402.2.5 or shall meet the V-factor requirements in Table 402.1.3. The calculation of the V-factor for a steel-frame envelope assembly shall use a series-parallel path calculation method.

Exception: In Climate Zones 1 and 2, the continuous insulation requirements in Table 402 .2.4 shall be permitted to be reduced to R-3 for steel frame wall assemblies with studs spaced at 24 inches (610 mm) on center.

28
TABLE 402.2.5
STEEL-FRAME CEILING, WALL AND FLOOR INSULATION
(R-VALUE)
WOOD FRAME R-VALUE REQUIREMENT COLD-FORMED STEEL EQUIVALENT R-VALUEa
Steel Truss Ceilingsb
R-30 R-38 or R-30 + 3 or R-26 + 5
R-38 R-49 or R-38 + 3
R-49 R-38 + 5
Steel Joist Ceilingsb
R-30 R-38 in 2 × 4 or 2 × 6 or 2 × 8
R-49 in any framing
R-38 R-49 in 2 × 4 or 2 × 6 or 2 × 8 or 2 × 10
Steel-Framed Wall
R-13 R-13 + 5 or R-15 + 4 or R-21 + 3 or R-O + 10
R-19 R-13 + 9 orR-19 + 8 orR-25 + 7
R-21 R-13 + 10 or R-19 + 9 or R-25 + 8
Steel Joist Floor
R-13 R-19 in 2 × 6 R-19 + 6 in 2 × 8 or 2 × 10
R-19 R-19 + 6 in 2 × 6 R-19 + 12 in 2 × 8 or 2 × 10
a. Cavity insulation R-value is listed first, followed by continuous insulation R-value.
b. Insulation exceeding the height of the framing shall cover the framing.

402.2.6 Floors. Floor insulation shall be installed to maintain permanent contact with the underside of the subfloor decking.

402.2.7 Basement walls. Walls associated with conditioned basements shall be insulated from the top of the basement wall down to 10 feet (3048 mm) below grade or to the basement floor, whichever is less. Walls associated with unconditioned basements shall meet this requirement unless the floor overhead is insulated in accordance with Sections 402.1.1 and 402.2.6.

402.2.8 Slab-on-grade floors. Slab-on-grade floors with a floor surface less than 12 inches (305 mm) below grade shall be insulated in accordance with Table 402.1.1. The insulation shall extend downward from the top ofthe slab on the outside or inside of the foundation wall. Insulation located below grade shall be extended the distance provided in Table 402.1.1 by any combination of vertical insulation, insulation extending under the slab or insulation extending out from the building. Insulation extending away from the building shall be protected by pavement or by a minimum of 10 inches (254 mm) of soil. The top edge of the insulation installed between the exterior wall and the edge of the interior slab shall be permitted to be cut at a 45-degree (0.79 rad) angle away from the exterior wall. Slab-edge insulation is not required in jurisdictions designated by the code official as having a very heavy termite infestation.

402.2.9 Crawl space walls. As an alternative to insulating floors over crawl spaces, crawl space walls shall be permitted to be insulated when the crawl space is not vented to the outside. Crawl space wall insulation shall be permanently fastened to the wall and extend downward from the floor to the finished grade level and then vertically and/or horizontally for at least an additional 24 inches (610 mm). Exposed earth in unvented crawl space foundations shall be covered with a continuous Class I vapor retarder. All joints of the vapor retarder shall overlap by 6 inches (153 mm) and be sealed or taped. The edges of the vapor retarder shall extend at least 6 inches (153 mm) up the stem wall and shall be attached to the stem wall.

402.2.10 Masonry veneer. Insulation shall not be required on the horizontal portion of the foundation that supports a masonry veneer.

402.2.11 Thermally isolated sunroom insulation. The minimum ceiling insulation R-values shall be R-19 in Zones 1 through 4 and R-24 in Zones 5 through 8. The minimum wall R-value shall be R-13 in all zones. New wall (s) separating a sunroom from conditioned space shall meet the building thermal envelope requirements.

402.3 Fenestration. (Prescriptive).

402.3.1 V-factor. An area-weighted average of fenestration products shall be permitted to satisfy the U-factor requirements.

402.3.2 Glazed fenestration SHGC. An area-weighted average of fenestration products more than 50 percent glazed shall be permitted to satisfy the SHGC requirements.

402.3.3 Glazed fenestration exemption. Up to 15 square feet (1.4 m2) ofglazed fenestration per dwelling unit shall be permitted to be exempt from U-factor and SHGC requirements in Section 402.1.1. This exemption shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section 402.1.3 and the Total UA alternative in Section 402.1.4.

402.3.4 Opaque door exemption. One side-hinged opaque door assembly up to 24 square feet (2.22 m2) in area is exempted from the U-factor requirement in Section 402.1 .1. This exemption shall not apply to the U-factor alternative approach in Section 402.1.3 and the total UA alternative in Section 402.1.4.

402.3.5 Thermally isolated sunroom V-factor. For Zones 4 through 8, the maximum fenestration U-factor shall be 0.50 and the maximum skylight U-factor shall be 0.75. New windows and doors separating the sunroom from conditioned space shall meet the building thermal envelope requirements.

402.3.6 Replacement fenestration. Where some or all of an existing fenestration unit is replaced with a new fenestration product, including sash and glazing, the replacement fenestration unit shall meet the applicable requirements for U-factor and SHGC in Table 402.1.1.

402.4 Air leakage (Mandatory).

402.4.1 Building thermal envelope. The building thermal envelope shall be durably sealed to limit infiltration. The sealing methods between dissimilar materials shall allow for differential expansion and contraction. The following shall be caulked, gasketed, weatherstripped or otherwise sealed with an air barrier material, suitable film or solid material:

  1. Alljoints, seams and penetrations. 29
  2. Site-built windows, doors and skylights.
  3. Openings between window and door assemblies and their respective jambs and framing.
  4. Utility penetrations.
  5. Dropped ceilings or chases adjacent to the thermal envelope.
  6. Knee walls.
  7. Walls and ceilings separating a garage from conditioned spaces.
  8. Behind tubs and showers on exterior walls.
  9. Common walls between dwelling units.
  10. Attic access openings.
  11. Rim joist junction.
  12. Other sources of infiltration.

402.4.2 Air sealing and insulation. Building envelope air tightness and insulation installation shall be demonstrated to comply with one of the following options given by Section 402.4.2.1 or 402.4.2.2:

402.4.2.1 Testing option. Building envelope tightness and insulation installation shall be considered acceptable when tested air leakage is less than seven air changes per hour (ACH) when tested with a blower door at a pressure of 33.5 psf (50 Pa). Testing shall occur after rough in and after installation of penetrations of the building envelope, including penetrations for utilities, plumbing, electrical, ventilation and combustion appliances.

During testing:

  1. Exterior windows and doors, fireplace and stove doors shall be closed, but not sealed;
  2. Dampers shall be closed, but not sealed, including exhaust, intake, makeup air, backdraft and flue dampers;
  3. Interior doors shall be open;
  4. Exterior openings for continuous ventilation systems and heat recovery ventilators shall be closed and sealed;
  5. Heating and cooling system (s) shall be turned off;
  6. HVAC ducts shall not be sealed; and
  7. Supply and return registers shall not be sealed.

402.4.2.2 Visual inspection option. Building envelope tightness and insulation installation shall be considered acceptable when the items listed in Table 402.4.2, applicable to the method of construction, are field verified. Where required by the code official, an approved party independent from the installer of the insulation shall inspect the air barrier and insulation.

402.4.3 Fireplaces. New wood-burning fireplaces shall have gasketed doors and outdoor combustion air.

402.4.4 Fenestration air leakage. Windows, skylights and sliding glass doors shall have an air infiltration rate of no more than 0.3 cfm per square foot (1.5 L/s/m2), and swinging doors no more than 0.5 cfm per square foot (2.6 L/s/m2), when tested according to NFRC 400 or AAMA/WDMAI CSA 101/1.S.2/A440 by an accredited, independent laboratory and listed and labeled by the manufacturer.

Exceptions: Site-built windows, skylights and doors.

402.4.5 Recessed lighting. Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be sealed to limit air leakage between conditioned and unconditioned spaces. All recessed luminaires shall be IC-rated and labeled as meeting ASTM E 283 when tested at 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential with no more than 2.0 cfm (0.944 Lis) of air movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. All recessed luminaires shall be sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and the interior wall or ceiling covering.

402.5 Maximum fenestration V-factor and SHGC (Mandatory). The area-weighted average maximum fenestration V-factor permitted using trade-offs from Section 402.1.4 or 404 shall be 0.48 in Zones 4 and 5 and 0.40 in Zones 6 through 8 for vertical fenestration, and 0.75 in Zones 4 through 8 for skylights. The area-weighted average maximum fenestration SHGC permitted using trade-offs from Section 405 in Zones 1 through 3 shall be 0.50.

SECTION 403
SYSTEMS

403.1 Controls (Mandatory). At least one thermostat shall be provided for each separate heating and cooling system.

403.1.1 Programmable thermostat. Where the primary heating system is a forced-air furnace, at least one thermostat per dwelling unit shall be capable of controlling the heating and cooling system on a daily schedule to maintain different temperature set points at different times of the day. This thermostat shall include the capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55°F (13°C) or up to 85°F (29°C). The thermostat shall initially be programmed with a heating temperature set point no higher than 70°F (21°C) and a cooling temperature set point no lower than 78°F (26°C).

403.1.2 Heat pump supplementary heat (Mandatory). Heat pumps having supplementary electric-resistance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplemental heat operation when the heat pump compressor can meet the heating load.

403.2 Ducts.

403.2.1 Insulation (Prescriptive). Supply ducts in attics shall be insulated to a minimum of R-8. All other ducts shall be insulated to a minimum of R-6.

Exception: Ducts or portions thereof located completely inside the building thermal envelope.

403.2.2 Sealing (Mandatory). All ducts, air handlers, filter boxes and building cavities used as ducts shall be sealed.

30

Joints and seams shall comply with Section M1601.4.1 of the International Residential Code.

Duct tightness shall be verified by either of the following:

  1. Postconstruction test: Leakage to outdoors shall be less than or equal to 8 cfm (226.5 L/min) per 100 ft2 (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area or a total leakage less than or equal to 12 cfm (12 L/min) per 100 ft2 (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the entire system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. All register boots shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test.
  2. Rough-in test: Total leakage shall be less than or equal to 6 cfm (169.9 L/min) per 100 ft2 (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area when tested at a pressure differential of 0.1 inches w.g. (25 Pa) across the roughed in system, including the manufacturer's air handler enclosure. All register boots shall be taped or otherwise sealed during the test. If the air handler is not installed at the time of the test, total leakage shall be less than or equal to 4 cfm (113.3 L/min) per 100 ft2 (9.29 m2) of conditioned floor area.

Exceptions: Duct tightness test is not required if the air handler and all ducts are located within conditioned space.

TABLE 402.4.2
AIR BARRIER AND INSULATION INSPECTION COMPONENT CRITERIA
COMPONENT CRITERIA
Air barrier and thermal barrier Exterior thermal envelope insulation for framed walls is installed in substantial contact and continuous alignment with building envelope air barrier.
Breaks or joints in the air barrier are filled or repaired.
Air-permeable insulation is not used as a sealing material.
Air-permeable insulation is inside of an air barrier.
Ceiling/attic Air barrier in any dropped ceiling/soffit is substantially aligned with insulation and any gaps are sealed.
Attic access (except unvented attic), knee wall door, or drop down stair is sealed.
Walls Corners and headers are insulated.
Junction of foundation and sill plate is sealed.
Windows and doors Space between window/door jambs and framing is sealed.
Rim joists Rimjoists are insulated and include an air barrier.
Floors (including above-garage and cantilevered floors) Insulation is installed to maintain permanent contact with underside of subfloor decking.
Air barrier is installed at any exposed edge of insulation.
Crawl space walls Insulation is permanently attached to walls.
Exposed earth in unvented crawl spaces is covered with Class I vapor retarder with overlapping joints taped.
Shafts, penetrations Duct shafts, utility penetrations, knee walls and flue shafts opening to exterior or unconditioned space are sealed.
Narrow cavities Batts in narrow cavities are cut to fit, or narrow cavities are filled by sprayed/blown insulation.
Garage separation Air sealing is provided between the garage and conditioned spaces.
Recessed lighting Recessed light fixtures are air tight, IC rated, and sealed to drywall.
Exception-fixtures in conditioned space.
Plumbing and wiring Insulation is placed between outside and pipes. Batt insulation is cut to fit around wiring and plumbing, or sprayed/blown insulation extends behind piping and wiring.
Shower/tub on exterior wall Showers and tubs on exterior walls have insulation and an air barrier separating them from the exterior wall.
Electrical/phone box on exterior walls Air barrier extends behind boxes or air sealed-type boxes are installed.
Common wall Air barrier is installed in common wall between dwelling units.
HVAC register boots HVAC register boots that penetrate building envelope are sealed to subfloor or drywall.
Fireplace Fireplace walls include an air barrier.
31

403.2.3 Building cavities (Mandatory). Building framing cavities shall not be used as supply ducts.

403.3 Mechanical system piping insulation (Mandatory). Mechanical system piping capable of carrying fluids above 105°F (41°C) or below 55°F (13°C) shall be insulated to a minimum ofR-3.

403.4 Circulating hot water systems (Mandatory). All circulating service hot water piping shall be insulated to at least R-2. Circulating hot water systems shall include an automatic or readily accessible manual switch that can turn off the hot-water circulating pump when the system is not in use.

403.5 Mechanical ventilation (Mandatory). Outdoor air intakes and exhausts shall have automatic or gravity dampers that close when the ventilation system is not operating.

403.6 Equipment sizing (Mandatory). Heating and cooling equipment shall be sized in accordance with Section M1401.3 of the International Residential Code.

403.7 Systems serving multiple dwelling units (Mandatory). Systems serving multiple dwelling units shall comply with Sections 503 and 504 in lieu of Section 403.

403.8 Snow melt system controls (Mandatory). Snow- and ice-melting systems, supplied through energy service to the building, shall include automatic controls capable of shutting off the system when the pavement temperature is above 50°F, and no precipitation is falling and an automatic or manual control that will allow shutoff when the outdoor temperature is above 40°F.

403.9 Pools (Mandatory). Pools shall be provided with energy-conserving measures in accordance with Sections 403.9.1 through 403.9.3.

403.9.1 Pool heaters. All pool heaters shall be equipped with a readily accessible on-off switch to allow shutting off the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Pool heaters fired by natural gas shall not have continuously burning pilot lights.

403.9.2 Time switches. Time switches that can automatically turn offand on heaters and pumps according to a preset schedule shall be installed on swimming pool heaters and pumps.

Exceptions:

  1. Where public health standards require 24-hour pump operation.
  2. Where pumps are required to operate solar- and waste-heat-recovery pool heating systems.

403.9.3 Pool covers. Heated pools shall be equipped with a vapor-retardant pool cover on or at the water surface. Pools heated to more than 90°F (32°C) shall have a pool cover with a minimum insulation value of R-12.

Exception: Pools deriving over 60 percent of the energy for heating from site-recovered energy or solar energy source.

SECTION 404
ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING SYSTEMS

404.1 Lighting equipment (Prescriptive). A minimum of 50 percent of the lamps in permanently installed lighting fixtures shall be high-efficacy lamps.

SECTION 405
SIMULATED PERFORMANCE ALTERNATIVE (Performance)

405.1 Scope. This section establishes criteria for compliance using simulated energy performance analysis. Such analysis shall include heating, cooling, and service water heating energy only.

405.2 Mandatory requirements. Compliance with this section requires that the mandatory provisions identified in Section 401.2 be met. All supply and return ducts not completely inside the building thermal envelope shall be insulated to a minimum of R-6.

405.3 Performance-based compliance. Compliance based on simulated energy performance requires that a proposed residence (proposed design) be shown to have an annual energy cost that is less than or equal to the annual energy cost of the standard reference design. Energy prices shall be taken from a source approvedby the code official, such as the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration's State Energy Price and Expenditure Report. Code officials shall be permitted to require time-of-use pricing in energy cost calculations.

Exception: The energy use based on source energy expressed in Btu or Btu per square foot of conditioned floor area shall be permitted to be substituted for the energy cost. The source energy multiplier for electricity shall be 3.16. The source energy multiplier for fuels other than electricity shall be 1.1.

405.4 Documentation.

405.4.1 Compliance software tools. Documentation verifying that the methods and accuracy of the compliance software tools conform to the provisions of this section shall be provided to the code official.

405.4.2 Compliance report. Compliance software tools shall generate a report that documents that the proposed design complies with Section 405.3. The compliance documentation shall include the following information:

  1. Address or other identification of the residence;
  2. An inspection checklist documenting the building component characteristics of the proposed design as listed in Table 405.5.2(1). The inspection checklist shall show results for both the standard reference design and the proposed design, and shall document all inputs entered by the user necessary to reproduce the results;
  3. Name of individual completing the compliance report; and 32
  4. Name and version of the compliance software tool.

Exception: Multiple orientations. When an otherwise identical building model is offered in multiple orientations, compliance for any orientation shall be permitted by documenting that the building meets the performance requirements in each of the four cardinal (north, east, south and west) orientations.

405.4.3 Additional documentation. The code official shall be permitted to require the following documents:

  1. Documentation of the building component characteristics of the standard reference design.
  2. A certification signed by the builder providing the building component characteristics of the proposed design as given in Table 405.5.2(1).
  3. Documentation of the actual values used in the software calculations for the proposed design.

405.5 Calculation procedure.

405.5.1 General. Except as specified by this section, the standard reference design and proposed design shall be configured and analyzed using identical methods and techniques.

405.5.2 Residence specifications. The standard reference design and proposed design shall be configured and analyzed as specified by Table 405.5.2(1). Table 405.5.2(1) shall include by reference all notes contained in Table 402.1.1.

405.6 Calculation software tools.

405.6.1 Minimum capabilities. Calculation procedures used to comply with this section shall be software tools capable of calculating the annual energy consumption of all building elements that differ between the standard reference design and the proposed design and shall include the following capabilities:

  1. Computer generation of the standard reference design using only the input for the proposed design. The calculation procedure shall not allow the user to directly modify the building component characteristics of the standard reference design.
  2. Calculation of whole-building (as a single zone) sizing for the heating and cooling equipment in the standard reference design residence in accordance with Section M1401.3 of the International Residential Code.
  3. Calculations that account for the effects of indoor and outdoor temperatures and part-load ratios on the performance of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning equipment based on climate and equipment sizing.
  4. Printed code official inspection checklist listing each of the proposed design component characteristics from Table 405.5.2(1) determined by the analysis to provide compliance, along with their respective performance ratings (e.g., R-value, V-factor, SHGC, HSPF, AFUE, SEER, EF, etc.).

405.6.2 Specific approval. Performance analysis tools meeting the applicable sections of Section 405 shall be permitted to be approved. Tools are permitted to be approved based on meeting a specified threshold for a jurisdiction. The code official shall be permitted to approve tools for a specified application or limited scope.

405.6.3 Input values. When calculations require input values not specified by Sections 402,403,404 and 405, those input values shall be taken from an approved source.

