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2009 International Building Code®

First Printing: February 2009

ISBN: 978-1-58001-725-1 (soft-cover edition)
ISBN: 978-1-58001-724-4 (loose-leaf edition)

COPYRIGHT © 2009
by
INTERNATIONAL CODE COUNCIL, INC.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2009 International Building Code® is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example, and not limitation, photocopying or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233).

Trademarks: “International Code Council,” the “International Code Council” logo and the “International Building Code” are trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc.

PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.

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PREFACE

Introduction

Internationally, code officials recognize the need for a modern, up-to-date building code addressing the design and installation of building systems through requirements emphasizing performance. The International Building Code®, in this 2009 edition, is designed to meet these needs through model code regulations that safeguard the public health and safety in all communities, large and small.

This comprehensive building code establishes minimum regulations for building systems using prescriptive and performance-related provisions. It is founded on broad-based principles that make possible the use of new materials and new building designs. This 2009 edition is fully compatible with all the International Codes@ (I-Codes @) published by the International Code Council (ICC) @, including the International Energy Conservation Code@,International Existing Building Code@,International Fire Code@,International Fuel Gas Code@,International Mechanical Code@, ICC Performance Code@,International Plumbing Code@, International Private Sewage Disposal Code@, International Property Maintenance Code@, International Residential Code@,International Wildland-Urban Interface Code™ and International Zoning Code@.

The International Building Code provisions provide many benefits, among which is the model code development process that offers an international forum for building professionals to discuss performance and prescriptive code requirements. This forum provides an excellent arena to debate proposed revisions. This model code also encourages international consistency in the application of provisions.

Development

The first edition of the International Building Code (2000) was the culmination of an effort initiated in 1997 by the ICC. This included five drafting subcommittees appointed by ICC and consisting of representatives of the three statutory members of the International Code Council at that time, including: Building Officials and Code Administrators International, Inc. (BOCA), International Conference of Building Officials (lCBO) and Southern Building Code Congress International (SBCCI). The intent was to draft a comprehensive set of regulations for building systems consistent with and inclusive of the scope of the existing model codes. Technical content of the latest model codes promulgated by BOCA, ICBO and SBCCI was utilized as the basis for the development, followed by public hearings in 1997, 1998 and 1999 to consider proposed changes. This 2009 edition presents the code as originally issued, with changes reflected in the 2003 and 2006 editions and further changes approved through the ICC Code Development Process through 2008. A new edition such as this is promulgated every 3 years.

This code is founded on principles intended to establish provisions consistent with the scope of a building code that adequately protects public health, safety and welfare; provisions that do not unnecessarily increase construction costs; provisions that do not restrict the use of new materials, products or methods of construction; and provisions that do not give preferential treatment to particular types or classes of materials, products or methods of construction.

Adoption

The International Building Code is available for adoption and use by jurisdictions internationally. Its use within a governmental jurisdiction is intended to be accomplished through adoption by reference in accordance with proceedings establishing thejurisdiction's laws. At the time of adoption, jurisdictions should insert the appropriate information in provisions requiring specific local information, such as the name of the adopting jurisdiction. These locations are shown in bracketed words in small capital letters in the code and in the sample ordinance. The sample adoption ordinance on page xv addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text.

Maintenance

The International Building Code is kept up to date through the review of proposed changes submitted by code enforcing officials, industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are carefully considered through an open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate.

The contents of this work are subject to change both through the Code Development Cycles and the governmental body that enacts the code into law. For more information regarding the code development process, contact the Code and Standard Development Department of the International Code Council.

While the development procedure of the International Building Code assures the highest degree of care, ICC, its members and those participating in the development of this code do not accept any liability resulting from compliance or noncompliance with the provisions because ICC does not have the power or authority to police or enforce compliance with the contents of this code. Only the governmental body that enacts the code into law has such authority.

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Letter Designations in Front of Section Numbers

In each code development cycle, proposed changes to the code are considered at the Code Development Hearings by the applicable ICC Code Development Committee, whose action constitutes a recommendation to the voting membership for final action on the proposed change. Proposed changes to a code section that has a number beginning with a letter in brackets are considered by a different code development committee. For example, proposed changes to code sections that have [F] in front of them (e.g., [F] 903.1.1.1) are considered by the ICC Fire Code Development Committee at the code development hearings.

The content ofsections in this code that begin with a letter designation are maintained by another code development committee in accordance with the following:

[E]    = International Energy Conservation Code Development Committee;

[EB] = International Existing Building Code Development Committee;

[F]    = International Fire Code Development Committee;

[FG] = International Fuel Gas Code Development Committee;

[M]   = International Mechanical Code Development Committee; and

[P]    = International Plumbing Code Development Committee.

Marginal Markings

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the code indicate a technical change from the requirements of the 2006 edition. Deletion indicators in the form of an arrow (Image) are provided in the margin where an entire section, paragraph, exception or table has been deleted or an item in a list of items or a table has been deleted.

Chapter 7 user note: Chapter 7 of the code has been reorganized from the 2006 edition as a result of an approved code change proposal. This proposal renumbered what was Section 714 in the 2006 edition to Section 704 in this edition, which in turn resulted in renumbering Sections 704 through 713 in the 2006 edition to Sections 705 through 714 in this edition. Marginal markings are included at each section number but have not been included to reflect the subsection renumbering.

Coordination between the International Building and Fire Codes

Because the coordination oftechnical provisions is one ofthe benefits of adopting the ICC family of model codes, users will find the ICC codes to be a very flexible set of model documents. To accomplish this flexibility some technical provisions are duplicated in some of the model code documents. While the International Codes are provided as a comprehensive set of model codes for the built environment, documents are occasionally adopted as a stand-alone regulation. When one of the model documents is adopted as the basis of a stand-alone code, that code should provide a complete package of requirements with enforcement assigned to the entity for which the adoption is being made.

The model codes can also be adopted as a family of complimentary codes. When adopted together there should be no conflict of any of the technical provisions. When multiple model codes are adopted in ajurisdiction it is important for the adopting authority to evaluate the provisions in each code document and determine how and by which agency(ies) they will be enforced. It is important, therefore, to understand that where technical provisions are duplicated in multiple model documents that enforcement duties must be clearly assigned by the local adopting jurisdiction. ICC remains committed to providing state-of-the-art model code documents that, when adopted locally, will reduce the cost to government of code adoption and enforcement and protect the public health, safety and welfare.

Italicized Terms

Selected terms set forth in Chapter 2, Definitions, are italicized where they appear in code text (except those in Sections 1903 through 1908 where italics indicate provisions that differ from ACI 318). Such terms are not italicized where the definition set forth in Chapter 2 does not impart the intended meaning in the use of the term. The terms selected have definitions which the user should read carefully to facilitate better understanding of the code.

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Effective Use of the International Building Code

The International Building Code® (IBC®) is a model code that provides minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare of the occupants of new and existing buildings and structures. The IBC is fully compatible with the ICC family of codes, including: International Energy Conservation Code® (IECC®), International Existing Building Code® (IEBC®), International Fire Code® (IFC®), International Fuel Gas Code® (IFGC®), International Mechanical Code® (IMC®), ICC Performance Code® (ICCPC®), International Plumbing Code® (IPC®), International Private Sewage Disposal Code® (IPSDC®), International Property Maintenance Code® (IPMC®), International Residential Code® (IRC®), International Wildland-Urban Interface Code™ (IWUIC®) and International Zoning Code® (IZC®).

The IBC addresses structural strength, means of egress, sanitation, adequate lighting and ventilation, accessibility, energy conservation and life safety in regards to new and existing buildings, facilities and systems. The codes are promulgated on a 3-year cycle to allow for new construction methods and technologies to be incorporated into the codes. Alternative materials, designs and methods not specifically addressed in the code can be approved by the code official where the proposed materials, designs or methods comply with the intent of the provisions of the code (see Section 104.11).

The IBC applies to all occupancies, including one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses that are not within the scope of the IRC. The IRC is referenced for coverage of detached one- and two-family dwellings and townhouses as defined in the Exception to Section 101.2 and the definition for “townhouse” in Chapter 2. The IBC applies to all types of buildings and structures unless exempted. Work exempted from permits is listed in Section 105.2.

Arrangement and Format of the 2009 IBC

Before applying the requirements of the IBC, it is beneficial to understand its arrangement and format. The IBC, like other codes published by ICC, is arranged and organized to follow sequential steps that generally occur during a plan review or inspection.

Chapters Subjects
1-2 Administration and definitions
3 Use and occupancy classifications
4,31 Special requirements for specific occupancies or elements
5-6 Height and area limitations based on type of construction
7-9 Fire resistance and protection requirements
10 Requirements for evacuation
11 Specific requirements to allow use and access to a building for persons with disabilities
12-13,27-30 Building systems, such as lighting, HVAC, plumbing fixtures, elevators
14-26 Structural components-performance and stability
32 Encroachment outside of property lines
33 Safeguards during construction
34 Existing building allowances
35 Referenced standards
Appendices A-K Appendices
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The IBC requirements for high hazard, fire-resistance-rated construction, interior finish, fire protection systems, means of egress, emergency and standby power, and temporary structures are directly correlated with the requirements of the IFC. The following chapters/sections of the IBC are correlated to the IFC:

IBC
Chapter/Section
IFC
Chapter/Section
SUbject
Sections 307,414,415 Chapters 27-44 High-hazard requirements
Chapter 7 Chapter 7 Fire-resistance-rated construction
Chapter 8 Chapter 8 Interior finish, decorative materials and furnishings
Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Fire protection systems
Chapter 10 Chapter 10 Means of egress
Chapter 27 Section 604 Standby and emergency power
Section 3103 Chapter 24 Temporary structures

The IBC requirements for smoke control systems, and smoke and fire dampers are directly correlated to the requirements of the IMC. IBC Chapter 28 is a reference to the IMC and the IFGC for chimney, fireplaces and barbeques, and all aspects of mechanical systems. The following chapters/sections of the IBC are correlated with the IMC:

IBC
Chapter/Section
IMC
Chapter/Section
SUbject
Section 716 Section 607 Smoke and fire dampers
Section 909 Section 513 Smoke control

The IBC requirements for plumbing fixtures and toilet rooms are directly correlated to the requirements of the IPC. The following chapters/sections of the IBC are correlated with the IPC:

IBC
Chapter/Section
IPC
Chapter/Section
SUbject
Chapter 29 Chapters 3 & 4 Plumbing fixtures and facilities

The following is a chapter-by-chapter synopsis of the scope and intent of the provisions of the International Building Code.

Chapter 1 Scope and Administration. Chapter 1 establishes the limits of applicability of the code and describes how the code is to be applied and enforced. Chapter 1 is in two parts, Part I-Scope and Application (Sections 101-102) and Part 2-Administration and Enforcement (Sections 103-116). Section 101 identifies which buildings and structures come under its purview and references other ICC codes as applicable. Standards and codes are scoped to the extent referenced (see Section 102.4).

The building code is intended to be adopted as a legally enforceable document and it cannot be effective without adequate provisions for its administration and enforcement. The provisions of Chapter 1 establish the authority and duties of the code official appointed by the jurisdiction having authority and also establish the rights and privileges of the design professional, contractor and property owner.

Chapter 2 Definitions. All terms that are defined in the code are listed alphabetically in Chapter 2. Terms are defined in Chapter 2 or there is a reference to the section where the definition is located. While a defined term may be listed in one chapter or another, the meaning is applicable throughout the code.

Codes are technical documents and every word, term and punctuation mark can impact the meaning of the code text and the intended results. The code often uses terms that have a unique meaning in the code and the code meaning can differ substantially from the ordinarily understood meaning of the term as used outside of the code. Where understanding of a term's definition is especially key to or necessary for understanding a particular code provision, the term is shown in italics wherever it appears in the code.

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This is true only for those terms that have a meaning that is unique to the code. In other words, the generally understood meaning of a term or phrase might not be sufficient or consistent with the meaning prescribed by the code; therefore, it is essential that the code-defined meaning be known.

Definitions are deemed to be of prime importance in establishing the meaning and intent of the code text that uses the terms. The user of the code should be familiar with and consult this chapter because the definitions are essential to the correct interpretation of the code and because the user may not be aware that a term is defined.

Chapter 3 Use and Occupancy Classification. Chapter 3 provides for the classification of buildings, structures and parts thereof based on the purpose or purposes for which they are used. Section 302 identifies the groups into which all buildings, structures and parts thereof must be classified. Sections 303 through 312 identify the occupancy characteristics of each group classification. In some sections, specific group classifications having requirements in common are collectively organized such that one term applies to all. For example, Groups A-I, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5 are individual groups for assembly-type buildings. The general term “Group A,” however, includes each of these individual groups. Other groups include Business (B), Educational (E), Factory (F-l, F-2), High Hazard (H-l, H-2, H-3, H-4, H-5), Institutional (1-1, 1-2, 1-3, 1-4), Mercantile (M), Residential (R-l, R-2, R-3, R-4), Storage (S-I, S-2) and Utility (U). In some occupancies, the smaller number means a higher hazard, but that is not always the case.

Defining the use of the buildings is very important as it sets the tone for the remaining chapters of the code. Occupancy works with the height, area and construction type requirements in Chapters 5 and 6, as well as the special provisions in Chapter 4, to determine “equivalent risk,” or providing a reasonable level of protection or life safety for building occupants. The determination of equivalent risk involves three interdependent considerations: (1) the level of fire hazard associated with the specific occupancy of the facility; (2) the reduction offire hazard by limiting the floor area(s) and the height ofthe building based on the fuel load (combustible contents and burnable building components) and (3) the level of overall fire resistance provided by the type of construction used for the building. The greater the potential fire hazards indicated as a function of the group, the lesser the height and area allowances for a particular construction type.

Occupancy classification also plays a key part in organizing and prescribing the appropriate protection measures. As such, threshold requirements for fire protection and means of egress systems are based on occupancy classification (see Chapters 9 and 10). Other sections of the code also contain requirements respective to the classification of building groups. For example, Section 706 deals with requirements for fire wall fire-resistance ratings that are tied to the occupancy classification of a building and Section 803.9 contains interior finish requirements that are dependent upon the occupancy classification. The use of the space, rather than the occupancy of the building is utilized for determining occupant loading (Section 1004) and live loading (Section 1607).

Chapter 4 Special Detailed Requirements Based On Use and Occupancy. Chapter 4 contains the requirements for protecting special uses and occupancies, which are supplemental to the remainder of the code. Chapter 4 contains provisions that may alter requirements found elsewhere in the code; however, the general requirements of the code still apply unless modified within the chapter. For example, the height and area limitations established in Chapter 5 apply to all special occupancies unless Chapter 4 contains height and area limitations. In this case, the limitations in Chapter 4 supersede those in other sections. An example of this is the height and area limitations for open parking garages given in Section 406.3.5, which supersede the limitations given in Section 503.

In some instances, it may not be necessary to apply the provisions of Chapter 4. For example, if a covered mall building complies with the provisions of the code for Group M, Section 402 does not apply; however, other sections that deal with a use, process or operation must be applied to that specific occupancy, such as stages and platforms, special amusement buildings and hazardous materials (Sections 410,411 and 414).

The chapter includes requirements for buildings and conditions that apply to one or more groups, such as high-rise buildings, underground buildings or atriums. Special uses may also imply specific occupancies and operations, such as for Group H, hazardous materials, application of flammable finishes, drying rooms, organic coatings and combustible storage or hydrogen cutoff rooms, all of which are coordinated with the IFC. Unique consideration is taken for special use areas, such as covered mall buildings, motor-vehicle-related occupancies, special amusement buildings and aircraft-related occupancies. Special facilities within other occupancies are considered, such as stages and platforms, motion picture projection rooms and storm shelters. Finally, in order that the overall package of protection features can be easily understood, unique considerations for specific occupancies are addressed: Groups 1-1,1-2,1-3, R-l, R-2, R-3 (by definition R-4), ambulatory care facilities and live/work units.

Chapter 5 General Building Heights and Areas. Chapter 5 contains the provisions that regulate the minimum type of construction for area limits and height limits based on the occupancy of the building. Height and area increases (including allowances for basements, mezzanines and equipment platforms) are permitted based on open frontage for fire department access, and the type of sprinkler protection provided and separation (Sections 503-506, 509). These thresholds are reduced for buildings over three stories in height in accordance with Section 506.4.1. Provisions include the protection and/or separation of incidental accessory occupancies (Table 508.2.5), accessory occupancies (Sections 508.2) and mixed uses in the same building (Sections 506.5, 508.3, 508.4 and 509). Unlimited area buildings are permitted in certain occupancies when they meet special provisions (Section 507).

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Table 503 is the keystone in setting thresholds for building size based on the building's use and the materials with which it is constructed. If one then looks at Table 503, the relationship among group classification, allowable heights and areas and types of construction becomes apparent. Respective to each group classification, the greater the fire-resistance rating of structural elements, as represented by the type of construction, the greater the floor area and height allowances. The greater the potential fire hazards indicated as a function of the group, the lesser the height and area allowances for a particular construction type.

Chapter 6 Types of Construction. The interdependence of these fire safety considerations can be seen by first looking at Tables 601 and 602, which show the fire-resistance ratings of the principal structural elements comprising a building in relation to the five classifications for types of construction. Type I construction is the classification that generally requires the highest fire-resistance ratings for structural elements, whereas Type V construction, which is designated as a combustible type of construction, generally requires the least amount offire-resistance-rated structural elements. The greater the potential fire hazards indicated as a function of the group, the lesser the height and area allowances for a particular construction type. Section 603 includes a list of combustible elements that can be part of a noncombustible building (Types I and II construction).

Chapter 7 Fire and Smoke Protection Features. The provisions of Chapter 7 present the fundamental concepts of fire performance that all buildings are expected to achieve in some form. This chapter identifies the acceptable materials, techniques and methods which proposed construction can be designed and evaluated against to determine a building's ability to limit the impact of fire. The fire-resistance-rated construction requirements within Chapter 7 provide passive resistance to the spread and effects of fire . Types of separations addressed include fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, horizontal assemblies, smoke barriers and smoke partitions. A fire produces heat that can weaken structural components and smoke products that cause property damage and place occupants at risk. The requirements of Chapter 7 work in unison with height and area requirements (Chapter 5), active fire detection and suppression systems (Chapter 9) and occupant egress requirements (Chapter 10) to contain a fire should it occur while helping ensure occupants are able to safely exit.

Chapter 8 Interior Finishes. This chapter contains the performance requirements for controlling fire growth within buildings by restricting interior finish and decorative materials. Past fire experience has shown that interior finish and decorative materials are key elements in the development and spread of fire. The provisions of Chapter 8 require materials used as interior finishes and decorations to meet certain flame-spread index or flame-propagation criteria based on the relative fire hazard associated with the occupancy. As smoke is also a hazard associated with fire, this chapter contains limits on the smoke development characteristics of interior finishes . The performance of the material is evaluated based on test standards.

Chapter 9 Fire Protection Systems. Chapter 9 prescribes the minimum requirements for active systems of fire protection equipment to perform the following functions: detect a fire; alert the occupants or fire department of a fire emergency; and control smoke and control or extinguish the fire. Generally, the requirements are based on the occupancy, the height and the area of the building, because these are the factors that most affect fire-fighting capabilities and the relative hazard of a specific building or portion thereof. This chapter parallels and is substantially duplicated in Chapter 9 of the International Fire Code (IFC); however, the IFC Chapter 9 also contains periodic testing criteria that are not contained in the IBC. In addition, the special fire protection system requirements based on use and occupancy found in IBC Chapter 4 are duplicated in IFC Chapter 9 as a user convenience.

Chapter 10 Means of Egress. The general criteria set forth in Chapter 10 regulating the design of the means of egress are established as the primary method for protection of people in buildings by allowing timely relocation or evacuation of building occupants. Both prescriptive and performance language is utilized in this chapter to provide for a basic approach in the determination ofa safe exiting system for all occupancies. It addresses all portions of the egress system (i.e., exit access, exits and exit discharge) and includes design requirements as well as provisions regulating individual components. The requirements detail the size, arrangement, number and protection of means of egress components. Functional and operational characteristics also are specified for the components that will permit their safe use without special knowledge or effort. The means of egress protection requirements work in coordination with other sections of the code, such as protection of vertical openings (see Chapter 7), interior finish (see Chapter 8), fire suppression and detection systems (see Chapter 9) and numerous others, all having an impact on life safety. Chapter 10 ofthe IBC is duplicated in Chapter 10 of the IFC; however, the IFC contains two additional sections on the means of egress system in existing buildings.

Chapter 11 Accessibility. Chapter 11 contains provisions that set forth requirements for accessibility of buildings and their associated sites and facilities for people with physical disabilities. The fundamental philosophy of the code on the subject of accessibility is that everything is required to be accessible. This is reflected in the basic applicability requirement (see Section 1103.1). The code's scoping requirements then address the conditions under which accessibility is not required in terms of exceptions to this general mandate. While the IBC contains scoping provisions for accessibility (e.g., what, where and how many), ICC/ANSI AI17.1, Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities, is the referenced standard for the technical provisions (i.e., how).

There are many accessibility issues that not only benefit people with disabilities, but also provide a tangible benefit to people without disabilities. This type of requirement can be set forth in the code as generally applicable without necessarily identifying it

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specifically as an accessibility-related issue. Such a requirement would then be considered as having been “mainstreamed.” For example, visible alarms are located in Chapter 9 and ramp requirements are addressed in Chapter 10.

Accessibility criteria for existing buildings are addressed in Section 3411. Appendix E is supplemental information included in the code to address accessibility for items in the new Americans with Disabilities Act/Architectural Barriers Act Accessibility Guidelines (ADA/ABA) that were not typically enforceable through the standard traditional building code enforcement approach system (e.g., beds, room signage). The International Residential Code (IRC) references Chapter 11 for accessibility provisions; therefore, this chapter may be applicable to housing covered under the IRC.

Chapter 12 Interior Environment. Chapter 12 provides minimum standards for the interior environment of a building. The standards address the minimum sizes of spaces, minimum temperature levels, and minimum light and ventilation levels. The collection of requirements addresses limiting sound transmission through walls, ventilation of attic spaces and under floor spaces (crawl spaces). Finally, the chapter provides minimum standards for walls, partitions and floors to resist water intrusion and damage in rooms such as toilet and shower facilities, where water is frequently in use.

Chapter 13 Energy Efficiency. The purpose of Chapter 13 is to provide minimum design requirements that will promote efficient utilization of energy in buildings. The requirements are directed toward the design of building envelopes with adequate thermal resistance and low air leakage, and toward the design and selection ofmechanical, water heating, electrical and illumination systems that promote effective use of depletable energy resources. For the specifics of these criteria, Chapter 13 requires design and construction in compliance with the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC).

Chapter 14 Exterior Walls. This chapter addresses requirements for exterior walls ofbuildings. Minimum standards for wall covering materials, installation of wall coverings and the ability of the wall to provide weather protection are provided. This chapter also requires exterior walls that are close to lot lines, or that are bearing walls for certain types of construction, to comply with the minimum fire-resistance ratings specified in Chapters 6 and 7. The installation of each type of wall covering, be it wood, masonry, vinyl, metal composite material or an exterior insulation and finish system, is critical to its long-term performance in protecting the interior of the building from the elements and the spread of fire. Special attention to the use of combustible materials on the exterior of the building such as balconies, eaves, decks and architectural trim is the focus of Section 1406.

Chapter 15 Roof Assemblies and Rooftop Structures. Chapter 15 provides standards for both roof assemblies as well as structures which sit on top of the roof of buildings. The criteria address roof construction and covering which includes the weather-protective barrier at the roof and, in most circumstances, a fire-resistant barrier. The chapter is prescriptive in nature and is based on decades of experience with various traditional materials. These prescriptive rules are very important for satisfying performance of one type of roof covering or another. Section 1509 addresses rooftop structures including penthouses, tanks, towers and spires. Rooftop penthouses larger than prescribed in this chapter must be treated as a story under Chapter 5.