33
TABLE 405.5.2(1)
SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE STANDARD REFERENCE AND PROPOSED DESIGNS
BUILDING COMPONENT STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN PROPOSED DESIGN
Above-grade walls Type: mass wall if proposed wall is mass; otherwise wood frame.
Gross area: same as proposed
V-factor: from Table 402.1.3
Solar absorptance = 0.75
Remittance = 0.90
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
Basement and crawlspace walls Type: same as proposed
Gross area: same as proposed
V-factor: from Table 402.1.3, with insulation layer on interior side of walls.
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
Above-grade floors Type: wood frame
Gross area: same as proposed
V-factor: from Table 402.1.3
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
Ceilings Type: wood frame
Gross area: same as proposed
V-factor: from Table 402.1.3
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
Roofs Type: composition shingle on wood sheathing
Gross area: same as proposed
Solar absorptance = 0.75
Emittance = 0.90
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
Attics Type: vented with aperture = 1 ft2 per 300 ft2 ceiling area As proposed
Foundations Type: same as proposed foundation wall area above and below grade and soil characteristics: same as proposed. As proposed
As proposed
Doors Area: 40 ft2
Orientation: North
V-factor: same as fenestration from Table 402.1.3.
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
Glazinga Total areab =
  1. The proposed glazing area; where proposed glazing area is less than 15% of the conditioned floor area.
  2. 15% of the conditioned floor area; where the proposed glazing area is 15% or more of the conditioned floor area.
Orientation: equally distributed to four cardinal compass orientations (N, E, S & W).
V-factor: from Table 402.1.3
SHGC: From Table 402.1.1 except that for climates with no requirement (NR) SHGC = 0.40 shall be used.
Interior shade fraction:
Summer (all hours when cooling is required) = 0.70
Winter (all hours when heating is required) = 0.85e
External shading: none
As proposed






As proposed

As proposed
As proposed
Same as standard reference design


As proposed
Skylights None As proposed
Thermally isolated sunrooms None As proposed 34
Air exchange rate Specific leakage area (SLA)d = 0.00036 assuming no energy recovery For residences that are not tested, the same as the standard reference design.
For residences without mechanical ventilation that are tested in accordance with ASHRAE 119,
Section 5.1, the measured air exchange ratee but not less than 0.35 ACH
For residences with mechanical ventilation that are tested in accordance with ASHRAE 119, Section 5.1, the measured air exchange ratee combined with the mechanical ventilation rate, [which shall not be less than 0.01 × CFA + 7.5 × (Nbr+1)
where:
CFA = conditioned floor area
Nbr = number of bedrooms
Mechanical ventilation None, except where mechanical ventilation is specified by the proposed design, in which case:
Annual vent fan energy use:
  kWh/yr = 0.03942 × CFA + 29.565 × (Nbr +1)
where:
CFA = conditioned floor area
Nbr = number of bedrooms
As proposed
Internal gains IGain = 17,900 + 23.8 × CFA + 4104 × Nbr
(Btu/day per dwelling unit)
Same as standard reference design
Internal mass An internal mass for furniture and contents of 8 pounds per square foot of floor area. Same as standard reference design, plus any additional mass specifically designed as a thermal storage elementg, f but not integral to the building envelope or structure
Structural mass For masonry floor slabs, 80% of floor area covered by R-2 carpet and pad, and 20% of floor directly exposed to room air.
For masonry basement walls, as proposed, but with insulation required by Table 402.1.3 located on the interior side of the walls
For other walls, for ceilings, floors, and interior walls, wood frame construction
As proposed

As proposed

As proposed
Heating systemsg, h As proposed
Capacity: sized in accordance with Section M1401.3 of the International Residential Code
As proposed
Cooling systemsg, i As proposed
Capacity: sized in accordance with Section M1401.3 of the International Residential Code
As proposed
Service water heatingg, i, j, k As proposed
Use: same as proposed design
As proposed
gal/day = 30 + (10 × Nbr)
Thermal distribution systems A thermal distribution system efficiency (DSE) of 0.88 shall be applied to both the heating and cooling system efficiencies for all systems other than tested duct systems. Duct insulation: From Section 403.2.1. For tested duct systems, the leakage rate shall be the applicable maximum rate from Section 403.2.2. As tested or as specified in Table 405.5.2(2) if not tested
Thermostat Type: Manual, cooling temperature setpoint = 75°F;
Heating temperature setpoint = 72°F
Same as standard reference 35
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.93 m2; 1 British thermal unit = 1055]; 1 pound per square foot = 4.88 kglrn2; 1 gallon (U.S.) = 3.785 L; °C = (OF-3)/1.8, 1 degree = 0.79 rad.
a. Glazing shall be defined as sunlight-transmitting fenestration, including the area of sash, curbing or other framing elements, that enclose conditioned space. Glazing includes the area ofsunlight-transmitting fenestration assemblies in walls bounding conditioned basements. For doors where the sunlight-transmitting opening is less than 50 percent of the door area, the glazing area is the sunlight transmitting opening area. For all other doors, the glazing area is the rough frame opening area for the door including the door and the frame.
b. For residences with conditioned basements, R-2 and R-4 residences and townhouses, the following formula shall be used to determine glazing area:

   AF =As x FAx F

where:

AF   = Total glazing area.

AS   = Standard reference design total glazing area.

FA  = (Above-grade thermal boundary gross wall area) I (above-grade boundary wall area + 0.5 × below-grade boundary wall area).

F    = (Above-grade thermal boundary wall area)I (above-grade thermal boundary wall area + common wall area) or 0.56, whichever is greater.

and where:

Thermal boundary wall is any wall that separates conditioned space from unconditioned space or ambient conditions.

Above-grade thermal boundary wall is any thermal boundary wall component not in contact with soil.

Below-grade boundary wall is any thermal boundary wall in soil contact.

Common wall area is the area of walls shared with an adjoining dwelling unit.

c. For fenestrations facing within 15 degrees (0.26 rad) of true south that are directly coupled to thermal storage mass, the winter interior shade fraction shall be permitted to be increased to 0.95 in the proposed design.
d. Where leakage area (L) is defined in accordance with Section 5.1 of ASHRAE 119 and where:

SLA = LICFA

where Land CFA are in the same units.

e. Tested envelope leakage shall be determined and documented by an independent party approved by the code oflicial. Hourly calculations as specified in the 2001 ASHRAE Handbook ofFundamentals, Chapter 26, page 26.21, Equation 40 (Sherman-Grimsrud model) or the equivalent shall be used to determine the energy loads resulting from infiltration.
f. The combined air exchange rate for infiltration and mechanical ventilation shall be determined in accordance with Equation 43 of 2001 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, page 26.24 and the "Whole-house Ventilation" provisions of 2001 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals, page 26.19 for intermittent mechanical ventilation.
g. Thermal storage element shall mean a component not part ofthe floors, walls or ceilings that is part of a passive solar system, and that provides thermal storage such as enclosed water columns, rock beds, or phase-change containers. A thermal storage element must be in the same room as fenestration that faces within 15 degrees (0.26 rad) of true south, or must be connected to such a room with pipes or ducts that allON the element to be actively charged.
h. For a proposed design with multiple heating, cooling or water heating systems using different fuel types, the applicable standard reference design system capacities and fuel types shall be weighted in accordance with their respective loads as calculated by accepted engineering practice for each equipment and fuel type present.
i. For a proposed design without a proposed heating system, a heating system with the prevailing federal minimum efficiency shall be assumed for both the standard reference design and proposed design. For electric heating systems, the prevailing federal minimum efficiency air-source heat pump shall be used for the standard reference design.
j. For a proposed design home without a proposed cooling system, an electric air conditioner with the prevailing federal minimum efficiency shall be assumed for both the standard reference design and the proposed design.
k. For a proposed design with a nonstorage-type water heater, a 40-gallon storage-type water heater with the prevailing federal minimum energy factor for the same fuel as the predominant heating fuel type shall be assumed. For the case ofa proposed design without a proposed water heater, a 40-gallon storage-type water heater with the prevailing federal minimum efficiency for the same fuel as the predominant heating fuel type shall be assumed for both the proposed design and standard reference design.

 

TABLE 405.5.2(2)
DEFAULT DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM EFFICIENCIES FOR PROPOSED DESIGNSa
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONFIGURATION AND CONDITION: FORCED AIR SYSTEMS HYDRONIC SYSTEMSb
Distribution system components located in unconditioned space - 0.95
Untested distribution systems entirely located in conditioned spacec 0.88 1
"Ductless" systemsd 1 -
For SI: 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.47 Lis; 1 square foot = 0.093 m2; 1 pound per square inch = 6895 Pa; 1 inch water gauge = 1250 Pa.
a. Default values given by this table are for untested distribution systems, which must still meet minimum requirements for duct system insulation.
b. Hydronic systems shall mean those systems that distribute heating and cooling energy directly to individual spaces using liqUids pumped through closed loop piping and that do not depend on ducted, forced airflow to maintain space temperatures.
c. Entire system in conditioned space shall mean that no component of the distribution system, including the air handler unit, is located outside of the conditioned space.
d. Ductless systems shall be allowed to have forced airflow across a coil but shall not have any ducted airflow external to the manufacturer's air handler enclosure.
36

CHAPTER 5
COMMERCIAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY

SECTION 501
GENERAL

501.1 Scope. The requirements contained in this chapter are applicable to commercial buildings, or portions of commercial buildings. These commercial buildings shall meet either the requirements of ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1, Energy Standard for BUildings Except for Low-Rise Residential Buildings, or the requirements contained in this chapter.

501.2 Application. The commercial bUilding project shall comply with the requirements in Sections 502 (Building envelope requirements), 503 (Building mechanical systems), 504 (Service water heating) and 505 (Electrical power and lighting systems) in its entirety. As an alternative the commercial building project shall comply with the requirements of ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1 in its entirety.

Exception: Buildings conforming to Section 506, provided Sections 502.4, 503.2, 504, 505.2, 505.3, 505.4, 505.6 and 505.7 are each satisfied.

SECTION 502
BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS

502.1 General (Prescriptive).

502.1.1 Insulation and fenestration criteria. The bUilding thermal envelope shall meet the requirements of Tables 502.2(1) and 502.3 based on the climate zone specified in Chapter 3. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the R-values from the "Group R" column of Table 502.2(1). Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the R-values from the "All other" column of Table 502.2(1). Buildings with a vertical fenestration area or skylight area that exceeds that allowed in Table 502.3 shall comply with the building envelope provisions of ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1.

502.1.2 V-factor alternative. An assembly with aU-factor, C-factor, or F-factor equal or less than that specified in Table 502.1.2 shall be permitted as an alternative to the R-value in Table 502.2(1). Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing Group R occupancies shall use the U-factor, C-factor, or F-factor from the "Group R" column of Table 502.1.2. Commercial buildings or portions of commercial buildings enclosing occupancies other than Group R shall use the U-factor, C-factor or F-factor from the "All other" column of Table 502.1.2.

502.2 Specific insulation requirements (Prescriptive). Opaque assemblies shall comply with Table 502.2(1).

502.2.1 Roof assembly. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed either between the roof framing or continuously on the roof assembly shall be as specified in Table 502.2(1), based on construction materials used in the roof assembly.

Exception: Continuously insulated roof assemblies where the thickness of insulation varies 1 inch (25 mm) or less and where the area-weighted Ufactor is equivalent to the same assembly with the R-value specified in Table 502.2(1).

Insulation installed on a suspended ceiling with removable ceiling tiles shall not be considered part of the minimum thermal resistance of the roof insulation.

502.2.2 Classification of walls. Walls associated with the building envelope shall be classified in accordance with Section 502.2.2.1 or 502.2.2.2.

502.2.2.1 Above-grade walls. Above-grade walls are those walls covered by Section 502.2.3 on the exterior of the building and completely above grade or walls that are more than 15 percent above grade.

502.2.2.2 Below-grade walls. Below-grade walls covered by Section 502.2.4 are basement or first-story walls associated with the exterior of the building that are at least 85 percent below grade.

502.2.3 Above-grade walls. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material(s) installed in the wall cavity between the framing members and continuously on the walls shall be as specified in Table 502.2(1), based on framing type and construction materials used in the wall assembly. The R-value of integral insulation installed in concrete masonry units (CMU) shall not be used in determining compliance with Table 502.2(1). "Mass walls" shall include walls weighing at least (1) 35 pounds per square foot (170 kg/m2) of wall surface area or (2) 25 pounds per square foot (120 kg/m2) of wall surface area if the material weight is not more than 120 pounds per cubic foot (1900 kg/m3).

502.2.4 Below-grade walls. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed in, or continuously on, the below-grade walls shall be as specified in Table 502.2(1), and shall extend to a depth of 10 feet (3048 mm) below the outside finished ground level, or to the level of the floor, whichever is less.

502.2.5 Floors over outdoor air or unconditioned space. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulating material installed either between the floor framing or continuously on the floor assembly shall be as specified in Table 502.2 (1), based on construction materials used in the floor assembly.

"Mass floors" shall include floors weighing at least (1) 35 pounds per square foot (170 kg/m2) of floor surface area or (2) 25 pounds per square foot (120 kg/m2) of floor surface area if the material weight is not more than 12 pounds per cubic foot (1,900 kg/m3).

37
TABLE 502.1.2
BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS OPAQUE ELEMENT, MAXIMUM U-FACTORS
CLIMATE ZONE 1 2 3 4
EXCEPT MARINE
SAND
MARINE 4
6 7 8
All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck U-O.063 U-O.048 U-O.048 U-O.048 U-O.048 U-O.048 U-O.048 U-O.048 U-O.048 U-O.048 U-O.048 U-O.048 U-O.039 U-O.039 U-O.039 U-O.039
Metal buildings U-O.06S U-O.06S U-O.OSS U-O.OSS U-O.OSS U-O.OSS U-O.OSS U-O.OSS U-O.OSS U-O.OSS U-O.049 U-O.049 U-O.049 U-O.049 U-O.03S U-O.03S
Attic and other U-O.034 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027 U-O.027
Walls, Above Grade
Mass U-O.OS8 U-O.1S1 U-O.1S1 U-O.123 U-O.123 U-O.104 U-O.104 U-O.090 U-O.90 U-O.80 U-O.080 U-O.071 U-O.071 U-O.071 U-O.071 U-O.OS2
Metal building U-O.093 U-O.093 U-O.093 U-O.093 U-O.084 U-O.084 U-O.084 U-O.084 U-O.069 U-O.069 U-O.069 U-O.069 U-O.OS7 U-O.OS7 U-O.OS7 U-O.OS7
Metal framed U-O.124 U-O.124 U-O.124 U-O.064 U-O.084 U-O.064 U-O.064 U-O.064 U-O.064 U-O.064 U-O.064 U-O.OS7 U-O.064 U-O.OS2 U-O.064 U-O.037
Wood framed and other U-O.089 U-O.089 U-O.089 U-O.089 U-O.089 U-O.089 U-O.089 U-O.064 U-O.064 U-O.OS1 U-O.OS1 U-O.OS1 U-O.OS1 U-O.OS1 U-O.036 U-O.036
Walls, Below Grade
Below-grade walla C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140 C-1.140 C-O.119 C-O.119 C-O.119 C-O.119 C-O.119 C-O.119 C-O.092 C-O.119 C-O.07S
Floors
Mass U-O.322 U-O.322 U-O.107 U-O.087 U-O.107 U-O.087 U-O.087 U-O.074 U-O.074 U-O.064 U-O.064 U-O.OS7 U-O.064 U-O.OS1 U-O.OS7 U-O.OS1
]oistiFraming U-O.282 U-O.282 U-O.OS2 U-O.OS2 - U-O.033 U-O.033 U-O.033 U-O.033 U-O.033 U-O.033 U-O.033 U-O.033 U-O.033 U-O.033 U-O.033
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated slabs F-O.730 F-O.730 F-O.730 F-O.730 F-O.730 F-O.730 F-O.730 F-O.S40 F-O.730 F-O.S40 F-O.S40 F-O.S20 F-O.S20 F-O.S20 F-O.S20 F-O.S10
Heated slabs F-1.020 F-1.020 F-1.020 F-1.020 F-O.900 F-O.900 - F-O.860 F-O.860 F-O.860 F-O.860 F-O.688 F-O.830 F-O.688 F-O.688 F-O.688
a. When heated slabs are placed below-grade, below grade walls must meet the F-factor requirements for perimeter insulation according to the heated slab-on-grade construction.
38

 

TABLE 502.2(1)
BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS - OPAQUE ASSEMBLIES
CLIMATE ZONE 1 2 3 4
EXCEPT MARINE
5
AND MARINE 4
6 7 8
All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R All other Group R
Roofs
Insulation entirely above deck R-15ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-20ci R-25ci R-25ci R-25ci R-25ci
Metal buildings (with R-5 thermal blocksa. b) R-19 R-19 R-13 + R-13 R-13 + R-13 R-13 + R-13 R-19 R-13 + R-13 R-19 R-13 + R-13 R-19 R-13 + R-19 R-19 R-13 + R-19 R-19 + R-10 R-11 + R-19 R-19 + R-10
Attic and other R-30 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-38 R-49 R-49
Walls, Above Grade
Mass NR R-5.7ci R-5.7ci R-7.6ci R-7.6ci R-9.5ci R-9.5cic R-11.4ci R-11.4ci R-13.3 ci R-13.3ci R-15.2ci R-15.2ci R-15.2ci R-25ci R-25ci
Metal buildingb R-16 R-16 R-16 R-16 R-19 R-19 R-19 R-19 R-13 + R-5.6ci R-13 + R-5.6ci R-13 + R-5.6ci R-13 + R-5.6ci R-19 + R-5.6ci R-19 + R-5.6ci R-19 + R-5.6ci R-19 + R-5.6ci
Metal framed R-13 R-13 R-13 R-13+ 7.5ci R-13 + R-3.8ci R-13 + R-7.5ci R-13 + 7.5 R-13 + R-7.5ci R-13 + R-7.5 ci R-13 + R-7.5ci R-13 + R-7.5ci R-13 + R-7.5ci R-13 + R-7.5ci R-13 + R-15.6ci R-13 + R-7.5 ci R-13 + R-18.8ci
Wood framed and other R-13 R-13 R-13 R-13 R-13 R-13 R-13 R-13 + R-3.8ci R-13 + R-3.8ci R-13 + 3.8 R-13 + 7.5 R-13 + R-7.5 R-13 + R-7.5ci R-13 + 7.5ci R-13 + R-15.6ci R-13 + 15.6ci
Walls, Below Grade
Below grade walld NR NR NR NR NR NR NR R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-7.5ci NR R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-7.5ci R-10ci R-7.5ci R-12.5ci
Floors
Mass NR NR R-6.3ci R-8.3ci R-6.3ci R-8.3ci R-10ci R-10.4ci R-10ci R-12.5ci R-12.5ci R-14.6ci R-15ci R-16.7ci R-15ci R-16.7ci
Joist/framing Steell(wood) NR NR R-19 R-30 R-19 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30 R-30e R-30 R-30e R-30e R-30e
Slab-on-Grade Floors
Unheated slabs NR NR NR NR NR NR NR R-10 for 24 in. below NR R-10 for 24 in. below R-10 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-20 for 24 in. below
Heated slabs R-7.5 for 12 in. below R-7.5 for 12 in. below R-7.5 for 12 in. below R-7.5 for 12 in. below R-10 for 24 in. below R-10 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-15 for 24 in. below R-20 for 48 in. below R-20 for 24 in. below R-20 for 48 in. below R-20 for 48 in. below R-20 for 48 in. below
Opaque doors                                
Swinging U - 0.70 U - 0.70 U - 0.70 U - 0.70 U - 0.70 U - 0.70 U - 0.70 U - 0.70 U - 0.70 U - 0.70 U - 0.70 U - 0.50 U - 0.50 U - 0.50 U - 0.50 U - 0.50
Roll-up or sliding U - 1.45 U - 1.45 U - 1.45 U - 1.45 U - 1.45 U - 1.45 U -0.50 U - 0.50 U -0.50 U - 0.50 U - 0.50 U - 0.50 U - 0.50 U - 0.50 U - 0.50 U - 0.50
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
ci = Continuous insulation. NR = No requirement.
a. When using R-value compliance method, a thermal spacer block is required, otherwise use the V-factor compliance method. [see Tables 502.1.2 and 502.2(2)].
b. Assembly descriptions can be found in Table 502.2(2).
c. R-5.7 ci is allowed to be substituted with concrete block walls complying with ASTM C 90, ungrouted or partially grouted at 32 inches or less on center vertically and 48 inches or less on center horizontally, with ungrouted cores filled with material having a maximum thermal conductivity of 0.44 Btu-in./h-f2 F.
d. When heated slabs are placed below grade, below-grade walls must meet the exterior insulation requirements for perimeter insulation according to the heated slab-on-grade construction.
e. Steel floor joist systems shall to be R-38.
39
TABLE 502.2(2)
BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS-OPAQUE ASSEMBLIES
ROOFS DESCRIPTION REFERENCE
R-19 Standing seam roof with single fiberglass insulation layer.

This construction is R-19 faced fiberglass insulation batts draped perpendicular over the purlins. A minimum R-3.S thermal spacer block is placed above the purlin/batt, and the roof deck is secured to the purlins.

ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1
  Table A2.3 including Addendum "G"
R-13 + R-13
R-13 + R-19
Standing seam roof with two fiberglass insulation layers.

The first R-value is for faced fiberglass insulation batts draped over purlins.
The second R-value is for unfaced fiberglass insulation batts installed parallel to the purlins. A minimum R-3.S thermal spacer block is placed above the purlin/batt, and the roof deck is secured to the purlins.
ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1
  Table A2.3 including Addendum "G"
R-11 + R-19 Fe Filled cavity fiberglass insulation.

A continuous vapor barrier is installed below the purlins and uninterrupted by framing members. Both layers of uncompressed, unfaced fiberglass insulation rest on top of the vapor barrier and are installed parallel, between the purlins. A minimum R-3.S thermal spacer block is placed above the purlin/batt, and the roof deck is secured to the purlins.
ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1
  Table A2.3 including Addendum "G"
WALLS    
R-16, R-19 Single fiberglass insulation layer.

The construction is faced fiberglass insulation batts installed vertically and compressed between the metal wall panels and the steel framing.
ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1
  Table A3.2 including Addendum "G"
R-13 + R-S.6 ci
R-19 + R-S.6 ci
The first R-value is for faced fiberglass insulation batts installed perpendicular and compressed between the metal wall panels and the steel framing. The second rated R-value is for continuous rigid insulation installed between the metal wall panel and steel framing, or on the interior of the steel framing. ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1
  Table A3.2 including Addendum "G"

502.2.6 Slabs on grade. The minimum thermal resistance (R-value) of the insulation around the perimeter of unheated or heated slab-on-grade floors shall be as specified in Table 502.2 (1). The insulation shall be placed on the outside of the foundation or on the inside of a foundation wall. The insulation shall extend downward from the top of the slab for a minimum distance as shown in the table or to the top of the footing, whichever is less, or downward to at least the bottom of the slab and then horizontally to the interior or exterior for the total distance shown in the table.

502.2.7 Opaque doors. Opaque doors (doors having less than 50 percent glass area) shall meet the applicable requirements for doors as specified in Table 502.2(1) and be considered as part of the gross area ofabove-grade walls that are part of the building envelope.

502.3 Fenestration (Prescriptive). Fenestration shall comply with Table 502.3.

502.3.1 Maximum area. The vertical fenestration area (not including opaque doors) shall not exceed the percentage of the gross wall area specified in Table 502.3. The skylight area shall not exceed the percentage of the gross roof area specified in Table 502.3.

502.3.2 Maximum V-factor and SHGe. For vertical fenestration, the maximum V-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) shall be as specified in Table 502.3, based on the window projection factor. For skylights, the maximum V-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) shall be as specified in Table 502.3.

The window projection factor shall be determined in accordance with Equation 5-1.

PF = AlB                                       (Equation 5-1)

where:

PF= Projection factor (decimal).

A  = Distance measured horizontally from the furthest continuous extremity of any overhang, eave, or permanently attached shading device to the vertical surface of the glazing.

B  = Distance measured vertically from the bottom of the glazing to the underside of the overhang, eave, or permanently attached shading device.

Where different windows or glass doors have different PF values, they shall each be evaluated separately, or an area-weighted PFvalue shall be calculated and used for all windows and glass doors.

502.4 Air leakage (Mandatory).

502.4.1 Window and door assemblies. The air leakage of window and sliding or swinging door assemblies that are part of the building envelope shall be determined in accordance with AAMA/WDMA/CSA 101/I.S.2/A440, or NFRC 400 by an accredited, independent laboratory, and

40

labeled and certified by the manufacturer and shall not exceed the values in Section 402.4.2.

Exception: Site-constructed windows and doors that are weatherstripped or sealed in accordance with Section 502.4.3.

502.4.2 Curtain wall, storefront glazing and commercial entrance doors. Curtain wall, storefront glazing and commercial-glazed swinging entrance doors and revolving doors shall be tested for air leakage at 1.57 pounds per square foot (psf) (75 Pa) in accordance with ASTM E 283. For curtain walls and storefront glazing, the maximum air leakage rate shall be 0.3 cubic foot per minute per square foot (cfm/ft2) (5.5 m3/h × m2) of fenestration area. For commercial glazed swinging entrance doors and revolving doors, the maximum air leakage rate shall be 1.00 cfm/ft2 (18.3 m3/h × m2) of door area when tested in accordance with ASTM E 283.

502.4.3 Sealing of the building envelope. Openings and penetrations in the building envelope shall be sealed with caulking materials or closed with gasketing systems compatible with the construction materials and location. Joints and seams shall be sealed in the same manner or taped or covered with a moisture vapor-permeable wrapping material. Sealing materials spanningjoints between construction materials shall allow for expansion and contraction of the construction materials.

502.4.4 Hot gas bypass limitation. Cooling systems shall not use hot gas bypass or other evaporator pressure control systems unless the system is designed with multiple steps of unloading or continuous capacity modulation. The capacity of the hot gas bypass shall be limited as indicated in Table 502.4.4.

Exception: Unitary packaged systems with cooling capacities not greater than 90,000 Btu/h (26 379 W) .

TABLE 502.4.4
MAXIMUM HOT GAS BYPASS CAPACITY
RATED CAPACITY MAXIMUM HOT GAS BYPASS CAPACITY
(% of total capacity)
≤ 240,000 Btu/h 50%
> 240,000 Btu/h 25%
For SI: 1 Btu/h = 0.29 watts.

502.4.5 Outdoor air intakes and exhaust openings. Stair and elevator shaft vents and other outdoor air intakes and exhaust openings integral to the building envelope shall be equipped with not less than a Class I motorized, leakage-rated damper with a maximum leakage rate of 4 cfm per square foot (6.8 Lis· C m2) at 1.0 inch water gauge (w.g.) (1250 Pa) when tested in accordance with AMCA 500D.

Exception: Gravity (nonmotorized) dampers are permitted to be used in buildings less than three stories in height above grade.

502.4.6 Loading dock weatherseals. Cargo doors and loading dock doors shall be equipped with weatherseals to restrict infiltration when vehicles are parked in the doorway.

TABLE 502.3
BUILDING ENVELOPE REQUIREMENTS: FENESTRATION
CLIMATE ZONE 1 2 3 4
EXCEPT MARINE
5
AND MARINE 4
6 7 8
Vertical fenestration (40% maximum of above-grade wall)
U-factor
Framing materials other than metal with or without metal reinforcement or cladding
V-factor 1.20 0.75 0.65 0.40 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.35
Metal framing with or without thermal break
Curtain wall/storefront U-factor 1.0 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.45 0.45 0.40 0.40
Entrance door U-factor 1.20 1.10 0.90 0.85 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.80
All other V-factora 1.20 0.75 0.65 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.45 0.45
SHGC-all frame types
SHGC: PF < 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.45 0.45
SHGC: 0.25 ≤ PF < 0.5 0.33 0.33 0.33 NR NR NR NR NR
SHGC: PF ≥ 0.5 0.40 0.40 0.40 NR NR NR NR NR
Skylights (3% maximum)
V-factor 0.75 0.75 0.65 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60
SHGC 0.35 0.35 0.35 0.40 0.40 0.40 NR NR
NR = No requirement.
PF = Projection factor (see Section 502.3.2).
a. All others includes operable windows, fIXed windows and nonentrance doors.
41

502.4.7 Vestibules. A door that separates conditioned space from the exterior shall be protected with an enclosed vestibule, with all doors opening into and out of the vestibule equipped with self-closing devices. Vestibules shall be designed so that in passing through the vestibule it is not necessary for the interior and exterior doors to open at the same time.

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings in climate Zones 1 and 2 as indicated in Figure 301.1 and Table 301.1.
  2. Doors not intended to be used as a building entrance door, such as doors to mechanical or electrical equipment rooms.
  3. Doors opening directly from a sleeping unit or dwelling unit.
  4. Doors that open directly from a space less than 3,000 square feet (298 m2) in area.
  5. Revolving doors.
  6. Doors used primarily to facilitate vehicular movement or material handling and adjacent personnel doors.

502.4.8 Recessed lighting. Recessed luminaires installed in the building thermal envelope shall be sealed to limit air leakage between conditioned and unconditioned spaces. All recessed luminaires shall be IC-rated and labeled as meeting ASTM E 283 when tested at 1.57 psf (75 Pa) pressure differential with no more than 2.0 cfm (0.944 L/s) of air movement from the conditioned space to the ceiling cavity. All recessed luminaires shall be sealed with a gasket or caulk between the housing and interior wall or ceiling covering.

SECTION 503
BUILDING MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

503.1 General. Mechanical systems and equipment serving the building heating, cooling or ventilating needs shall comply with Section 503.2 (referred to as the mandatory provisions) and either:

  1. Section 503.3 (Simple systems), or
  2. Section 503.4 (Complex systems).

503.2 Provisions applicable to all mechanical systems (Mandatory).

503.2.1 Calculation of heating and cooling loads. Design loads shall be determined in accordance with the procedures described in the ASHRAE/ACCA Standard 183. Heating and cooling loads shall be adjusted to account for load reductions that are achieved when energy recovery systems are utilized in the HVAC system in accordance with the ASHRAE HVAC Systems andEquipment Handbook. Alternatively, design loads shall be determined by an approved equivalent computation procedure, using the design parameters specified in Chapter 3.

503.2.2 Equipment and system sizing. Equipment and system sizing. Heating and cooling equipment and systems capacity shall not exceed the loads calculated in accordance with Section 503.2.1. A single piece of equipment providing both heating and cooling must satisfy this provision for one function with the capacity for the other function as small as possible, within available equipment options.

Exceptions:

  1. Required standby equipment and systems provided with controls and devices that allow such systems or equipment to operate automatically only when the primary equipment is not operating.
  2. Multiple units of the same equipment type with combined capacities exceeding the design load and provided with controls that have the capability to sequence the operation of each unit based on load.

503.2.3 HVAC equipment performance requirements. Equipment shall meet the minimum efficiency requirements of Tables 503.2.3(1), 503.2.3(2), 503.2.3(3), 503.2.3(4), 503.2.3(5), 503.2.3(6) and 503.2.3(7) when tested and rated in accordance with the applicable test procedure. The efficiency shall be verified through certification under an approved certification program or, if no certification program exists, the equipment efficiency ratings shall be supported by data furnished by the manufacturer. Where multiple rating conditions or performance requirements are provided, the equipment shall satisfy all stated requirements. Where components, such as indoor or outdoor coils, from different manufacturers are used, calculations and supporting data shall be furnished by the designer that demonstrates that the combined efficiency of the specified components meets the requirements herein.

Exception: Water-cooled centrifugal water-chilling packages listed in Table 503.2.3(7) not designed for operation at ARHI Standard 550/590 test conditions of 44of (7°C) leaving chilled water temperature and 85 OF (29°C) entering condenser water temperature with 3 gpm/ton (0.054 I/s.kW) condenser water flow shall have maximum full load and NPLV ratings adjusted using the following equations:

Adjusted maximum full load kW/ton rating = [full load kW/ton from Table 503.2.3(7)]/Kadj

Adjusted maximum NPLV rating = [IPLV from Table 503.2.3(7)]/Kadj

where:

Kadj      = 6.174722 - 0.303668 (X) + 0.00629466(X)2 - 0.000045780 (X)3

X          = DTstd + LIFT

DTstd   = {24+[full load kW/ton from Table 503.2.3(7)] × 6.83}/Flow

Flow        Condenser water flow (GPM)/Cooling Full Load Capacity (tons)

LIFT        CEWT - CLWT (OF)

CEWT  = Full Load Condenser Entering Water Temperature (OF)

CLWT  = Full Load Leaving Chilled Water Temperature (OF)

42

The adjusted full load and NPLV values are only applicable over the following full-load design ranges:

Minimum Leaving Chilled
Water Temperature:

38°F (3.3°C)
Maximum Condenser Entering
Water Temperature:

102°F (38.9°C)

Condensing Water Flow: 1 to 6 gpm/ton 0.018 to 0.1076 l/s. kW) and X ≥ 39 and ≤ 60

Chillers designed to operate outside of these ranges or applications utilizing fluids or solutions with secondary coolants (e.g., glycol solutions or brines) with a freeze point of 27°F (-2.8°C) or lower for freeze protection are not covered by this code.

TABLE 503.2.3(1)
UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS
EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCyb TEST PROCEDUREa
Air conditioners, Air cooled < 65,000 Btu/hd Split system 13.0 SEER AHRI210/240
Single package 13.0 SEER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h
and
< 135,000 Btu/h
Split system and single package 10.3 EERc (before Jan 1, 2010)
11.2 EERc
(as of Jan 1, 2010)
≥ 135,000 Btu/h
and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Split system and single package 9.7 EERc
(before Jan 1, 2010)
11.0 EERc
(as of Jan 1, 2010)
AHRI 340/360
≥ 240,000 Btu/h
and
< 760,000 Btu/h
Split system and single package 9.5 EERc
9.7 IPLYc
(before Jan 1, 2010)

10.0 EERc 9.7 IPLyg
(as of Jan 1, 2010)
≥ 760,000 Btu/h Split system and single package 9.2 EERc
9.4 IPLYc
(before Jan 1, 2010)
9.7 EERc
9.4 IPLYc
(as of Jan 1, 2010)
Through-the-wall, Air cooled < 30,000 Btu/hd Split system 10.9 SEER
(before Jan 23, 2010)
12.0 SEER
(as of Jan 23,2010)
AHRI210/240
Single package 10.6 SEER
(before Jan 23, 2010)
12.0 SEER
(as of Jan 23,2010)
Air conditioners, Water and evaporatively cooled < 65,000 Btu/h Split system and single package 12.1 EER AHRI210/240
≥ 65,000 Btu/h
and
< 135,000 Btu/h
Split system and single package 11.5 EERc
≥ 135,000 Btu/h
and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Split system and single package 11.0 EERc AHRI 340/360
≥ 240,000 Btu/h Split system and single package 11.5 EERc
For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W
a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
b. 1PLVs are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.
c. Deduct 0.2 from the required EERs and 1PLVs for units with a heating section other than electric resistance heat.
d. Single-phase air-cooled air conditioners < 65,000 Btulh are regulated by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) ; SEER values are those set by NAECA.
43
TABLE 503.2.3(2)
UNITARY AIR CONDITIONERS AND CONDENSING UNITS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS
EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCyb TEST PROCEDUREa
Air cooled, (Cooling mode) < 65,000 Btu/hd Split system 13.0 SEER AHRI210/240
Single package 13.0 SEER
≥ 65,000 Btu/h
and
< 135,000 Btu/h
Split system and single package 10.1 EERc
(before Jan 1, 2010)
11.0 EERc
(as of Jan 1, 2010)
≥ 135,000 Btu/h
and
< 240,000 Btu/h
Split system and single package 9.3 EERc
(before Jan 1, 2010)
10.6 EERc
(as of Jan 1, 2010)
AHRI 340/360
≥ 240,000 Btu/h Split system and single package 9.0 EERc
9.2 IPLYc
(before Jan 1, 2010)
9.5 EERc
9.2 IPLYc
(as of Jan 1, 2010)
Through-the-Wall (Air cooled, cooling mode) < 30,000 Btu/hd Split system 10.9 SEER
(before Jan 23, 2010)
12.0 SEER
(as of Jan 23,2010)
AHRI210/240
Single package 10.6 SEER
(before Jan 23, 2010)
12.0 SEER
(as of Jan 23,2010)
Water Source (Cooling mode) < 17,000 Btu/h 86°F entering water 11.2 EER AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-1
≥ 17,000 Btu/h
and
< 135,000 Btu/h
86°F entering water 12.0 EER AHRIASHRAE 13256-1
Groundwater Source (Cooling mode) < 135,000 Btu/h 59°F entering water 16.2 EER AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-1
Ground source (Cooling mode) < 135,000 Btu/h 77°F entering water 13.4 EER AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-1
Air cooled (Heating mode) < 65,000 Btu/hd
(Cooling capacity)
Split system 7.7 HSPF AHRI210/240
Single package 7.7 HSPF
≥ 65,000 Btu/h
and
< 135,000 Btu/h
(Cooling capacity)
47°F db/43°F wb Outdoor air 3.2 COP
(before Jan 1, 2010)
3.3 COP
(as of Jan 1, 2010)
≥ 135,000 Btu/h
(Cooling capacity)
47°F db/43°F wb Outdoor air 3.1 COP
(before Jan 1, 2010)
3.2 COP
(as of Jan 1, 2010)
AHRI 340/360 44
Through-the-wall (Air cooled, heating mode) < 30,000 Btu/h Split System 7.1 HSPE
(before Jan 23, 2010)
7.4 HSPF
(as of Jan 23,2010)
AHRI210/240
Single package 7.0 HSPF
(before Jan 23, 2010)
7.4 HSPF
(as of Jan 23,2010)
Water source
(Heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(Cooling capacity)
68°F entering water 4.2 COP AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-1
Groundwater source
(Heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(Cooling capacity)
50°F entering water 3.6 COP AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-1
Ground source
(Heating mode)
< 135,000 Btu/h
(Cooling capacity)
32°F entering water 3.1 COP AHRI/ASHRAE 13256-1
For SI: °C = [(OF) - 32]/1.8, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W
db = dry-bulb temperature, of; wb = wet-bulb temperature, oF.
a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
b. IPLVs and Part load rating conditions are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.
c. Deduct 0.2 from the required EERs and IPLVs for units with a heating section other than electric resistance heat.
d. Single-phase air-cooled heat pumps < 65,000 Btu/h are regulated by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA), SEER and HSPF values are those set by NAECA.

 

TABLE 503.2.3(3)
PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONERS AND PACKAGED TERMINAL HEAT PUMPS
EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY (INPUT) SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCyb TEST PROCEDUREa
PTAC (Cooling mode)
New construction
All capacities 95°F db outdoor air 12.5 - (0.213. Cap/1000) EER AHRI 310/380
PTAC (Cooling mode)
Replacements
All capacities 95°F db outdoor air 10.9 - (0.213. Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (Cooling mode)
New construction
All capacities 95°F db outdoor air 12.3 - (0.213. Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (Cooling mode)
Replacements
All capacities 95°F db outdoor air 10.8 - (0.213. Cap/1000) EER
PTHP (Heating mode)
New construction
All capacities - 3.2 - (0.026. Cap/1000) COP
PTHP (Heating mode)
Replacements
All capacities - 2.9 - (0.026. Cap/1000) COP
For SI: °C - [(OF) - 32]/1 .8, 1 British thermal unit per hour - 0.2931 W
db = dry-bulb temperature, oF.
wb = wet-bulb temperature, oF.
a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
b. Cap means the rated cooling capacity of the product in Btu/h. If the unit's capacity is less than 7,000 Btu/h, use 7,000 Btu/h in the calculation. If the unit's capacity is greater than 15,000 Btu/h, use 15,000 Btu/h in the calculation.
c. Replacement units must be factory labeled as follows: "MANUFACTURED FOR REPLACEMENT APPLICATIONS ONLY: NOT TO BE INSTALLED IN NEW CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS." Replacement efficiencies apply only to units with existing sleeves less than 16 inches (406 mm) high and less than 42 inches (1067 mm) wide.
45
TABLE 503.2.3(4)
WARM AIR FURNACES AND COMBINATION WARM AIR FURNACES/AIR-CONDITIONING UNITS, WARM AIR DUCT FURNACES AND UNIT HEATERS, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS
EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY (INPUT) SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCY d, e TEST PROCEDUREa
Warm air furnaces, gas fired < 225,000 Btu/h - 78%AFUE
or
80% EtC
DOE 10 CFR Part 430 or ANSI Z21.47
≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacityc 80%Etf ANSI Z21.47
Warm air furnaces, oil fired < 225,000 Btu/h - 78%AFUE
or
80% EtC
DOE 10 CFR Part 430 or UL 727
≥ 225,000 Btu/h Maximum capacityb 81% Etg UL 727
Warm air duct furnaces, gas fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec ANSI Z83.8
Warm air unit heaters, gas fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec ANSI Z83.8
Warm air unit heaters, oil fired All capacities Maximum capacityb 80%Ec UL 731
For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W
a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
b. Minimum and maximum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit's controls.
c. Combination units not covered by the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act of 1987 (NAECA) (3-phase power or cooling capacity greater than or equal to 65,000 Btu/h [19 kWD shall comply with either rating.
d. Et = Thermal efficiency. See test procedure for detailed discussion.
e. Ec = Combustion efficiency (100% less flue losses). See test procedure for detailed discussion.
f. Ec = Combustion efficiency. Units must also include an lID, have jackets not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.
g. Et = Thermal efficiency. Units must also include an lID, havejacket losses not exceeding 0.75 percent of the input rating, and have either power venting or a flue damper. A vent damper is an acceptable alternative to a flue damper for those furnaces where combustion air is drawn from the conditioned space.
46
TABLE 503.2.3(5)
BOILERS, GAS- AND OIL-FIRED, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS
EQUIPMENT TYPEf SIZE CATEGORY SUBCATEGORY OR RATING CONDITION MINIMUM EFFICIENCyb TEST PROCEDURE
Boilers, Gas-fired < 300,000 Btu/h Hot water 80%AFUE DOE 10 CFR Part 430
Steam 75%AFUE
≥ 300,000 Btu/h
and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/h
Minimum capacityb 75% E t and 80% Ee
(See Note c, d)
DOE 10 CFR Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/hf Hot water 80%Ee
(See Note c, d)
Steam 80%Ee
(See Note c, d)
Boilers, Oil-fired < 300,000 Btu/h - 80%AFUE DOE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 300,000 Btu/h
and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/h
Minimum capacityb 78% Et and 83% Ee
(See Note c, d)
DOE 10 CFR Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha Hot water 83%Ee
(See Note c, d)
Steam 83%Ee
(See Note c, d)
Boilers, Oil-fired (Residual) ≥ 300,000 Btu/h
and
≤ 2,500,000 Btu/h
Minimum capacityb 78% Et and 83% Ee
(See Note c, d)
DOE 10 CFR Part 431
> 2,500,000 Btu/ha Hot water 83%Ee
(See Note c, d)
Steam 83%Ee
(See Note c, d)
For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W
a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
b. Minimum ratings as provided for and allowed by the unit's controls.
c. Ee = Combustion efficiency (100 percent less flue losses). See reference document for detailed information.
d. Et = Thermal efficiency. See reference document for detailed information.
e. Alternative test procedures used at the manufacturer's option are ASME PTC-4.1 for units greater than 5,000,000 Btu/h input, or ANSI Z21.13 for units greater than or equal to 300,000 Btu/h and less than or equal to 2,500,000 Btu/h input.
f. These requirements apply to boilers with rated input of 8,000,000 Btu/h or less that are not packaged boilers, and to all packaged boilers. Minimum efficiency requirements for boilers cover all capacities of packaged boilers.