Chapter 16 Structural Design. Chapter 16 prescribes minimum structural loading requirements for use in the design and construction of buildings and structural components. It includes minimum design loads, as well as permitted design methodologies. Standards are provided for minimum design loads (live, dead, snow, wind, rain, flood and earthquake as well as load combinations). The application of these loads and adherence to the serviceability criteria will enhance the protection of life and property. The chapter references and relies on many nationally recognized design standards. A key standard is the American Society of Civil Engineer's Minimum Design Loads for BUildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7). Structural design needs to address the conditions of the site and location. Therefore maps of rainfall, seismic, snow and wind criteria in different regions are provided.

Chapter 17 Structural Tests and Special Inspections. Chapter 17 provides a variety of procedures and criteria for testing materials and assemblies, for labeling materials and assemblies, and for special inspection of structural assemblies. This chapter expands on the requirements of Chapter 1regarding the roles and responsibilities of the building official regarding approval ofbuilding components. It also provides additional duties and responsibilities for the owner, contractor, design professionals and special inspectors. Proper assembly of structural components, proper quality of materials used, and proper application of materials are essential to ensuring that a building, once constructed, complies with the structural and fire-resistance minimums of the code and the approved design. To determine this compliance often requires continuous or frequent inspection and testing. Chapter 17 establishes these special inspection and testing standards as well as reporting of the work to the building official.

Chapter 18 Soils and Foundations. Chapter 18 contains minimum requirements for design, construction and resistance to water intrusion of foundation systems for buildings and other structures. It provides criteria for the geotechnical and structural considerations in the selection and installation of adequate support for the loads transferred from the structure above. The uncertainties of foundation construction make it extremely difficult to address every potential failure within the text of the code. The chapter includes requirements for soils investigation and site preparation for receiving a foundation including the allowed load-bearing values for soils and for protecting the foundation from water intrusion. Section 1808 addresses the basic requirements for all foundation types. Later sections address foundation requirements that are specific to shallow foundations and deep foundations. Due care

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must be exercised in the planning and design of foundation systems based on obtaining sufficient soils information, the use of accepted engineering procedures, experience and good technical judgment.

Chapter 19 Concrete. This chapter provides minimum accepted practices to the design and construction ofbuildings and structural components using concrete-both plain and reinforced. Chapter 19 is formatted to parallel American Concrete Institute (ACI) 318, BUilding Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. The chapter also includes references to additional standards. Structural concrete must be designed and constructed to comply with this code and all listed standards. There are specific sections of the chapter addressing concrete slabs, anchorage to concrete, shotcrete, reinforced gypsum concrete and concrete-filled pipe columns. Because of the variable properties of material and numerous design and construction options available in the uses of concrete, due care and control throughout the construction process is necessary.

Chapter 20 Aluminum. Chapter 20 contains standards for the use of aluminum in building construction. Only the structural applications of aluminum are addressed. The chapter does not address the use of aluminum in specialty products such as storefront or window framing or architectural hardware. The use of aluminum in heating, ventilating or air-conditioning systems is addressed in the International Mechanical Code (1MC). The chapter references national standards from the Aluminum Association for use of aluminum in building construction, AA ASM 35, Aluminum Sheet Metal Work in BUilding Construction, and AA ADM 1, Aluminum Design Manual. By utilizing the standards set forth, a proper application of this material can be obtained.

Chapter 21 Masonry. This chapter provides comprehensive and practical requirements for masonry construction. The provisions of Chapter 21 require minimum accepted practices and the use of standards for the design and construction of masonry structures. The provisions address: material specifications and test methods; types of wall construction; criteria for engineered and empirical designs; required details of construction including the execution of construction. Masonry design methodologies including allowable stress design, strength design and empirical design are covered by provisions of the chapter. Also addressed are masonry fireplaces and chimneys, masonry heaters and glass unit masonry. Fire-resistant construction using masonry is also required to comply with Chapter 7. Masonry foundations are also subject to the requirements of Chapter 18.

Chapter 22 Steel. Chapter 22 provides the requirements necessary for the design and construction of structural steel (including composite construction), cold-formed steel, steeljoists, steel cable structures and steel storage racks. The chapter specifies appropriate design and construction standards for these types ofstructures. It also provides a road map of the applicable technical requirements for steel structures. Steel is a noncombustible building material commonly associated with Types I and II construction; however, it is permitted to be used in all types of construction. The code requires that materials used in the design of structural steel members conform to designated national standards. Chapter 22 is involved with the design and use ofsteel materials using the specifications and standards of the American Institute for Steel Construction, the American Iron and Steel Institute, the Steel Joist Institute and the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Chapter 23 Wood. This chapter provides minimum guidance for the design of buildings and structures that use wood and wood-based products in their framing and fabrication. The chapter is organized around three design methodologies: allowable stress design (ASD), load and resistance-factor design (LRFD) and conventional light-frame construction. Included in the chapter are references to design and manufacturing standards for various wood and wood-based products; general construction requirements; design criteria for lateral-force-resisting systems and specific requirements for the application of the three design methods. In general, only Type III, IV or V buildings may be constructed of wood. Accordingly Chapter 23 is referenced when the combination of the occupancy (determined in Chapter 3) and the height and area of the building (determined in Chapter 5) indicate that construction can be Type III, IV or V.

Chapter 24 Glass and Glazing. This chapter establishes regulations for glass and glazing used in buildings and structures that, when installed, are subjected to wind, snow and dead loads. Engineering and design requirements are included in the chapter. Additional structural requirements are found in Chapter 16. A second concern of this chapter is glass and glazing used in areas where it is likely to have an impact on the occupants. Section 2406 identifies hazardous locations where glazing installed must either be safety glazing or blocked to prevent human impact. Safety glazing must meet stringent standards and be appropriately marked or identified. Additional standards for glass and glazing in guards, handrails, elevator hoistways and elevator cars, and in athletic facilities are provided.

Chapter 25 Gypsum Board and Plaster. Chapter 25 contains the provisions and referenced standards that regulate the design, construction and quality of gypsum board and plaster. These represent the most common interior and exterior finish materials in the building industry. This chapter primarily addresses quality-control-related issues with regard to material specifications and installation requirements. Most products are manufactured under the control of industry standards. The building official or inspector primarily needs to verify that the appropriate product is used and properly installed for the intended use and location. While often simply used as wall and ceiling coverings, proper design and application are necessary to provide weather resistance and required fire protection for both structural and nonstructural building components.

Chapter 26 Plastic. The use of plastics in building construction and components is addressed in Chapter 26. This chapter provides standards addressing foam plastic insulation, foam plastics used as interior finish and trim, and other plastic veneers used on the

x

inside or outside of a building. Plastic siding is regulated by Chapter 14. Sections 2606 through 2611 address the use of light-transmitting plastics in various configurations such as walls, roof panels, skylights, signs and as glazing. Requirements for the use of fiber reinforced polymers, fiberglass reinforced polymers and reflective plastic core insulation are also contained in this chapter. Some plastics exhibit rapid flame spread and heavy smoke density characteristics when exposed to fire. Additionally, exposure to the heat generated by a fire can cause some plastics to deform, which can affect their performance. The requirements and limitations of this chapter are necessary to control the use of plastic and foam plastic products such that they do not compromise the safety of building occupants.

Chapter 27 Electrical. Since electrical systems and components are an integral part of almost all structures, it is necessary for the code to address the installation of such systems. For this purpose, Chapter 27 references the National Electrical Code (NEC). In addition, Section 2702 addresses emergency and standby power requirements. Such systems must comply with the International Fire Code (IFC) and referenced standards. This section also provides references to the various code sections requiring emergency and standby power, such as high-rise buildings and buildings containing hazardous materials.

Chapter 28 Mechanical Systems. Nearly all buildings will include mechanical systems. This chapter provides references to the International Mechanical Code (IMC) and the International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC) for the design and installation of mechanical systems. In addition, the chapter references Chapter 21 of the IBC for masonry chimneys, fireplaces and barbecues.

Chapter 29 Plumbing Systems. Chapter 29 regulates the minimum number of plumbing fixtures that must be provided for every type of building. This chapter also regulates the location of the required fixtures in various types ofbuildings and the construction of toilet rooms. This section requires separate facilities for males and females except for certain types of small occupancies. The regulations in this chapter come directly from Chapters 3 and 4 of the International Plumbing Code (IPC).

Chapter 30 Elevators and Conveying Systems. Chapter 30 provides standards for the installation of elevators into buildings. Referenced standards provide the requirements for the elevator system and mechanisms. Detailed standards are provided in the chapter for hoistway enclosures, hoistway venting and machine rooms. New provisions are added in the 2009 IBC for Fire Service Access Elevators required in high-rise buildings and for the optional choice of Occupant Evacuation Elevators (see Section 403).

Chapter 31 Special Construction. Chapter 31 contains a collection of regulations for a variety of unique structures and architectural features. Pedestrian walkways and tunnels connecting two buildings are addressed in Section 3104. Membrane and air-supported structures are addressed by Section 3102. Safeguards for swimming pool safety are found in Section 3109. Standards for temporary structures, including permit requirements are provided in Section 3103. Structures as varied as awnings, marquees, signs, telecommunication and broadcast towers and automatic vehicular gates are also addressed (see Sections 3105 through 3108 and 3110).

Chapter 32 Encroachments into the Public Right-of-way. Buildings and structures from time to time are designed to extend over a property line and into the public right-of-way. Local regulations outside of the building code usually set limits to such encroachments, and such regulations take precedence over the provisions of this chapter. Standards are provided for encroachments below grade for structural support, vaults and areaways. Encroachments above grade are divided into below 8 feet, 8 feet to 15 feet, and above 15 feet, because of headroom and vehicular height issues. This includes steps, columns, awnings, canopies, marquees, signs, windows, balconies. Similar architectural features above grade are also addressed. Pedestrian walkways must also comply with Chapter 31.

Chapter 33 Safeguards During Construction. Chapter 33 provides safety requirements during construction and demolition of buildings and structures. These requirements are intended to protect the public from injury and adjoining property from damage. In addition the chapter provides for the progressive installation and operation of exit stairways and standpipe systems during construction.

Chapter 34 Existing Structures. The provisions in Chapter 34 deal with alternative methods or reduced compliance requirements when dealing with existing building constraints. This chapter allows for a controlled departure from full compliance with the technical codes, without compromising the minimum standards for fire prevention and life safety features of the rehabilitated building. Provisions are divided by addition, alterations, repairs, change of occupancy and moved structures. There are further allowances for registered historic buildings. There are also special allowances for replacement of existing stairways, replacement of glass and accessibility requirements. The fire escape requirements in Section 3406 are consistent with the fire escape requirements in Section 1030 of the International Fire Code (IFC).

Section 3412, Compliance Alternatives, allows for existing buildings to be evaluated so as to show that alterations, while not meeting new construction requirements, will improve the current existing situation. Provisions are based on a numerical scoring system involving 18 various safety parameters and the degree of code compliance for each issue.

Chapter 34 is repeated in the International Existing Building Code (IEBC). Sections 3402 through 3409 are repeated as IEBC Chapter 3 and Section 3410 as Chapter 13.

xi

Chapter 35 Referenced Standards. The code contains numerous references to standards that are used to regulate materials and methods of construction. Chapter 35 contains a comprehensive list of all standards that are referenced in the code, including the appendices. The standards are part of the code to the extent of the reference to the standard (see Section 102.4). Compliance with the referenced standard is necessary for compliance with this code. By providing specifically adopted standards, the construction and installation requirements necessary for compliance with the code can be readily determined. The basis for code compliance is, therefore, established and available on an equal basis to the building code official, contractor, designer and owner.

Chapter 35 is organized in a manner that makes it easy to locate specific standards. It lists all of the referenced standards, alphabetically, by acronym of the promulgating agency of the standard. Each agency's standards are then listed in either alphabetical or numeric order based upon the standard identification. The list also contains the title ofthe standard; the edition (date) of the standard referenced; any addenda included as part ofthe ICC adoption; and the section or sections of this code that reference the standard.

Appendices. Appendices are provided in the IBC to offer optional or supplemental criteria to the provisions in the main chapters of the code. Appendices provide additional information for administration of the Department of Building Safety as well as standards not typically administered by all building departments. Appendices have the same force and effect as the first 35 chapters of the IBC only when explicitly adopted by the jurisdiction.

Appendix A Employee Qualifications. Effective administration and enforcement of the family of International Codes depends on the training and expertise of the personnel employed by the jurisdiction and his or her knowledge of the codes. Section 103 of the code establishes the Department of Building Safety and calls for the appointment of a building official and deputies such as plans examiners and inspectors. Appendix A provides standards for experience, training and certification for the building official and the other staff mentioned in Chapter 1.

Appendix B Board ofAppeals. Section 112 of Chapter 1 requires the establishment of a board of appeals to hear appeals regarding determinations made by the building official. Appendix B provides qualification standards for members of the board as well as operational procedures of such board.

Appendix C Group V-Agricultural Buildings. Appendix C provides a more liberal set of standards for the construction of agricultural buildings, rather than strictly following the Utility building provision, reflective oftheir specific usage and limited occupant load. The provisions of the appendix, when adopted, allow reasonable heights and areas commensurate with the risk of agricultural buildings.

Appendix D Fire Districts. Fire districts have been a tool used to limit conflagration hazards in areas of a city with intense and concentrated development. More frequently used under the model codes which preceded the International Building Code (IBC), the appendix is provided to allowjurisdictions to continue the designation and use of fire districts. Fire District standards restrict certain occupancies within the district, as well as setting higher minimum construction standards.

Appendix E Supplemental Accessibility Requirements. The Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board (U.S. Access Board) has revised and updated its accessibility guidelines for buildings and facilities covered by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the Architectural Barriers Act (ABA) . Appendix E includes scoping requirements contained in the new ADA/ABA AcceSSibility Guidelines that are not in Chapter 11 and not otherwise mentioned or mainstreamed throughout the code. Items in the appendix deal with subjects not typically addressed in building codes (e.g., beds, room signage, transportation facilities).

Appendix F Rodentproofing. The provisions of this appendix are minimum mechanical methods to prevent the entry of rodents into a building. These standards, when used in conjunction with cleanliness and maintenance programs, can significantly reduce the potential of rodents invading a building.

Appendix G Flood-resistant Construction. Appendix G is intended to fulfill the flood-plain management and administrative requirements of the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) that are not included in the code. Communities that adopt the International Building Code (IBC) and Appendix G will meet the minimum requirements of NFIP as set forth in Title 44 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

Appendix H Signs. Appendix H gathers in one place the various code standards that regulate the construction and protection of outdoor signs. Whenever possible, the appendix provides standards in performance language, thus allowing the widest possible application.

Appendix I Patio Covers. Appendix I provides standards applicable to the construction and use of patio covers. It is limited in application to patio covers accessory to dwelling units. Covers of patios and other outdoor areas associated with restaurants, mercantile buildings, offices, nursing homes or other nondwelling occupancies would be subject to standards in the main code and not this appendix.

Appendix J Grading. Appendix J provides standards for the grading of properties. The appendix also provides standards for administration and enforcement of a grading program including permit and inspection requirements. Appendix J was originally

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developed in the 1960s and used for many years in jurisdictions throughout the western states. It is intended to provide consistent and uniform code requirements anywhere grading is considered an issue.

Appendix K Administrative Provisions. Appendix K primarily provides administrative provisions for jurisdictions adopting and enforcing NFPA 70-the National Electrical Code (NEC). The provisions contained in this appendix are compatible with administrative and enforcement provisions contained in Chapter 1 of the IBC and the other International Codes. Annex H ofNFPA 70 also contains administrative provisions for the NEC; however, some of its provisions are not compatible with IBC Chapter 1. Section KIlO also contains technical provisions that are unique to this appendix and are in addition to technical standards of NFPA 70.

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ORDINANCE

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 2009 International Building Code as an enforceable regulation governing structures and premises should ensure that certain factual information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text.

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF
THE INTERNATIONAL BUILDING CODE
ORDINANCE NO._ _ _ _ _ _ _

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2009 edition of the International Building Code, regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation ofbuildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demolition ofsuch structures in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No.     of the [JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith.

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows:

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the International Building Code, 2009 edition, including Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see International Building Code Section 101.2.1, 2009 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Building Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the State of [STATE NAME] for regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Building Code on file in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance.

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised:

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION]

Section 1612.3. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION]

Section 1612.3. Insert: [DATE OF ISSUANCE]

Section 3412.2. Insert: [DATE IN ONE LOCATION]

Section 3. That Ordinance No. of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all other ordinances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed.

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity ofthe remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that anyone or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional.

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Building Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall anyjust or legal right or remedy of any character be lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance.

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.)