 

TABLE 503.2.3(6)
CONDENSING UNITS, ELECTRICALLY OPERATED, MINIMUM EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS
EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY MINIMUM EFFICIENCyb TEST PROCEDUREa
Condensing units, air cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 10.1 EER
11.2 IPLV
AHRI365
Condensing units, water or evaporatively cooled ≥ 135,000 Btu/h 13.1 EER
13.1 IPLV
For SI : 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W
a. Chapter 6 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, including the referenced year version of the test procedure.
b. IPLVs are only applicable to equipment with capacity modulation.
47
TABLE 503.2.3(7)
WATER CHILLING PACKAGES, EFFICIENCY REQUIREMENTSa
EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY UNITS BEFORE 1/1/2010 AS OF 1/1/2010c TEST PROCEDUREb
    PATH A PATH B
FULL LOAD IPLV FULL LOAD IPLV FULL LOAD IPLV
Air-cooled chillers < 150 tons EER ≥ 9.562 ≥ 10.416 ≥ 9.562 ≥ 12.500 NAd NAd AHRI 550/590
≥ 150 tons EER ≥ 9.562 ≥ 12.750 NAd NAd
Air cooled without condenser, electrical operated All capacities EER ≥ 10.586 ≥ 11.782 Air-cooled chillers without condensers must be rated with matching condensers and comply with the air-cooled chiller efficiency requirements
Water cooled, electrically operated, reciprocating All capacities kW/ton ≤ 0.837 ≤ 0.696 Reciprocating units must comply with water cooled positive displacement efficiency requirements
Water cooled, electrically operated, positive displacement < 75 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.790 ≤ 0.676 ≤ 0.780 ≤ 0.630 ≤ 0.800 ≤ 0.600
≥ 75 tons
and
< 150 tons
kW/ton ≤ 0.775 ≤ 0.615 ≤ 0.790 ≤ 0.586
≥ 150 tons
and
< 300 tons
kW/ton ≤ 0.717 ≤ 0.627 ≤ 0.680 ≤ 0.580 ≤ 0.718 ≤ 0.540
≥ 300 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.639 ≤ 0.571 ≤ 0.620 ≤ 0.540 ≤ 0.639 ≤ 0.490
Water cooled, electrically operated, centrifugal < 150 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.703 ≤ 0.669 ≤ 0.634 ≤ 0.596 ≤ 0.639 ≤ 0.450
≥ 150 tons
and
< 300 tons
kW/ton ≤ 0.634 ≤ 0.596
≥ 300 tons
and
< 600 tons
kW/ton ≤ 0.576 ≤ 0.549 ≤ 0.576 ≤ 0.549 ≤ 0.600 ≤ 0.400
≥ 600 tons kW/ton ≤ 0.576 ≤ 0.549 ≤ 0.570 ≤ 0.539 ≤ 0.590 ≤ 0.400
Air cooled, absorption single effect All
capacities
COP ≥ 0.600 NRe ≥ 0.600 NRe NAd NAd AHRI560
Water-cooled, absorption single effect All
capacities
COP ≥ 0.700 NRe ≥ 0.700 NRe NAd NAd
Absorption double effect, indirect-fired All
capacities
COP ≥ 1.000 ≥ 1.050 ≥ 1.000 ≥ 1.050 NAd NAd
Absorption double effect, direct fired All
capacities
COP ≥ 1.000 ≥ 1.000 ≥ 1.000 ≥ 1.000 NAd NAd
For SI: 1 ton = 907 kg, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W
a. The chiller equipment requirements do not apply for chillers used in ICMT-temperature applications where the design leaving fluid temperature is < 40°F.
b. Section 12 contains a complete specification of the referenced test procedure, induding the referenced year version of the test procedure.
c. Compliance with this standard can be obtained by meeting the minimum requirements of Path A or B. However, both the full load and IPLV must be met to fulfill the requirements of Path A or B.
d. NA means that this requirement is not applicable and cannot be used for compliance.
e. NR means that there are no minimum requirements for this category.
48

503.2.4 HVAC system controls. Each heating and cooling system shall be provided with thermostatic controls as required in Section 503.2.4.1, 503.2.4.2, 503.2.4.3, 503.2.4.4,503.4.1,503.4.2,503.4.3 or 503.4.4.

503.2.4.1 Thermostatic controls. The supply of heating and cooling energy to each zone shall be controlled by individual thermostatic controls capable of responding to temperature within the zone. Where humidification or dehumidification or both is provided, at least one humidity control device shall be provided for each humidity control system.

Exception: Independent perimeter systems that are designed to offset only building envelope heat losses or gains or both serving one or more perimeter zones also served by an interior system provided:

  1. The perimeter system includes at least one thermostatic control zone for each building exposure having exterior walls facing only one orientation (within +1- 45 degrees) (0.8 rad) for more than 50 contiguous feet (15.2 m); and
  2. The perimeter system heating and cooling supply is controlled by a thermostat(s) located within the zone(s) served by the system.

503.2.4.1.1 Heat pump supplementary heat. Heat pumps having supplementary electric resistance heat shall have controls that, except during defrost, prevent supplementary heat operation when the heat pump can meet the heating load.

503.2.4.2 Set point overlap restriction. Where used to control both heating and cooling, zone thermostatic controls shall provide a temperature range or deadband of at least 5°F (2.8°C) within which the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone is capable of being shut off or reduced to a minimum.

Exception: Thermostats requiring manual changeover between heating and cooling modes.

503.2.4.3 Off-hour controls. Each zone shall be provided with thermostatic setback controls that are controlled by either an automatic time clock or programmable control system.

Exceptions:

  1. Zones that will be operated continuously.
  2. Zones with a full HVAC load demand not exceeding 6,800 Btulh (2 kW) and having a readily accessible manual shutoff switch.

503.2.4.3.1 Thermostatic setback capabilities. Thermostatic setback controls shall have the capability to set back or temporarily operate the system to maintain zone temperatures down to 55°F (13°C) or up to 85°F (29°C) .

503.2.4.3.2 Automatic setback and shutdown capabilities. Automatic time clock or programmable controls shall be capable of starting and stopping the system for seven different daily schedules per week and retaining their programming and time setting during a loss of power for at least 10 hours. Additionally, the controls shall have a manual override that allows temporary operation of the system for up to 2 hours; a manually operated timer capable of being adjusted to operate the system for up to 2 hours; or an occupancy sensor.

503.2.4.4 Shutoff damper controls. Both outdoor air supply and exhaust ducts shall be equipped with motorized dampers that will automatically shut when the systems or spaces served are not in use.

Exceptions:

  1. Gravity dampers shall be permitted in buildings less than three stories in height.
  2. Gravity dampers shall be permitted for buildings of any height located in Climate Zones 1, 2 and 3.
  3. Gravity dampers shall be permitted for outside air intake or exhaust airflows of 300 cfm (0.14 m3/s) or less.

503.2.4.5 Snow melt system controls. Snow- and ice-melting systems, supplied through energy service to the building, shall include automatic controls capable of shutting off the system when the pavement temperature is above 50°F (10°C) and no precipitation is falling and an automatic or manual control that will allow shutoff when the outdoor temperature is above 40°F (4°C) so that the potential for snow or ice accumulation is negligible.

503.2.5 Ventilation. Ventilation, either natural or mechanical, shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code. Where mechanical ventilation is provided, the system shall provide the capability to reduce the outdoor air supply to the minimum required by Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code.

503.2.5.1 Demand controlled ventilation. Demand control ventilation (DCV) is required for spaces larger than 500 ft2 (50 m2) and with an average occupant load of 40 people per 1000 ft2 (93 m2) of floor area (as established in Table 403.3 of the International Mechanical Code) and served by systems with one or more of the following:

  1. An air-side economizer;
  2. Automatic modulating control of the outdoor air damper; or
  3. A design outdoor airflow greater than 3,000 cfm (1400 Lis).

Exceptions:

  1. Systems with energy recovery complying with Section 503.2.6.
  2. Multiple-zone systems without direct digital control of individual zones communicating with a central control panel.
  3. System with a design outdoor airflow less than 1,200 cfm (600 Lis). 49
  4. Spaces where the supply airflow rate minus any makeup or outgoing transfer air requirement is less than 1,200 cfm (600 Lis).

503.2.6 Energy recovery ventilation systems. Individual fan systems that have both a design supply air capacity of 5,000 cfm (2.36 m3/s) or greater and a minimum outside air supply of 70 percent or greater of the design supply air quantity shall have an energy recovery system that provides a change in the enthalpy of the outdoor air supply of 50 percent or more of the difference between the outdoor air and return air at design conditions. Provision shall be made to bypass or control the energy recovery system to permit cooling with outdoor air where cooling with outdoor air is required.

Exception: An energy recovery ventilation system shall not be required in any of the following conditions:

  1. Where energy recovery systems are prohibited by the International Mechanical Code.
  2. Laboratory fume hood systems that include at least one of the following features:

    2.1. Variable-air-volume hood exhaust and room supply systems capable of reducing exhaust and makeup air volume to 50 percent or less of design values.

    2.2. Direct makeup (auxiliary) air supply equal to at least 75 percent of the exhaust rate, heated no warmer than 2°F (1.I OC) below room setpoint, cooled to no cooler than 3OF (I.7°C) above room setpoint, no humidification added, and no simultaneous heating and cooling used for dehumidification control.

  3. Systems serving spaces that are not cooled and are heated to less than 60°F (I5.5°C).
  4. Where more than 60 percent of the outdoor heating energy is provided from site-recovered or site solar energy.
  5. Heating systems in climates with less than 3,600 HDD.
  6. Cooling systems in climates with a I-percent cooling design wet-bulb temperature less than 64°F (18°C).
  7. Systems requiring dehumidification that employ series-style energy recovery coils wrapped around the cooling coil.

503.2.7 Duct and plenum insulation and sealing. All supply and return air ducts and plenums shall be insulated with a minimum of R-5 insulation when located in unconditioned spaces and a minimum of R-8 insulation when located outside the building. When located within a building envelope assembly, the duct or plenum shall be separated from the building exterior or unconditioned or exempt spaces by a minimum of R-8 insulation.

Exceptions:

  1. When located within equipment.
  2. When the design temperature difference between the interior and exterior of the duct or plenum does not exceed 15°F (8°C).

All ducts, air handlers and filter boxes shall be sealed. Joints and seams shall comply with Section 603.9 of the International Mechanical Code.

503.2.7.1 Duct construction. Ductwork shall be constructed and erected in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

503.2.7.1.1 Low-pressure duct systems. Alliongitudinal and transverse joints, seams and connections of supply and return ducts operating at a static pressure less than or equal to 2 inches w.g. (500 Pa) shall be securely fastened and sealed with welds, gaskets, mastics (adhesives), mastic-plus-embedded-fabric systems or tapes installed in accordance with the manufacturer,s installation instructions. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

Exception: Continuously welded and locking-type longitudinal joints and seams on ducts operating at static pressures less than 2 inches w.g. (500 Pa) pressure classification.

503.2.7.1.2 Medium-pressure duct systems. All ducts and plenums designed to operate at a static pressure greater than 2 inches w.g. (500 Pa) but less than 3 inches w.g. (750 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section 503.2.7. Pressure classifications specific to the duct system shall be clearly indicated on the construction documents in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

503.2.7.1.3 High-pressure duct systems. Ducts designed to operate at static pressures in excess of 3 inches w.g. (746 Pa) shall be insulated and sealed in accordance with Section 503.2.7. In addition, ducts and plenums shall be leak-tested in accordance with the SMACNA HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual with the rate of air leakage (CL) less than or equal to 6.0 as determined in accordance with Equation 5-2.

CL= Fx pO.65      (Equation 5-2)

where:

F   The measured leakage rate in cfm per 100 square feet of duct surface.

P   The static pressure of the test.

Documentation shall be furnished by the designer demonstrating that representative sections totaling at

50

least 25 percent of the duct area have been tested and that all tested sections meet the requirements of this section.

503.2.8 Piping insulation. All piping serving as part of a heating or cooling system shall be thermally insulated in accordance with Table 503.2.8.

Exceptions:

  1. Factory-installed piping within HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with a test procedure referenced by this code.
  2. Factory-installed piping within room fan-coils and unit ventilators tested and rated according to AHRI 440 (except that the sampling and variation provisions of Section 6.5 shall not apply) and 840, respectively.
  3. Piping that conveys fluids that have a design operating temperature range between 55°F (13°C) and 105°F (41°C).
  4. Piping that conveys fluids that have not been heated or cooled through the use of fossil fuels or electric power.
  5. Runout piping not exceeding 4 feet (1219 mm) in length and 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter between the control valve and HVAC coil.
TABLE 503.2.8
MINIMUM PIPE INSULATION (thickness in inches)
FLUID NOMINAL PIPE DIAMETER
≤ 1.5" > 1.5"
Steam 3
Hot water 2
Chilled water, brine or refrigerant
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Based on insulation having a conductivity (k) not exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h. ft2. oF.
b. For insulation with a thermal conductivity not equal to 0.27 Btu· inch/h· ft2. OF at a mean temperature of 75°F, the minimum reqUired pipe thickness is adjusted using the following equation;
T= r[(l + tir)K/k-1]
where:
T    Adjusted insulation thickness (in).
r   Actual pipe radius (in).
     Insulation thickness from applicable cell in table (in).
K   New thermal conductivity at 75°F (Btu · inlhr · ft 2. OF). k
k    0.27 Btu · in/hr · ft2. OF.

503.2.9 HVAC system completion. Prior to the issuance of a certificate of occupancy, the design professional shall provide evidence of system completion in accordance with Sections 503.2.9.1 through 503.2.9.3.

503.2.9.1 Air system balancing. Each supply air outlet and zone terminal device shall be equipped with means for air balancing in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 6 of the International Mechanical Code. Discharge dampers are prohibited on constant volume fans and variable volume fans with motors 10 horsepower (hp) (7.4 kW) and larger.

503.2.9.2 Hydronic system balancing. Individual hydronic heating and cooling coils shall be equipped with means for balancing and pressure test connections.

503.2.9.3 Manuals. The construction documents shall require that an operating and maintenance manual be provided to the building owner by the mechanical contractor. The manual shall include, at least, the following:

  1. Equipment capacity (input and output) and required maintenance actions.
  2. Equipment operation and maintenance manuals.
  3. HVAC system control maintenance and calibration information, including wiring diagrams, schematics, and control sequence descriptions. Desired or field-determined setpoints shall be permanently recorded on control drawings, at control devices or, for digital control systems, in programming comments.
  4. A complete written narrative of how each system is intended to operate.

503.2.10 Air system design and control. Each HVAC system having a total fan system motor nameplate horsepower (hp) exceeding 5 horsepower (hp) shall meet the provisions of Sections 503.2.10.1 through 503.2.10.2.

503.2.10.1 Allowable fan floor horsepower. Each HVAC system at fan system design conditions shall not exceed the allowable fan system motor nameplate hp (Option 1) or fan system bhp (Option 2) as shown in Table 503.2.10.1 (1). This includes supply fans, return/relief fans, and fan-powered terminal units associated with systems providing heating or cooling capability.

Exceptions:

  1. Hospital and laboratory systems that utilize flow control devices on exhaust and/or return to maintain space pressure relationships necessary for occupant health and safety or environmental control shall be permitted to use variable volume fan power limitation.
  2. Individual exhaust fans with motor nameplate horsepower of 1 hp or less.
  3. Fans exhausting air from fume hoods. (Note: If this exception is taken, no related exhaust side credits shall be taken from Table 503.2.10.1 (2) and the Fume Exhaust Exception Deduction must be taken from Table 503.2.10.1 (2).
51
TABLE 503.2.10.1(1)
FAN POWER LIMITATION
  LIMIT CONSTANT VOLUME VARIABLE VOLUME
Option 1: Fan system motor nameplate hp Allowable nameplate motor hp hp ≤ CFMs *0.0011 hp ≤ CFMs *0.0015
Option 2: Fan system bhp Allowable fan system bhp bhp ≤ CFMs *0.00094 + A bhp ≤ CFMs *0.0013 + A
where:
    CFMs = The maximum design supply airflow rate to conditioned spaces served by the system in cubic feet per minute.
    hp= The maximum combined motor nameplate horsepower.
    Bhp = The maximum combined fan brake horsepower.
    A = Sum of [PDx CFMD /4131].
where :
    PD = Each applicable pressure drop adjustment from Table 503.2.10.1(2) in. w.c.

 

TABLE 503.2.10.1 (2)
FAN POWER LIMITATION PRESSURE DROP ADJUSTMENT
DEVICE ADJUSTMENT
Credits
Fully ducted return and/or exhaust air systems 0.5 in w.c.
Return and/or exhaust airflow control devices 0.5 in w.c
Exhaust filters, scrubbers or other exhaust treatment. The pressure drop of device calculated at fan system design condition.
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 9 thru 12 0.5 in w.c.
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 13 thru 15 0.9 in w.c.
Particulate filtration credit: MERV 16 and greater and electronically enhanced filters Pressure drop calculated at 2x clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition.
Carbon and other gas-phase air cleaners Clean filter pressure drop at fan system design condition.
Heat recovery device Pressure drop of device at fan system design condition.
Evaporative humidifier/cooler in series with another cooling coil Pressure drop of device at fan system design conditions
Sound attenuation section 0.15 in w.c.
Deductions
Fume hood exhaust exception (required if Section 503.2.10.1, Exception 3, is taken) -1.0 in w.c.

503.2.10.2 Motor nameplate horsepower. For each fan, the selected fan motor shall be no larger than the first available motor size greater than the brake horsepower (bhp). The fan brake horsepower (bhp) shall be indicated on the design documents to allow for compliance verification by the code official.

Exceptions:

  1. For fans less than 6 bhp, where the first available motor larger than the brake horsepower has a nameplate rating within 50 percent of the bhp, selection of the next larger nameplate motor size is allowed.
  2. For fans 6 bhp and larger, where the first available motor larger than the bhp has a nameplate rating within 30 percent of the bhp, selection of the next larger nameplate motor size is allowed.

503.2.11 Heating outside a building. Systems installed to provide heat outside a building shall be radiant systems. Such heating systems shall be controlled by an occupancy sensing device or a timer switch, so that the system is automatically deenergized when no occupants are present.

503.3 Simple HVAC systems and equipment (Prescriptive). This section applies to buildings served by unitary or packaged HVAC equipment listed in Tables 503.2.3 (1) through 503.2.3(5), each serving one zone and controlled by a single thermostat in the zone served. It also applies to two-pipe heating systems serving one or more zones, where no cooling system is installed.

This section does not apply to fan systems serving multiple zones, nonunitary or nonpackaged HVAC equipment and systems or hydronic or steam heating and hydronic cooling equipment and distribution systems that provide cooling or cooling and heating which are covered by Section 503.4.

503.3.1 Economizers. Supply air economizers shall be provided on each cooling system as shown in Table 503.3.1 (1).

52

Economizers shall be capable of providing 100-percent outdoor air, even if additional mechanical cooling is required to meet the cooling load of the building. Systems shall provide a means to relieve excess outdoor air during economizer operation to prevent overpressurizing the building. The relief air outlet shall be located to avoid recirculation into the building. Where a single room or space is supplied by multiple air systems, the aggregate capacity of those systems shall be used in applying this requirement.

Exceptions:

  1. Where the cooling equipment is covered by the minimum efficiency requirements of Table 503.2.3(1) or 503.2.3(2) and meets or exceeds the minimum cooling efficiency requirement (EER) by the percentages shown in Table 503.3.1 (2).
  2. Systems with air or evaporatively cooled condensors and which serve spaces with open case refrigeration or that require filtration equipment in order to meet the minimum ventilation requirements of Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code.
TABLE 503.3.1 (1)
ECONOMIZER REQUIREMENTS
CLIMATE ZONES ECONOMIZER REQUIREMENT
lA, IB, 2A, 7, 8 No requirement
2B, 3A, 3B, 3C, 4A, 4B, 4C, SA, 5B, 5C, 6A, 6B Economizers on all cooling systems ≥ 54,000 Btu/ha
For SI: 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.293 W
a. The total capacity of all systems without economizers shall not exceed 480,000 Btu/h per building, or 20 percent of its air economizer capacity, whichever is greater.

 

TABLE 503.3.1 (2)
EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCY PERFORMANCE EXCEPTION FOR ECONOMIZERS
CLIMATE ZONES COOLING EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT (EER OR IPLV)
2B 10% Efficiency Improvement
3B 15% Efficiency Improvement
4B 20% Efficiency Improvement

503.3.2 Hydronic system controls. Hydronic systems of at least 300,000 Btu/h (87,930 W) design output capacity supplying heated and chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that meet the requirements of Section 503.4.3.

503.4 Complex HVAC systems and equipment. (Prescriptive). This section applies to buildings served by HVAC equipment and systems not covered in Section 503.3.

503.4.1 Economizers. Supply air economizers shall be provided on each cooling system according to Table 503.3.1 (1). Economizers shall be capable of operating at 100 percent outside air, even if additional mechanical cooling is required to meet the cooling load of the building.

Exceptions:

  1. Systems utilizing water economizers that are capable of cooling supply air by direct or indirect evaporation or both and providing 100 percent of the expected system cooling load at outside air temperatures of 50°F (10°C) dry bulb/45°F (7°C) wet bulb and below.
  2. Where the cooling equipment is covered by the minimum efficiency requirements of Table 503.2.3(1),503.2.3(2), or 503.2.3(6) and meets or exceeds the minimum EER by the percentages shown in Table 503.3.1 (2)
  3. Where the cooling equipment is covered by the minimum efficiency requirements of Table 503.2.3(7) and meets or exceeds the minimum integrated part load value (IPLV) by the percentages shown in Table 503.3.1 (2).

503.4.2 Variable air volume (VAV) fan control. Individual VAV fans with motors of 10 horsepower (7.5 kW) or greater shall be:

  1. Driven by a mechanical or electrical variable speed drive; or
  2. The fan motor shall have controls or devices that will result in fan motor demand of no more than 30 percent of their design wattage at 50 percent of design airflow when static pressure set point equals one-third of the total design static pressure, based on manufacturer's certified fan data.

For systems with direct digital control of individual zone boxes reporting to the central control panel, the static pressure set point shall be reset based on the zone requiring the most pressure, Le., the set point is reset lower until one zone damper is nearly wide open.

503.4.3 Hydronic systems controls. The heating of fluids that have been previously mechanically cooled and the cooling of fluids that have been previously mechanically heated shall be limited in accordance with Sections 503.4.3.1 through 503.4.3.3. Hydronic heating systems comprised of multiple-packaged boilers and designed to deliver conditioned water or steam into a common distribution system shall include automatic controls capable of sequencing operation of the boilers. Hydronic heating systems comprised of a single boiler and greater than 500,000 Btu/h input design capacity shall include either a multistaged or modulating burner.

503.4.3.1 Three-pipe system. Hydronic systems that use a common return system for both hot water and chilled water are prohibited.

503.4.3.2 Two-pipe changeover system. Systems that use a common distribution system to supply both heated and chilled water shall be designed to allow a dead band between changeover from one mode to the other of at least 15°F (8.3°C) outside air temperatures; be designed to and provided with controls that will allow operation in

53

one mode for at least 4 hours before changing over to the other mode; and be provided with controls that allow heating and cooling supply temperatures at the changeover point to be no more than 30°F (16.7°C) apart.

503.4.3.3 Hydronic (water loop) heat pump systems. Hydronic heat pump systems shall comply with Sections 503.4.3.3.1 through 503.4.3.3.3.

503.4.3.3.1 Temperature dead band. Hydronic heat pumps connected to a common heat pump water loop with central devices for heat rejection and heat addition shall have controls that are capable of providing a heat pump water supply temperature dead band of at least 20°F (11. 1°C) between initiation of heat rejection and heat addition by the central devices.

Exception: Where a system loop temperature optimization controller is installed and can determine the most efficient operating temperature based on realtime conditions of demand and capacity, dead bands of less than 20°F (11°C) shall be permitted.

503.4.3.3.2 Heat rejection. Heat rejection equipment shall comply with Sections 503.4.3.3.2.1 and 503.4.3.3.2.2.

Exception: Where it can be demonstrated that a heat pump system will be required to reject heat throughout the year.

503.4.3.3.2.1 Climate Zones 3 and 4. For Climate Zones 3 and 4 as indicated in Figure 301.1 and Table 301.1:

  1. If a closed-circuit cooling tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, either an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all but a minimal flow of water around the tower, or lower leakage positive closure dampers shall be provided.
  2. If an open-circuit tower is used directly in the heat pump loop, an automatic valve shall be installed to bypass all heat pump water flow around the tower.
  3. If an open- or closed-circuit cooling tower is used in conjunction with a separate heat exchanger to isolate the cooling tower from the heat pump loop, then heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop.

503.4.3.3.2.2 Climate Zones 5 through 8. For climate Zones 5 through 8 as indicated in Figure 301.1 and Table 301.1, if an open- or closed-circuit cooling tower is used, then a separate heat exchanger shall be required to isolate the cooling tower from the heat pump loop, and heat loss shall be controlled by shutting down the circulation pump on the cooling tower loop and providing an automatic valve to stop the flow of fluid.

503.4.3.3.3 Two position valve. Each hydronic heat pump on the hydronic system having a total pump system power exceeding 10 horsepower (hp) (7.5 kW) shall have a two-position valve.

503.4.3.4 Part load controls. Hydronic systems greater than or equal to 300,000 Btu/h (87 930 W) in design output capacity supplying heated or chilled water to comfort conditioning systems shall include controls that have the capability to:

  1. Automatically reset the supply-water temperatures using zone-return water temperature, building-return water temperature, or outside air temperature as an indicator of building heating or cooling demand. The temperature shall be capable of being reset by at least 25 percent of the design supply-to-return water temperature difference; or
  2. Reduce system pump flow by at least 50 percent of design flow rate utilizing adjustable speed drive (s) on pump(s), or multiple-staged pumps where at least one-half of the total pump horsepower is capable of being automatically turned off or control valves designed to modulate or step down, and close, as a function of load, or other approved means.

503.4.3.5 Pump isolation. Chilled water plants including more than one chiller shall have the capability to reduce flow automatically through the chiller plant when a chiller is shut down. Chillers piped in series for the purpose of increased temperature differential shall be considered as one chiller.

Boiler plants including more than one boiler shall have the capability to reduce flow automatically through the boiler plant when a boiler is shut down.

503.4.4 Heat rejection equipment fan speed control. Each fan powered by a motor of 7.5 hp (5.6 kW) or larger shall have the capability to operate that fan at two-thirds of full speed or less, and shall have controls that automatically change the fan speed to control the leaving fluid temperature or condensing temperature/pressure of the heat rejection device.

Exception: Factory-installed heat rejection devices within HVAC equipment tested and rated in accordance with Tables 503.2.3(6) and 503.2.3(7).

503.4.5 Requirements for complex mechanical systems serving multiple zones. Sections 503.4.5.1 through 503.4.5.3 shall apply to complex mechanical systems serving multiple zones. Supply air systems serving multiple zones shall be VAV systems which, during periods of occupancy, are designed and capable of being controlled to reduce primary air supply to each zone to one of the following before reheating, recooling or mixing takes place:

  1. Thirty percent of the maximum supply air to each zone. 54
  2. Three hundred cfm (142 Lis) or less where the maximum flow rate is less than 10 percent of the total fan system supply airflow rate.
  3. The minimum ventilation requirements of Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code.

    Exception: The following define when individual zones or when entire air distribution systems are exempted from the requirement for VAV control:

    1. Zones where special pressurization relationships or cross-contamination requirements are such that VAV systems are impractical.
    2. Zones or supply air systems where at least 75 percent of the energy for reheating or for providing warm air in mixing systems is provided from a site-recovered or site-solar energy source.
    3. Zones where special humidity levels are required to satisfy process needs.
    4. Zones with a peak supply air quantity of 300 cfm (142 Lis) or less and where the flow rate is less than 10 percent of the total fan system supply airflow rate.
    5. Zones where the volume of air to be reheated, recooled or mixed is no greater than the volume of outside air required to meet the minimum ventilation requirements of Chapter 4 of the International Mechanical Code.
    6. Zones or supply air systems with thermostatic and humidistatic controls capable of operating in sequence the supply of heating and cooling energy to the zone(s) and which are capable of preventing reheating, recooling, mixing or simultaneous supply of air that has been previously cooled, either mechanically or through the use of economizer systems, and air that has been previously mechanically heated.

503.4.5.1 Single duct variable air volume (VAV) systems, terminal devices. Single duct VAV systems shall use terminal devices capable of reducing the supply of primary supply air before reheating or recooling takes place.

503.4.5.2 Dual duct and mixing VAV systems, terminal devices. Systems that have one warm air duct and one cool air duct shall use terminal devices which are capable ofreducing the flow from one duct to a minimum before mixing of air from the other duct takes place.

503.4.5.3 Single fan dual duct and mixing VAV systems, economizers. Individual dual duct or mixing heating and cooling systems with a single fan and with total capacities greater than 90,000 Btulh [(26 375 W) 7.5 tons] shall not be equipped with air economizers.

503.4.5.4 Supply-air temperature reset controls. Multiple zone HVAC systems shall include controls that automatically reset the supply-air temperature in response to representative building loads, or to outdoor air temperature. The controls shall be capable of resetting the supply air temperature at least 25 percent of the difference between the design supply-air temperature and the design room air temperature.

Exceptions:

  1. Systems that prevent reheating, recooling or mixing of heated and cooled supply air.
  2. Seventy five percent of the energy for reheating is from site-recovered or site solar energy sources.
  3. Zones with peak supply air quantities of 300 cfm (142 Lis) or less.

503.4.6 Heat recovery for service water heating. Condenser heat recovery shall be installed for heating or reheating of service hot water provided the facility operates 24 hours a day, the total installed heat capacity of water-cooled systems exceeds 6,000,000 Btulhr of heat rejection, and the design service water heating load exceeds 1,000,000 Btu/h.

The required heat recovery system shall have the capacity to provide the smaller of:

  1. Sixty percent of the peak heat rejection load at design conditions; or
  2. The preheating required to raise the peak service hot water draw to 85°F (29°C).

Exceptions:

  1. Facilities that employ condenser heat recovery for space heating or reheat purposes with a heat recovery design exceeding 30 percent of the peak water-cooled condenser load at design conditions.
  2. Facilities that provide 60 percent of their service water heating from site solar or site recovered energy or from other sources.

SECTION 504
SERVICE WATER HEATING (Mandatory)

504.1 General. This section covers the minimum efficiency of, and controls for, service water-heating equipment and insulation of service hot water piping.

504.2 Service water-heating equipment performance efficiency. Water-heating equipment and hot water storage tanks shall meet the requirements ofTable 504.2. The efficiency shall be verified through data furnished by the manufacturer or through certification under an approved certification program.

504.3 Temperature controls. Service water-heating equipment shall be provided with controls to allow a setpoint of 110°F (43°C) for equipment serving dwelling units and gO°F (32°C) for equipment serving other occupancies. The outlet temperature of lavatories in public facility rest rooms shall be limited to 110°F (43°C).

504.4 Heat traps. Water-heating equipment not supplied with integral heat traps and serving noncirculating systems shall be provided with heat traps on the supply and discharge piping associated with the equipment.

55
TABLE 504.2
MINIMUM PERFORMANCE OF WATER-HEATING EQUIPMENT
EQUIPMENT TYPE SIZE CATEGORY
(input)
SUBCATEGORY OR
RATING CONDITION
PERFORMANCE
REQUIREDa,b
TEST
PROCEDURE
Water heaters, Electric ≤12kW Resistance 0.97 - 0.00132 V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
>12kW Resistance 1.73 V + 155 SL, Btu/h ANSI Z21.10.3
≤ 24 amps and ≤ 250 volts Heat pump 0.93 - 0.00132 V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
Storage water heaters, Gas ≤ 75,000 Btu/h ≥ 20 gal 0.67 - 0.0019 V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
> 75,000 Btu/h and
≤ 155,000 Btu/h
< 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80%Et
(Q/800+Image)SL, Btu/h
ANSI Z21.10.3
> 155,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 80%Et
(Q/800+Image)SL, Btulh
Instantaneous water heaters, Gas > 50,000 Btu/h and
< 200,000 Btu/he
≥ 4,000 (Btu/h)/gal
and < 2 gal
0.62 - 0.0019 V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
≥ 200,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
< 10 gal
80%Et ANSI Z21.10.3
≥ 200,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
≥ 10 gal
80%Et
(Q/800+Image)SL, Btulh
Storage water heaters, Oil ≤ 105,000 Btu/h ≥ 20 gal 0.59 - 0.0019 V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
> 105,000 Btu/h < 4,000 Btu/h/gal 78%Et
(Q/800+Image)SL, Btulh
ANSI Z21.10.3
Instantaneous water heaters, Oil ≤ 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
< 2 gal
0.59 - 0.0019 V, EF DOE 10 CFR Part 430
> 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
< 10 gal
80%Et ANSI Z21.10.3
> 210,000 Btu/h ≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
≥ 10 gal
78%Et
(Q/800+Image)SL, Btulh
Hot water supply boilers, Gas and Oil ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
<12,500,000 Btu/h
≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
< 10 gal
80%Et ANSI Z21.10.3
Hot water supply boilers, Gas ≥ 300,000 Btu/h and
<12,500,000 Btu/h
≥ 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
≥ 10 gal
80%Et
(Q/800+Image)SL, Btulh
Hot water supply boilers, Oil > 300,000 Btu/h and
<12,500,000 Btu/h
> 4,000 Btu/h/gal and
> 10 gal
78%Et
(Q/800+Image)SL, Btulh
Pool heaters, Gas and Oil All - 78%Et ASHRAE 146
Heat pump pool heaters All - 4.0 COP AHRI1160
Unfired storage tanks All - Minimum insulation requirement R-12.5 (h. ft2. °F)/Btu (none)
For SI: °C = [(OF) - 32]/1.8, 1 British thermal unit per hour = 0.2931 W, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 British thermal unit per hour per gallon = 0.078 W/L.
a. Energy factor (EF) and thermal efficiency (Et) are minimum requirements. In the EF equation, Vis the rated volume in gallons.
b. Standby loss (SL) is the maximum Btu/h based on a nominal 70°F temperature difference between stored water and ambient requirements. In the SL equation, Qis the nameplate input rate in Btu/h. In the SL equation for electric water heaters, Vis the rated volume in gallons. In the SL equation for oil and gas water heaters and boilers, Vis the rated volume in gallons.
c. Instantaneous water heaters with input rates below 200,000 Btu/h must comply with these requirements ifthe water heater is designed to heat water to temperatures 180°F or higher.
56

504.5 Pipe insulation. For automatic-circulating hot water systems, piping shall be insulated with 1 inch (25 mm) of insulation having a conductivity not exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h × ft2 × of (1.53 W per 25 mm/m2 × K). The first 8 feet (2438 mm) of piping in noncirculating systems served by equipment without integral heat traps shall be insulated with 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) of material having a conductivity not exceeding 0.27 Btu per inch/h × ft2 × of (1.53 W per 25 mm/m2 × K).

504.6 Hot water system controls. Automatic-circulating hot water system pumps or heat trace shall be arranged to be conveniently turned off automatically or manually when the hot water system is not in operation.

504.7 Pools. Pools shall be provided with energy conserving measures in accordance with Sections 504.7.1 through 504.7.3.

504.7.1 Pool heaters. All pool heaters shall be equipped with a readily accessible on-off switch to allow shutting off the heater without adjusting the thermostat setting. Pool heaters fired by natural gas or LPG shall not have continu-0usly burning pilot lights.

504.7.2 Time switches. Time switches that can automatically turn offand on heaters and pumps according to a preset schedule shall be installed on swimming pool heaters and pumps.

Exceptions:

  1. Where public health standards require 24-hour pump operation.
  2. Where pumps are required to operate solar-and waste-heat-recovery pool heating systems.

504.7.3 Pool covers. Heated pools shall be equipped with a vapor retardant pool cover on or at the water surface. Pools heated to more than gO°F (32°C) shall have a pool cover with a minimum insulation value of R-12.

Exception: Pools deriving over 60 percent of the energy for heating from site-recovered energy or solar energy source.

SECTION 505
ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING SYSTEMS
(Mandatory)

505.1 General (Mandatory). This section covers lighting system controls, the connection of ballasts, the maximum lighting power for interior applications and minimum acceptable lighting equipment for exterior applications.

Exception: Lighting within dwelling units where 50 percent or more of the permanently installed interior light fixtures are fitted with high-efficacy lamps.

505.2 Lighting controls (Mandatory). Lighting systems shall be provided with controls as required in Sections 505.2.1, 505.2.2, 505.2.3 and 505.2.4.

505.2.1 Interior lighting controls. Each area enclosed by walls or floor-to-ceiling partitions shall have at least one manual control for the lighting serving that area. The required controls shall be located within the area served by the controls or be a remote switch that identifies the lights served and indicates their status.

Exceptions:

  1. Areas designated as security or emergency areas that must be continuously lighted.
  2. Lighting in stairways or corridors that are elements of the means of egress.

505.2.2 Additional controls. Each area that is required to have a manual control shall have additional controls that meet the requirements of Sections 505.2.2.1 and 505.2.2.2.

505.2.2.1 Light reduction controls. Each area that is required to have a manual control shall also allow the occupant to reduce the connected lighting load in a reasonably uniform illumination pattern by at least 50 percent. Lighting reduction shall be achieved by one of the following or other approved method:

  1. Controlling all lamps or luminaires;
  2. Dual switching of alternate rows of luminaires, alternate luminaires or alternate lamps;
  3. Switching the middle lamp luminaires independently of the outer lamps; or
  4. Switching each luminaire or each lamp.

Exceptions:

  1. Areas that have only one luminaire.
  2. Areas that are controlled by an occupant-sensing device.
  3. Corridors, storerooms, restrooms or public lobbies.
  4. Sleeping unit (see Section 505.2.3).
  5. Spaces that use less than 0.6 watts per square foot (6.5 W/m2).

505.2.2.2 Automatic lighting shutoff. Buildings larger than 5,000 square feet (465 m2) shall be equipped with an automatic control device to shut off lighting in those areas. This automatic control device shall function on either:

  1. A scheduled basis, using time-of-day, with an independent program schedule that controls the interior lighting in areas that do not exceed 25,000 square feet (2323 m2) and are not more than one floor; or
  2. An occupant sensor that shall turn lighting off within 30 minutes of an occupant leaving a space; or
  3. A signal from another control or alarm system that indicates the area is unoccupied.