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION… 1
PART I-SCOPE AND APPLICATION 1
Section
101 General 1
102 Applicability 1
PART 2-ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT 2
103 Department of Building Safety 2
104 Duties and Powers of Building Official 2
105 Permits 3
106 Floor and Roof Design Loads 5
107 Submittal Documents 5
108 Temporary Structures and Uses 6
109 Fees 6
110 Inspections 7
111 Certificate of Occupancy 8
112 Service Utilities 8
113 Board of Appeals 8
114 Violations 9
115 Stop Work Order 9
116 Unsafe Structures and Equipment 9
CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 11
Section
201 General 11
202 Definitions 11
CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION 23
Section
301 General 23
302 Classification 23
303 Assembly Group A 23
304 Business Group B 24
305 Educational Group E 24
306 Factory Group F 24
307 High-hazard Group H 25
308 Institutional Group I 33
309 Mercantile Group M 34
310 Residential Group R 35
311 Storage Group S 35
312 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 36
CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY 37
Section
401 Scope 37
402 Covered Mall and Open Mall Buildings 37
403 High-rise Buildings 40
404 Atriums 43
405 Underground Buildings 44
406 Motor-vehicle-related Occupancies 45
407 Group 1-2 49
408 Group 1-3 50
409 Motion Picture Projection Rooms 52
410 Stages and Platforms 53
411 Special Amusement Buildings 54
412 Aircraft-related Occupancies 55
413 Combustible Storage 58
414 Hazardous Materials 58
415 Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 62
416 Application of Flammable Finishes 74
417 Drying Rooms 75
418 Organic Coatings 75
419 Live/work Units 75
420 Groups 1-1, R-1, R-2, R-3 76
421 Hydrogen Cutoff Rooms 76
422 Ambulatory Health Care Facilities 77
423 Storm Shelters 77
CHAPTER 5 GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS 79
Section
501 General 79
502 Definitions 79
503 General Building Height and Area Limitations 79
504 Building Height 79
505 Mezzanines 81
506 Building Area Modifications 82
507 Unlimited Area Buildings 83
508 Mixed Use and Occupancy 84
509 Special Provisions 87 xvii
CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION 89
Section
601 General 89
602 Construction Classification 89
603 Combustible Material in Type I and II Construction 91
CHAPTER 7 FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES 93
Section
701 General 93
702 Definitions 93
703 Fire-resistance Ratings and Fire Tests 94
704 Fire-resistance Rating of Structural Members 95
705 Exterior Walls 97
706 Fire Walls 101
707 Fire Barriers 103
708 Shaft Enclosures 104
709 Fire Partitions 107
710 Smoke Barriers 108
711 Smoke Partitions 109
712 Horizontal Assemblies 109
713 Penetrations 110
714 Fire-resistant Joint Systems 113
715 Opening Protectives 113
716 Ducts and Air Transfer Openings 117
717 Concealed Spaces 121
718 Fire-resistance Requirements for Plaster 124
719 Thermal- and Sound-insulating Materials 124
720 Prescriptive Fire Resistance 125
721 Calculated Fire Resistance 125
CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES 175
Section
801 General 175
802 Definitions 175
803 Wall and Ceiling Finishes 175
804 Interior Floor Finish 178
805 Combustible Materials in Type I and II Construction 178
806 Decorative Materials and Trim 178
807 Insulation 179
808 Acoustical Ceiling Systems 179
CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS 181
Section
901 General 181
902 Definitions 181
903 Automatic Sprinkler Systems 184
904 Alternative Automatic Fire-extinguishing Systems 188
905 Standpipe Systems 190
906 Portable Fire Extinguishers 192
907 Fire Alarm and Detection Systems 194
908 Emergency Alarm Systems 204
909 Smoke Control Systems 204
910 Smoke and Heat Vents 211
911 Fire Command Center 213
912 Fire Department Connections 214
913 Fire Pumps 214
914 Emergency Responder Safety Features 215
915 Emergency Responder Radio Coverage 215
CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS 217
Section
1001 Administration 217
1002 Definitions 217
1003 General Means of Egress 218
1004 Occupant Load 219
1005 Egress Width 221
1006 Means of Egress Illumination 221
1007 Accessible Means of Egress 222
1008 Doors, Gates and Turnstiles 224
1009 Stairways 230
1010 Ramps 233
1011 Exit Signs 234
1012 Handrails 235
1013 Guards 236
1014 Exit Access 237
1015 Exit and Exit Access Doorways 238
1016 Exit Access Travel Distance 240
1017 Aisles 240
1018 Corridors 241
1019 Egress Balconies 242
1020 Exits 243
1021 Number of Exits and Continuity 243
1022 Exit Enclosures 244
1023 Exit Passageways 245
1024 Luminous Egress Path Markings 246 xviii
1025 Horizontal Exits 247
1026 Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways 248
1027 Exit Discharge 249
1028 Assembly 250
1029 Emergency Escape and Rescue 254
CHAPTER 11 ACCESSIBILITy 257
Section
1101 General 257
1102 Definitions 257
1103 Scoping Requirements 257
1104 Accessible Route 258
1105 Accessible Entrances 259
1106 Parking and Passenger Loading Facilities 260
1107 Dwelling Units and Sleeping Units 260
1108 Special Occupancies 264
1109 Other Features and Facilities 266
1110 Signage 269
CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT 271
Section
1201 General 271
1202 Definitions 271
1203 Ventilation 271
1204 Temperature Control 272
1205 Lighting 272
1206 Yards or Courts 273
1207 Sound Transmission 273
1208 Interior Space Dimensions 273
1209 Access to Unoccupied Spaces 274
1210 Surrounding Materials 274
CHAPTER 13 ENERGY EFFICIENCY 275
Section
1301 General 275
CHAPTER 14 EXTERIOR WALLS 277
Section
1401 General 277
1402 Definitions 277
1403 Performance Requirements 277
1404 Materials 278
1405 Installation of Wall Coverings 279
1406 Combustible Materials on the Exterior Side of Exterior Walls 283
1407 Metal Composite Materials (MCM) 284
1408 Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS) 285
CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES 287
Section
1501 General 287
1502 Definitions 287
1503 Weather Protection 287
1504 Performance Requirements 288
1505 Fire Classification 289
1506 Materials 289
1507 Requirements for Roof Coverings 290
1508 Roof Insulation 299
1509 Rooftop Structures 300
1510 Reroofing 301
CHAPTER 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN 303
Section
1601 General 303
1602 Definitions and Notations 303
1603 Construction Documents 304
1604 General Design Requirements 305
1605 Load Combinations 308
1606 Dead Loads 309
1607 Live Loads 309
1608 Snow Loads 315
1609 Wind Loads 315
1610 Soil Lateral Loads 331
1611 Rain Loads 332
1612 Flood Loads 338
1613 Earthquake Loads 340
1614 Structural Integrity 345
CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS 367
Section
1701 General 367
1702 Definitions 367
1703 Approvals 367
1704 Special Inspections 368
1705 Statement of Special Inspections 379
1706 Special Inspections for Wind Requirements 381
1707 Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance 381
1708 Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance 382
1709 Contractor Responsibility 383 xix
1710 Structural Observations 383
1711 Design Strengths of Materials 383
1712 Alternative Test Procedure 383
1713 Test Safe Load 384
1714 In-situ Load Tests 384
1715 Preconstruction Load Tests 384
1716 Material and Test Standards 385
CHAPTER 18 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS 387
Section
1801 General 387
1802 Definitions 387
1803 Geotechnical Investigations 387
1804 Excavation, Grading and Fill 389
1805 Dampproofing and Waterproofing 390
1806 Presumptive Load-bearing Values of Soils 391
1807 Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls and Embedded Posts and Poles 392
1808 Foundations 398
1809 Shallow Foundations 402
1810 Deep Foundations 403
CHAPTER 19 CONCRETE 417
Section
1901 General 417
1902 Definitions 417
1903 Specifications for Tests and Materials 417
1904 Durability Requirements 417
1905 Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing 419
1906 Formwork, Embedded Pipes and Construction Joints 420
1907 Details of Reinforcement 420
1908 Modifications to ACI 318 420
1909 Structural Plain Concrete 423
1910 Minimum Slab Provisions 423
1911 Anchorage to Concrete-Allowable Stress Design 424
1912 Anchorage to Concrete-Strength Design 424
1913 Shotcrete 425
1914 Reinforced Gypsum Concrete 426
1915 Concrete-filled Pipe Columns 426
CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM 427
Section
2001 General 427
2002 Materials 427
CHAPTER 21 MASONRy 429
Section
2101 General 429
2102 Definitions and Notations 429
2103 Masonry Construction Materials 432
2104 Construction 433
2105 Quality Assurance 434
2106 Seismic Design 435
2107 Allowable Stress Design 435
2108 Strength Design of Masonry 436
2109 Empirical Design of Masonry 436
2110 Glass Unit Masonry 438
2111 Masonry Fireplaces 438
2112 Masonry Heaters 440
2113 Masonry Chimneys 441
CHAPTER 22 STEEL 447
Section
2201 General 447
2202 Definitions 447
2203 Identification and Protection of Steel for Structural Purposes 447
2204 Connections 447
2205 Structural Steel 447
2206 Steel Joists 448
2207 Steel Cable Structures 449
2208 Steel Storage Racks 449
2209 Cold-formed Steel 449
2210 Cold-formed Steel Light-frame Construction 449
CHAPTER 23 WOOD 451
Section
2301 General 451
2302 Definitions 451
2303 Minimum Standards and Quality 452
2304 General Construction Requirements 456
2305 General Design Requirements for Lateral-foree-resisting Systems 466
2306 Allowable Stress Design 468
2307 Load and Resistance Factor Design 469
2308 Conventional Light-frame Construction 469
CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING 521
Section
2401 General 521
2402 Definitions 521 xx
2403 General Requirements for Glass 521
2404 Wind, Snow, Seismic and Dead Loads on Glass 521
2405 Sloped Glazing and Skylights 523
2406 Safety Glazing 524
2407 Glass in Handrails and Guards 526
2408 Glazing in Athletic Facilities 526
2409 Glass in Elevator Hoistways and Elevator Cars 527
CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD AND PLASTER 529
Section
2501 General 529
2502 Definitions 529
2503 Inspection 529
2504 Vertical and Horizontal Assemblies 529
2505 Shear Wall Construction 529
2506 Gypsum Board Materials 530
2507 Lathing and Plastering 530
2508 Gypsum Construction 530
2509 Gypsum Board in Showers and Water Closets 531
2510 Lathing and Furring for Cement Plaster (Stucco) 532
2511 Interior Plaster 532
2512 Exterior Plaster 533
2513 Exposed Aggregate Plaster 533
CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC 535
Section
2601 General 535
2602 Definitions 535
2603 Foam Plastic Insulation 535
2604 Interior Finish and Trim 538
2605 Plastic Veneer. 539
2606 Light-transmitting Plastics 539
2607 Light-transmitting Plastic Wall Panels 540
2608 Light-transmitting Plastic Glazing 541
2609 Light-transmitting Plastic Roof Panels 541
2610 Light-transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing 542
2611 Light-transmitting Plastic Interior Signs 542
2612 Fiber Reinforced Polymer and Fiberglass-reinforced Polymer 543
2613 Reflective Plastic Core Insulation 544
CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL 545
Section
2701 General 545
2702 Emergency and Standby Power Systems 545
CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SySTEMS 547
Section
2801 General 547
CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS 549
Section
2901 General 549
2902 Minimum Plumbing Facilities 549
2903 Toilet Room Requirements 552
CHAPTER 30 ELEVATORS AND CONVEYING SYSTEMS 553
Section
3001 General 553
3002 Hoistway Enclosures 553
3003 Emergency Operations 553
3004 Hoistway Venting 554
3005 Conveying Systems 554
3006 Machine Rooms 555
3007 Fire Service Access Elevator 555
3008 Occupant Evacuation Elevators 556
CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION 559
Section
3101 General 559
3102 Membrane Structures 559
3103 Temporary Structures 560
3104 Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels 560
3105 Awnings and Canopies 561
3106 Marquees 562
3107 Signs 562
3108 Telecommunication and Broadcast Towers 562
3109 Swimming Pool Enclosures and Safety Devices 562
3110 Automatic Vehicular Gates 563
CHAPTER 32 ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAy 565
Section
3201 General 565
3202 Encroachments 565 xxi
CHAPTER 33 SAFEGUARDS DURING CONSTRUCTION 567
Section
3301 General 567
3302 Construction Safeguards 567
3303 Demolition 567
3304 Site Work 567
3305 Sanitary 567
3306 Protection of Pedestrians 568
3307 Protection of Adjoining Property 569
3308 Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and Public Property 569
3309 Fire Extinguishers 569
3310 Means of Egress 569
3311 Standpipes 569
3312 Automatic Sprinkler System 570
CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES 571
Section
3401 General 571
3402 Definitions 571
3403 Additions 572
3404 Alterations 572
3405 Repairs 573
3406 Fire Escapes 574
3407 Glass Replacement 575
3408 Change of Occupancy 575
3409 Historic Buildings 575
3410 Moved Structures 575
3411 Accessibility for Existing Buildings 575
3412 Compliance Alternatives 577
CHAPTER 35 REFERENCED STANDARDS 587
APPENDIX A EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATIONS 607
Section
A101 Building Official Qualifications 607
A102 Referenced Standards 607
APPENDIX B BOARD OF APPEALS 609
Section
B101 General 609
APPENDIX C GROUP U-AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS 611
Section
C101 General 611
C102 Allowable Height and Area 611
C103 Mixed Occupancies 611
C104 Exits 611
APPENDIX D FIRE DISTRICTS 613
Section
D101 General 613
D102 Building Restrictions 613
D103 Changes to Buildings 614
D104 Buildings Located Partially in the Fire District 614
D105 Exceptions to Restrictions in Fire District 614
D106 Referenced Standards 615
APPENDIX E SUPPLEMENTARY ACCESSIBILITY REQUIREMENTS 617
Section
E101 General 617
E102 Definitions 617
E103 Accessible Route 617
E104 Special Occupancies 617
E105 Other Features and Facilities 618
E106 Telephones 618
E107 Signage 619
E108 Bus Stops 620
E109 Transportation Facilities and Stations 620
E110 Airports 621
E111 Referenced Standards 621
APPENDIX F RODENTPROOFING 623
Section
F101 General 623
APPENDIX G FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION 625
Section
G101 Administration 625
G102 Applicability 625
G103 Powers and Duties 625
G104 Permits 626
G105 Variances 626 xxii
G201 Definitions 627
G301 Subdivisions 628
G401 Site Improvement. 628
G501 Manufactured Homes 628
G601 Recreational Vehicles 628
G701 Tanks 629
G801 Other Building Work 629
G901 Temporary Structures and Temporary Storage 629
G1001 Utility and Miscellaneous Group U 629
GII01 Referenced Standards 630
APPENDIX H SIGNS 631
Section
HI0l General 631
HI02 Definitions 631
HI03 Location 631
HI04 Identification 631
HI05 Design and Construction 632
HI06 Electrical 632
HI07 Combustible Materials 632
HI08 Animated Devices 632
HI09 Ground Signs 632
H110 Roof Signs 633
HIlI Wall Signs 633
H112 Projecting Signs 633
H113 Marquee Signs 634
H114 Portable Signs 634
HIlS Referenced Standards 634
APPENDIX I PATIO COVERS 635
Section
1101 General 635
1102 Definitions 635
1103 Exterior Openings 635
1104 Structural Provisions 635
APPENDIX J GRADING 637
Section
JI0l General 637
JI02 Definitions 637
JI03 Permits Required 637
JI04 Permit Application and Submittals 637
JI05 Inspections 638
JI06 Excavations 638
JI07 Fills 638
JI08 Setbacks 638
J109 Drainage and Terracing 640
J110 Erosion Control 640
JIll Referenced Standards 640
APPENDIX K ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 641
Section
KI0l General 641
KI02 Applicability 641
KI03 Permits 641
K104 Construction Documents 642
K105 Alternative Engineered Design 642
K106 Required Inspections 642
KI07 Prefabricated Construction 642
KI08 Testing 643
KI09 Reconnection 643
KIlO Condemning Electrical Systems 643
KIll Electrical Provisions 643
INDEX 645
xxiii xiv

CHAPTER 1
SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION

PART 1-SCOPE AND APPLICATION

SECTION 101
GENERAL

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the BUilding Code of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], hereinafter referred to as “this code.”

101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, removal and demolition of every building or structure or any appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or structures.

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with the International Residential Code.

101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically adopted.

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare through structural strength, means of egress facilities, stability, sanitation, adequate light and ventilation, energy conservation, and safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

101.4 Referenced codes. The other codes listed in Sections 101.4.1 through 101.4.6 and referenced elsewhere in this code shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference.

101.4.1 Gas. The provisions of the International Fuel Gas Code shall apply to the installation of gas piping from the point of delivery, gas appliances and related accessories as covered in this code. These requirements apply to gas piping systems extending from the point of delivery to the inlet connections of appliances and the installation and operation of residential and commercial gas appliances and related accessories.

101.4.2 Mechanical. The provisions of the International Mechanical Code shall apply to the installation, alterations, repairs and replacement of mechanical systems, including equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and/or appurtenances, including ventilating, heating, cooling, air-conditioning and refrigeration systems, incinerators and other energy-related systems.

101.4.3 Plumbing. The provisions of the International Plumbing Code shall apply to the installation, alteration, repair and replacement of plumbing systems, including equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances, and where connected to a water or sewage system and all aspects of a medical gas system. The provisions of the International Private Sewage Disposal Code shall apply to private sewage disposal systems.

101.4.4 Property maintenance. The provisions of the International Property Maintenance Code shall apply to existing structures and premises; equipment and facilities; light, ventilation, space heating, sanitation, life and fire safety hazards; responsibilities of owners, operators and occupants; and occupancy of existing premises and structures.

101.4.5 Fire prevention. The provisions of the International Fire Code shall apply to matters affecting or relating to structures, processes and premises from the hazard of fire and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of structures, materials or devices; from conditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy of structures or premises; and from the construction, extension, repair, alteration or removal of fire suppression and alarm systems or fire hazards in the structure or on the premises from occupancy or operation.

101.4.6 Energy. The provisions of the International Energy Conservation Code shall apply to all matters governing the design and construction of buildings for energy efficiency.

SECTION 102
APPLICABILITY

102.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.

102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions oflocal, state or federal law.

102.3 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this code shall apply.

102.5 Partial invalidity. In the event that any part or provision of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provisions.

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102.6 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any structure existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be permitted to continue without change, except as is specifically covered in this code, the International Property Maintenance Code or the International Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary by the building official for the general safety and welfare of the occupants and the public.

PART 2-ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT

SECTION 103
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY

103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The Department of Building Safety is hereby created and the official in charge thereof shall be known as the building official.

103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction.

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing authority, the bUilding official shall have the authority to appoint a deputy building official, the related technical officers, inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such employees shall have powers as delegated by the building official. For the maintenance of existing properties, see the International Property Maintenance Code.

SECTION 104
DUTIES AND POWERS OF BUILDING OFFICIAL

104.1 General. The bUilding official is hereby authorized and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The building official shall have the authority to render interpretations of this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and procedures shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this code.

104.2 Applications and permits. The bUilding official shall receive applications, review construction documents and issue permits for the erection, and alteration, demolition and moving of buildings and structures, inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code.

104.3 Notices and orders. The bUilding official shall issue all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this code.

104.4 Inspections. The bUilding official shall make all of the required inspections, or the building official shall have the authority to accept reports of inspection by approved agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible officer of such approved agencyor by the responsible individual. The building official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority.

104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry proper identification when inspecting structures or premises in the performance of duties under this code.

104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the building official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is contrary to or in violation of this code which makes the structure or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building official is authorized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed by this code, provided that if such structure or premises be occupied that credentials be presented to the occupant and entry requested. If such structure or premises is unoccupied, the bUilding official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the structure or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the building official shall have recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry.

104.7 Department records. The building official shall keep official records of applications received, permits and certificates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official records for the period required for retention of public records.

104.8 Liability. The building official, member of the board of appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer or employee because of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall be defended by legal representative of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. The building official or any subordinate shall not be liable for cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code.

104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equipment and devices approved by the bUilding official shall be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval.

104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. The use of used materials which meet the requirements of this code for new materials is permitted. Used equipment and devices shall not be reused unless approved by the building official.

104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the bUilding official shall have the authority to grant modifications for individual cases, upon application of the owner or owner's representative, provided the building official shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does not lessen health, accessibility, life and fire safety, or structural requirements. The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files of the department of building safety.

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104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of construction and equipment. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material, design or method of construction shall be approvedwhere the building official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety.

104.11.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources.

104.11.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative materials or methods, the bUilding off1cial shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the building official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building official for the period required for retention of public records.

SECTION 105
PERMITS

105.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish, or change the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, shall first make application to the bUilding official and obtain the required permit.

105.1.1 Annual permit. In lieu of an individual permit for each alteration to an already approved electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing installation, the building official is authorized to issue an annual permitupon application therefor to any person, firm or corporation regularly employing one or more qualified tradepersons in the building, structure or on the premises owned or operated by the applicant for the permit.

105.1.2 Annual permit records. The person to whom an annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of alterations made under such annual permit. The building off1cial shall have access to such records at all times or such records shall be filed with the building official as designated.

105.2 Work exempt from permit. Exemptions from permit requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the provisions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this jurisdiction. Permits shall not be required for the following:

Building:

  1. One-story detached accessory structures used as tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, provided the floor area does not exceed 120 square feet (11 m2).
  2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high.
  3. Oil derricks.
  4. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in height measured from the bottom of the footing to the top of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge or impounding Class I, II or IlIA liquids.
  5. Water tanks supported directly on grade if the capacity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 925 L) and the ratio of height to diameter or width does not exceed 2:1.
  6. Sidewalks and driveways not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above adjacent grade, and not over any basement or story below and are not part of an accessible route.
  7. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, counter tops and similar finish work.
  8. Temporary motion picture, television and theater stage sets and scenery.
  9. Prefabricated swimming pools accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy that are less than 24 inches (610 mm) deep, do not exceed 5,000 gallons (18925 L) and are installed entirely above ground.
  10. Shade cloth structures constructed for nursery or agricultural purposes, not including service systems.
  11. Swings and other playground equipment accessory to detached one- and two-family dwellings.
  12. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall that do not project more than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the exterior wall and do not require additional support of Groups R-3 and U occupancies.
  13. Nonfixed and movable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions not over 5 feet 9 inches (1753 mm) in height.

Electrical:

Repairs and maintenance: Minor repair work, including the replacement of lamps or the connection of approvedportable electrical equipment to approvedper- manently installed receptacles.

Radio and television transmitting stations: The provisions of this code shall not apply to electrical equipment used for radio and television transmissions, but do apply to equipment and wiring for a power supply and the installations of towers and antennas.

Temporary testing systems: A permit shall not be required for the installation of any temporary system

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required for the testing or servicing of electrical equipment or apparatus.

Gas:

  1. Portable heating appliance.
  2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter approval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe.

Mechanical:

  1. Portable heating appliance.
  2. Portable ventilation equipment.
  3. Portable cooling unit.
  4. Steam, hot or chilled water piping within any heating or cooling equipment regulated by this code.
  5. Replacement of any part that does not alter its approval or make it unsafe.
  6. Portable evaporative cooler.
  7. Self-contained refrigeration system containing 10 pounds (5 kg) or less of refrigerant and actuated by motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less.

Plumbing:

  1. The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent pipe, provided, however, that if any concealed trap, drain pipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defective and it becomes necessary to remove and replace the same with new material, such work shall be considered as new work and a permit shall be obtained and inspection made as provided in this code.
  2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in pipes, valves or fixtures and the removal and reinstallation of water closets, provided such repairs do not involve or require the replacement or rearrangement of valves, pipes or fixtures.

105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replacements and repairs must be performed in an emergency situation, the permit application shall be submitted within the next working business day to the bUilding official.

105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, replacement of lamps or the connection of approved portable electrical equipment to approved permanently installed receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cutting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the removal or change of any required means ofegress, or rearrangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, alteration of, replacement or relocation of any standpipe, water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, vent or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other work affecting public health or general safety.

105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be required for the installation, alteration or repair of generation, transmission, distribution or metering or other related equipment that is under the ownership and control of public service agencies by established right.

105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the applicant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. Such application shall:

  1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the permit for which application is made.
  2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by legal description, street address or similar description that will readily identify and definitely locate the proposed building or work.
  3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed work is intended.
  4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other information as required in Section 107.
  5. State the valuation of the proposed work.
  6. Be signed by the applicant, or the applicant's authorized agent.
  7. Give such other data and information as required by the bUilding official.

105.3.1 Action on application. The building official shall examine or cause to be examined applications for permits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after filing. If the application or the construction documents do not conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the bUilding official shall reject such application in writing, stating the reasons therefor. If the bUilding official is satisfied that the proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the bUilding official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable.

105.3.2 Time limitation ofapplication. An application for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has been issued; except that the bUilding official is authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding 90 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.

105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction documents and other data shall not prevent the bUilding official from requiring the correction of errors in the construction documents and other data. The building official is also authorized to prevent occupancy or use of a structure where in violation of this code or of any other ordinances of this jurisdiction.

105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become invalid unless the work on the site authorized by such permit is commenced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work authorized on the site by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. The

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building official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.

105.6 Suspension or revocation. The bUilding official is authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy shall be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the project.

SECTION 106
FLOOR AND ROOF DESIGN LOADS

106.1 Live loads posted. Where the live loads for which each floor or portion thereof of a commercial or industrial building is or has been designed to exceed 50 psf (2.40 kN/m2), such design live loads shall be conspicuously posted by the owner in that part of each story in which they apply, using durable signs. It shall be unlawful to remove or deface such notices

106.2 Issuance of certificate of occupancy. A certificate of occupancy required by Section 111 shall not be issued until the floor load signs, required by Section 106.1, have been installed.

106.3 Restrictions on loading. It shall be unlawful to place, or cause or permit to be placed, on any floor or roof of a building, structure or portion thereof, a load greater than is permitted by this code.

SECTION 107
SUBMITTAL DOCUMENTS

107.1 General. Submittal documents consisting of construction documents, statement of special inspections, geotechnical report and other data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each permit application. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the building official is authorized to require additional construction documents to be prepared by a registered design professional.

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the submission of construction documents and other data not required to be prepared by a registered design professional if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that review of construction documents is not necessary to obtain compliance with this code.

107.2 Construction documents. Construction documents shall be in accordance with Sections 107.2.1 through 107.2.5.

107.2.1 Information on construction documents. Construction documents shall be dimensioned and drawn upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted when approved by the bUilding official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations' as determined by the bUilding official.

107.2.2 Fire protection system shop drawings. Shop drawings for the fire protection system(s) shall be submitted to indicate conformance to this code and the construction documents and shall be approvedprior to the start ofsystem installation. Shop drawings shall contain all information as required by the referenced installation standards in Chapter 9.

107.2.3 Means ofegress. The construction documents shall show in sufficient detail the location, construction, size and character of all portions of the means ofegress in compliance with the provisions of this code. In other than occupancies in Groups R-2, R-3, and 1-1, the construction documents shall designate the number of occupants to be accommodated on every floor, and in all rooms and spaces.

107.2.4 Exterior wall envelope. Construction documents for all buildings shall describe the exterior wall envelope in sufficient detail to determine compliance with this code. The construction documents shall provide details of the exterior wall envelope as required, including flashing, intersections with dissimilar materials, corners, end details, controljoints, intersections at roof, eaves or parapets, means of drainage, water-resistive membrane and details around openings.

The construction documents shall include manufacturer's installation instructions that provide supporting documentation that the proposed penetration and opening details described in the construction documents maintain the weather resistance of the exterior wall envelope. The supporting documentation shall fully describe the exterior wall system which was tested, where applicable, as well as the test procedure used.

107.2.5 Site plan. The construction documents submitted with the application for permit shall be accompanied by a site plan showing to scale the size and location of new construction and existing structures on the site, distances from lot lines, the established street grades and the proposed finished grades and, as applicable, flood hazard areas, floodways, and design flood elevations; and it shall be drawn in accordance with an accurate boundary line survey. In the case of demolition, the site plan shall show construction to be demolished and the location and size of existing structures and construction that are to remain on the site or plot. The bUilding official is authorized to waive or modify the requirement for a site plan when the application for permitis for alteration or repair or when otherwise warranted.

107.2.5.1 Design flood elevations. Where design flood elevations are not specified, they shall be established in accordance with Section 1612.3.1.

107.3 Examination of documents. The building official shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying submittal documents and shall ascertain by such examinations whether the construction indicated and described is in accordance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws or ordinances.

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107.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the bUilding official issues a permit, the construction documents shall be approved, in writing or by stamp, as "Reviewed for Code Compliance." One set of construction documents so reviewed shall be retained by the bUilding official. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, shall be kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by the building officialor a duly authorized representative.

107.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require changes in the construction documents, construction or designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the construction of which has been pursued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has not been abandoned.

107.3.3 Phased approval. The building official is authorized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations or any other part of a building or structure before the construction documents for the whole building or structure have been submitted, provided that adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for the foundation or other parts of a building or structure shall proceed at the holder's own risk with the building operation and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted.

107.3.4 Design professional in responsible charge.

107.3.4.1 General. When it is required that documents be prepared by a registered design professional, the bUilding official shall be authorized to require the owner to engage and designate on the building permit application a registered design professional who shall act as the registered design professional in responsible charge. If the circumstances require, the owner shall designate a substitute registered design professional in responsible chargewho shall perform the duties required of the original registered design professional in responsible charge. The bUilding official shall be notified in writing by the owner if the registered design professionalin responsible charge is changed or is unable to continue to perform the duties.

The registered design professional in responsible charge shall be responsible for reviewing and coordinating submittal documents prepared by others, including phased and deferred submittal items, for compatibility with the design of the building.

107.3.4.2 Deferred submittals. For the purposes of this section, deferred submittals are defined as those portions of the design that are not submitted at the time of the application and that are to be submitted to the building official within a specified period.

Deferral of any submittal items shall have the prior approval of the building official. The registered design professional in responsible charge shall list the deferred submittals on the construction documents for review by the bUilding official.

Documents for deferred submittal items shall be submitted to the registered design professional in responsible charge who shall review them and forward them to the bUilding official with a notation indicating that the deferred submittal documents have been reviewed and found to be in general conformance to the design of the building. The deferred submittal items shall not be installed until the deferred submittal documents have been approved by the building official.

107.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be installed in accordance with the approved construction documents, and any changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction documents.

107.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of approved construction documents shall be retained by the building official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws.

SECTION 108
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES

108.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such permits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be permitted for more than 180 days. The building official is authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause.

108.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code as necessary to ensure public health, safety and general welfare.

108.3 Temporary power. The building official is authorized to give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part of an electric installation before such installation has been fully completed and the final certificate of completion has been issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, heat or power in NFPA 70.

108.4 Termination of approval. The building official is authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be discontinued.

SECTION 109
FEES

109.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the fees prescribed by law have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid.

109.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, electrical, gas, mechanical, and plumbing systems or alterations requiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority.

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109.3 Building permit valuations. The applicant for a permit shall provide an estimated permit value at time of application. Permit valuations shall include total value of work, including materials and labor, for which the permit is being issued, such as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing equipment and permanent systems. If, in the opinion of the building official, the valuation is underestimated on the application, the permit shall be denied, unless the applicant can show detailed estimates to meet the approval of the building official. Final building permit valuation shall be set by the building official.

109.4 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person who commences any work on a building, structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to a fee established by the bUilding official that shall be in addition to the required permit fees.

109.5 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in connection to or concurrently with the work authorized by a building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law.

109.6 Refunds. The bUilding official is authorized to establish a refund policy.

SECTION 110
INSPECTIONS

110.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the bUilding official and such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of thejurisdiction shall not be valid. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Neither the bUilding official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to allow inspection.