Exception: The following shall not require an automatic control device:

  1. Sleeping unit (see Section 505.2.3).
  2. Lighting in spaces where patient care is directly provided. 57
  3. Spaces where an automatic shutoff would endanger occupant safety or security.

505.2.2.2.1 Occupant override. Where an automatic time switch control device is installed to comply with Section 505.2.2.2, Item 1, it shall incorporate an override switching device that:

  1. Is readily accessible.
  2. Is located so that a person using the device can see the lights or the area controlled by that switch, or so that the area being lit is annunciated.
  3. Is manually operated.
  4. Allows the lighting to remain on for no more than 2 hours when an override is initiated.
  5. Controls an area not exceeding 5,000 square feet (465 m2).

Exceptions:

  1. In malls and arcades, auditoriums, single-tenant retail spaces, industrial facilities and arenas, where captive-key override is utilized, override time shall be permitted to exceed 2 hours.
  2. In malls and arcades, auditoriums, single-tenant retail spaces, industrial facilities and arenas, the area controlled shall not exceed 20,000 square feet (1860 m2).

505.2.2.2.2 Holiday scheduling. If an automatic time switch control device is installed in accordance with Section 505.2.2.2, Item 1, it shall incorporate an automatic holiday scheduling feature that turns off all loads for at least 24 hours, then resumes the normally scheduled operation.

Exception: Retail stores and associated malls, restaurants, grocery stores, places of religious worship and theaters.

505.2.2.3 Daylight zone control. Daylight zones, as defined by this code, shall be provided with individual controls that control the lights independent of general area lighting. Contiguous daylight zones adjacent to vertical fenestration are allowed to be controlled by a single controlling device provided that they do not include zones facing more than two adjacent cardinal orientations (i.e., north, east, south, west). Daylight zones under skylights more than 15 feet (4572 mm) from the perimeter shall be controlled separately from daylight zones adjacent to vertical fenestration.

Exception: Daylight spaces enclosed by walls or ceiling height partitions and containing two or fewer light fixtures are not required to have a separate switch for general area lighting.

505.2.3 Sleeping unit controls. Sleeping units in hotels, motels, boarding houses or similar buildings shall have at least one master switch at the main entry door that controls all permanently wired luminaires and switched receptacles, except those in the bathroom(s). Suites shall have a control meeting these requirements at the entry to each room or at the primary entry to the suite.

505.2.4 Exterior lighting controls. Lighting not designated for dusk-to-dawn operation shall be controlled by either a combination of a photosensor and a time switch, or an astronomical time switch. Lighting designated for dusk-to-dawn operation shall be controlled by an astronomical time switch or photosensor. All time switches shall be capable of retaining programming and the time setting during loss of power for a period of at least 10 hours.

505.3 Tandem wiring (Mandatory). The following luminaires located within the same area shall be tandem wired:

  1. Fluorescent luminaires equipped with one, three or odd-numbered lamp configurations, that are recess-mounted within 10 feet (3048 mm) center-to-center of each other.
  2. Fluorescent luminaires equipped with one, three or any odd-numbered lamp configuration, that are pendant- or surface-mounted within 1 foot (305 mm) edge- to-edge of each other.

    Exceptions:

    1. Where electronic high-frequency ballasts are used.
    2. Luminaires on emergency circuits.
    3. Luminaires with no available pair in the same area.

505.4 Exit signs (Mandatory). Internally illuminated exit signs shall not exceed 5 watts per side.

505.5 Interior lighting power requirements (Prescriptive). A building complies with this section if its total connected lighting power calculated under Section 505.5.1 is no greater than the interior lighting power calculated under Section 505.5.2.

505.5.1 Total connected interior lighting power. The total connected interior lighting power (watts) shall be the sum of the watts of all interior lighting equipment as determined in accordance with Sections 505.5.1.1 through 505.5.1.4.

Exceptions:

  1. The connected power associated with the following lighting equipment is not included in calculating total connected lighting power.

    1.1. Professional sports arena playing field lighting.

    1.2. Sleeping unit lighting in hotels, motels, boarding houses or similar buildings.

    1.3. Emergency lighting automatically off during normal building operation.

    1.4. Lighting in spaces specifically designed for use by occupants with special lighting needs including the visually impaired visual impairment and other medical and age-related issues.

    1.5. Lighting in interior spaces that have been specifically designated as a registered interior historic landmark.

    58

    1.6. Casino gaming areas.

  2. Lighting equipment used for the following shall be exempt provided that it is in addition to generallighting and is controlled by an independent control device:

    2.1. Task lighting for medical and dental purposes.

    2.2. Display lighting for exhibits in galleries, museums and monuments.

  3. Lighting for theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production and video production.
  4. Lighting for photographic processes.
  5. Lighting integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by the manufacturer.
  6. Task lighting for plant growth or maintenance.
  7. Advertising signage or directional signage.
  8. In restaurant buildings and areas, lighting for food warming or integral to food preparation equipment.
  9. Lighting equipment that is for sale.
  10. Lighting demonstration equipment in lighting education facilities.
  11. Lighting approved because of safety or emergency considerations, inclusive of exit lights.
  12. Lighting integral to both open and glass-enclosed refrigerator and freezer cases.
  13. Lighting in retail display windows, provided the display area is enclosed by ceiling-height partitions.
  14. Furniture mounted supplemental task lighting that is controlled by automatic shutoff.

505.5.1.1 Screw lamp holders. The wattage shall be the maximum labeled wattage of the luminaire.

505.5.1.2 Low-voltage lighting. The wattage shall be the specified wattage of the transformer supplying the system.

505.5.1.3 Other luminaires. The wattage of all other lighting equipment shall be the wattage of the lighting equipment verified through data furnished by the manufacturer or other approved sources.

505.5.1.4 Line-voltage lighting track and plug-in busway. The wattage shall be:

  1. The specified wattage of the luminaires included in the system with a minimum of 30 W llin ft. (98 W/lin. m);
  2. The wattage limit of the system's circuit breaker; or
  3. The wattage limit of other permanent current limiting device(s) on the system.

505.5.2 Interior lighting power. The total interior lighting power (watts) is the sum of all interior lighting powers for all areas in the building covered in this permit. The interior lighting power is the floor area for each building area type listed in Table 505.5.2 times the value from Table 505.5.2 for that area. For the purposes ofthis method, an "area" shall be defined as all contiguous spaces that accommodate or are associated with a single building area type as listed in Table 505.5.2. When this method is used to calculate the total interior lighting power for an entire building, each building area type shall be treated as a separate area.

TABLE 505.5.2
INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES
LIGHTING POWER DENSITY
Building Area Typea (W/ft)2
Automotive Facility 0.9
Convention Center 1.2
Court House 1.2
Dining: Bar Lounge/Leisure 1.3
Dining: Cafeteria/Fast Food 1.4
Dining: Family 1.6
Dormitory 1.0
Exercise Center 1.0
Gymnasium 1.1
Healthcare-clinic 1.0
Hospital 1.2
Hotel 1.0
Library 1.3
Manufacturing Facility 1.3
Motel 1.0
Motion Picture Theater 1.2
Multifamily 0.7
Museum 1.1
Office 1.0
Parking Garage 0.3
Penitentiary 1.0
Performing Arts Theater 1.6
Police/Fire Station 1.0
Post Office 1.1
Religious Building 1.3
Retailb 1.5
School/University 1.2
Sports Arena 1.1
Town Hall 1.1 59
Transportation 1.0
Warehouse 0.8
Workshop 1.4
For SI:: Foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = W/O.0929 m2.
a. In cases where both a general building area type and a more specific building area type are listed, the more specific building area type shall apply.
b. Where lighting equipment is specified to be installed to highlight specific merchandise in addition to lighting equipment specified for general lighting and is switched or dimmed on circuits different from the circuits for general lighting, the smaller of the actual wattage of the lighting equipment installed specifically for merchandise, or additional lighting power as determined below shall be added to the interior lighting power determined in accordance with this line item.
Calculate the additional lighting power as follows:
Additional Interior Lighting Power Allowance = 1000 watts + (Retail Area 1 × 0.6W/ft2) + (Retail Area 2 × 0.6W/ft2) + (Retail Area 3 × 1.4W/ft2)+ (Retail Area 4 × 2.5 W/ft2).
where:
     Retail Area 1 = The floor area for all products not listed in Retail Area 2, 3 or 4.
     Retail Area 2 = The floor area used for the sale ofvehicles, sporting goods and small electronics.
     Retail Area 3 = The floor area used for the sale of furniture, clothing, cosmetics and artwork.
     Retail Area 4 = The floor area used for the sale of jewelry, crystal and china.

Exception: Other merchandise categories are permitted to be included in Retail Areas 2 through 4 above, provided thatjustification documenting the need for additional lighting power based on visual inspection, contrast, or other critical display is approved by the authority having jurisdiction.

505.6 Exterior lighting. (Mandatory). When the power for exterior lighting is supplied through the energy service to the building, all exterior lighting, other than low-voltage landscape lighting, shall comply with Sections 505.6.1 and 505.6.2.

Exception: Where approved because of historical, safety, signage or emergency considerations.

505.6.1 Exterior building grounds lighting. All exterior building grounds luminaires that operate at greater than 100 watts shall contain lamps having a minimum efficacy of 60 lumens per watt unless the luminaire is controlled by a motion sensor or qualifies for one of the exceptions under Section 505.6.2.

505.6.2 Exterior building lighting power. The total exterior lighting power allowance for all exterior building applications is the sum of the base site allowance plus the individual allowances for areas that are to be illuminated and are permitted in Table 505.6.2 (2) for the applicable lighting zone. Tradeoffs are allowed only among exterior lighting applications listed in Table 505.6.2 (2), Tradable Surfaces section. The lighting zone for the building exterior is determined from Table 505.6.2 (1) unless otherwise specified by the local jurisdiction. Exterior lighting for all applications (except those included in the exceptions to Section 505.6.2) shall comply with the requirements of Section 505.6.1.

Exceptions: Lighting used for the following exterior applications is exempt when equipped with a control device independent of the control of the nonexempt lighting:

  1. Specialized signal, directional and marker lighting associated with transportation;
  2. Advertising signage or directional signage;
  3. Integral to equipment or instrumentation and is installed by its manufacturer;
  4. Theatrical purposes, including performance, stage, film production and video production;
  5. Athletic playing areas;
  6. Temporary lighting;
  7. Industrial production, material handling, transportation sites and associated storage areas;
  8. Theme elements in theme/amusement parks; and
  9. Used to highlight features of public monuments and registered historic landmark structures or buildings.
TABLE 505.6.2(1)
EXTERIOR LIGHTING ZONES
LIGHTING ZONE DESCRIPTION
1 Developed areas of national parks, state parks, forest land, and rural areas
2 Areas predominantly consisting of residential zoning, neighborhood business districts, light industrial with limited nighttime use and residential mixed use areas
3 All other areas
4 High-activity commercial districts in major metropolitan areas as designated by the local land use planning authority

505.7 Electrical energy consumption. (Mandatory). In buildings having individual dwelling units, provisions shall be made to determine the electrical energy consumed by each tenant by separately metering individual dwelling units.

SECTION 506
TOTAL BUILDING PERFORMANCE

506.1 Scope. This section establishes criteria for compliance using total building performance. The following systems and loads shall be included in determining the total building performance: heating systems, cooling systems, service water heating' fan systems, lighting power, receptacle loads and process loads.

506.2 Mandatory requirements. Compliance with this section requires that the criteria of Sections 502.4, 503.2, 504 and 505 be met.

60
TABLE 505.6.2
LIGHTING POWER DENSITIES FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS
APPLICATIONS LIGHTING POWER DENSITIES
Tradable Surfaces (Lighting Power Densities for uncovered parking areas, building grounds, building entrances and exits, canopies and overhangs, and outdoor sales areas may be traded.)
Uncovered Parking Areas
Parking Lots and drives 0.15 W/ft2
Building Grounds
Walkways less than 10 feet wide 1.0 watts/linear foot
Walkways 10 feet wide or greater, plaza areas and special feature areas 0.2 W/ft2
Stairways 1.0 W/ft2
Building Entrances and Exits
Main entries 30 watts/linear foot of door width
Other doors 20 watts/linear foot of door width
Canopies and Overhangs
Canopies (free standing & attached and overhangs) 1.25 W/ft2
Outdoor Sales
Open areas (including vehicle sales lots) 0.5 W/ft2
Street frontage for vehicle sales lots in addition to "open area" allowance 20 watts/linear foot
Nontradable Surfaces (Lighting Power Density calculations for the following applications can be used only for the specific application and cannot be traded between surfaces or with other exterior lighting. The following allowances are in addition to any allowance otherwise permitted in the Tradable Surfaces section of this table.)
Building facades 0.2 W/ft2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 5.0 Watts/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length
Automated teller machines and night depositories 270 watts per location plus 90 watts per additional ATM per location
Entrances and gatehouse inspection stations at guarded facilities 1.25 W/ft2 of uncovered area (covered areas are included in the Canopies and Overhangs section of Tradable Surfaces)
Loading areas for law enforcement, fire, ambulance and other emergency service vehicles 0.5 W/ft2 of uncovered area (covered areas are included in the Canopies and Overhangs section of Tradable Surfaces)
Drive-up windows at fast food restaurants 400 watts per drive-through
Parking near 24-hour retail entrances 800 watts per main entry
For 51: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = W/0.0929 m2·
61
TABLE 505.6.2(2)
INDIVIDUAL LIGHTING POWER ALLOWANCES FOR BUILDING EXTERIORS
    Zone 1 Zone 2 Zone 3 Zone 4
Base Site Allowance (Base allowance may be used in tradable or nontradable surfaces.)   500W 600W 750W 1300W
Tradable Surfaces (Lighting power densities for uncovered parking areas, building grounds, building entrances and exits, canopies and overhangs and outdoor sales areas may be traded.) Uncovered Parking Areas
Parking areas and drives 0.04 W/ft2 0.06 W/ft2 0.10 W/ft2 0.13 W/ft2
Building Grounds
Walkways less than 10 feet wide 0.7 W/linear foot 0.7 W/linear foot 0.8 W/linear foot 1.0 W/linear foot
Walkways 10 feet wide or greater, plaza areas special feature areas 0.14 W/ft2 0.14 W/ft2 0.16 W/ft2 0.2 W/ft2
Stairways 0.75 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2
Pedestrian tunnels 0.15 W/ft2 0.15 W/ft2 0.2 W/ft2 0.3 W/ft2
Building Entrances and Exits
Main entries 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 30 W/linear foot of door width 30 W/linear foot of door width
Other doors 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width 20 W/linear foot of door width
Entry canopies 0.25 W/ft2 0.25 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2 0.4 W/ft2
Sales Canopies
Free-standing and attached 0.6 W/ft2 0.6 W/ft2 0.8 W/ft2 1.0 W/ft2
Outdoor Sales
Open areas (including vehicle sales lots) 0.25 W/ft2 0.25 W/ft2 0.5 W/ft2 0.7 W/ft2
Street frontage for vehicle sales lots in addition to "open area" allowance No allowance lOW/linear foot lOW/linear foot 30 W/linear foot
Nontradable Surfaces (Lighting power density calculations for the following applications can be used only for the specific application and cannot be traded between surfaces or with other exterior lighting. The following allowances are in addition to any allowance otherwise permitted in the "Tradable Surfaces" section of this table.) Building facades No allowance 0.1 W/ft2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 2.5 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length 0.15 W/ft2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 3.75 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length 0.2 W/ft2 for each illuminated wall or surface or 5.0 W/linear foot for each illuminated wall or surface length
Automated teller machines and night depositories 270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location 270 W per location plus 90 W per additional ATM per location
Entrances and gatehouse inspection stations at guarded facilities 0.75 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.75 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.75 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.75 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area
Loading areas for law enforcement, fire, ambulance and other emergency service vehicles 0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area 0.5 W/ft2 of covered and uncovered area
Drive-up windows/doors 400 W per drive-through 400 W per drive-through 400 W per drive-through 400 W per drive-through
Parking near 24-hour retail entrances 800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry 800 W per main entry
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 watt per square foot = W/0.0929 m2·
62

506.3 Performance-based compliance. Compliance based on total building performance requires that a proposed building (proposed design) be shown to have an annual energy cost that is less than or equal to the annual energy cost of the standard reference design. Energy prices shall be taken from a source approved by the code official, such as the Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration's State Energy Price and Expenditure Report. Code officials shall be permitted to require time-of-use pricing in energy cost calculations. Nondepletable energy collected off site shall be treated and priced the same as purchased energy. Energy from nondepletable energy sources collected on site shall be omitted from the annual energy cost of the proposed design.

Exception: Jurisdictions that require site energy (1 kWh = 3413 Btu) rather than energy cost as the metric of comparison.

506.4 Documentation. Documentation verifying that the methods and accuracy of compliance software tools conform to the provisions of this section shall be provided to the code official.

506.4.1 Compliance report. Compliance software tools shall generate a report that documents that the proposed design has annual energy costs less than or equal to the annual energy costs of the standard reference design. The compliance documentation shall include the following information:

  1. Address of the building;
  2. An inspection checklist documenting the building component characteristics of the proposed design as listed in Table 506.5.1 (1). The inspection checklist shall show the estimated annual energy cost for both the standard reference design and the proposed design;
  3. Name of individual completing the compliance report; and
  4. Name and version of the compliance software tool.

506.4.2 Additional documentation. The code official shall be permitted to require the following documents:

  1. Documentation of the building component characteristics of the standard reference design;
  2. Thermal zoning diagrams consisting of floor plans showing the thermal zoning scheme for standard reference design and proposed design.
  3. Input and output report(s) from the energy analysis simulation program containing the complete input and output files, as applicable. The output file shall include energy use totals and energy use by energy source and end-use served, total hours that space conditioning loads are not met and any errors or warning messages generated by the simulation tool as applicable;
  4. An explanation of any error or warning messages appearing in the simulation tool output; and
  5. A certification signed by the builder providing the building component characteristics of the proposed design as given in Table 506.5.1 (1).

506.5 Calculation procedure. Except as specified by this section, the standard reference design and proposed design shall be configured and analyzed using identical methods and techniques.

506.5.1 Building specifications. The standard reference design and proposed design shall be configured and analyzed as specified by Table 506.5.1 (1). Table 506.5.1 (1) shall include by reference all notes contained in Table 502.2 (1).

506.5.2 Thermal blocks. The standard reference design and proposed design shall be analyzed using identical thermal blocks as required in Section 506.5.1.1, 506.2.2 or 506.5.2.3.

506.5.2.1 HVAC zones designed. Where HVAC zones are defined on HVAC design drawings, each HVAC zone shall be modeled as a separate thermal block.

Exception: Different HVAC zones shall be allowed to be combined to create a single thermal block or identical thermal blocks to which multipliers are applied provided:

  1. The space use classification is the same throughout the thermal block.
  2. All HVAC zones in the thermal block that are adjacent to glazed exterior walls face the same orientation or their orientations are within 45 degrees (0.79 rad) of each other.
  3. All of the zones are served by the same HVAC system or by the same kind of HVAC system.

506.5.2.2 HVAC zones not designed. Where HVAC zones have not yet been designed, thermal blocks shall be defined based on similar internal load densities, occupancy' lighting, thermal and temperature schedules, and in combination with the following guidelines:

  1. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for interior and perimeter spaces. Interior spaces shall be those located more than 15 feet (4572 mm) from an exterior wall. Perimeter spaces shall be those located closer than 15 feet (4572 mm) from an exterior wall.
  2. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces adjacent to glazed exterior walls: a separate zone shall be provided for each orientation, except orientations that differ by no more than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) shall be permitted to be considered to be the same orientation. Each zone shall include floor area that is 15 feet (4572 mm) or less from a glazed perimeter wall, except that floor area within 15 feet (4572 mm) of glazed perimeter walls having more than one orientation shall be divided proportionately between zones.
  3. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces having floors that are in contact with the 63 ground or exposed to ambient conditions from zones that do not share these features.
  4. Separate thermal blocks shall be assumed for spaces having exterior ceiling or roof assemblies from zones that do not share these features.

506.5.2.3 Multifamily residential buildings. Residential spaces shall be modeled using one thermal block per space except that those facing the same orientations are permitted to be combined into one thermal block. Corner units and units with roof or floor loads shall only be combined with units sharing these features.

506.6 Calculation software tools. Calculation procedures used to comply with this section shall be software tools capable of calculating the annual energy consumption of all building elements that differ between the standardreference design and the proposed design and shall include the following capabilities.

  1. Computer generation of the standard reference design using only the input for the proposed design. The calculation procedure shall not allow the user to directly modify the building component characteristics of the standard reference design.
  2. Building operation for a full calendar year (8760 hours).
  3. Climate data for a full calendar year (8760 hours) and shall reflect approved coincident hourly data for temperature, solar radiation, humidity and wind speed for the building location.
  4. Ten or more thermal zones.
  5. Thermal mass effects.
  6. Hourly variations in occupancy, illumination, receptacle loads, thermostat settings, mechanical ventilation, HVAC equipment availability, service hot water usage and any process loads.
  7. Part-load performance curves for mechanical equipment.
  8. Capacity and efficiency correction curves for mechanical heating and cooling equipment.
  9. Printed code official inspection checklist listing each of the proposed design component characteristics from Table 506.5.1 (1) determined by the analysis to provide compliance, along with their respective performance ratings (e.g., R-value, V-factor, SHGC, HSPF, AFUE, SEER, EF, etc.).

506.6.1 Specific approval. Performance analysis tools meeting the applicable subsections of Section 506 and tested according to ASHRAE Standard 140 shall be permitted to be approved. Tools are permitted to be approved based on meeting a specified threshold for a jurisdiction. The code official shall be permitted to approve tools for a specified application or limited scope.

506.6.2 Input values. When calculations require input values not specified by Sections 502, 503, 504 and 505, those input values shall be taken from an approved source.

64
TABLE 506.5.1 (1)
SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE STANDARD REFERENCE AND PROPOSED DESIGNS
BUILDING COMPONENT CHARACTERISTICS STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN PROPOSED DESIGN
Space use classification Same as proposed The space use classification shall be chosen in accordance with Table 505.5.2 for all areas of the building covered by this permit. Where the space use classification for a building is not known, the building shall be categorized as an office building.
Roofs Type: Insulation entirely above deck
Gross area: same as proposed
U-factor: from Table 502.1.2
Solar absorptance: 0.75
Emittance: 0.90
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
Walls, above-grade Type: Mass wall if proposed wall is mass; otherwise steel-framed wall
Gross area: same as proposed
U-factor: from Table 502.1.2
Solar absorptance: 0.75
Emittance: 0.90

As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
Walls, below-grade Type: Mass wall
Gross area: same as proposed
U-Factor: from Table 502.1.2 with insulation layer on interior side of walls

As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
Floors, above-grade Type: joist/framed floor
Gross area: same as proposed
U-factor: from Table 502.1.2
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
Floors, slab-on-grade Type: Unheated
F-factor: from Table 502.1.2
As proposed
As proposed
Doors Type: Swinging
Area: Same as proposed
U-factor: from Table 502.2(1)
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
Glazing Area:
  1. The proposed glazing area; where the proposed glazing area is less than 40 percent of above-grade wall area.
  2. 40 percent of above-grade wall area; where the proposed glazing area is 40 percent or more of the above-grade wall area.
U-factor: from Table 502.3
SHGC: from Table 502.3 except that for climates with no requirement (NR) SHGC = 0.40 shall be used
External shading and PF: None
As proposed








As proposed


As proposed
As proposed
Skylights Area:
  1. The proposed skylight area; where the proposed skylight area is less than 3 percent of gross area of roof assembly.
  2. 3 percent of gross area of roof assembly; where the pro- posed skylight area is 3 percent or more ofgross area ofroof assembly.
U-factor: from Table 502.3
SHGC: from Table 502.3 except that for climates with no requirement (NR) SHGC = 0.40 shall be used.
As proposed









As proposed


As proposed
Lighting, interior The interior lighting power shall be determined in accordance with Table 505.5.2. Where the occupancy of the building is not known, the lighting power density shall be 1.0 Watt per square foot (10.73 W/m2) based on the categorization of buildings with unknown space classification as offices. As proposed
Lighting, exterior The lighting power shall be determined in accordance with Table 505.6.2. Areas and dimensions of tradable and nontradable surfaces shall be the same as proposed. As proposed 65
Internal gains Same as proposed Receptacle, motor and process loads shall be modeled and estimated based on the space use classification. All end-use load components within and associated with the building shall be modeled to include, but not be limited to, the following: exhaust fans, parking garage ventilation fans, exterior building lighting, swimming pool heaters and pumps, elevators, escalators, refrigeration equipment and cooking equipment
Schedules Same as proposed Operating schedules shall include hourly profiles for daily operation and shall account for variations between weekdays, weekends, holidays and any seasonal operation. Schedules shall model the time-dependent variations in occupancy, illumination, receptacle loads, thermostat settings, mechanical ventilation, HVAC equipment availability, service hot water usage and any process loads. The schedules shall be typical of the proposed building type as determined by the designer and approved by the jurisdiction.
Mechanical ventilation Same as proposed As proposed, in accordance with Section 503.2.5.
Heating systems Fuel type: same as proposed design
Equipment typea: from Tables 506.5.1(2) and 506.5.1(3)
Efficiency: from Tables 503.2.3(4) and 503.2.3(5)
Capacityb: sized proportionally to the capacities in the proposed design based on sizing runs, and shall be established such that no smaller number of unmet heating load hours and no larger heating capacity safety factors are provided than in the proposed design.
As proposed

As proposed

As proposed
As proposed
Cooling systems Fuel type: same as proposed design
Equipment typec: from Tables 506.5.1(2) and 506.5.1(3)
Efficiency: from Tables 503.2.3(1), 503.2.3(2) and 503.2.3(3)
Capacityb: sized proportionally to the capacities in the proposed design based on sizing runs, and shall be established such that no smaller number of unmet cooling load hours and no larger cooling capacity safety factors are prOVided than in the proposed deSign.
Economizerd: same as proposed, in accordance with Section 503.4.1.
As proposed

As proposed

As proposed

As proposed






As proposed
Service water heating Fuel type: same as proposed
Efficiency: from Table 504.2
Capacity: same as proposed
Where no service water hot water system exists or is specified in the proposed design, no service hot water heating shall be modeled.
As proposed
As proposed
As proposed
a. Where no heating system exists or has been specified, the heating system shall be modeled as fossil fuel. The system characteristics shall be identical in both the standard reference design and proposed deSign.
b. The ratio between the capacities used in the annual simulations and the capacities determined by sizing runs shall be the same for both the standard reference deSign and proposed design.
c. Where no cooling system exists or no cooling system has been specified, the cooling system shall be modeled as an air-cooled single-zone system, one unit per thermal zone. The system characteristics shall be identical in both the standard reference design and proposed design.
d. If an economizer is required in accordance with Table 503.3.1 (1), and if no economizer exists or is specified in the proposed design, then a supply air economizer shall be provided in accordance with Section 503.4.1.
66
TABLE 506.5.1 (2)
HVAC SYSTEMS MAP
CONDENSER COOLING SOURCEa HEATING SYSTEM CLASSIFICATIONb STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN HVC SYSTEM TYPEc
Single-zone Residential System Single-zone Nonresidential System All Other
Water/ground Electric resistance System 5 System 5 System 1
Heat pump System 6 System 6 System 6
Fossil fuel System 7 System 7 System 2
Air/none Electric resistance System 8 System 9 System 3
Heat pump System 8 System 9 System 3
Fossil fuel System 10 System 11 System 4
a. Select "water!ground" if the proposed design system condenser is water or evaporatively cooled; select"air!none" ifthe condenser is air cooled. Closed-circuit dry coolers shall be considered air cooled. Systems utilizing district cooling shall be treated as if the condenser water type were "water." If no mechanical cooling is specified or the mechanical cooling system in the proposed design does not require heat rejection, the system shall be treated as if the condenser water type were "Air." For proposed designs with ground-source or groundwater-source heat pumps, the standard reference design HVAC system shall be water-source heat pump (System 6).
b. Select the path that corresponds to the proposed design heat source: electric resistance, heat pump (including air source and water source), or fuel fired. Systems utilizing district heating (steam or hot water) and systems with no heating capability shall be treated as if the heating system type were "fossil fue1." For systems with mixed fuel heating sources, the system or systems that use the secondary heating source type (the one with the smallest total installed output capacity for the spaces served by the system) shall be modeled identically in the standard reference design and the primary heating source type shall be used to determine standard reference design HVAC system type.
c. Select the standard reference design HVAC system category: The system under "single-zone residential system" shall be selected if the HVAC system in the proposed design is a single-zone system and serves a residential space. The system under "single-zone nonresidential system" shall be selected if the HVAC system in the proposed design is a single-zone system and serves other than residential spaces. The system under" all other" shall be selected for all other cases.
67
TABLE 506.5.1 (3)
SPECIFICATIONS FOR THE STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN HVAC SYSTEM DESCRIPTIONS
SYSTEM NO. SYSTEM TYPE FAN CONTROL COOLING TYPE HEATING TYPE
1 Variable air volume with parallel fan-powered boxesa VAVd Chilled watere Electric resistance
2 Variable air volume with reheatb VAVd Chilled watere Hot water fossil fuel boilerf
3 Packaged variable air volume with parallel fan-powered boxesa VAVd Direct expansionc Electric resistance
4 Packaged variable air volume with reheatb VAVd Direct expansionc Hot water fossil fuel boilerf
5 Two-pipe fan coil Constant volumei Chilled watere Electric resistance
6 Water-source heat pump Constant volumei Direct expansionc Electric heat pump and boilerg
7 Four-pipe fan coil Constant volumei Chilled watere Hot water fossil fuel boilerf
8 Packaged terminal heat pump Constant volumei Direct expansionc Electric heat pumph
9 Packaged rooftop heat pump Constant volumei Direct expansionc Electric heat pumph
10 Packaged terminal air conditioner Constant volumei Direct expansion Hot water fossil fuel boilerf
11 Packaged rooftop air conditioner Constant volumei Direct expansion Fossil fuel furnace
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 cfrnlff = 0.0004719, 1 Btu/h = 0.293/W, °C = [(OF) -32/1.8].
a. VAV with parallel boxes: Fans in parallel VAV fan-powered boxes shall be sized for 50 percent of the peak design flow rate and shall be modeled with 0.35 W Icfm fan power. Minimum volume setpoints for fan-powered boxes shall be equal to the minimum rate for the space required for ventilation consistent with Section 503.4.5, Exception 5. Supply air temperature setpoint shall be constant at the design condition.
b. VAV with reheat: Minimum volume setpoints for VAV reheat boxes shall be 0.4 cfm/ft2 of floor area. Supply air temperature shall be reset based on zone demand from the design temperature difference to alO°F temperature difference under minimum load conditions. Design airflow rates shall be sized for the reset supply air temperature, Le., a 10°F temperature difference.
c. Direct expansion: The fuel type for the cooling system shall match that of the cooling system in the proposed design.
d. YAY: Constant volume can be modeled if the system qualifies for Exception 1, Section 503.4.5. When the proposed design system has a supply, return or relief fan motor 25 horsepower (hp) or larger, the corresponding fan in the VAV system of the standard reference design shall be modeled assuming a variable speed drive. For smaller fans, a forward-curved centrifugal fan with inlet vanes shall be modeled. If the proposed design's system has a direct digital control system at the zone level, static pressure setpoint reset based on zone requirements in accordance with Section 503.4.2 shall be modeled.
e. Chilled water: For systems using purchased chilled water, the chillers are not explicitly modeled and chilled water costs shall be based as determined in Sections 506.3 and 506.5.2. Otherwise, the standard reference design's chiller plant shall be modeled with chillers having the number as indicated in Table 506.5.1 (4) as a function ofstandard reference building chiller plant load and type as indicated in Table 506.5.1(5) as a function of individual chiller load. Where chiller fuel source is mixed, the system in the standard reference design shall have chillers with the same fuel types and with capacities having the same proportional capacity as the proposed design's chillers for each fuel type. Chilled water supply temperature shall be modeled at 44°F design supply temperature and 56°F return temperature. Piping losses shall not be modeled in either building model. Chilled water supply water temperature shall be reset in accordance with Section 503.4.3.4. Pump system power for each pumping system shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no chilled water pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 22 WI gpm (equal to a pump operating against a 75-foot head, 65-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency). The chilled water system shall be modeled as primary-only variable flow with flow maintained at the design rate through each chiller using a bypass. Chilled water pumps shall be modeled as riding the pump curve or with variable-speed drives when required in Section 503.4.3.4. The heat rejection device shall be an axial fan cooling tower with two-speed fans if required in Section 503.4.4. Condenser water design supply temperature shall be 85°F or 10°F approach to design wet-bulb temperature, whichever is lower, with a design temperature rise of 10°F. The tower shall be controlled to maintain a 70°F leaving water temperature where weather permits, floating up to leaving water temperature at design conditions. Pump system power for each pumping system shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no condenser water pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 19 W/gpm (equal to a pump operating against a 60-foot head, 60-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency). Each chiller shall be modeled with separate condenser water and chilled water pumps interlocked to operate with the associated chiller.
f. Fossil fuel boiler: For systems using purchased hot water or steam, the boilers are not explicitly modeled and hot water or steam costs shall be based on actual utility rates. Otherwise, the boiler plant shall use the same fuel as the proposed design and shall be natural draft. The standard reference design boiler plant shall be modeled with a single boiler if the standard reference design plant load is 600,000 Btu/h and less and with two equally sized boilers for plant capacities exceeding 600,000 Btu/h. Boilers shall be staged as reqUired by the load. Hot water supply temperature shall be modeled at 180°F design supply temperature and 130°F return temperature. Piping losses shall not be modeled in either building model. Hot water supply water temperature shall be reset in accordance with Section 503.4.3.4. Pump system power for each pumping system shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no hot water pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 19 WI gpm (equal to a pump operating against a 60-foot head, 60-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency). The hot water system shall be modeled as primary only with continuous variable flow. Hot water pumps shall be modeled as riding the pump curve or with variable speed drives when required by Section 503.4.3.4.
g. Electric heat pump and boiler: Water-source heat pumps shall be connected to a common heat pump water loop controlled to maintain temperatures between 60°F and 90°F. Heat rejection from the loop shall be provided by an axial fan closed-circuit evaporative fluid cooler with two-speed fans if required in Section 503.4.2. Heat addition to the loop shall be provided by a boiler that uses the same fuel as the proposed design and shall be natural draft. Ifno boilers exist in the proposed design, the standard reference building boilers shall be fossil fuel. The standard reference design boiler plant shall be modeled with a single boiler if the standard reference design plant load is 600,000 Btu/h or less and with two equally sized boilers for plant capacities exceeding 600,000 Btu/h. Boilers shall be staged as reqUired by the load. Piping losses shall not be modeled in either building model. Pump system power shall be the same as the proposed design; if the proposed design has no pumps, the standard reference design pump power shall be 22 WI gpm, which is equal to a pump operating against a 75-foot head, with a 65-percent combined impeller and motor efficiency. Loop flow shall be variable with flow shutoff at each heat pump when its compressor cycles off as reqUired by Section 503.4.3.3. Loop pumps shall be modeled as riding the pump cune or with variable speed drives when reqUired by Section 503.4.3.4.
h. Electric heat pump: Electric air-source heat pumps shall be modeled with electric auxiliary heat. The system shall be controlled with a multistage space thermostat and an outdoor air thermostat wired to energize auxiliary heat only on the last thermostat stage and when outdoor air temperature is less than 40°F.
L. Constant volume: Fans shall be controlled in the same manner as in the proposed design; Le., fan operation whenever the space is occupied or fan operation cycled on calls for heating and cooling. If the fan is modeled as cycling and the fan energy is included in the energy efficiency rating of the equipment, fan energy shall not be modeled explicitly.
68
TABLE 506.5.1 (4)
NUMBER OF CHILLERS
TOTAL CHILLER PLANT CAPACITY NUMBER OF CHILLERS
≤300 tons 1
> 300 tons, < 600 tons 2, sized equally
≥ 600 tons 2 minimum, with chillers added so that no chiller is larger than 800 tons, all sized equally
For 51: 1 ton = 3517 w.

 

TABLE 506.5.1 (5)
WATER CHILLER TYPES
INDIVIDUAL CHILLER PLANT CAPACITY ELECTRIC CHILLER TYPE FOSSIL FUEL CHILLER TYPE
≤ 100 tons Reciprocating Single-effect absorption, direct fired
> 100 tons, < 300 tons Screw Double-effect absorption, direct fired
≥ 300 tons Centrifugal Double-effect absorption, direct fired
For 51: 1 ton = 3517 w.
69 70

CHAPTER 6
REFERENCED STANDARDS

This chapter lists the standards that are referenced in various sections of this document. The standards are listed herein by the promulgating agency of the standard, the standard identification, the effective date and title, and the section or sections of this document that reference the standard. The application of the referenced standards shall be as specified in Section 107.

AAMA American Architectural Manufacturers Association
1827 Walden Office Square
Suite 550
Schaumburg, IL 60173-4268
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
AAMA/WDMA/CSA
101lI.S.2/A c440-05
Specifications for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights 402.4.4, 502.4.1

 

AHRI Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute
4100 North Fairfax Drive
Suite 200
Arlington, VA 22203
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
210/240-03 Unitary Air-Conditioning and Air-Source Heat Pump Equipment. Table 503.2.3(1), Table 503.2.3(2)
310/380-93 Standard for Packaged Terminal Air-conditioners and Heat Pumps Table 503.2.3(3)
340/360-2000 Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-conditioning and Heat Pump Equipment Table 503.2.3(1), Table 503.2.3(2)
365-02 Commercial and Industrial Unitary Air-conditioning Condensing Units Table 503.2.3(6)
440-05 Room Fan-coil 503.2.8
550/590-98 Water Chilling Packages Using the Vapor Compression Cycle-with Addenda Table 503.2.3(7)
560-00 Absorption Water Chilling and Water Heating Packages Table 503.2.3(7)
840-1998 Unit Ventilators 503.2.8
13256-1 (2004) Water-source Heat Pumps-Testing and Rating for Performance-Part 1: Water-to-air and Brine-to-air Heat Pumps Table 503.2.3(2)
1160-2004 Performance Rating of Heat Pump Pool Heaters Table 504.2

 

AMCA Air Movement and Control Association International
30 West University Drive
Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1806
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
500D-07 Laboratory Methods for Testing Dampers for Rating 502.4.5

 

ANSI American National Standards Institute
25 West 43rd Street
Fourth Floor
New York, NY 10036
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
Z21.10.3-01 Gas Water Heaters, Volume III - Storage Water Heaters with Input Ratings Above 75 ,000 Btu per Hour, Circulating Tank and Instantaneous-with Addenda Z21.10.3a-2003 and Z21.10.3b-2004 Table 504.2
Z21.13-04 Gas-fired Low Pressure Steam and Hot Water Boilers Table 503.2.3(5)
Z21.47-03 Gas-fired Central Furnaces Table 503.2.3(4)
Z83.8-02 Gas Unit Heaters and Gas-Fired Duct Furnaces-with Addendum Z83.8a-2003 Table 503.2.3(4)
71
ASHRAE American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc.
1791 Tullie Circle, NE
Atlanta, GA 30329-2305
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
119-88 (RA 2004) Air Leakage Performance for Detached Single-family Residential Buildings Table 405.5.2(1)
140-2007 Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs 506.6.1
146-1998 Testing and Rating Pool Heaters Table 504.2
ANSIIASHRAEIACCA
Standard 183-2007
Peak Cooling and Heating Load Calculations in Buildings Except Low-rise Residential Buildings 503.2.1
13256-1 (2005) Water-source Heat Pumps-Testing and Rating for Performance-Part 1: Water-to-air and Brine-to-air Heat Pumps (ANSIIASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004) Table 503.2.3(2)
90.1-2007 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-rise Residential Buildings
(ANSIIASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2007)
501.1,501.2,502.1.1, Table 502.2(2)
ASHRAE-2005 ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals .402.1.4, Table 405.5.2(1)
ASHRAE-2004 ASHRAE HVAC Systems and Equipment Handbook-2004 503.2.1

 

ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers
Three Park Avenue
New York, NY 10016-5990
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
PTC 4.1 - 1964
(Reaffirmed 1991)
Steam Generating Units Table 503.2.3(5)

 