110.2 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a permit, the building official is authorized to examine or cause to be examined buildings, structures and sites for which an application has been filed.

110.3 Required inspections. The bUilding official, upon notification, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections 110.3.1 through 110.3.10.

110.3.1 Footing and foundation inspection. Footing and foundation inspections shall be made after excavations for footings are complete and any required reinforcing steel is in place. For concrete foundations, any required forms shall be in place prior to inspection. Materials for the foundation shall be on the job, except where concrete is ready mixed in accordance with ASTM C 94, the concrete need not be on the job.

110.3.2 Concrete slab and under-floor inspection. Concrete slab and under-floor inspections shall be made after in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building service equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary equipment items are in place, but before any concrete is placed or floor sheathing installed, including the subfloor.

110.3.3 Lowest floor elevation. In flood hazard areas, upon placement of the lowest floor, including the basement, and prior to further vertical construction, the elevation certification required in Section 1612.5 shall be submitted to the bUilding official.

110.3.4 Frame inspection. Framing inspections shall be made after the roof deck or sheathing, all framing, fireblocking and bracing are in place and pipes, chimneys and vents to be concealed are complete and the rough electrical, plumbing, heating wires, pipes and ducts are approved.

110.3.5 Lath and gypsum board inspection. Lath and gypsum board inspections shall be made after lathing and gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place, but before any plastering is applied or gypsum boardjoints and fasteners are taped and finished.

Exception: Gypsum board that is not part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly or a shear assembly.

110.3.6 Fire- and smoke-resistant penetrations. proteCtion of joints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated assemblies, smoke barriers and smoke partitions shall not be concealed from view until inspected and approved.

110.3.7 Energy efficiency inspections. Inspections shall be made to determine compliance with Chapter 13 and shall include, but not be limited to, inspections for: envelope insulation R- and V-values, fenestration V-value, duct system R-value, and HVAC and water-heating equipment efficiency.

110.3.8 Other inspections. In addition to the inspections specified above, the bUilding official is authorized to make or require other inspections of any construction work to ascertain compliance with the provisions of this code and other laws that are enforced by the department of building safety.

110.3.9 Special inspections. For special inspections, see Section 1704.

110.3.10 Final inspection. The final inspection shall be made after all work required by the building permit is completed.

110.4 Inspection agencies. The bUilding official is authorized to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, provided such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reliability.

110.5 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of the building permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the bUilding official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code.

7

110.6 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the bUilding official. The bUilding official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the building official.

SECTION 111
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY

111.1 Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall be used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy classification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall be made, until the building official has issued a certificate of occupancy therefor as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction.

Exception: Certificates of occupancy are not required for work exempt from permits under Section 105.2.

111.2 Certificate issued. After the building official inspects the building or structure and finds no violations of the provisions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the department of building safety, the bUilding official shall issue a certificate of occupancy that contains the following:

  1. The building permit number.
  2. The address of the structure.
  3. The name and address of the owner.
  4. A description of that portion of the structure for which the certificate is issued.
  5. A statement that the described portion of the structure has been inspected for compliance with the requirements of this code for the occupancy and division of occupancy and the use for which the proposed occupancy is classified.
  6. The name of the building official.
  7. The edition of the code under which the permit was issued.
  8. The use and occupancy, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 3.
  9. The type of construction as defined in Chapter 6.
  10. The design occupant load.
  11. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided, whether the sprinkler system is required.
  12. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building permit.

111.3 Temporary occupancy. The building official is authorized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The building official shall set a time period during which the temporary certificate of occupancy is valid.

111.4 Revocation. The bUilding official is authorized to, in writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy or completion issued under the provisions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

SECTION 112
SERVICE UTILITIES

112.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall make connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a permit is required, until released by the building official.

112.2 Temporary connection. The bUilding official shall have the authority to authorize the temporary connection of the building or system to the utility source of energy, fuel or power.

112.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The bUilding official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by this code and the referenced codes and standards set forth in Section 101.4 in case of emergency where necessary to eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property or when such utility connection has been made without the approval required by Section 112.1 or 112.2. The bUilding official shall notify the serving utility, and wherever possible the owner and occupant of the building, structure or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such action. If not notified prior to disconnecting, the owner or occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter.

SECTION 113
BOARD OF APPEALS

113.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the building official relative to the application and interpretation ofthis code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the applicable governing authority and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business.

113.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this code.

113.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training to pass on matters pertaining to building construction and are not employees of the jurisdiction.

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SECTION 114
VIOLATIONS

114.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equipment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code.

114.2 Notice ofviolation. The building official is authorized to serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible for the erection, construction, alteration, extension, repair, moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in violation of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action or condition and the abatement of the violation.

114.3 Prosecution ofviolation. If the notice of violation is not complied with promptly, the building off1cial is authorized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto.

114.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provision of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or structure in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of the bUilding official, or of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law.

SECTION 115
STOP WORK ORDER

115.1 Authority. Whenever the building official finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, the bUilding official is authorized to issue a stop work order.

115.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to resume.

115.3 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law.

SECTION 116
UNSAFE STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT

116.1 Conditions. Structures or existing equipment that are or hereafter become unsafe, insanitary or deficient because of inadequate means ofegress facilities, inadequate light and ventilation, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life or the public welfare, or that involve illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be deemed an unsafe condition. Unsafe structures shall be taken down and removed or made safe, as the bUilding official deems necessary and as provided for in this section. A vacant structure that is not secured against entry shall be deemed unsafe.

116.2 Record. The building official shall cause a report to be filed on an unsafe condition. The report shall state the occupancy of the structure and the nature of the unsafe condition.

116.3 Notice. If an unsafe condition is found, the bUilding off1-cial shall serve on the owner, agent or person in control of the structure, a written notice that describes the condition deemed unsafe and specifies the required repairs or improvements to be made to abate the unsafe condition, or that requires the unsafe structure to be demolished within a stipulated time. Such notice shall require the person thus notified to declare immediately to the building official acceptance or rejection of the terms of the order.

116.4 Method of service. Such notice shall be deemed properly served if a copy thereof is (a) delivered to the owner personally; (b) sent by certified or registered mail addressed to the owner at the last known address with the return receipt requested; or (c) delivered in any other manner as prescribed by local law. If the certified or registered letter is returned showing that the letter was not delivered, a copy thereof shall be posted in a conspicuous place in or about the structure affected by such notice. Service ofsuch notice in the foregoing manner upon the owner's agent or upon the person responsible for the structure shall constitute service of notice upon the owner.

116.5 Restoration. The structure or equipment determined to be unsafe by the bUilding off1cial is permitted to be restored to a safe condition. To the extent that repairs, alterations or additions are made or a change of occupancy occurs during the restoration of the structure, such repairs, alterations, additions or change of occupancy shall comply with the requirements of Section 105.2.2 and Chapter 34.

9 10

CHAPTER 2
DEFINITIONS

SECTION 201
GENERAL

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings shown in this chapter.

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural, the singular.

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the International Fuel Gas Code, International Fire Code, International Mechanical Code or International Plumbing Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes.

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.

SECTION 202
DEFINITIONS

AAC MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

ACCESSIBLE. See Section 1102.1.

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1.

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. See Section 1102.1.

ACCESSIBLE UNIT. See Section 1102.1.

ACCREDITATION BODY. See Section 2302.1.

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height of a building or structure.

ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1.

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. See Section 2102.1.

Adobe, stabilized. See Section 2102.1.

Adobe, unstabilized. See Section 2102.1.

[F] AEROSOL. See Section 307.2.

Levell aerosol products. See Section 307.2.

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 307.2.

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 307.2.

[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 307.2.

AGGREGATE. See Section 1502.1.

AGRICULTURAL, BUILDING. A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public.

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

Double skin. See Section 3102.2.

Single skin. See Section 3102.2.

AISLE. See Section 1002.1.

AISLE ACCESSWAY. See Section 1002.1.

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 902.1.

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. See Section 1602.1.

ALTERATION. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition.

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002.1.

AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE FACILITY. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or similar care on a less than 24-hour basis to individuals who are rendered incapable of self-preservation.

ANCHOR. See Section 2102.1.

ANCHOR BUILDING. See Section 402.2.

ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1.

ANNULAR SPACE. See Section 702.1.

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1.

APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official or authority having jurisdiction.

APPROVED AGENCY. See Section 1702.1.

APPROVED FABRICATOR. See Section 1702.1.

APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or corporation, approved by the building official, who is competent and experienced in the application of engineering principles to materials, methods or systems analyses.

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. See Section 2102.1.

AREA (for masonry). See Section 2102.1.

Bedded. See Section 2102.1.

Gross cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1.

Net cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1.

AREA, BUILDING. See Section 502.1.

AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1.

AREAWAY. A subsurface space adjacent to a building open at the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard.

ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 310.2, "Residential Carel Assisted living facilities."

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ATRIUM. See Section 404.1.1.

ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story and the roof rafters.

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). See Section 2102.1.

[F] AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1.

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 902.1.

AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identity or decoration and is wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight frame structure over which a covering is attached.

BACKING. See Section 1402.1.

[F] BALED COTTON. See Section 307.2.

[F] BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. See Section 307.2.

BALLAST. See Section 1502.1.

[F] BARRICADE. See Section 307.2.

Artificial barricade. See Section 307.2.

Natural barricade. See Section 307.2.

BASE FLOOD. See Section 1612.2.

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2.

BASEMENT (for other than flood loads). See Section 502.1.

BASEMENT (for flood loads). See Section 1612.2.

BEARING WALL STRUCTURE. See Section 1614.2.

BED JOINT. See Section 2102.1.

BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1.

BOARDING HOUSE. See Section 310.2.

[F] BOILING POINT. See Section 307.2.

BOND BEAM. See Section 2102.1.

BRACED WALL LINE. See Section 2302.1.

BRACED WALL PANEL. See Section 2302.1.

BRICK. See Section 2102.1.

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). See Section 2102.1.

Clay or shale. See Section 2102.1.

Concrete. See Section 2102.1.

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.

BUILDING ELEMENT. See Section 702.1.

BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by law.

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502 1

CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

CANOPY. A permanent structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identity or decoration, and shall be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer end.

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 902.1.

CAST STONE. See Section 2102.1.

[F] CEILING LIMIT. See Section 902.1.

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. See Section 702.1.

CELL. See Section 408.1.1.

CELL (masonry). See Section 2102.1.

CELL TIER. See Section 408.1 .1.

CEMENT PLASTER. See Section 2502.1.

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. See Section 721.1.1.

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. See Section 1702.1.

CHILD CARE FACILITIES. See Section 308.3.1.

CHIMNEY. See Section 2102.1.

CHIMNEY TYPES. See Section 2102.1.

High-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1.

Low-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1.

Masonry type. See Section 2102.1.

Medium-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1.

CIRCULATION PATH. See Section 1102.1.

[F] CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1.

CLEANOUT. See Section 2102.1.

CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. See Section 304.1.1.

[F] CLOSED SYSTEM. See Section 307.2.

COLLAR JOINT. See Section 2102.1.

COLLECTOR. See Section 2302.1.

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 702.1.

[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 307.2.

[F] COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 307.2.

[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2.

Class II. See Section 307.2.

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Class IlIA. See Section 307.2.

Class IIIB. See Section 307.2.

COMMON USE. See Section 1102.1.

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 1002.1.

[F] COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 307.2.

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. See Section 721.1.1.

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. See Section 721.1.1.

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. See Section 721.1.1.

CONCRETE, PERLITE. See Section 721.1 .1.

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. See Section 721.1.1.

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. See Section 721.1.1.

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. See Section 721.1.1.

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 310.2.

CONNECTOR. See Section 2102.1.

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 902.1.

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit.

CONSTRUCTION TYPES. See Section 602.

Type I. See Section 602.2.

Type II. See Section 602.2.

Type III. See Section 602.3.

Type IV. See Section 602.4.

Type V. See Section 602.5.

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 415.2.

[F] CONTROL AREA. See Section 307.2.

CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL. A self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill in place of compacted fill.

CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. See Section 2302.1.

CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1.

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when exposed to its environment.

[F] CORROSIVE. See Section 307.2.

COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or other enclosing devices.

COVER. See Section 2102.1.

COVERED MALL BUILDING. See Section 402.2.

Mall. See Section 402.2.

Open mall. See Section 402.2.

Open mall building. See Section 402.2.

CRIPPLE WALL. See Section 2302.1.

[F] CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 307.2.

DALLE GLASS. See Section 2402.1.

DAMPER. See Section 702.1.

DANGEROUS. See Section 3402.1.

[F] DAY BOX. See Section 307.2.

DEAD LOADS. See Section 1602.1.

DECORATIVE GLASS. See Section 2402.1.

[F] DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and surface coverings), and all other materials utilized for decorative effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials do not include floor coverings, ordinary window shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate.

DEEP FOUNDATION. See Section 1802.1.

[F] DEFLAGRATION. See Section 307.2.

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1 .

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1908.1.1.

DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. See Section 1613.2.

DESIGN FLOOD. See Section 1612.2.

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2.

DESIGN STRENGTH. See Section 1602.1.

DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. See Section 1702.1.

[F] DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 415.2.

DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1.

DETECTABLE WARNING. See Section 1102.1.

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902.1.

[F] DETONATION. See Section 307.2.

DETOXIFICATION FACILITY. See Section 308.3.1.

DIAPHRAGM. See Sections 1602.1 and 2302.1.

Diaphragm, blocked. See Section 1602.1.

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Diaphragm, boundary. See Section 1602.1.

Diaphragm, chord. See Section 1602.1.

Diaphragm, flexible. See Section 1602.1.

Diaphragm, rigid. See Section 1602.1.

Diaphragm, unblocked. See Section 2302.1.

DIMENSIONS. See Section 2102.1.

Actual. See Section 2102.1.

Nominal. See Section 2102.1.

Specified. See Section 2102.1.

[F] DISPENSING. See Section 307.2.

DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1.

DORMITORY. See Section 310.2.

DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702.1.

DRAG STRUT. See Section 2302.1.

DRILLEDSHAFT. See Section 1802.1.

Socketed drilled shaft. See Section 1802.1.

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Section 902.1.

DRY FLOODPROOFING. See Section 1612.2.

DURATION OF LOAD. See Section 1602.1.

DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes.

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons, including permanent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, MULTI-STORY. See Section 1102.1.

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE A. See Section 1102.1.

DWELLING UNIT OR SLEEPING UNIT, TYPE B. See Section 1102.1.

EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1.

ELEVATOR GROUP. See Section 902.1.

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 415.2.

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See Section 1002.1.

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. See Section 902.1.

EMPLOYEE WORK AREA. See Section 1102.1.

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. See Section 502.1.

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. See Section 1602.1.

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 415.2.

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2.

EXISTING STRUCTURE. See Sections 1612.2 and 3402.1.

EXIT. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1.

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. See Section 802.1.

[F] EXPLOSION. See Section 307.2.

[F] EXPLOSIVE. See Section 307.2.

High explosive. See Section 307.2.

Low explosive. See Section 307.2.

Mass detonating explosives. See Section 307.2.

UN/DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.1. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.2. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.3. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.4. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.5. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.6. See Section 307.2.

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEM (EIFS). See Section 1402.1.

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEM (EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. See Section 1402.1.

EXTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1.

EXTERIOR WALL. See Section 1402.1.

EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. See Section 1402.1.

EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. See Section 1402.1.

F RATING. See Section 702.1.

FABRIC PARTITION. See Section 1602.1.

FABRICATED ITEM. See Section 1702.1.

[F] FABRICATION AREA. See Section 415.2.

FACILITY. See Section 1102.1.

FACTORED LOAD. See Section 1602.1.

FIBER CEMENT SIDING. See Section 1402.1.

FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER. See Section 2602.1.

Fiberglass Reinforced Polymer. See Section 2602.1.

FIBERBOARD. See Section 2302.1.

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1.

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1.

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[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

FIRE AREA. See Section 902.1.

FIRE BARRIER. See Section 702.1.

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 902.1.

FIRE DAMPER. See Section 702.1.

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1 .

FIRE DOOR. See Section 702.1.

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1.

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1.

[F] FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessarily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus.

FIRE PARTITION. See Section 702.1.

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. See Section 702.1.

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

FIRE RESISTANCE. See Section 702.1.

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. See Section 702.1.

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. See Section 702.1.

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902.1.

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. See Section 702.1.

FIRE WALL. See Section 702.1.

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1.

FIREBLOCKING. See Section 702.1.

FIREPLACE. See Section 2102.1.

FIREPLACE THROAT. See Section 2102.1.

[F] FIREWORKS. See Section 307.2.

Fireworks, 1.3G. See Section 307.2.

Fireworks, 1.4G. See Section 307.2.

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). See Section 412.2.

FLAME SPREAD. See Section 802.1.

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. See Section 802.1.

[F] FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 307.2.

[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 307.2.

[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2.

Class IA. See Section 307.2.

Class lB. See Section 307.2.

Class IC. See Section 307.2.

[F] FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2.

[F] FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 307.2.

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 415.2.

[F] FLASH POINT. See Section 307.2.

FLIGHT. See Section 1002.1. FLOOD OR FLOODING. See Section 1612.2.

FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Section 1612.2.

FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2.

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH-VELOCITY WAVE ACTION. See Section 1612.2.

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). See Section 1612.2.

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. See Section 1612.2.

FLOODWAY. See Section 1612.2.

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1.

FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1.

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1.

FLY GALLERY. See Section 410.2.

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 902.1.

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. See Section 2602.1.

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Section 1002.1.

FOOD COURT. See Section 402.2.

FOUNDATION PIER. See Section 2102.1.

FRAME STRUCTURE. See Section 1614.2.

[F] GAS CABINET. See Section 415.2.

[F] GAS ROOM. See Section 415.2.

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. See Section 421.2.

GLASS FIBERBOARD. See Section 721.1.1.

GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. See Section 2302.1.

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening.

GRADE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1.

GRADE PLANE. See Section 502.1.

GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1.

GRIDIRON. See Section 410.2.

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. See Section 402.2.

GROUTED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

Grouted hollow-unit masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Grouted multiwythe masonry. See Section 2102.1.

GUARD. See Section 1002.1.

GYPSUM BOARD. See Section 2502.1.

GYPSUM PLASTER. See Section 2502.1.

GYPSUM VENEER PLASTER. See Section 2502.1.

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.

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[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 902.1.

[F] HANDLING. See Section 307.2.

HANDRAIL. See Section 1002.1.

HARDBOARD. See Section 2302.1.

[F] HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 307.2.

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). See Section 415.2.

HEAD JOINT. See Section 2102.1.

[F] HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 307.2.

HEIGHT, BUILDING. See Section 502.1.

HEIGHT, WALLS. See Section 2102.1.

HELICAL PILE. See Section 1802.1.

HELIPORT. See Section 412.2.

HELISTOP. See Section 412.2.

HIGH-RISE BUILDING. A building with an occupied floor located more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

[F] HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 307.2.

HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law (see Sections 3409 and 3411.9).

HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1.

HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. See Section 308.3.1.

HOUSING UNIT. See Section 408.1.1.

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 415.2.

[F] HPM ROOM. See Section 415.2.

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. See Section 1609.2.

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. See Section 421.2.

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). See Section 415.2.

IMPACT LOAD. See Section 1602.1.

[F] INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 307.2.

[F] INERT GAS. See Section 307.2.

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. See Section 1702.1.

INTENDED TO BE OCCUPIED AS A RESIDENCE. See Section 1102.1.

INTERIOR FINISH. See Section 802.1.

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. See Section 802.1.

[F] INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. See Section 802.1.

INTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1.

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. See Section 802.1.

INTERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1.

INTUMESCENT FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. See Section 1702.1.

JOINT. See Section 702.1.

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code under due legislative authority.

LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer that contains the name of the manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics of the product or material, and the name and identification of an approved agency and that indicates that the representative sample of the product or material has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency (see Section 1703.5 and "Inspection certificate," "Manufacturer's designation" and "Mark").

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which has been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LIGHT-DIFFUSING SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1.

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel framing members.

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. See Section 2602.1.

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. See Section 2602.1.

LIMIT STATE. See Section 1602.1.

[F] LIQUID. See Section 415.2.

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 415.2.

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. See Section 415.2.

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

LIVE LOADS. See Section 1602.1.

LIVE LOADS (ROOF). See Section 1602.1.

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). See Section 1602.1.

LOAD EFFECTS. See Section 1602.1.

LOAD FACTOR. See Section 1602.1.

LOADS. See Section 1602.1.

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.

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LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 415.2.

LOWEST FLOOR. See Section 1612.2.

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 1702.1.

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1.

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a product or material complies with a specified standard or set of rules (see also "Inspection certificate," "Label' and" Mark").

MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the function of a product or material (see also "Inspection certificate," "Label' and "Manufacturer's designation").

MARQUEE. A permanent roofed structure attached to and supported by the building and that projects into the public right-of-way.

MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

Ashlar masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Coursed ashlar. See Section 2102.1.

Glass unit masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Plain masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Random ashlar. See Section 2102.1.

Reinforced masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Solid masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Unreinforced (plain) masonry. See Section 2102.1.

MASONRY UNIT. See Section 2102.1.

Clay. See Section 2102.1.

Concrete. See Section 2102.1.

Hollow. See Section 2102.1.

Solid. See Section 2102.1.

MASTIC FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. See Section 1702.1.

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. See Section 1613.2.

MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1.

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. See Section 406.3.2.

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN. See Section 1502.1.

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. See Section 1613.2.

MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. See Section 702.1.

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. See Section 702.1.

MENTAL HOSPITALS. See Section 308.3.1.

MERCHANDISE PAD. See Section 1002.1.

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM). See Section 1402.1.

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM) SYSTEM. See Section 1402.1.

METAL ROOF PANEL. See Section 1502.1.

METAL ROOF SHINGLE. See Section 1502.1.

MEZZANINE. See Section 502.1.

MICROPILE. See Section 1802.1.

MINERAL BOARD. See Section 721.1 .1.

MINERAL FIBER. See Section 702.1.

MINERAL WOOL. See Section 702.1.

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1.

MORTAR. See Section 2102.1.

MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. See Section 2102.1.

MULTILEVEL ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Section 1102.1.

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

MULTISTORY UNITS. See Section 1102.1.

NAILING, BOUNDARY. See Section 2302.1.

NAILING, EDGE. See Section 2302.1.

NAILING, FIELD. See Section 2302.1.

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. See Section 2302.1.

Decay resistant. See Section 2302.1.

Termite resistant. See Section 2302.1.

NOMINAL LOADS. See Section 1602.1.

NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1.

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). See Section 415.2.

NOSING. See Section 1002.1.

NOTIFICATION ZONE. See Section 902.1.

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

NURSING HOMES. See Section 308.3.1.

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY. See Section 1602.1.

OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002.1.

OCCUPIABLE SPACE. A room or enclosed space designed for human occupancy in which individuals congregate for

17

amusement, educational or similar purposes or in which occupants are engaged at labor, and which is equipped with means of egress and light and ventilation facilities meeting the requirements of this code.

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. See Section 406.3.2.

[F] OPEN SYSTEM. See Section 307.2.

[F] OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 307.2.

ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1.

ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1.

ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE WALL. See Section 1908.1.1.

[F] ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 307.2.

Class I. See Section 307.2.

Class II. See Section 307.2.

Class III. See Section 307.2.

Class IV. See Section 307.2.

Class V. See Section 307.2.

Unclassified detonable. See Section 307.2.

ORTHOGONAL. See Section 1613.2.

OTHER STRUCTURES. See Section 1602.1.

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a legal or equitable interest in the property.

[F] OXIDIZER. See Section 307.2.

Class 4. See Section 307.2.

Class 3. See Section 307.2.

Class 2. See Section 307.2.

Class 1. See Section 307.2.

[F] OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 307.2.

PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). See Section 1602.1.

PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1.

PARTICLEBOARD. See Section 2302.1.

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. See Section 702.1.

PENTHOUSE. See Section 1502.1.

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the authority having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of a specified activity.

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. See Section 310.2.

PHOTOLUMINESCENT. See Section 1002.1.

[F] PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 307.2.