ASTM ASTM International
100 Barr Harbor Drive
West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2859
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
C 90-06b Specification for Load-bearing Concrete Masonry Units Table 502.2(1)
E 283-04 Test Method for Determining the Rate of Air Leakage Through Exterior Windows, Curtain Walls and Doors Under Specified Pressure Differences Across the Specimen 402.4.5, 502.4.2, 502.4.8

 

CSA Canadian Standards Association
5060 Spectrum Way
Mississauga, Ontario, Canada L4W 5N6
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
101lLS.2/A440-08 Specifications for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights 402.4.4, 502.4.1

 

DOE U.S. Department of Energy
c/o Superintendent of Documents
U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, DC 20402-9325
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
10 CFR Part 430, Subpart B,
Appendix E (1998)
Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters Table 504.2
10 CFR Part 430,
Subpart B, Appendix N (1998)
Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers Table 503.2.3(4), Table 503.2.3(5) 72
10 CFR Part 431,
Subpart E 2004
DOE/EIA-0376
Test Procedures and Efficiency Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers Table 503.2.3(6)
(Current Edition) State Energy Prices and Expenditure Report .405.3, 506.2

 

ICC International Code Council, Inc.
500 New Jersey Avenue, NW
6th Floor
Washington, DC 20001
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
IBC-09 International Building Code® 303.2,201.3
IFC-09 International Fire Code® 201.3
IFGC-09 International Fuel Gas Code® 201.3
IMC-09 International Mechanical Code® 503.2.5, 503.2.6, 503.2.7.1, 503.2.7.1.1, 503.2.7.1.2, 503.2.9.1, 503.3.1 , 503.4.5
IPC-09 International Plumbing Code® 201 .3
IRC-09 International Residential Code® 201.3,403.2.2,403.6,405.6.1, Table 405.5.2(1)

 

IESNA Illuminating Engineering Society of North America
120 Wall Street, 17th Floor
New York, NY 10005-4001
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
90.1-2004 Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-rise Residential Buildings 501.1,501.2,502.1.1, Table 502.2(2)

 

NFRC National Fenestration Rating Council, Inc.
6305 Ivy Lane, Suite 140
Greenbelt, MD 20770
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
100-04 Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product U-factors-Second Edition 303.1.3
200-04 Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product Solar Heat Gain Coefficients and Visible Transmittance at Normal Incidence-Second Edition 303.1.3
400-04 Procedure for Determining Fenestration Product Air Leakage-Second Edition 402.4.2,502.4.1

 

SMACNA Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors National Association, Inc.
4021 Lafayette Center Drive
Chantilly, VA 20151-1209
Standard reference in code Title Referenced number section number
SMACNA-85 HVAC Air Duct Leakage Test Manual. 503.2.7.1.3

 

UL Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
333 Pfingsten Road
Northbrook, IL 60062-2096
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
727-06 Oil-fired Central Furnaces Table 503.2.3(4)
731-95 Oil-fired Unit Heaters-with Revisions through February 2006 Table 503.2.3(4)
73
US-FTC United States - Federal Trade Commission
600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20580
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
CFR Title 16 R-value Rule 303.1 .4

 

WDMA Window and Door Manufacturers Association
1400 East Touhy Avenue, Suite 470
Des Plaines, IL 60018
Standard reference number Title Referenced in code section number
AAMA/WDMA/CSA
101ILS.2/A440-08
Specifications for Windows, Doors and Unit Skylights 402.4.4, 502.4.1
74

INDEX

A
ACCESS HATCHES 402.2.3
ADDITIONS AND ALTERATIONS
  Defined 202
  Requirements 101.4.3
ADMINISTRATION Chapter 1
AIR ECONOMIZERS
  Defined 202
  Requirements 503.3.1, 503.4.1, 503.4.5.3
AIR INFILTRATION
  Defined 202
  Requirements 402.4.1, 402.4.2, 502.4.6
AIR LEAKAGE 402.4.2,402.4.4, Table 405.5.2(1), 502.4,503.2.7.1.3
AIR SEALING 402.4.2
  Testing option 402.4.2.1
  Visual inspection 402.4.2.2
AIR SYSTEM BALANCING 503.2.9.1
ALTERNATE MATERIALS 102
APPROVED
  Defined 202
AUTOMATIC
  Defined 202
B
BALANCING 503.2.9.1,503.2.9.2
BALLASTS 505.1,505.3
BASEMENT WALLS
  Defined 202
  Requirements 303.2.1, Table 402.1.1, Table 402.1.3, 402.2.6, Table 405.5.2(1), Table 502.1.2, Table 502.2(1),502.2.2.2,502.2.4
BELOW-GRADE WALLS (see BASEMENT WALLS)
BI-LEVEL SWITCHING 505.2.2.1
BOILERS Table 503.2.3(5), 503.4.3, 503.4.3.5, 504.2, Table 504.2
BUILDING ENVELOPE
  Air tightness 402.4.2
  Compliance documentation 103.2, 401.3
  Defined 202
  Exemption 101.5.2
  Requirements 102.1.1, 402, 502
  Performance method Table 405.5.2(1), 506.3
C
CAULKING AND WEATHERSTRIPPING 402.4.1, 502.4.1, 502.4.3
CERTIFICATE 401.3
CHANGE OF OCCUPANCY 101.4.4
CIRCULATING PUMPS 503.4.3.3, 504.6
CIRCULATING SYSTEMS 403.4, 503.4.3.3, 503.4.3.5,504.6,504.7.2
CLIMATE ZONES 301, Figure 301.1, Table 301.1
  By state or territory Figure 301.1, Table 301.1
  International climate zones 301.3, Table 301.3(1), Table 301.3(2)
  Warm humid 301.2, Table 301.2, 301.3.1
COEFFICIENT OF PERFORMANCE (COP) Table 503.2.3(2), Table 503.2.3(7)
COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS Compliance 101.2, 101 .4.6, 101.5, Chapter 5, 501 .1
  Defined 202
  Total building performance 506
COMMISSIONING OF HVAC SYSTEMS 503.2.9
  Manuals 503.2.9.3
COMPLIANCE AND ENFORCEMENT 101.5
CONDITIONED FLOOR AREA
  Defined 202
CONDITIONED SPACE
  Defined 202
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 103
CONTROLS
  Capabilities 503.2.2, 503.2.4.1, 503.2.4.3.1, 503.2.4.3.2, 503.2.5, 503.4.3.4, 503.4.3.5, 503.4.4, 504.3
  Economizers 503.3.1, 503.4.1
  Energy recovery systems 503.2.6
  Fan speed 503.4.4
  Heat pump 403.1.1, 503.2.4.1.1, 503.4.3.3
  Heating and cooling 403.1, 503.2.2, 503.2.4, 503.4.5
  Hot water system 504.6
  Humidity 503.2.4.1, 503.2.6, 503.4.5
  Hydronic systems 503.2.9.2, 503.3.2, 503.4.3
  Lighting 505.2, 505.6.1, 505.6.2
  Off hour 503.2.4.3
  Service water heating 403.4, 504.3, 504.6
  Shutoff dampers 403.5, 503.2.4.4, 503.4.5
  Temperature 503.2.4.1, 503.2.4.2, 503.2.4.3.1, 503.4.3, 504.3
  Variable air volume systems 503.4.2, 503.4.5
  Ventilation 503.2.5
COOLING SYSTEMS
  Hot gas bypass limitation 502.4.4
COOLING WITH OUTDOOR AIR 503.3.1, 503.4.1 75
CRAWL SPACE WALLS
  Defined 202
  Requirements 303.2.1, Table 402.1.1, Table 402.1.3, 402.2.8, Table 405.5.2(1)
D
DAYLIGHT ZONE CONTROL 505.2.2.3
DEADBAND 503.2.4.2, 503.4.3.2, 403.4.3.3
DEFINITIONS Chapter 2
DEGREE DAY COOLING Table 301.3(2)
DEGREE DAY HEATING Table 301.3(2)
DEMAND CONTROL VENTILATION(DCV) 503.2.5.1
DESIGN CONDITIONS Chapter 3, 302
DUAL DUCT VAV 503.4.5.2, 503.4.5.3
DUCTS
  Defined 202
  Insulation 103.2,401.3,403.2,503.2.7, 503.2.7.1.2,503.2.7.1.3
  Sealing 103.2,503.2.7, 503.2.7.1.2,503.2.7.1.3
DWELLING UNIT
  Defined 202
E
ECONOMIZER
  Air 503.3.1,503.4.1
  Defined 202
  Requirements 503.3.1, 503.4.1, 503.4.5.3
  Water 503.4.1
ELECTRICAL METERS 505.7
ELECTRICAL POWER AND LIGHTING 404, 505
ENERGY ANALYSIS, ANNUAL
  Defined 202
  Documentation 405.4, 506.4
  Requirements 405.3, 506
ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO (EER) 503.2.3, 503.3.1, 503.4.1
ENERGY RECOVERY VENTILATION SYSTEMS
  Defined 202
  Requirements Table 405.5.2(1), 503.2.1, 503.2.6
ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL
  Defined 202
  Requirements/use 101.5.1,405,506, 506.2.1, 506.5.3, 506.5.4
ENVELOPE, BUILDING THERMAL
  Defined 202
ENVELOPE DESIGN PROCEDURES 402, 502
EQUIPMENT EFICIENCIES 103.2,401.3,503.2.3, 503.3.1,503.4.1,504.2
EQUIPMENT PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS 503.2.3
  Boilers Table 503.2.3(5)
  Condensing units Table 503.2.3(6)
  Economizer exception Table 503.3.1 (2)
  Packaged terminal air conditioners and heat pump Table 503.2.3(3)
  Unitary air conditioners and condensing units Table 503.2.3(1)
  Unitary and applied heat pumps Table 503.2.3(2)
  Warm air duct furnaces and unit heaters Table 503.2.3(4)
  Warm air furnaces Table 503.2.3(4)
  Warm air furnaces/air-conditioning units Table 503.2.3(4)
  Water chilling packages, standard. Table 503.2.3(7)
  Water heating 504.2
EXEMPT BUILDINGS 101.5.2
EXISTING BUILDINGS 101.4.1
EXTERIOR LIGHTING 505.6
EXTERIOR SHADING Table 502.3,502.3.2
EXTERIOR WALLS
  Defined 202
  Thermal performance 402, 402.1.1, Table 405.5.2(1),502,502.2.2
F
FAN FLOOR HORSEPOWER 503.2.10.1
FENESTRATION 303.1.3,402.3,402.4.2, 502.3, 502.4
  Defined 202
  Rating and labeling 303.1.3,402.1.1, 402.6, 502.1.1
FIREPLACES 402.4.3
FURNACE EFFICIENCY Table 405.5.2(1), Table 503.2.3(4)
G
GUESTROOMS (see SLEEPING UNIT)
GLAZING AREA
  Requirements 402.3.3,402.3.5, Table 404.5.2(1)
H
HEAT PUMP 403.1.1, Tables 503.2.3(2,3), 503.2.4.1.1, 503.4.3.3
HEAT TRAPS 504.4,504.5
  Defined 202
HEATING AND COOLING LOADS 302.1,403.1.2, 503.2.1, 503.2.2, 503.2.3, 503.2.4.1.1, 503.2.4.3, 503.3.1, 503.4.2
HEATING OUTSIDE A BUILDING 503.2.11
HISTORIC BUILDINGS 101.4.2 76
HOT WATER 504.2
  Annual energy performance 405.1
  Piping insulation 403.4, 503.2.8, 504.5
  System controls 503.4.6, 504.3, 504.6
HUMIDISTAT
  Defined 202
  Requirements 503.2.4.1, 503.2.6, 503.4.5
HYDRONIC HEAT PUMP SYSTEMS 503.4.3.3
HYDRONIC SYSTEM BALANCING 503.2.9.2
I
IDENTIFICATION (MATERIALS, EQUIPMENT AND SYSTEM) 303.1
INDIRECTLY CONDITIONED SPACE (see CONDITIONED SPACE)
INFILTRATION, AIR LEAKAGE 402.4, Table 405.5.2(1),502.4
  Defined 202
INSPECTIONS 104
INSULATION
  Identification 303.1
  Installation 303.1.1, 303.1.1.1, 303.1.2, 303.2
  Product rating 303.1.4
  Requirements 402.1.1, 402.2, 502.1, 502.2
INSULATING SHEATHING
  Defined 202
  Requirements Table 402.1.1, 402.1.2, Table 502.2(1),502.2.3
INTEGRATED PART LOAD VALUE (lPLV) Tables 503.2.3 (1, 2, 6 and 7), 503.4.1, 506.3.1
INTERIOR LIGHTING POWER 505.5, 505.5.2
L
LABELED
  Defined 202
  Requirements 303.1.3, 303.3, 402.4.2, 402.4.3, 502.4.1, 502.4.7, 503.2.7, 505.5.1.2
LIGHTING POWER
  Design procedures 505.5.2
  Exterior connected 505.6, 506.2.8
  Interior connected 505.5, Table 505.5.2,506.4.7
  Manufacturer's information 102.2, 102.3, 505.1.3
LIGHTING SYSTEMS 404, 505
  Controls, additional 505.2.2
  Controls, exterior 505.2.4
  Controls, interior 505.2.1
  Guestrooms/sleeping units 505.2.3
  Line vOltage 505.5.1.4
  Merchandise, (highlight specific) Table 505.5.2
  Plug-in busway 505.5.1.4
  Recessed 502.4.8
  Track 505.5.1.4
LISTED
  Defined 202
LOADING DOCK WEATHERSEALS 502.4.6
LOW ENERGY BUILDINGS 101.5.2
LOW-VOLTAGE LIGHTING
  Defined 202
  Requirements 505.5.1.2
LUMINAIRE
  Controls 505.2.2.1, 505.2.3
  Sealed 402.4.3,502.4.7
  Tandem wiring 505.3
  Wattage 505.5.1,505.6.1
M
MAINTENANCE INFORMATION 102.3
MANUALS 101.5.1, 102.3,503.2.9.3
MASS
  Wall 402.1.3,402.2.3, Table 405.5.2(1),502.2.3
  Floor 502.2.5
MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT 303
MECHANICAL SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT 403, 405.1, 503
MECHANICAL VENTILATION 403.5, Table 405.5.2(1), 503.1, 503.2.5
METERS, ELECTRICAL 505.7
MOISTURE CONTROL 402.5, 502.5
MOTOR NAMEPLATE HORSEPOWER 503.2.10.2
MULTIPLE DWELLING UNITS 403.7
MULTIPLE ZONE SYSTEMS 503.4.5
N
NONCIRCULATING SYSTEMS 504.4, 504.5
NONDEPLETABLE/RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES
  Requirements 506.2.4
O
OCCUPANCY
  Requirements 101.4.4, 101.4.5, 101.5, 503.2.9, 503.4.5,504.3,506.2.5,506.4.7
OCCUPANCY SENSORS 503.2.4.3.2, 505.2.2
OFF-HOUR, CONTROLS 503.2.4.3
OPAQUE AREAS 402.3.4, 502, Table 502.2(1),502.2.7
ORIENTATION Table 404.5.2(1), 503.2.4.1, 506.4.4
OVERHANG, PROJECTION FACTOR 502.3.2 77
P
PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONER (PTAC)
  Requirements Table 503.2.3(3), 503.3
PACKAGED TERMINAL HEAT PUMP
  Requirements Table 503.2.3(3), 503.3
PARALLEL PATH CALCULATION 402.2.4
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS 405,506
PHOTOCELL 505.2.4
PIPE INSULATION 403.3, 403.4, 503.2.8, 504.5
PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS 103
POOL COVERS 504.7.3
POOLS 403.9,504.7
PROJECTION FACTOR 502.3.2
PROPOSED DESIGN
  Defined 202
  Requirements 405, 506
PUMPING SYSTEMS 403.4, 503.2.9.2, 503.4.3, 504.6,504.7.2
R
R-VALUE
  Defined 202
  Computation 402.1.2
RECOOLING 503.4.5
REFERENCED STANDARDS 107, Chapter 6
REHEATING 503.4.5, 503.4.6
RENEWABLE/NONDEPLETABLE ENERGY SOURCES 506.2.4
REPAIR
  Requirements 101.4.3
  Defined 202
RESET CONTROL 503.4.3.4
RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS
  Compliance 101.2, 101.5
  Defined 202
  Requirements Chapter 4
  Simulated performance alternative 405
ROOF ASSEMBLY
  Defined 202
  Requirements 101.4.3, 303.1.1.1, 402.2.2, Table 405.5.2(1), 502.2.1, 502.5
S
SCOPE 101.2
SCREW LAMP HOLDERS
  Defined 202
  Requirements 505.5.1.1
SEASONAL ENERGY EFFICIENCY RATIO (SEER) 405.6.1, 503.2.3
SERVICE WATER HEATING
  Defined 202
  Requirements 401.3, 403.4, 405.1, 501.2, 503.4.6, 504
SETBACK THERMOSTAT 503.2.4.3.1
SHADING 502.3.2
  Projection factor 502.3.2
SHEATHING, INSULATING (see INSULATING SHEATHING)
SHGC (see SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT)
SHUTOFF DAMPERS 403.5, 502.4.4, 503.2.4.4
SIMULATED PERFORMANCE ALTERNATIVE 405,506
SIMULATION TOOL (see ENERGY SIMULATION TOOL)
SINGLE ZONE 405.6.1,503.3
SIZING
  Equipment and system 403.6, 405.6.1, 503.2.2
SKYLIGHTS 102.1.3,402.3,402.3.5, 402.4.1, 402.4.2, 402.6, Table 405.5.2(1), 502.1.1, 502.3.2
  Defined 202
  Maximum exempt area 502.3.1
SLAB-EDGE INSULATION 303.2.1,401.3, Table 402.1.1,402.2.7,502.2.6
SLEEPING UNIT 505.2.2.1, 505.2.2.2, 505.2.3
SNOW MELT SYSTEM CONTROLS. 403.8,503.2.4.5
SOLAR HEAT GAIN COEFFICIENT (SHGC) 102.1.3, 104.2,401.3, Table 402.1.1, 402.1.4,402.3.2,402.3.3,402.3.6, 402.6, 405.6.1, Table 502.3, 502.3.2
  Defined 202
STANDARD REFERENCE DESIGN
  Defined 202
  Requirements 405, 506
STANDARDS, REFERENCED 107, Chapter 6
STEEL FRAMING 402.2.4, Table 502.2(2)
STOREFRONT 202, Table 502.3, 502.4.2
SUNROOM 402.2.10, 402.3.5, Table 405.5.2(1)
  Defined 202
SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE RESET CONTROLS 503.4.5.4
SUSPENDED CEILINGS 502.2.1
SWIMMING POOLS 504.7
T
TANDEM WIRING 505.3
TERMITE INFESTATION 402.2.7
THERMAL ISOLATION 402.2.10,402.3.5, Table 405.5.2(1)
  Defined 202
THERMAL MASS (see MASS)
THERMAL RESISTANCE (see R-VALUE) 78
THERMAL TRANSMITTANCE (see U-FACTOR)
TOTAL BUILDING PERFORMANCE
  Commercial 506
  Residential 405
TOWNHOUSE (see RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS)
U
U-FACTOR
  Defined 202
  Alternative 402.1.3, 402.1.4, 502.1.2
V
VAPOR RETARDER 402.2.9
  Defined 202
VARIABLE AIR VOLUME SYSTEMS (VAV) 503.2.6, 503.2.9.2, 503.4.2, 503.4.5
VENTILATION 402.5,403.5, Table 405.5.2(1), 503.2.5
  Defined 202
VESTIBULES 502.4.7
W
WALL
  Above grade, defined 202
  Basement, defined 202
  Crawlspace, defined 202
  Exterior, defined 202
WALLS (see EXTERIOR WALLS AND ENVELOPE, BUILDING THERMAL)
WALLS ADJACENT TO UNCONDITIONED SPACE (see BUILDING THERMAL ENVELOPE)
WATER ECONOMIZER 503.4.1
  Defined 202
WATER HEATING 401.3, 504
WINDOW AREA (see FENESTRATION and GLAZING AREA)
WINDOW PROJECTION FACTOR
  Requirements 502.3.2
WIRING, TANDEM 505.3
Z
ZONE (see also CLIMATE ZONES)
  Defined 202
  Requirements 405.6.1, 503.2.4, 503.3, 503.4.3.4, 503.4.5
ZONE ISOLATION 503.4.5
79 80