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD LEVEL. See Section 415.2.

PINRAIL. See Section 410.2.

PLASTIC, APPROVED. See Section 2602.1.

PLASTIC GLAZING. See Section 2602.1.

PLATFORM. See Section 410.2.

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. See Section 1502.1.

PREFABRICATED WOOD I-JOIST. See Section 2302.1.

PRESTRESSED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

PRIMARY FUNCTION. See Section 3402.1.

PRIMARY STRUCTURAL FRAME. The primary structural frame shall include all of the following structural members:

  1. The columns;
  2. Structural members having direct connections to the columns, including girders, beams, trusses and spandrels;
  3. Members of the floor construction and roof construction having direct connections to the columns; and
  4. Bracing members that are essential to the vertical stability of the primary structural frame under gravity loading shall be considered part of the primary structural frame whether or not the bracing member carries gravity loads.

PRISM. See Section 2102.1.

PROSCENIUM WALL. See Section 410.2.

PUBLIC ENTRANCE. See Section 1102.1.

PUBLIC-USE AREAS. See Section 1102.1.

PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1.

[F] PYROPHORIC. See Section 307.2.

[F] PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 307.2.

RAMP. See Section 1002.1.

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. See Section 406.3.2.

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1.

REFLECTIVE PLASTIC CORE FOIL INSULATION. An insulation material packaged in rolls, that is less than 0.5 inches thick, with at least one exterior low emittance surface (0.1 or less) and a core material containing voids or cells.

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN RESPONSIBLE CHARGE. A registered design professional engaged by the owner to review and coordinate certain aspects of the project, as determined by the building official, for compatibility with the design of the building or structure, including submittal documents prepared by others, deferred submittal documents and phased submittal documents.

RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or portion thereof intended for the performance of religious services.

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REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal ofany part ofan existing building for the purpose of its maintenance.

REROOFING. See Section 1502.1.

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. See Section 412.2.

RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 310.2.

RESISTANCE FACTOR. See Section 1602.1.

RESTRICTED ENTRANCE. See Section 1102.1.

RETRACTABLE AWNING. See Section 3105.2.

ROOF ASSEMBLY. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF DECK. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF RECOVER. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF REPAIR. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF REPLACEMENT. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF VENTILATION. See Section 1502.1.

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. See Section 1502.1.

RUBBLE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

Coursed rubble. See Section 2102.1.

Random rubble. See Section 2102.1.

Rough or ordinary rubble. See Section 2102.1.

RUNNING BOND. See Section 2102.1.

SALLYPORT. See Section 408.1.1.

SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1.

SCUPPER. See Section 1502.1.

SECONDARY MEMBERS. The following structural members shall be considered secondary members and not part of the primary structural frame:

  1. Structural members not having direct connections to the columns;
  2. Members of the floor construction not having direct connections to the columns; and
  3. Bracing members other than those that are part of the primary structural frame.

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. See Section 1613.2.

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 1613.2.

SELF-CLOSING. See Section 702.1.

SELF-LUMINOUS. See Section 1002.1.

SELF-SERVICE STORAGE FACILITY. See Section 1102.1.

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 415.2.

SERVICE ENTRANCE. See Section 1102.1.

SHAFT. See Section 702.1.

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. See Section 702.1.

SHALLOW FOUNDATION. See Section 1802.1.

SHEAR WALL. See Sections 2102.1 and 2302.1.

Detailed plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Intermediate prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Perforated shear wall. See Section 2302.1.

Perforated shear wall segment. See Section 2302.1.

Special prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Special reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

SHELL. See Section 2102.1.

SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE. See Section 1502.1.

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

SITE. See Section 1102.1.

SITE CLASS. See Section 1613.2.

SITE COEFFICIENTS. See Section 1613.2.

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. See Section 802.1.

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof.

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls, are included in this definition.

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.

[F] SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

SMOKE BARRIER. See Section 702.1.

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. See Section 702.1.

SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 702.1.

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1.

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802.1.

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SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Section 1002.1.

SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. See Section 902.1.

[F] SOLID. See Section 415.2.

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. See Section 411.2.

SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2.

SPECIAL INSPECTION. See Section 1702.1.

SPECIAL INSPECTION, CONTINUOUS. See Section 1702.1.

SPECIAL INSPECTION, PERIODIC. See Section 1702.1.

SPECIAL STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1.

SPECIFIED. See Section 2102.1.

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY (f′m. See Section 2102.1.

SPLICE. See Section 702.1.

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Section 1702.1.

STACK BOND. See Section 2102.1.

STAGE. See Section 410.2.

STAIR. See Section 1002.1.

STAIRWAY. See Section 1002.1.

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1.

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1.

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002.1.

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. See Section 902.1.

Class I system. See Section 902.1 .

Class II system. See Section 902.1.

Class III system. See Section 902.1.

[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. See Section 902.1.

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1.

Automatic wet. See Section 902.1 .

Manual dry. See Section 902.1.

Manual wet. See Section 902.1.

Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902.1.

START OF CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2.

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD-FORMED. See Section 2202.1.

STEEL JOIST. See Section 2202.1.

STEEL MEMBER, STRUCTURAL. See Section 2202.1.

STEEP SLOPE. A roof slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope) .

STONE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

Ashlar stone masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Rubble stone masonry. See Section 2102.1.

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 415.2.

STORM SHELTER. See Section 423.2.

Community storm shelter. See Section 423.2.

Residential storm shelter. See Section 423.2.

STORY. That portion ofa building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above (also see "Basement," "Mezzanine" and Section 502.1). It is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which the finished surface of the floor next above is:

  1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or
  2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.

STRENGTH. See Section 2102.1.

Design strength. See Section 2102.1.

Nominal strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1.

Required strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1.

STRENGTH DESIGN. See Section 1602.1.

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. See Section 2302.1.

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). See Section 2302.1.

Parallel strand lumber (PSL). See Section 2302.1.

STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. See Section 2302.1 .

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. See Section 1702.1.

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.

SUBDIAPHRAGM. See Section 2302.1.

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. See Section 1612.2.

SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. See Section 1612.2.

SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL DAMAGE. See Section 3402.1.

SUITE. See Section 1002.1.

SUNROOM. See Section 1202.1.

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1.

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1 .

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

SWIMMING POOLS. See Section 3109.2.

T RATING. See Section 702.1.

TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. See Section 3402.1.

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TENT. A structure, enclosure or shelter, with or without side- walls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material supported in any manner except by air or the contents it protects.

THERMAL ISOLATION. See Section 1202.1.

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1.

THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1.

THIN-BED MORTAR. See Section 2102.1.

THROUGH PENETRATION. See Section 702.1.

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. See Section 702.1.

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). See Section 2302.1.

TIE, LATERAL. See Section 2102.1.

TIE, WALL. See Section 2102.1.

TILE. See Section 2102.1.

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. See Section 2102.1.

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. See Section 902.1. WALL. See Section 2102.1.

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on at least two sides.

[F] TOXIC. See Section 307.2.

TRANSIENT. See Section 310.2.

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. See Section 412.2.

TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1.

Fire-retardant-treated wood. See Section 2302.1. 1.

Preservative-treated wood. See Section 2302.1.

TRIM. See Section 802.1. 2.

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

TYPE A UNIT. See Section 1102.1.

TYPE B UNIT. See Section 1102.1.

UNDERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1.

[F] UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 307.2.

Class 4. See Section 307.2.

Class 3. See Section 307.2.

Class 2. See Section 307.2.

Class 1. See Section 307.2.

[F] USE (MATERIAL). See Section 415.2. WEB. See Section 2102.1.

VAPOR-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or covering having a permeance rating of5 perms (52.9 xl 0-10 kg/Pa.s· m2) or greater, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor-permeable material permits the passage of moisture vapor.

VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure ofa material or assembly's ability to limit the amount of moisture that passes through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class shall be defined using the desiccant method ofASTM E 96 as follows:

Class I: 0.1 perm or less.

Class II: 0.1 < perm ≤ 1.0 perm.

Class III: 1.0 < perm ≤ 10 perm.

VEHICLE BARRIER SYSTEM. See Section 1602.1.

VEHICULAR GATE. See Section 3110.2.

VENEER. See Section 1402.1.

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.

VINYL SIDING. See Section 1402.1.

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively as a pedestrian trafficway.

Cavity wall. See Section 2102.1.

Composite wall. See Section 2102.1.

Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall. See Section 2102.1.

Masonry-bonded hollow wall. See Section 2102.1.

Parapet wall. See Section 2102.1.

WALL, LOAD-BEARING. Any wall meeting either of the following classifications:

  1. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 pounds per linear foot (1459 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.
  2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.

WALL, NONLOAD-BEARING. Any wall that is not a load- bearing wall.

WALL PIER. See Section 1908.1.1.

[F] WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2.

Class 3. See Section 307.2.

Class 2. See Section 307.2.

Class 1. See Section 307.2.

WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. See Section 1402.1.

WEATHER-EXPOSED SURFACES. See Section 2502.1.

WEB. See Section 2102.1.

[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

WHEELCHAIR SPACE. See Section 1102.1.

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. See Section 1609.2.

WINDER. See Section 1002.1.

WIRE BACKING. See Section 2502.1.

21

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

WOOD SHEAR PANEL. See Section 2302.1.

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. See Section 2302.1.

Composite panels. See Section 2302.1.

Oriented strand board (OSB). See Section 2302.1.

Plywood. See Section 2302.1.

[F] WORKSTATION. See Section 415.2.

WYTHE. See Section 2102.1.

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by this code, on the lot on which a building is situated.

[F] ZONE. See Section 902.1.

ZONE, NOTIFICATION. See Section 902.1.

22

CHAPTER 3
USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION

SECTION 301
GENERAL

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the classification of all buildings and structures as to use and occupancy.

SECTION 302
CLASSIFICATION

302.1 General. Structures or portions of structures shall be classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the groups listed below. A room or space that is intended to be occupied at different times for different purposes shall comply with all of the requirements that are applicable to each of the purposes for which the room or space will be occupied. Structures with multiple occupancies or uses shall comply with Section 508. Where a structure is proposed for a purpose that is not specifically provided for in this code, such structure shall be classified in the group that the occupancy most nearly resembles, according to the fire safety and relative hazard involved.

  1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-I, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5
  2. Business (see Section 304): Group B
  3. Educational (see Section 305): Group E
  4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306) : Groups F-l and F-2
  5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-l, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5
  6. Institutional (see Section 308): Groups 1-1,1-2,1-3 and 1-4
  7. Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M
  8. Residential (see Section 310): Groups R-l, R-2, R-3 and R-4
  9. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-1 and S-2
  10. Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312): Group U

SECTION 303
ASSEMBLY GROUP A

303.1 Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink consumption or awaiting transportation.

Exceptions:

  1. A building or tenant space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons shall be classified as a Group B occupancy.
  2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.
  3. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is less than 750 square feet (70 m2) in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.
  4. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E occupancies are not considered separate occupancies except when applying the assembly occupancy requirements of Chapter 11.
  5. Accessory religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 are not considered separate occupancies.

Assembly occupancies shall include the following:

A-I Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of the performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited to:

Motion picture theaters

Symphony and concert halls

Television and radio studios admitting an audience

Theaters

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink consumption including, but not limited to:

Banquet halls

Night clubs

Restaurants

Taverns and bars

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly uses not classified elsewhere in Group A including, but not limited to:

Amusement arcades

Art galleries

Bowling alleys

Community halls

Courtrooms

Dance halls (not including food or drink consumption)

Exhibition halls

Funeral parlors

Gymnasiums (without spectator seating)

Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating)

Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating)

Lecture halls

Libraries

Museums

Places of religious worship

Pool and billiard parlors

Waiting areas in transportation terminals

23

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with spectator seating including, but not limited to:

Arenas

Skating rinks

Swimming pools

Tennis courts

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing outdoor activities including, but not limited to:

Amusement park structures

Bleachers

Grandstands

Stadiums

SECTION 304
BUSINESS GROUP B

304.1 Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transactions, including storage of records and accounts. Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Airport traffic control towers

Ambulatory health care facilities

Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds

Banks

Barber and beauty shops

Car wash

Civic administration

Clinic-outpatient

Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations and self-service

Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade

Electronic data processing

Laboratories: testing and research

Motor vehicle showrooms

Post offices

Print shops

Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physicians, engineers, etc.)

Radio and television stations

Telephone exchanges

Training and skill development not within a school or academic program

304.1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical care on less than a 24-hour basis to individuals who are not rendered incapable ofself-preservation by the services provided.

SECTION 305
EDUCATIONAL GROUP E

305.1 Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, by six or more persons at anyone time for educational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to places ofreligious worship in accordance with Section 303.1 and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as A-3 occupancies.

305.2 Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care services for more than five children older than 2½ years of age, shall be classified as a Group E occupancy.

SECTION 306
FACTORY GROUP F

306.1 Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or processing operations that are not classified as a Group H hazardous or Group S storage occupancy.

306.2 Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-hazard Occupancy. Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Factory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair)

Appliances

Athletic equipment

Automobiles and other motor vehicles

Bakeries

Beverages: over 16-percent alcohol content

Bicycles

Boats

Brooms or brushes

Business machines

Cameras and photo equipment

Canvas or similar fabric

Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning)

Clothing

Construction and agricultural machinery

Disinfectants

Dry cleaning and dyeing

Electric generation plants

Electronics

Engines (including rebuilding)

Food processing

Furniture

Hemp products

Jute products

Laundries

Leather products

Machinery

Metals

Millwork (sash and door)

Motion pictures and television filming (without spectators)

Musical instruments

Optical goods

Paper mills or products

Photographic film

24

Plastic products

Printing or publishing

Recreational vehicles

Refuse incineration

Shoes

Soaps and detergents

Textiles

Tobacco

Trailers

Upholstering

Wood; distillation

Woodworking (cabinet)

306.3 Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occupancy. Factory industrial uses that involve the fabrication or manufacturing of noncombustible materials which during finishing, packing or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard shall be classified as F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Beverages: up to and including 16-percent alcohol content

Brick and masonry

Ceramic products

Foundries

Glass products

Gypsum

Ice

Metal products (fabrication and assembly)

SECTION 307
HIGH-HAZARD GROUP H

[F] 307.1 High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those allowed in control areas complying with Section 414, based on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control areas set forth in Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2). Hazardous occupancies are classified in Groups H-l, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accordance with this section, the requirements of Section 415 and the International Fire Code. Hazardous materials stored, or used on top of roofs or canopies shall be classified as outdoor storage or use and shall comply with the International Fire Code.

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified as Group H, but shall be classified as the occupancy that they most nearly resemble.

  1. Buildings and structures occupied for the application offlammable finishes, provided that such buildings or areas conform to the requirements of Section 416 and the International Fire Code.
  2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies conforming to the International Fire Code.
  3. Closed piping system containing flammable or combustible liquids or gases utilized for the operation of machinery or equipment.
  4. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) or higher in closed systems employing equipment listed by an approved testing agency, provided that this occupancy is separated from all other areas of the building by I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or I-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
  5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).
  6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage.
  7. Refrigeration systems.
  8. The storage or utilization of materials for agricultural purposes on the premises.
  9. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency power, uninterrupted power supply or telecommunication facilities, provided that the batteries are provided with safety venting caps and ventilation is provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
  10. Corrosives shall not include personal or household products in their original packaging used in retail display or commonly used building materials.
  11. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol storage shall be classified as Group S-I, provided that such buildings conform to the requirements of the International Fire Code.
  12. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and non-flammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5.
  13. The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, M and S, provided such storage conforms to the quantity limits and requirements prescribed in the International Fire Code.
25
[F] TABLE 307.1 (1)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa,j, m, n, p
MATERIAL CLASS GROUP WHEN THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY IS EXCEEDED STORAGEb USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSb USE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid pounds (cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds) Gas (cubic feet at NTP) Solid pounds (cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds) Gas (cubic feet at NTP) Solid pounds (cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds)
Combustible liquidc i II
IlIA
IIIB
H-2 or H-3
H-2 or H-3
N/A
N/A 120d,e
330d,e
13,200e,f
N/A N/A 120d
330d
13,200f
N/A N/A 30d
BOd
3,300f
Combustible fiber Loose
Baledo
H-3 (100)
(1,000)
N/A N/A (100)
(1,000)
N/A N/A (20)
(200)
N/A
Consumer fireworks (Class C, Common) 1.4G H-3 12Sd,e,1 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Cryogenics, flammable N/A H-2 N/A 4Sd N/A N/A 4Sd N/A N/A IOd
Cryogenics, inert N/A N/A N/A N/A NL N/A N/A NL N/A N/A
Cryogenics, oxidizing N/A H-3 N/A 4Sd N/A N/A 4Sd N/A N/A IOd
Explosives Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division I.4G
Division 1.S
Division 1.6
H-I
H-I
H-I or H-2
H-3
H-3
H-I
H-I
Ie,g
Ie,g
se,g
soe,g
12Sd,e,1
Ie,g
1d,e,g
(I)e,g
(I)e,g
(s)e,g
(so)e,g
N/A
(1)e,g
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.2Sg
0.2Sg
Ig
sog
N/A
0.2Sg
N/A
(0.2S)g
(0.2S)g
(1)g
(SO)g
N/A
(0.2S)g
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.2Sg
0.2Sg
Ig
N/A
N/A
0.2Sg
N/A
(0.2S)g
(0.2S)g
(1)g
N/A
N/A
(0.2S)g
N/A
Flammable gas Gaseous
Liquefied
H-2 N/A N/A
(1S0)d,e
I,OOOd,e
N/A
N/A N/A (1S0)d,e 1,000d,e
N/A
N/A N/A
Flammable liquidc IA
IB and IC
H-2
orH-3
N/A 30d,e
120d,e
N/A N/A 30d
120d
N/A N/A IOd
30d
Flammable liquid, combination (1A, IB, IC) N/A H-2
orH-3
N/A 120d,e,h N/A N/A 120d,h N/A N/A 30d,h
Flammable solid N/A H-3 12Sd,e N/A N/A 12Sd N/A N/A 2Sd N/A
Inert gas Gaseous
Liquefied
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
NL
NL
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
NL
NL
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Organic peroxide UD
I
II
III
IV
V
H-I
H-2
H-3
H-3
N/A
N/A
1e,g
Sd,e
SOd,e
12Sd,e
NL
NL
(1)e,g
(S)d,e
(SO)d,e
(12S)d,e
NL
NL
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.2Sg
Id
SOd
12Sd
NL
NL
(0.2S)g
(1)
(SO)d
(12S)d
NL
NL
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.2Sg
1d
IOd
2Sd
NL
NL
(0.2S)g
(1)d
(10)d
(2S)d
NL
NL
Oxidizer 4
3k
2
1
H-I
H-2 or H-3
H-3
N/A
Ie,g
IOd,e
2S0d,e
4,000e,f
(I)e,g
(10)d,e
(2S0)d,e
(4,000)e,f
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.2Sg
2d
2S0d
4,000f
(0.2S)g
(2)d
(2S0)d
(4,000)f
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
0.2Sg
2d
SOd I,OOOf
(0.2S)g
(2)d
(SO)d
(1,OOO)f 26
Oxidizing gas Gaseous
Liquefied
H-3 N/A
N/A
N/A
(lSO)d,e
I,SOOd,e
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
(lSO)d,e
I,SOOd, e
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Pyrophoric material N/A H-2 4e,g (4)e,g soe,g 19 (l)g 109 0 0
Unstable (reactive) 4
3
2
I
H-I
H-I or H-2
H-3
N/A
Ie,g
Sd,e
SOd,e
NL
(l)e,g
(S)d,e
(SO)d, e
NL
109
SOd,e
2S0d,e
NL
O.2Sg
ld
SOd
NL
(O.2S)g
(l)d
(SO)d
NL
2e,g
IOd, e
2S0d,e
NL
O.2Sg
Id
IOd
NL
(O.2S)g
(l)d
(IO)d
NL
Water reactive 3
2
I
H-2
H-3
N/A
Sd,e
SOd,e
NL
(S)d,e
(SO)d,e
NL
N/A
N/A
N/A
Sd
SOd
NL
(S)d
(SO)d
NL
N/A
N/A
N/A
Id
IOd
NL
(l)d
(IO)d
NL
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
NL = Not Limited; N/A = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable
a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2.
b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. The quantities ofalcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale sales occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities ofmedicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume ofwater-miscible liquids with the remainder ofthe solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
d. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinklersystem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures or in listed safety cans in accordance with Section 2703.9.10 of the International Fire Code. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
f. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
g. Permitted only in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class lA, IB or IC flammable liquids.
i. The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel oil storage complying with Section 603.3.2 of the International Fire Code.
j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column.
k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds ofsolid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation ofequipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage shall be approved.
l. Net weight ofthe pyrotechnic composition ofthe fireworks. Where the net weight ofthe pyrotechnic composition ofthe fireworks is not known, 25 percent ofthe gross weight ofthe fireworks, including packaging, shall be used.
m. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of the International Fire Code.
n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 414.2.5(2).
o. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.
p. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities:

1. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles.
2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with this code.
3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Fuel Gas Code.
4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the International Mechanical Code.

27
[F] TABLE 307.1(2)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POSING A HEALTH HAZARDa, b, c, i
MATERIAL STORAGEd USE-CLOSED SYSTEMSd USE-OPEN SYSTEMSd
Solid pounds (cubic feet) Liquid gallons (pounds)e, f Gas (cubic feet at NTP)e Solid poundse Liquid gallons (pounds)e Gas (cubic feet at NTP)e Solid poundse Liquid gallons (pounds)e
Corrosive 5,000 500 Gaseous 810f Liquefied (150)h 5,000 500 Gaseous 810f Liquefied (150)h 1,000 100
Highly toxic 10 (10)h Gaseous 20g Liquefied (4)g, h 10 (10)i Gaseous 20g Liquefied (4)g, h 3 (3)i
Toxic 500 (500)h Gaseous 810f Liquefied (150)f,h 500 (500)i Gaseous 810f Liquefied (150)f, h 125 (125)
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
NL = Not Limited; N/A = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable
For use of control areas, see Section 414.2.
In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5(1) and 414.2.5(2).
The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note f also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire Code. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
Allowed only when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the International Fire Code.
Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column
For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of the International Fire Code.

307.1.1 Hazardous materials. Hazardous materials in any quantity shall conform to the requirements of this code, including Section 414, and the International Fire Code.

[F] 307.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol container by a propellant.

Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calculation of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be designated Levell, 2 or 3.

Levell aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g).

Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).

Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).

AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can or a glass or plastic bottle designed to dispense an aerosol. Metal cans shall be limited to a maximum size of33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml) . Glass or plastic bottles shall be limited to a maximum size of 4 fluid ounces (118 ml).

BALED COTTON. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and secured with industry accepted materials, usually consisting of burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands or wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) and motes (residual materials from the ginning process).

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. Cotton made into banded bales with a packing density of at least 22 pounds per cubic foot (360 kg/m3), and dimensions complying with the following: a length of 55 inches (1397 ± 20 mm), a width of 21 inches (533.4 ± 20 mm) and a height of27.6 to 35.4 inches (701 to 899 mm).

BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial barrier.

Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment a minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm).

Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the magazine or building containing explosives when the trees are bare of leaves.

BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi) (101 kPa) gage or 760 mm of mercury. Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid.

28

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a closed vessel or system that remains closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the product are not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of equipment.

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material that is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve.

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burning materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle,jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does not include densely packed baled cotton.

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liquids shall be subdivided as follows:

Class II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).

Class IlIA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).

Class IIIB. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).

The category of combustible liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids.

COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials, that:

  1. Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure; and
  2. Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in solution, except those gases which have no other health-or physical-hazard properties are not considered to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).

The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows:

  1. Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than those in solution, which are in a packaging under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
  2. Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packaging under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
  3. Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that are dissolved in a solvent.
  4. Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the hazard properties ofwhich are represented by the properties of the mixture as a whole.

CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled. See also the definition of "Outdoor control area" in the International Fire Code.

CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described in DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173.137, such a chemical destroys or changes irreversibly the structure ofthe tissue at the point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces.

CRYOGENIC FLUID. A liquid having a boiling point lower than -150°F (-101°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101 kPa).

DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive materials constructed in accordance with the requirements for a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter 33 of the International Fire Code.

DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an explosive effect.

DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. Detonations have an explosive effect.

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere.

EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or structures. An explosion could result from any of the following:

  1. Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration or detonation, decomposition of molecules and runaway polymerization (usually detonations).
  2. Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures.
  3. Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion).

EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and display fireworks, 1.3G (Class B, Special).

The term" explosive" includes any material determined to be within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes any material classified as an explosive other than consumer

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fireworks, 1.4G (ClassC, Common) by the hazardous materials regulations of DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100-185.

High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap when unconfined.

Low explosive. Explosive material that will burn or deflagrate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explosives include, but are not limited to, black powder; safety fuse; igniters; igniter cord; fuse lighters; fireworks, 1.3G (Class B, Special) and propellants, 1.3C.

Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur immediately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so that two or more quantities must be considered as one for quantity-distance purposes.

UN/DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification system used by DOTn included the terms "high" and "low" explosives as defined herein. The following terms further define explosives under the current system applied by DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 materials. Compatibility group letters are used in concert with the division to specify further limitations on each division noted (Le., the letter G identifies the material as a pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance and similar materials).

Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the entire load instantaneously.

Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.

Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.

Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package.

Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion hazard, but that are so insensitive there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.

Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised of articles that contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.

FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose of producing a visible or audible effect for entertainment purposes by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as set forth herein.

Fireworks, 1.3G. (Formerly Class B, Special Fireworks.) Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation. Such 1.3G fireworks include, but are not limited to, firecrackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 grams of pyrotechnic composition, and other display pieces which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks. Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as fireworks, UN0335 by the DOTn.

Fireworks, 1.4G. (Formerly Class C, Common Fireworks.) Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts of pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce visible or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks which comply with the construction, chemical composition and labeling regulations of the DOTn for fireworks, UN0336, and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR: Parts 1500 and 1507, are not explosive materials for the purpose of this code.

FLAMMABLE GAS. A material that is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68of (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which:

  1. Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air; or
  2. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit.

The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi (101 kPa) of pressure and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) in accordance with ASTM E 681.

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A liquefied compressed gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable.

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further categorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I category is subdivided as follows:

Class IA. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and a boiling point below 100°F (38°C).

Class lB. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C).

Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F (23°C) and below 100°F (38°C).

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The category of flammable liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids.

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature of 600°F (316°C) or less.

FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, absorption or moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has an ignition temperature below 212°F (100°C) or which burns so vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid as determined in accordance with the test method of CPSC 16 CFR; Part 1500.44, if it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) per second along its major axis.

FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278.

HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a point of storage or use.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances that are physical hazards or health hazards as defined and classified in this section and the International Fire Code, whether the materials are in usable or waste condition.

HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The term "health hazard" includes chemicals that are toxic or highly toxic, and corrosive.

HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose or lethal concentration that falls within any of the following categories:

  1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LDso) of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
  2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LDso) of 200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each.
  3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LCso) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.

Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. While this system is basically simple in application, any hazard evaluation that is required for the precise categorization of this type of material shall be performed by experienced, technically competent persons.

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when mixed, have the potential to react in a manner that generates heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or property.

INERT GAS. A gas that is capable ofreacting with other materials only under abnormal conditions such as high temperatures' pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces . Within the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit either physicalor health properties as defined (other than acting as a simple asphyxiant) or hazard properties other than those of a compressed gas. Some of the more common inert gases include argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen and xenon.

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations.

OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunction with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another with the use of intraplant or intraline distances.

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains the bivalent -0-0- structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radical. Organic peroxides can pose an explosion hazard (detonation or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can also decompose into various unstable compounds over an extended period of time.

Class I. Those formulations that are capable of deflagration but not detonation.

Class II. Those formulations that burn very rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.

Class III. Those formulations that burn rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.

Class IV. Those formulations that burn in the same manner as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity hazard.

Class V. Those formulations that burn with less intensity than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion and that pose no reactivity hazard.

Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capable of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high explosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition.

OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate combustion of combustible materials and, if heated or contaminated' can result in vigorous self-sustained decomposition.

Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction due to contamination or exposure to thermal or physical shock and that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of

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combustible materials with which it comes into contact. Additionally, the oxidizer causes a severe increase in the burning rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of combustibles.

Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.

Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.

Class 1. An oxidizer that does not moderately increase the burning rate of combustible materials.

OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate combustion of other materials.

PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evidence that it is a combustible liquid, cryogenic fluid, explosive, flammable (solid, liquid or gas), organic peroxide (solid or liquid), oxidizer (solid or liquid), oxidizing gas, pyrophoric (solid, liquid or gas), unstable (reactive) material (solid, liquid or gas) or water-reactive material (solid or liquid).

PYROPHORIC. A chemical with an autoignition temperature in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54.4°C).

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mixture that produces visible light displays or sounds through a self-propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is initiated by ignition.

TOXIC. A chemical falling within any of the following categories:

  1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LDso) of more than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
  2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LDso) of more than 200 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each.
  3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LCso) in air of more than 200 parts per million, but not more than 2,000 parts per million by volume ofgas or vapor, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows:

Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This class includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or localized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures.

Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but which require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement before initiation. This class includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechanical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unstable and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not detonate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemical change with rapid release of energy at normal temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressure.

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that explodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows:

Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water without requiring heat or confinement.

Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have the ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases or evolve enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture.

Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release of energy, but not violently.

[F] 307.3 High-hazard Group H-l. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Detonable pyrophoric materials

Explosives:

Division 1.1

Division 1.2

Division 1.3

Exception: Materials that are used and maintained in a form where either confinement or configuration will not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explosion hazard shall be allowed in H-2 occupancies.

Division 1.4

Exception: Articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H-3 occupancies.

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Division 1.5

Division 1.6

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable

Oxidizers, Class 4

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable and Class 4

[F] 307.4 High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Class I, II or IlIA flammable or combustible liquids which are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 psi (103.4 kPa) gage.

Combustible dusts

Cryogenic fluids, flammable

Flammable gases

Organic peroxides, Class I

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 psi (103 kPa) gage

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable

Water-reactive materials, Class 3

[F] 307.5 High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures containing materials that readily support combustion or that pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Class I, II or IlIA flammable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa) or less

Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled cotton

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common)

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing

Flammable solids

Organic peroxides, Class II and III

Oxidizers, Class 2 Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less

Oxidizing gases

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2

Water-reactive materials, Class 2

[F] 307.6 High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures which contain materials that are health hazards shall be classified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Corrosives

Highly toxic materials

Toxic materials

[F] 307.7 High-hazard Group H-5 structures. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of those listed in Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2) shall be classified as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 415.8.

[F] 307.8 Multiple hazards. Buildings and structures containing a material or materials representing hazards that are classified in one or more ofGroups H-1, H-2, H-3 and H-4 shall conform to the code requirements for each of the occupancies so classified.

SECTION 308
INSTITUTIONAL GROUP

308.1 Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a supervised environment, having physical limitations because of health or age are harbored for medical treatment or other care or treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group 1-1,1-2,1-3 or 1-4.

308.2 Group 1-1. This occupancy shall include buildings, structures or parts thereof housing more than 16 persons, on a 24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environment that provides personal care services. The occupants are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from staff. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Alcohol and drug centers

Assisted living facilities

Congregate care facilities

Convalescent facilities

Group homes

Halfway houses

Residential board and care facilities

Social rehabilitation facilities

A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. A facility such as above, housing at least six and not more than 16 persons, shall be classified as Group R-4.

308.3 Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include buildings and structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or custodial care for persons who are not capable of self-preservation. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Child care facilities

Detoxification facilities

Hospitals

Mental hospitals

Nursing homes

308.3.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

CHILD CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care on a 24-hour basis to more than five children, 2½ years of age or less.

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DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that serve patients who are provided treatment for substance abuse on a 24-hour basis and who are incapable of self-preservation or who are harmful to themselves or others.

HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. Buildings or portions thereof used on a 24-hour basis for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical or surgical treatment of inpatients who are incapable of self-preservation.

NURSING HOMES. Nursing homes are long-term care facilities on a 24-hour basis, including both intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing facilities, serving more than five persons and any of the persons are incapable of self-preservation.

308.4 Group 1-3. This occupancy shall include buildings and structures that are inhabited by more than five persons who are under restraint or security. An 1-3 facility is occupied by persons who are generally incapable of self-preservation due to security measures not under the occupants' control. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Correctional centers
Detention centers
Jails
Prerelease centers
Prisons
Reformatories

Buildings of Group 1-3 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated in Sections 308.4.1 through 308.4.5 (see Section 408.1).

308.4.1 Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed as Group R.

308.4.2 Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits.

308.4.3 Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-controlled release of means ofegress from such a smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.

308.4.4 Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

308.4.5 Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

308.5 Group 1-4, day care facilities. This group shall include buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individuals other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the person cared for. A facility such as the above with five or fewer persons shall be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. Places ofworship during religious functions are not included.

308.5.1 Adult care facility. A facility that provides accommodations for less than 24 hours for more than five unrelated adults and provides supervision and personal care services shall be classified as Group 1-4.

Exception: A facility where occupants are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from the staff shall be classified as Group R-3.

308.5.2 Child care facility. A facility that provides supervision and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for more than five children 2½ years of age or less shall be classified as Group 1-4.

Exception: A child day care facility that provides care for more than five but no more than 100 children 2½ years or less of age, where the rooms in which the children are cared for are located on a level ofexit discharge serving such rooms and each of these child care rooms has an exitdoor directly to the exterior, shall be classified as Group E.

SECTION 309
MERCANTILE GROUP M

309.1 Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Department stores
Drug stores
Markets
Motor fuel-dispensing facilities
Retail or wholesale stores
Sales rooms

309.2 Quantity ofhazardous materials. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed in a single control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the quantities in Table 414.2.5(1).

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SECTION 310
RESIDENTIAL GROUP R

310.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the International Residential Code in accordance with Section 101.2. Residential occupancies shall include the following:

R-l Residential occupancies containing sleeping units where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, including:

Boarding houses (transient)
Hotels (transient)
Motels (transient)

Congregate living facilities (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants are permitted to comply with the construction requirements for Group R-3.

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, including:

Apartment houses
Boarding houses (nontransient)
Convents
Dormitories
Fraternities and sororities
Hotels (nontransient)
Live/work units
Monasteries
Motels (nontransient)
Vacation timeshare properties

Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer occupants are permitted to comply with the construction requirements for Group R-3.

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R-1, R-2, R-4 or I, including:

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units. Adult care facilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 hours.

Child care facilities that provide accommodations for five or fewer persons of any age for less than 24 hours.

Congregate living facilities with 16 or fewer persons.

Adult care and child care facilities that are within a single-family home are permitted to comply with the International Residential Code.

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings arranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted living facilities including more than five but not more than 16 occupants, excluding staff.

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in this code or shall comply with the International Residential Code provided the building is protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.2.7.

310.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied as a single-family unit.

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part thereof that contains sleeping units where residents share bathroom and/or kitchen facilities.

DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses.

PERSONAL CARE SERVICE. The care of residents who do not require chronic or convalescent medical or nursing care. Personal care involves responsibility for the safety of the resident while inside the building.

RESIDENTIAL CARE/ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part thereof housing persons, on a 24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environment which provides personal care services. The occupants are capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from staff. This classification shall include, but not be limited to, the following: residential board and care facilities, assisted living facilities, halfway houses, group homes, congregate care facilities, social rehabilitation facilities, alcohol and drug abuse centers and convalescent facilities.

TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit for not more than 30 days.

SECTION 311
STORAGE GROUP S

311.1 Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occupancy.

311.2 Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-I. Buildings occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, including, but not limited to, storage of the following:

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3
Aircraft hangar (storage and repair)
Bags: cloth, burlap and paper
Bamboos and rattan
Baskets
Belting: canvas and leather
Books and paper in rolls or packs
Boots and shoes
Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone
Cardboard and cardboard boxes
Clothing, woolen wearing apparel
Cordage
Dry boat storage (indoor)
Furniture

35

Furs
Glues, mucilage, pastes and size
Grains
Horns and combs, other than celluloid
Leather
Linoleum
Lumber
Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in Table 307.1 (1) (see Section 406.6)
Photo engravings
Resilient flooring
Silks
Soaps
Sugar
Tires, bulk storage of
Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff
Upholstery and mattresses
Wax candles

311.3 Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among others, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Group S-2 storage uses shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following:

Asbestos
Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in metal, glass or ceramic containers
Cement in bags
Chalk and crayons
Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers
Dry cell batteries
Electrical coils
Electrical motors
Empty cans
Food products
Foods in noncombustible containers
Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers
Frozen foods
Glass
Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids
Gypsum board
Inert pigments
Ivory
Meats
Metal cabinets
Metal desks with plastic tops and trim
Metal parts
Metals
Mirrors
Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers
Parking garages, open or enclosed
Porcelain and pottery
Stoves
Talc and soapstones
Washers and dryers

SECTION 312
UTILITY AND MISCELLANEOUS GROUP U

312.1 General. Buildings and structures of an accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Agricultural buildings
Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family residence (see Section 412.5)
Barns
Carports
Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high
Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy
Greenhouses
Livestock shelters
Private garages
Retaining walls
Sheds
Stables
Tanks
Towers

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CHAPTER 4
SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY

SECTION 401
SCOPE

401.1 Detailed use and occupancy requirements. In addition to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and occupancies described herein.

SECTION 402
COVERED MALL AND OPEN MALL BUILDINGS

402.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as coveredmall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by this section, covered mall bUildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.

Exceptions:

  1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-l and R-2 are not required to comply with this section.
  2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this section when they totally comply with other applicable provisions of this code.

402.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a group other than H having direct access to a coveredmall building but having required means of egress independent of the mall.

COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term" covered mall building" shall include open mall buildings as defined below.

Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall bUilding that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term "mall" shall include open malls as defined below.

Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade.

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, and other similar uses, wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls. For the purpose of Chapter 4 of the International Building Code, anchor bUildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building.

FOOD COURT. A public seating area located in the mall that serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces.

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant occupancy is measured from the centerlines ofjoint partitions to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross leasable area.

402.3 Lease plan. Each coveredmall bUilding owner shall provide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on the lease plan without prior approval of the building official.

402.4 Means ofegress. Each tenant space and the coveredmall bUilding shall be provided with means ofegress as required by this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the requirements of this code and the requirements of this section, the requirements of this section shall apply.

402.4.1 Determination of occupant load. The occupant load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered mall building shall be determined as required by this code. Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces shall be based on the occupant load thus determined.

402.4.1.1 Occupant formula. In determining required means ofegress of the mall, the number of occupants for whom means ofegress are to be provided shall be based on gross leasable area of the covered mall building (excluding anchor bUildings) and the occupant loadfactor as determined by the following equation.

aLP = (0.00007) (CLA) + 25      (Equation 4-1)

where:

aLP = The occupant load factor (square feet per person).

CLA = The gross leasable area (square feet).

Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the coveredmall bUilding shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means ofegress for the covered mall bUilding.

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402.4.1.2 OLF range. The occupant load factor (OLE) is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50.

402.4.1.3 Anchor buildings. The occupant load of anchor bUildings opening into the mall shall not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the mall.

402.4.1.4 Food courts. The occupant load of a food court shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004. For the purposes of determining the means of egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered mall bUilding as calculated above.

402.4.2 Number of means of egress. Wherever the distance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant space used by persons other than employees exceeds 75 feet (22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant load of 50 or more, not less than two means ofegress shall be provided.

402.4.3 Arrangements of means of egress. Assembly occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be so located in the covered mall bUilding that their entrance will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required means ofegress opening directly to the exterior of the covered mall building.

402.4.3.1 Anchor building means of egress. Required means ofegress for anchor bUildings shall be provided independently from the mall means of egress system. The occupant load of anchor bUildings opening into the mall shall not be included in determining means ofegress requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating at an anchor building where no other means of egress has been provided shall be considered as a dead-end mall.

402.4.4 Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant space in a covered mall bUilding, the maximum distance of travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

The maximum distance of travel from any point within a mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

402.4.5 Access to exits. Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits. The minimum width of an exitpassageway or corridorfrom a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm).

Exception: Dead ends not exceeding a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead-end portion of the mall.

402.4.5.1 Exit passageways. Where exit passageways provide a secondary means ofegress from a tenant space, doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by I-hour fire door assemblies that are self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3.

402.4.6 Service areas fronting on exit passageways. Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated from such rooms with not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire protection rating of openings in the fire barriers shall be 1 hour.

402.5 Mall width. For the purpose of providing required egress, malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code where the width of the mall is as specified in this section.

402.5.1 Minimum width. The minimum width of the mall shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be sufficient to accommodate the occupantloadserved. There shall be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear exit width to a height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a tenant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, bench, display opening, food court or other obstruction to means ofegress travel.

402.5.2 Minimum width open mall. The minimum floor and roof opening width above grade shall be 20 feet (9096 mm) in open malls.

402.6 Types of construction. The area of any covered mall building, including anchor buildings, of Types I, II, III and IV construction, shall not be limited provided the covered mall bUilding and attached anchor bUildings and parking garages are surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor bUildings do not exceed three stories above grade plane. The allowable height and area of anchor bUildings greater than three stories above grade plane shall comply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The construction type of open parking garages and enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.3 and 406.4, respectively.

402.6.1 Reduced open space. The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requirements are met:

  1. The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered mall building and anchor buildings.
  2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours.
  3. Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have opening protectives with a minimum fire protection rating of 3 hours.
  4. Group E, H, lor R occupancies are not within the covered mall building or anchor stores.

402.7 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between tenant spaces and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall.

402.7.1 Attached garage. An attached garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than

38

nine persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered mall bUilding by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed parking garage is separated from the coveredmall building or anchor building a distance greater than 10 feet (3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply. Pedestrian walkways and tunnels that attach the open parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the covered mall bUilding or anchor bUilding shall be constructed in accordance with Section 3104.

402.7.2 Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall be separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition complying with Section 709. A tenant separation wall is not required between any tenant space and the mall.

402.7.3 Anchor building separation. An anchor bUilding shall be separated from the covered mall bUilding by fire walls complying with Section 706.

Exception: Anchor bUildings of not more than three stories above grade plane that have an occupancy classification the same as that permitted for tenants of the covered mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistive fire barriers complying with Section 707.

402.7.3.1 Openings between anchor building and mall. Except for the separation between Group R-l sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor bUildings of Type lA, IB, IIA and lIB construction and the mall need not be protected.

402.8 Interior finish. Interior wall and ceiling finishes within the mall and exits shall have a minimum flame spreadindex and smoke-developed index of Class B in accordance with Chapter 8. Interior floor finishes shall meet the requirements of Section 804.

[F] 402.9 Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall bUilding and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the following:

  1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the coveredmall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.
  2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages constructed in accordance with Section 406.3.

[F] 402.9.1 Standpipe system. The covered mall bUilding shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.3.

402.10 Smoke control. Where a covered mall building contains an atrium, a smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Section 404.5.

Exception: A smoke control system is not required in covered mall bUildings when an atrium connects only two stories.

402.11 Kiosks. Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or permanent) shall meet the following requirements:

  1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be located within the mall unless constructed of any of the following materials:

    1.1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.

    1.2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975.

    1.3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.

  2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall be provided with approved fire suppression detection devices.
  3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or groupings thereof and other structures within the mall shall be 20 feet (6096 mm).
  4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m2).

402.12 Children's playground structures. Structures intended as children's playgrounds that exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) in height and 150 square feet (14 m2) in area shall comply with Sections 402.12.1 through 402.12.4.

402.12.1 Materials. Children's playground structures shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials that comply with the following:

  1. Fire-retardant-treated wood.
  2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.
  3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in soft-contained play equipment structures) having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975.
  4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use.
  5. Textiles and films complying with the flame propagation performance criteria contained in NFPA 701.
  6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides 39 and decks) exhibiting a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 400 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation at a thickness of 6 mm.
  7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment structures, having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975. The minimum specimen test size shall be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) by an average of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls shall be held in a box constructed of galvanized steel poultry netting wire mesh.
  8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or film meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701.
  9. The floor covering placed under the children's playground structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor finish classification, as described in Section 804, when tested in accordance with NFPA 253.

402.12.2 Fire protection. Children's playground structures located within the mall shall be provided with the same level of approved fire suppression and detection devices required for kiosks and similar structures.

402.12.3 Separation. Children's playground structures shall have a minimum horizontal separation from other structures within the mall of 20 feet (6090 mm).

402.12.4 Area limits. Children's playground structures shall not exceed 300 square feet (28 m2) in area, unless a special investigation has demonstrated adequate fire safety.

402.13 Security grilles and doors. Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part ofa required means of egress shall conform to the following:

  1. They shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.
  2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.
  3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within without the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.
  4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door.

[F] 402.14 Standby power. Covered mall bUildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) shall be provided with standby powersystems that are capable of operating the emergency voice/alarm communication system.

[F] 402.15 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

402.16 Plastic signs. Plastic signs affixed to the storefront of any tenant space facing the mall shall be limited as specified in Sections 402.16.1 through 402.16.5.2.

402.16.1 Area. Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of the wall area facing the mall.

402.16.2 Height and width. Plastic signs shall not exceed a height of 36 inches (914 mm), except that if the sign is vertical, the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).

402.16.3 Location. Plastic signs shall be located a minimum distance of 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants.

402.16.4 Plastics other than foam plastics. Plastics other than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 or meet the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286.

402.16.4.1 Encasement. Edges and backs of plastic signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal.

402.16.5 Foam plastics. Foam plastics used in signs shall have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 402.16 shall not be required to comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section 2603.3.

402.16.5.1 Density. The minimum density of foam plastics used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m3).

402.16.5.2 Thickness. The thickness of foam plastic signs shall not be greater than ½ inch (12.7 mm).

[F] 402.17 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire department.

SECTION 403
HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

403.1 Applicability. High-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.2 through 403.6.

Exception: The provisions of Sections 403.2 through 403.6 shall not apply to the following buildings and structures:

  1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 412.3.
  2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3. 40
  3. Buildings with a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance with Section 303.1.
  4. Special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.
  5. Buildings with a Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 occupancy in accordance with Section 415.

403.2 Construction. The construction of high-rise buildings shall comply with the provisions of Sections 403.2.1 through 403.2.4.

403.2.1 Reduction in fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.2.1.1 and 403.2.1.2 shall be allowed in buildings that have sprinkler control valves equipped with supervisory initiating devices and water-flow initiating devices for each floor.

403.2.1.1 Type of construction. The following reductions in the minimum fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Table 601 shall be permitted as follows:

  1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in bUilding height, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IA construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the minimum fire-resistance ratings for the building elements in Type lB.

    Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of columns supporting floors shall not be permitted to be reduced.

  2. In other than Group F-1, M and S-1 occupancies, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the fire-resistance ratings in Type IIA.
  3. The building height and building area limitations of a building containing building elements with reduced fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted to be the same as the building without such reductions.

403.2.1.2 Shaft enclosures. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in bUilding height, the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barriers enclosing vertical shafts, other than exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures, is permitted to be reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are installed within the shafts at the top and at alternate floor levels.

403.2.2 Seismic considerations. For seismic considerations, see Chapter 16.

403.2.3 Structural integrity ofexit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures. For high-rise buildings of occupancy category III or IV in accordance with Section 1604.5, and for all buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures shall comply with Sections 403.2.3.1 through 403.2.3.4.

403.2.3.1 Wall assembly. The wall assemblies making up the exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures shall meet or exceed Soft Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

403.2.3.2 Wall assembly materials. The face of the wall assemblies making up the exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior of the exit enclosure or elevator hoistway enclosure shall be constructed in accordance with one of the following methods:

  1. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than two layers of impact-resistant construction board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.
  2. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than one layer of impact-resistant construction material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.
  3. The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of any material, tested in tandem, that meet or exceed Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

403.2.3.3 Concrete and masonry walls. Concrete or masonry walls shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2.

403.2.3.4 Other wall assemblies. Any other wall assembly that provides impact resistance equivalent to that required by Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2 for Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3, as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M, shall be permitted.

403.2.4 Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM). The bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the building shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4.

TABLE 403.2.4
MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH
HEIGHT OF BUILDINGa SFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH
Up to 420 feet 430 psf
Greater than 420 feet 1,000psf
For 51: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (pst) = 0.0479 kW/m2
a. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

[F] 403.3 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary water supply where required by Section 903.3.5.2.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of:

  1. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3.
  2. Telecommunications equipment buildings used exclusively for telecommunications equipment, associated electrical power distribution equipment, batteries and standby engines, provided that those spaces 41 or areas are equipped throughout with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2 and are separated from the remainder of the building by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or not less than 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

[F] 403.3.1 Number of sprinkler risers and system design. Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height shall be supplied by a minimum of two risers. Each riser shall supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not be supplied from the same riser.

[F] 403.3.1.1 Riser location. Sprinkler risers shall be placed in exit enclosures that are remotely located in accordance with Section 1015.2.

[F] 403.3.2 Water supply to required fire pumps. Required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to a minimum of two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through at least one of the connections.

403.4 Emergency systems. The detection, alarm and emergency systems of high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.8.

[F] 403.4.1 Smoke detection. Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1.

[F] 403.4.2 Fire alarms systems. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.

[F] 403.4.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

[F] 403.4.4 Emergency responder radio coverage. Emergency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accordance with Section 510 of the International Fire Code.

[F] 403.4.5 Fire command. A fire command center complying with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by the fire department.

403.4.6 Smoke removal. To facilitate smoke removal in post-fire salvage and overhaul operations, buildings and structures shall be equipped with natural or mechanical ventilation for removal of products of combustion in accordance with one of the following:

  1. Easily identifiable, manually operable windows or panels shall be distributed around the perimeter of each floor at not more than 50-foot (15 240 mm) intervals. The area of operable windows or panels shall not be less than 40 square feet (3.7 m2) per 50 linear feet (15 240 mm) of perimeter.

    Exceptions:

    1. In Group R-1 occupancies, each sleeping unit or suite having an exterior wall shall be permitted to be provided with 2 square feet (0.19 m2) of venting area in lieu of the area specified in Item 1.
    2. Windows shall be permitted to be fixed provided that glazing can be cleared by fire fighters.
  2. Mechanical air-handling equipment providing one exhaust air change every 15 minutes for the area involved. Return and exhaust air shall be moved directly to the outside without recirculation to other portions of the building.
  3. Any other approved design that will produce equivalent results.

[F] 403.4.7 Standby power. A standby power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for standby power loads specified in Section 403.4.7.2.

[F] 403.4.7.1 Special requirements for standby power systems. If the standby system is a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center.

[F] 403.4.7.2 Standby power loads. The following are classified as standby power loads:

  1. Power and lighting for the fire command center required by Section 403.4.5;
  2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures; and
  3. Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accordance with Sections 1007.4,3003,3007 and 3008.

[F] 403.4.8 Emergency power systems. An emergency power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for emergency power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.1.

[F] 403.4.8.1 Emergency power loads. The following are classified as emergency power loads:

  1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination required by Chapter 10;
  2. Elevator car lighting;
  3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems;
  4. Automatic fire detection systems;
  5. Fire alarm systems; and
  6. Electrically powered fire pumps.

403.5 Means of egress and evacuation. The means of egress in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 through 403.5.6.

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403.5.1 Remoteness of exit stairway enclosures. The required exitstairway enclosures shall be separated by a distance not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or not less than one-fourth of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served, whichever is less. The distance shall be measured in a straight line between the nearest points of the exit stairway enclosures. In buildings with three or more exit stairway enclosures, at least two of the exit stairway enclosures shall comply with this section. Interlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted as one exit stairway.

403.5.2 Additional exit stairway. For buildings other than Group R-2 that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in bUilding height, one additional exit stairway meeting the requirements of Sections 1009 and 1022 shall be provided in addition to the minimum number of exits required by Section 1021.1. The total width of any combination of remaining exit stairways with one exit stairway removed shall not be less than the total width required by Section 1005.1. Scissor stairs shall not be considered the additional exit stairway required by this section.

Exception: An additional exit stairway shall not be required to be installed in buildings having elevators used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008.

403.5.3 Stairway door operation. Stairway doors other than the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked from the stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from the stairway side shall be capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center.

403.5.3.1 Stairway communication system. A telephone or other two-way communications system connected to an approved constantly attended station shall be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each stairway where the doors to the stairway are locked.

403.5.4 Smokeproof exit enclosures. Every required level exit stairway serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall comply with Sections 909.20 and 1022.9.

403.5.5 Luminous egress path markings. Luminous egress path markings shall be provided in accordance with Section 1024.

403.5.6 Emergency escape and rescue. Emergency escape and rescue openings required by Section 1029 are not required.

403.6 Elevators. Elevator installation and operation in high-rise buildings shall comply with Chapter 30 and Sections 403.6.1 and 403.6.2.

403.6.1 Fire service access elevator. In buildings with an occupied floor more than 120 feet (36 576 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, a minimum of one fire service access elevator shall be provided in accordance with Section 3007.

403.6.2 Occupant evacuation elevators. Where installed in accordance with Section 3008, passenger elevators for general public use shall be permitted to be used for occupant self-evacuation.

SECTION 404
ATRIUMS

404.1 General. In other than Group H occupancies, and where permitted by Exception 5 in Section 708.2, the provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures containing vertical openings defined herein as "Atriums."

404.1.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.

ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505.

404.2 Use. The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the International Fire Code shall be used in the atrium space.

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for any approved use where the individual space is provided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

[F] 404.3 Automatic sprinkler protection. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building.

Exceptions:

  1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
  2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required.

[F] 404.4 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.14.

404.5 Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be installed in accordance with Section 909.

Exception: Smoke control is not required for atriums that connect only two stories.

404.6 Enclosure ofatriums. Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a I-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exceptions:

  1. A glass wall forming a smoke partition where automatic sprinklers are spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) or less along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room 43 side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side, and between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation ofthe sprinkler system without obstruction. The glass shall be installed in a gasketed frame so that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
  2. A glass-block wall assembly in accordance with Section 2110 and having a ¾-hour fire protection rating.
  3. The adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium shall not be required to be separated from the atrium where such spaces are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system.

[F] 404.7 Standby power. Equipment required to provide smoke control shall be connected to a standby power system in accordance with Section 909.11.

404.8 Interior finish. The interior finish of walls and ceilings of the atrium shall not be less than Class B with no reduction in class for sprinkler protection.

404.9 Travel distance. In other than the lowest level of the atrium, where the required means of egress is through the atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The travel distance requirements for areas of buildings open to the atrium and where access to the exits is not through the atrium, shall comply with the requirements of Section 1016.

SECTION 405
UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS

405.1 General. The provisions of this section apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level ofexit discharge.

Exceptions:

  1. One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.
  2. Parking garages with automatic sprinkler systems in compliance with Section 405.3.
  3. Fixed guideway transit systems.
  4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar facilities.
  5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not exceeding 1,500 square feet (139 m2)and has an occupant load less than 10.
  6. Pumping stations and other similar mechanical spaces intended only for limited periodic use by service or maintenance personnel.

405.2 Construction requirements. The underground portion of the building shall be of Type I construction.

[F] 405.3 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in accordance with Section 903.4.

405.4 Compartmentation. Compartmentation shall be in accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3.

405.4.1 Number of compartments. A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into a minimum of two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level ofexit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.

Exception: The lowest storyneed not be compartmented where the area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load of less than 10.

405.4.2 Smoke barrier penetration. The compartments shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 710. Penetrations between the two compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with Section 713. Doorways shall be protected by fire door assemblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3 and are installed in accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 715.4.3. Where provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an exhaust system independent of the other compartments.

405.4.3 Elevators. Where elevators are provided, each compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each compartment by a smoke barrierin accordance with Section 710. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill and be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3.

[F] 405.5 Smoke control system. A smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 405.5.2.

[F] 405.5.1 Control system. A smoke control system is required to control the migration of products of combustion in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain means ofegress in a usable condition.

[F] 405.5.2 Compartment smoke control system. Where compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have an independent smoke control system. The system shall be automatically activated and capable of manual operation in accordance with Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.

[F] 405.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19 .

405.7 Means ofegress. Means ofegress shall be in accordance with Sections 405.7.1 and 405.7.2.

405.7.1 Number ofexits. Each floor level shall be provided with a minimum of two exits. Where compartmentation is required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have a

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minimum of one exit and shall also have an exit access doorway into the adjoining compartment.

405.7.2 Smokeproof enclosure. Every required stairway serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of its level ofexit discharge shall comply with the requirements for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in Section 1022.9.

[F] 405.8 Standby power. A standby power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided standby power loads specified in Section 405.8.1.

[F] 405.8.1 Standby power loads. The following loads are classified as standby power loads:

  1. Smoke control system.
  2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.
  3. Fire pumps.

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accordance with Section 3003.

[F] 405.8.2 Pick-up time. The standby power system shall pick up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of the normal power supply.

[F] 405.9 Emergency power. An emergency power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for emergency power loads specified in Section 405.9.1.

[F] 405.9.1 Emergency power loads. The following loads are classified as emergency power loads:

  1. Emergency voicelalarm communications systems.
  2. Fire alarm systems.
  3. Automatic fire detection systems.
  4. Elevator car lighting.
  5. Means ofegress and exit sign illumination as required by Chapter 10.

[F] 405.10 Standpipe system. The underground building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance with Section 905.

SECTION 406
MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES

406.1 Private garages and carports.

406.1.1 Classification. Buildings or parts of buildings classified as Group U occupancies because of the use or character of the occupancy shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 mZ) in area or one story in height except as provided in Section 406.1.2. Any building or portion thereof that exceeds the limitations specified in this section shall be classified in the occupancy group other than Group U that it most nearly resembles.

406.1.2 Area increase. Group U occupancies used for the storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where no repair work is completed or fuel is dispensed are permitted to be 3,000 square feet (279 mZ) when the following provisions are met:

  1. For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior walland opening protection for the Group U portion of the building shall be as required for the major occupancy of the building. For such a mixed occupancy building, the allowable floor area of the building shall be as permitted for the major occupancy contained therein.
  2. For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, the exterior wall shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating and the area of openings shall not be limited when the fire separation distance is 5 feet (1524 mm) or more.

More than one 3,000-square-foot (279 mZ) Group U occupancy shall be permitted to be in the same building, provided each 3,000-square-foot (279 mZ) area is separated by fire walls complying with Section 706.

406.1.3 Garages and carports. Carports shall be open on at least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this section for garages.

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

406.1.4 Separation. Separations shall comply with the following:

  1. The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of a minimum liz-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to the garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than a sis-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or equivalent. Door openings between a private garage and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than 1 3/S inches (34.9 mm) thick, or doors in compliance with Section 715.4.3. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Doors shall be self-closing and self-latching.
  2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit from the garage shall be constructed of a minimum 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) sheet steel and shall have no openings into the garage.
  3. A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above.

406.1.5 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic garage door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325.

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406.2 Parking garages.

406.2.1 Classification. Parking garages shall be classified as either open, as defined in Section 406.3, or enclosed and shall meet the appropriate criteria in Section 406.4. Also see Section 509 for special provisions for parking garages.

406.2.2 Clear height. The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm). Vehicle and pedestrian areas accommodating van-accessible parking required by Section 1106.5 shall conform to ICC A117.1.

406.2.3 Guards. Guards shall be provided in accordance with Section 1013. Guards serving as vehicle barrier systems shall comply with Sections 406.2.4 and 1013.

406.2.4 Vehicle barrier systems. Vehicle barrier systems not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) high shall be placed at the end of drive lanes, and at the end of parking spaces where the vertical distance to the ground or surface directly below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barrier systems shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 1607.7.3.

Exception: Vehicle storage compartments in a mechanical access parking garage.

406.2.5 Ramps. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1: 15 (6.67 percent).

406.2.6 Floor surface. Parking surfaces shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

Exceptions:

  1. Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at ground level.
  2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.

406.2.7 Mixed occupancy separation. Parking garages shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 508.1.

406.2.8 Special hazards. Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the sources of ignition in the appliance are at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.

406.2.9 Attached to rooms. Openings from a parking garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

406.3 Open parking garages.

406.3.1 Scope. Except where specific provisions are made in Sections 406.3.2 through 406.3.13, other requirements of this code shall apply.

406.3.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing parking machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public occupancy is prohibited above the street level.

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.3.3.1 on two or more sides that is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.3.4.

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing a series of continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power from and to the street level.

406.3.3 Construction. Open parking garages shall be of Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle barrier systems, see Section 406.2.4.

406.3.3.1 Openings. For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side ofthe structure shall have uniformly distributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings in exterior walls on a tier must be at least 20 percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall constitute a minimum of 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be at least 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings.

Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the required openings are uniformly distributed over two opposing sides of the building.

406.3.4 Uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as an openparkinggarage subject to the provisions of Sections 402.7.1, 406.3.13, 508.1, 509.3, 509.4 and 509.7.

406.3.5 Area and height. Area and height of open parking garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 508.1.

406.3.5.1 Single use. When the open parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table

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406.3.5, along with increases allowed by Section 406.3.6.

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier.

The clear height of a parking tier shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the building official.

406.3.6 Area and height increases. The allowable area and height of open parkinggarages shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides open on three-fourths ofthe building's perimeter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the entire building's perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under the above provisions, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier.

Allowable tier areas in Table 406.3.5 shall be increased for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of at least 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.

Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the bUilding height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Section 406.3.3.1. These openings shall be permitted to be provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) for the full width of the openings.

406.3.7 Fire separation distance. Exterior walls and openings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be determined in accordance with Table 602 and Section 705.

406.3.8 Means ofegress. Where persons other than parking attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet the means ofegress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there shall not be less than two 36-inch-wide (914 mm) exit stairways. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by noncombustible materials.

406.3.9 Standpipes. Standpipes shall be installed where required by the provisions of Chapter 9.

406.3.10 Sprinkler systems. Where required by other provisions of this code, automatic sprinkler systems and standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 9.

406.3.11 Enclosure of vertical openings. Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in Section 406.3.8.

406.3.12 Ventilation. Ventilation, other than the percentage of openings specified in Section 406.3.3.1, shall not be required.

406.3.13 Prohibitions. The following uses and alterations are not permitted:

  1. Vehicle repair work.
  2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles.
    TABLE 406.3.5
    OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT
    TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION AREA PER TIER
    (square feet)
    HEIGHT (in tiers)
    Ramp access Mechanical access
    Automatic sprinkler system
    No Yes
    IA Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited Unlimited
    IB Unlimited 12 tiers 12 tiers 18 tiers
    IIA 50,000 10 tiers 10 tiers 15 tiers
    lIB 50,000 8 tiers 8 tiers 12 tiers
    IV 50,000 4 tiers 4 tiers 4 tiers
    For 51: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2
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  3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means.
  4. Dispensing of fuel.

406.4 Enclosed parking garages.

406.4.1 Heights and areas. Enclosed vehicle parking garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition of open parking garages shall be limited to the allowable heights and areas specified in Table 503 as modified by Sections 504, 506 and 507. Roof parking is permitted.

406.4.2 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

406.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

406.5.1 Construction. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be constructed in accordance with the International Fire Code and Sections 406.5.1 through 406.5.3.

406.5.2 Vehicle fueling pad. The vehicle shall be fueled on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by the methodology in EN 1081.

406.5.3 Canopies. Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials, fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing I-hour fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a canopy shall comply with one of the following:

  1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible element of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes;
  2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a minimum thickness of 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corrosion-resistant steel having a minimum base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in the form intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929; or
  3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic materials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggregate areas of plastics shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 m2). The maximum area of any individual panel shall not exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m2).

406.5.3.1 Canopies used to support gaseous hydrogen systems. Canopies that are used to shelter dispensing operations where flammable compressed gases are located on the roof of the canopy shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construction requirements.
  2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited to refueling only.
  3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.

406.6 Repair garages.

406.6.1 General. Repair garages shall be constructed in accordance with the International Fire Code and Sections 406.6.1 through 406.6.6. This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispensing facilities, as regulated in Section 406.5.

406.6.2 Mixed uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of Section 508.1.

406.6.3 Ventilation. Repair garages shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the entrance to the garage.

406.6.4 Floor surface. Repair garage floors shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W/cm2, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted.

406.6.5 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

[F] 406.6.6 Gas detection system. Repair garages used for repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases, such as hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with an approved flammable gas detection system.

[F] 406.6.6.1 System design. The flammable gas detection system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower explosive limit. Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication or chassis repair pits of garages used for repairing nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles.

[F] 406.6.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:

  1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.
  2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.
  3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, where the system is interlocked with gas detection.

[F] 406.6.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Failure of the gas detection system shall result in the deactivation of the heating system, activation of the mechanical ventilation system when the system is interlocked

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with the gas detection system and cause a trouble signal to sound in an approved location.

SECTION 407
GROUP 1-2

407.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-2 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 407.1 through 407.9 and other applicable provisions of this code.

407.2 Corridors. Corridors in occupancies in Group 1-2 shall be continuous to the exits and separated from other areas in accordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conforming to Sections 407.2.1 through 407.2.4.

407.2.1 Waiting and similar areas. Waiting areas and similar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be permitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the following criteria are met:

  1. The spaces are not occupied for patient sleeping units, treatment rooms, hazardous or incidental accessory occupancies in accordance with Section 508.2.
  2. The open space is protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.
  3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907, or the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located is equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.
  4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.

407.2.2 Nurses' stations. Spaces for doctors' and nurses' charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, when such spaces are constructed as required for corridors.

407.2.3 Mental health treatment areas. Areas wherein mental health patients who are not capable of self-preservation are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces other than incidental accessory occupancies in accordance with Section 508.2.5, under continuous supervision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the following criteria are met:

  1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).
  2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facility staff.
  3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to the required exits.
  4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.
  5. Not more than one such space is permitted in anyone smoke compartment.
  6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.

407.2.4 Gift shops. Gift shops less than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corridor provided the gift shop and storage areas are fully sprinklered and storage areas are protected in accordance with Section 508.2.5.

407.3 Corridor walls. Corridor walls shall be constructed as smoke partitions in accordance with Section 711.

407.3.1 Corridor doors. Corridor doors, other than those in a wall required to be rated by Section 508.2.5 or for the enclosure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a required fire protection rating and shall not be required to be equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices, but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Section 715.4.

407.3.2 Locking devices. Locking devices that restrict access to the patient room from the corridor, and that are operable only by staff from the corridor side, shall not restrict the means ofegress from the patient room except for patient rooms in mental health facilities.

407.4 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide every storyused by patients for sleeping or treatment and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two smoke compartments. Such stories shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m2) and the travel distance from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Section 710.

407.4.1 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) per patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke barrier. On floors not housing patients confined to a bed or litter, at least 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments.

407.4.2 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means ofegress originated.

407.4.3 Horizontal assemblies. Horizontal assemblies supporting smoke barriers required by this section shall be designed to resist the movement of smoke and shall comply with Section 712.9.

[F] 407.5 Automatic sprinkler system. Smoke compartments containing patient sleeping units shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. The smoke compartments shall be equipped with approved quick-response or residential sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.

[F] 407.6 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.

[F] 407.7 Automatic fire detection. Corridors in nursing homes (both intermediate care and skilled nursing facilities),

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detoxification facilities and spaces permitted to be open to the corridors by Section 407.2 shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system. Hospitals shall be equipped with smoke detection as required in Section 407.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Corridor smoke detection is not required where patient sleeping units are provided with smoke detectors that comply with UL 268. Such detectors shall provide a visual display on the corridor side of each patient sleeping unit and an audible and visual alarm at the nursing station attending each unit.
  2. Corridor smoke detection is not required where patient sleeping unit doors are equipped with automatic door-closing devices with integral smoke detectors on the unit sides installed in accordance with their listing, provided that the integral detectors perform the required alerting function.

407.8 Secured yards. Grounds are permitted to be fenced and gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for bed and litter patients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) for ambulatory patients and other occupants are located between the building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building they serve.

407.9 Hyperbaric facilities. Hyperbaric facilities in Group 1-2 occupancies shall meet the requirements contained in Chapter 20 of NFPA 99.

SECTION 408
GROUP 1-3

408.1 General. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 408.1 through 408.10 and other applicable provisions of this code (see Section 308.4).

408.1.1 Definition. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

CELL. A room within a housing unit in a detention or correctional facility used to confine inmates or prisoners.

CELL TIER. Levels of cells vertically stacked above one another within a housing unit.

HOUSING UNIT. A dormitory or a group of cells with a common dayroom in Group 1-3.

SALLYPORT. A security vestibule with two or more doors or gates where the intended purpose is to prevent continuous and unobstructed passage by allowing the release of only one door or gate at a time.

408.2 Other occupancies. Buildings or portions of buildings in Group I-3 occupancies where security operations necessitate the locking of required means ofegress shall be permitted to be classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies classified as other than Group 1-3 shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for that occupancy provided provisions are made for the release of occupants at all times.

Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies.

Exception: It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a Group H use.

408.3 Means of egress. Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.

408.3.1 Door width. Doors to resident sleeping units shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).

408.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means ofegress are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N).

408.3.3 Guard tower doors. A hatch or trap door not less than 16 square feet (610 m2) in area through the floor and having minimum dimensions of not less than 2 feet (610 mm) in any direction shall be permitted to be used as a portion of the means ofegress from guard towers.

408.3.4 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform to the requirements of Section 1009.9 are permitted for access to and between staff locations.

408.3.5 Ship ladders. Ship ladders shall be permitted for egress from control rooms or elevated facility observation rooms in accordance with Section 1009.11.

408.3.6 Exit discharge. Exits are permitted to discharge into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, a minimum of 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building with a net area of 15 square feet (1.4 m2) per person.

408.3.7 Sallyports. A sallyport shall be permitted in a means ofegress where there are provisions for continuous and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an emergency egress condition.

408.3.8 Exit enclosures. One of the required exit enclosures in each building shall be permitted to have glazing installed in doors and interior walls at each landing level providing access to the enclosure, provided that the following conditions are met:

  1. The exitenclosure shall not serve more than four floor levels.
  2. Exit doors shall not be less than ¾-hour fire door assemblies complying with Section 715.4
  3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not exceed 5,000 square inches (3 m2) and individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).
  4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire when actuated. 50
  5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
  6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.

408.4 Locks. Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accordance with the applicable use condition. Doors from a refuge area to the exterior are permitted to be locked with a key in lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1. The keys to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door.

408.4.1 Remote release. Remote release of locks on doors in a means ofegress shall be provided with reliable means of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release mechanism(s) required for egress shall be such that with the minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms are capable of being released within 2 minutes.

Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required provided that not more than 10 locks are necessary to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished with not more than two separate keys.

408.4.2 Power-operated doors and locks. Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical operating release shall be provided.

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities with 10 locks or less complying with the exception to Section 408.4.1.

408.4.3 Redundant operation. Remote release, mechanically operated sliding doors or remote release, mechanically operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically operated release mechanism at each door, or shall be provided with a redundant remote release control.

408.4.4 Relock capability. Doors remotely unlocked under emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location to enable doors to relock.

408.5 Protection of vertical openings. Any vertical opening shall be protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 708, or shall be in accordance with Section 408.5.1.

408.5.1 Floor openings. Openings in floors within a housing unit are permitted without a shaft enclosure, provided all of the following conditions are met:

  1. The entire normally occupied areas so interconnected are open and unobstructed so as to enable observation of the areas by supervisory personnel;
  2. Means of egress capacity is sufficient for all occupants from all interconnected cell tiers and areas;
  3. The height difference between the floor levels of the highest and lowest cell tiers shall not exceed 23 feet (7010 mm); and
  4. Egress from any portion of the cell tier to an exit or exit access door shall not require travel on more than one additional floor level within the housing unit.

408.5.2 Shaft openings in communicating floor levels. Where a floor opening is permitted between communicating floor levels of a housing unit in accordance with Section 408.5.1, plumbing chases serving vertically staked individual cells contained with the housing unit shall be permitted without a shaft enclosure.

408.6 Smoke barrier. Occupancies in Group 1-3 shall have smoke barriers complying with Sections 408.8 and 710 to divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other storyhaving an occupantloadof 50 or more persons, into at least two smoke compartments.

Exception: Spaces having a direct exitto one of the following, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors involved complies with the requirements for doors at the smoke barrier for the use condition involved:

  1. A public way.
  2. A building separated from the resident housing area by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet (15 240 mm) of open space.
  3. A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 square feet (0.56 m2) or more of refuge area per occupant, including residents, staff and visitors.

408.6.1 Smoke compartments. The maximum number of residents in any smoke compartment shall be 200. The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any room door required as exit access shall not exceed 150 feet (45 720 mm). The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any point in a room shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

408.6.2 Refuge area. At least 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. This space shall be readily available wherever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a fire emergency.

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408.6.3 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means ofegress originates.

408.7 Security glazing. In occupancies in Group 1-3, windows and doors in I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in accordance with Section 709 and smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 710 shall be permitted to have security glazing installed provided that the following conditions are met.

  1. Individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).
  2. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire.
  3. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
  4. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.

408.8 Subdivision of resident housing areas. Sleeping areas and any contiguous day room, group activity space or other common spaces where residents are housed shall be separated from other spaces in accordance with Sections 408.8.1 through 408.8.4.

408.8.1 Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4. Each sleeping area in Occupancy Conditions 3 and 4 shall be separated from the adjacent common spaces by a smoke-tight partition where the travel distance from the sleeping area through the common space to the corridor exceeds 50 feet (15 240 mm).

408.8.2 Occupancy Condition 5. Each sleeping area in Occupancy Condition 5 shall be separated from adjacent sleeping areas, corridors and common spaces by a smoke-tight partition. Additionally, common spaces shall be separated from the corridor by a smoke-tight partition.

408.8.3 Openings in room face. The aggregate area of openings in a solid sleeping room face in Occupancy Conditions 2,3,4 and 5 shall not exceed 120 square inches (77 419 mm2). The aggregate area shall include all openings including door undercuts, food passes and grilles. Openings shall be not more than 36 inches (914 mm) above the floor. In Occupancy Condition 5, the openings shall be closeable from the room side.

408.8.4 Smoke-tight doors. Doors in openings in partitions required to be smoke tight by Section 408.8 shall be substantial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell doors.

408.9 Windowless buildings. For the purposes of this section, a windowless building or portion of a building is one with nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or without windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an engineered smoke control system to provide a tenable environment for exiting from the smoke compartment in the area of fire origin in accordance with Section 909 for each windowless smoke compartment.

[F] 408.10 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3.

SECTION 409
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS

409.1 General. The provisions of Sections 409.1 through 409.5 shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety film is utilized in conjunction with electric arc, xenon or other light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is utilized or stored, such rooms shall comply with NFPA40.

409.1.1 Projection room required. Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an adjacent room of equivalent construction.

409.2 Construction of projection rooms. Every projection room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements for the type of building in which the projection room is located. Openings are not required to be protected.

The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet (7.44 m2) for a single machine and at least 40 square feet (3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approvedmaterial, so as to close completely the opening.

409.3 Projection room and equipment ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

409.3.1 Supply air. Each projection room shall be provided with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to provide well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permitted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces within the building, provided the volume and infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning system, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air when other systems are not in operation.

409.3.2 Exhaust air. Projection rooms are permitted to be exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp

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exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. The projection room ventilation system is permitted to also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind rooms.

409.3.3 Projection machines. Each projection machine shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible connector approvedfor the purpose. The projection lamp or projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be combined but shall not be interconnected with any other exhaust or return system, or both, within the building.

409.4 Lighting control. Provisions shall be made for control of the auditorium lighting and the means ofegress lighting systems of theaters from inside the projection room and from at least one other convenient point in the building.

409.5 Miscellaneous equipment. Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and film storage facilities.

SECTION 410
STAGES AND PLATFORMS

410.1 Applicability. The provisions of Sections 410.1 through 410.7 shall apply to all parts of buildings and structures that contain stages or platforms and similar appurtenances as herein defined.

410.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

FLY GALLERY. A raised floor area above a stage from which the movement of scenery and operation of other stage effects are controlled.

GRIDIRON. The structural framing over a stage supporting equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage effects.

PINRAIL. A rail on or above a stage through which belaying pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened.

PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for worship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers and speakers; boxing and wrestling rings; theater-in-the-round stages; and similar purposes wherein there are no overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. A temporary platform is one installed for not more than 30 days.

PROSCENIUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage from the auditorium or assembly seating area.

STAGE. A space within a building utilized for entertainment or presentations, which includes overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound.

410.3 Stages. Stage construction shall comply with Sections 410.3.1 through 410.3.7.

410.3.1 Stage construction. Stages shall be constructed of materials as required for floors for the type of construction of the building in which such stages are located.

Exceptions:

  1. Stages ofType lIB or IV construction with a nominal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the stage is separated from other areas in accordance with Section 410.3.4.
  2. In buildings of Types IIA, IlIA and VA construction, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, provided the space below the stage is equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 903 or 904.
  3. In all types ofconstruction, the finished floor shall be constructed of wood or approved noncombustible materials. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors with approved safety locks.

410.3.1.1 Stage height and area. Stage areas shall be measured to include the entire performance area and adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construction. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above the stage.

410.3.2 Galleries, gridirons, catwalks and pinrails. Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of approved materials consistent with the requirements for the type of construction of the building; and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels in applying this code.

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of any approved material.

410.3.3 Exterior stage doors. Where protection of openings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with fire door assemblies that comply with Section 715. Exterior openings that are located on the stage for means ofegress or loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium.

410.3.4 Proscenium wall. Where the stage height is greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage shall be completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating extending continuously from the foundation to the roof.

410.3.5 Proscenium curtain. Where a proscenium wall is required to have a fire-resistance rating, the stage opening shall be provided with a fire curtain complying with NFPA 80 or an approved water curtain complying with Section 903.3.1.1 or, in facilities not utilizing the provisions of smoke-protected assembly seating in accordance with Section 1028.6.2, a smoke control system complying with Section

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909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the smoke level at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of the means ofegress.

410.3.6 Scenery. Combustible materials used in sets and scenery shall meet the fire propagation performance criteria ofNFPA 701, in accordance with Section 806 and the International Fire Code. Foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics shall comply with Section 2603 and the International Fire Code.

410.3.7 Stage ventilation. Emergency ventilation shall be provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 or 410.3.7.2.

410.3.7.1 Roof vents. Two or more vents constructed to open automatically by approved heat-activated devices and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the center and above the highest part of the stage area. Supplemental means shall be provided for manual operation of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled.

[F] 410.3.7.2 Smoke control. Smoke control in accordance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the highest level of the assembly seating or above the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium wall is provided in compliance with Section 410.3.4.

410.4 Platform construction. Permanent platforms shall be constructed of materials as required for the type ofconstruction of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Permanent platforms are permitted to be constructed of fire-retardant-treated woodfor Types I, II and IV construction where the platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the main floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area and not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in area. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor assembly shall not be less than I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside of the permanent platform need not be protected.

410.4.1 Temporary platforms. Platforms installed for a period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be constructed of any materials permitted by the code. The space between the floor and the platform above shall only be used for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment.

410.5 Dressing and appurtenant rooms. Dressing and appurtenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 through 410.5.3.

410.5.1 Separation from stage. The stage shall be separated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage and other parts of the building by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours for stage heights greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) and 1 hour for stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less.

410.5.2 Separation from each other. Dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated from each other by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

410.5.3 Stage exits. At least one approved means ofegress shall be provided from each side of the stage and from each side of the space under the stage. At least one means of escape shall be provided from each fly gallery and from the gridiron. A steel ladder, alternating tread device or spiral stairway is permitted to be provided from the gridiron to a scuttle in the stage roof.

[F] 410.6 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such stages.

Exceptions:

  1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by not less than 5/s-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board.
  2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less in height where curtains, scenery or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a single main curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop.
  3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra enclosures on stages.

[F] 410.7 Standpipes. Standpipe systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.

SECTION 411
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDINGS

411.1 General. Special amusement bUildings having an occupantload of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8. Amusement buildings having an occupantload of less than 50 shall comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8.

Exception: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the accumulation of smoke.

For flammable decorative materials, see the International Fire Code.

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411.2 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the purpose of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A special amusement bUilding is any temporary or permanent building or portion thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or educational purposes and that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction so arranged that the means of egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or is intentionally confounded or is not readily available because of the nature of the attraction or mode of conveyance through the building or structure.

[F] 411.3 Automatic fire detection. Special amusement buildings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.

[F] 411.4 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusement bUilding is temporary, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means.

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and the travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm).

[F] 411.5 Alarm. Actuation of a single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a constantly attendedlocation from which emergency action can be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.

[F] 411.6 Emergency voice/alarm communications system. An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.12 and 907.5.2.2, which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement bUilding.

411.7 Exit marking. Exit signs shall be installed at the required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings in accordance with this section and Section 1011. Approved directional exit markings shall also be provided. Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utilized that disguise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, approved and listedlow-Ievel exit signs that comply with Section 1011.4, and directional path markings listed in accordance with UL 1994, shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.

411.7.1 Photo luminescent exit signs. Where photo luminescent exit signs are installed, activating light source and viewing distance shall be in accordance with the listing and markings of the signs.

411.8 Interior finish. The interior finish shall be Class A in accordance with Section 803.1.

SECTION 412
AIRCRAFT-RELATED OCCUPANCIES

412.1 General. Aircraft-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 412.1 through 412.7 and the International Fire Code.

412.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services, such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and flight instruction.

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is used, or intended for the use, for the landing and taking off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or intended for use, for heliport buildings or other heliport facilities.

HELISTOP. The same as "heliport," except that no fueling, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is permitted.

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. An accessory building less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height constructed on a one- or two-family property where aircraft are stored. Such use will be considered as a residential accessory use incidental to the dwelling.

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another location and at the transient location for not more than 90 days.

412.3 Airport traffic control towers.

412.3.1 General. The provisions of Sections 412.3.1 through 412.3.6 shall apply to airport traffic control towers not exceeding 1,500 square feet (140 m2) per floor occupied only for the following uses:

  1. Airport traffic control cab.
  2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.
  3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.
  4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.
  5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.

412.3.2 Type of construction. Airport traffic control towers shall be constructed to comply with the height and area limitations of Table 412.3.2.

TABLE 412.3.2
HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION HEIGHTa (feet) MAXIMUM AREA (square feet)
IA Unlimited 1,500
IB 240 1,500
IIA 100 1,500
lIB 85 1,500
IlIA 65 1,500
For 51: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2
a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor.
55

412.3.3 Egress. A minimum of one exit stairway shall be permitted for airport traffic control towers ofany height provided that the occupant load per floor does not exceed 15. The stairway shall conform to the requirements of Section 1009. The stairway shall be separated from elevators by a minimum distance of one-half of the diagonal of the area served measured in a straight line. The exit stairway and elevator hoistway are permitted to be located in the same shaft enclosure, provided they are separated from each other by a 4-hour fire barrier having no openings. Such stairwayshall be pressurized to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water column (43 Pa) and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column (101 Pa) in the shaft relative to the building with stairway doors closed. Stairways need not extend to the roof as specified in Section 1009.11 . The provisions of Section 403 do not apply.

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Section 1022.9 are not required where required stairways are pressurized.

[F] 412.3.4 Automatic fire detection systems. Airport traffic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.

[F] 412.3.5 Standby power. A standby power system that conforms to Chapter 27 shall be provided in airport traffic control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. Power shall be provided to the following equipment:

  1. Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and lighting.
  2. Elevator operating equipment.
  3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems.

412.3.6 Accessibility. Airport traffic control towers need not be accessible as specified in the provisions of Chapter 11.

412.4 Aircraft hangars. Aircraft hangars shall be in accordance with Sections 412.4.1 through 412.4.6.

412.4.1 Exterior walls. Exterior walls located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lot lines or a public way shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours.

412.4.2 Basements. Where hangars have basements, floors over basements shall be ofType IA construction and shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. There shall be no opening or communication between basements and the hangar. Access to basements shall be from outside only.

412.4.3 Floor surface. Floors shall be graded and drained to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer or to an outside vented sump.

Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) each in which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded toward the door, but shall not require a separator.

412.4.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exceptions:

  1. Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating equipment suspended at least 10 feet (3048 mm) above the upper surface of wings or engine enclosures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be housed in the hangar and at least 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor in shops, offices and other sections of the hangar communicating with storage or service areas.
  2. A single interior door shall be allowed, provided the sources of ignition in the appliances are at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.

412.4.5 Finishing. The process of "doping," involving use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be carried on in a separate detached building equipped with automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with Section 903.

412.4.6 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be provided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar given in Table 412.4.6.

Exception: When a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system is exempt from foam requirements.

412.4.6.1 Hazardous operations. Any Group III aircraft hangar according to Table 412.4.6 that contains hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire suppression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as applicable:

  1. Doping.
  2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, torch cutting and torch soldering.
  3. Fuel transfer.
  4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled.
  5. Spray finishing operations.
  6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 gallons (6057 L).
  7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maximum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons (28 390 L) for a hangar with an automatic sprinklersystem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
56
[F] TABLE 412.4.6
HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa,b,c
MAXIMUM SINGLE FIRE AREA, SQ. FT. TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
IA IB IIA liB iliA IIIB IV VA VB
≥ 40,001 Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I Group I
40,000 Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
30,000 Group III Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
20,000 Group III Group III Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II Group II
15,000 Group III Group III Group III Group II Group III Group II Group III Group II Group II
12,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group II Group II
8,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group II
5,000 Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III Group III
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2
a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area.
b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409.
c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar.

412.4.6.2 Separation ofmaximum single fire areas. Maximum single fire areas established in accordance with hangar classification and construction type in Table 412.4.6 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls constructed in accordance with Section 706.

412.5 Residential aircraft hangars. Residential aircraft hangars as defined in Section 412.2 shall comply with Sections 412.5.1 through 412.5.2.

412.5.1 Fire separation. A hangar shall not be attached to a dwelling unless separated by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation shall be continuous from the foundation to the under-side of the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the dwelling unit. Doors into the dwelling unit must be equipped with self-closing devices and conform to the requirements of Section 715 with at least a 4-inch (102 mm) noncombustible raised sill. Openings from a hanger directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

412.5.2 Egress. A hangar shall provide two means ofegress. One of the doors into the dwelling shall be considered as meeting only one of the two means ofegress.

[F] 412.5.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be provided within the hangar in accordance with Section 907.2.21.

412.5.4 Independent systems. Electrical, mechanical and plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed within the hangar shall be independent of the systems installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be permitted to be connected outside the structures.

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electrical subpanels in the hangar.

412.5.5 Height and area limits. Residential aircraft hangars shall not exceed 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height.

[F] 412.6 Aircraft paint hangars. Aircraft painting operations where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 307.7(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that complies with the provisions of Sections 412.6.1 through 412.6.6.

[F] 412.6.1 Occupancy group. Aircraft paint hangars shall be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and the International Fire Code for such occupancy.

412.6.2 Construction. The aircraft paint hangar shall be of Type I or II construction.

[F] 412.6.3 Operations. Only those flammable liquids necessary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1 (1). Spray equipment cleaning operations shall be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and mixing room.

[F] 412.6.4 Storage. Storage of flammable liquids shall be in a liquid storage room.

[F] 412.6.5 Fire suppression. Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409.

412.6.6 Ventilation. Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with ventilation as required in the International Mechanical Code.

412.7 Heliports and helistops. Heliports and helistops shall be permitted to be erected on buildings or other locations where they are constructed in accordance with Sections 412.7.1 through 412.7.4.

57

412.7.1 Size. The landing area for helicopters less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be a minimum of20 feet (6096 mm) in length and width. The landing area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm).

412.7.2 Design. Helicopter landing areas and the supports thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any exitor stairwayserving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design requirements, see Section 1605.4.

412.7.3 Means of egress. The means of egress from heliports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures shall have two or more means ofegress. For landing areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length or less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area, the second means ofegress is permitted to be a fire escape, alternating tread device or ladder leading to the floor below.

412.7.4 Rooftop heliports and helistops. Rooftop heliports and helistops shall comply with NFPA 418.

SECTION 413
COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE

413.1 General. High-piled stock or rack storage in any occupancy group shall comply with the International Fire Code.

413.2 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 1¾ inch (45 mm) in thickness.

Exceptions:

  1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinklersystems.
  2. Group R-3 and U occupancies.

SECTION 414
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

[F] 414.1 General. The provisions of Sections 414.1 through 414.7 shall apply to buildings and structures occupied for the manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials.

[F] 414.1.1 Other provisions. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of Section 415 and the International Fire Code.

[F] 414.1.2 Materials. The safe design of hazardous material occupancies is material dependent. Individual material requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in the International Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code.

[F] 414.1.2.1 Aerosols. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the International Fire Code. See Section 311 .2 and the International Fire Code for occupancy group requirements.

[F] 414.1.3 Information required. A report shall be submitted to the building official identifying the maximum expected quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, used in a closed system and used in an open system, and subdivided to separately address hazardous material classification categories based on Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). The methods of protection from such hazards, including but not limited to control areas, fire protection systems and Group H occupancies shall be indicated in the report and on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the building official and provided without charge to the enforcing agency.

For buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identifying the locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building and structure.

[F] 414.2 Control areas. Control areas shall comply with Sections 414.2.1 through 414.2.5 and the International Fire Code.

414.2.1 Construction requirements. Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

[F] 414.2.2 Percentage of maximum allowable quantities. The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area permitted at each floor level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

[F] 414.2.3 Number. The maximum number of control areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

414.2.4 Fire-resistance-rating requirements. The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance rating.

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area are allowed to be I-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Types IIA, IlIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:

  1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1; and
  2. The building is three stories or less above grade plane.
58
[F] TABLE 414.2.2
DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS
FLOOR LEVEL PERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREAa NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS PER FLOOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
Above grade plane Higher than 9
7-9
6
5
4
3
2
1
5
5
12.5
12.5
12.5
50
75
100
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
Below grade plane 1
2
Lower than 2
75
50
Not Allowed
3
2
Not Allowed
1
1
Not Allowed
a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1(l) and 307.1(2) , with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.
b. Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.

[F] 414.2.5 Hazardous material in Group M display and storage areas and in Group S storage areas. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the International Fire Code and quantities do not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 414.2.5(1).

In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the International Fire Code.

The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.

[F] 414.3 Ventilation. Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of materials shall be mechanically ventilated as required by the International Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code.

Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building without entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or through ducts and plenums.

Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes having flammable constituents less than 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL) are permitted to pass through other spaces.

Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the area in which they are generated as specified in the International Fire Code and the International Mechanical Code.

The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Exhaust air contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in accordance with the International Fire Code.

A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SySTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF.

[F] 414.4 Hazardous material systems. Systems involving hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended application. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where provided, shall be designed to be fail safe.

[F] 414.5 Inside storage, dispensing and use. The inside storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area of Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2) shall be in accordance with Sections 414.5.1 through 414.5.5 of this code and the International Fire Code.

[F] 414.5.1 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code as required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 307.1 (1) or where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as required by Section 415 or the International Fire Code.

[F] 414.5.2 Monitor control equipment. Monitor control equipment shall be provided where required by the International Fire Code.

[F] 414.5.3 Automatic fire detection systems. Group H occupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.

59
[F] TABLE 414.2.5(1)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd,e,f
CONDITION MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA
Materiala Class Solids
pounds
Liquids
pounds
A. Health-hazard materials-nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids
1. Corrosivesb,c Not Applicable 9,750 975
2. Highly taxies Not Applicable 20b, c 2b, c
3. Toxicsb,c Not Applicable 1,000 100
B. Physical-hazard materials-nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids
1. Oxidizersb,c 4 Not Allowed Not Allowed
3 1,150g 115
2 2,250h 225
1 18,000i,j 1,800i,j
2. Unstable (reactives)b,c 4 Not Allowed Not Allowed
3 550 55
2 1,150 115
1 Not Limited Not Limited
3. Water (reactives) 3b, c 550 55
2b, c 1,150 115
1 Not Limited Not Limited
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. Hazard categories are as specified in the International Fire Code.
b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the International Fire Code. When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas.
e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307.
f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.
g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.

 

TABLE [F] 414.2.5(2)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREAa
TYPE OF LIQUID MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)
Sprinklered in accordance with note b densities and arrangements Sprinklered in accordance with Tables 3404.3.6.3(4) through 3404.3.6.3(8) and Table 3404.3.7.5.1 of the International Fire Code Nonsprinklered
Class IA 60 60 30
Class IB, IC, II and IlIA 7,500c 15,000c 1,600
Class I1IB Unlimited Unlimited 13,200
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2
a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a I-hour fire barrier wall.
b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities as follows:

1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.
2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.

c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.
60

 

[F] TABLE 414.5.1
EXPLOSION CONTROL REQUIREMENTSa
MATERIAL CLASS EXPLOSION CONTROL METHODS
Barricade construction Explosion (deflagration) venting
or explosion (deflagration)
prevention systemsb
HAZARD CATEGORY
Combustible dustsc - Not Required Required
Cryogenic flammables - Not Required Required
Explosives Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
Division 1.5
Division 1.6
Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Not Required
Not Required
Flammable gas Gaseous
Liquefied
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Flammable liquid lAd
IBe
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
Organic peroxides U
I
Required
Required
Not Permitted
Not Permitted
Oxidizer liquids and solids 4 Required Not Permitted
Pyrophoric gas - Not Required Required
Unstable (reactive) 4
3 Detonable
3 Nondetonable
Required
Required
Not Required
Not Permitted
Not Permitted
Required
Water-reactive liquids and solids 3
2g
Not Required
Not Required
Required
Required
SPECIAL USES
Acetylene generator rooms - Not Required Required
Grain processing - Not Required Required
Liquefied petroleum gas-distribution facilities - Not Required Required
Where explosion hazards existf Detonation
Deflagration
Required
Not Required
Not Permitted
Required
a. See Section 414.1.3.
b. See the International Fire Code.
c. As generated during manufacturing or processing. See definition of "Combustible dust" in Chapter 3.
d. Storage or use.
e. In open use or dispensing.
f. Rooms containing dispensing and use of hazardous materials when an explosive environment can occur because of the characteristics or nature of the hazardous materials or as a result of the dispensing or use process.
g. A method of explosion control shall be provided when Class 2 water-reactive materials can form potentially explosive mixtures.
61

[F] 414.5.4 Standby or emergency power. Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency or standby power system in accordance with Chapter 27.

Exceptions:

  1. Mechanical ventilation for storage of Class IB and Class IC flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers not exceeding 6.5 gallons (25 L) capacity.
  2. Storage areas for Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.
  3. Storage areas for Class II, III, IV and V organic peroxides.
  4. Storage, use and handling areas for asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases.
  5. For storage, use and handling areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, see Sections 3704.2.2.8 and 3704.3.4.2 of the International Fire Code.
  6. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.

[F] 414.5.5 Spill control, drainage and containment. Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a means to control spillage and to contain or drain offspillage and fire protection water discharged in the storage area where required in the International Fire Code. The methods of spill control shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.

[F] 414.6 Outdoor storage, dispensing and use. The outdoor storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.

[F] 414.6.1 Weather protection. Where weather protection is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material storage or use areas, such areas shall be considered outdoor storage or use when the weather protection structure com-plies with Sections 414.6.1.1 through 414.6.1.3.

[F] 414.6.1.1 Walls. Walls shall not obstruct more than one side of the structure.

Exception: Walls shall be permitted to obstruct portions of multiple sides of the structure, provided that the obstructed area does not exceed 25 percent of the structure's perimeter.

[F] 414.6.1.2 Separation distance. The distance from the structure to buildings, lot lines, public ways or means of egress to a public way shall not be less than the distance required for an outside hazardous material storage or use area without weather protection.

[F] 414.6.1.3 Noncombustible construction. The overhead structure shall be of approved noncombustible construction with a maximum area of 1,500 square feet (140 m2).

Exception: The increases permitted by Section 506 apply.

[F] 414.7 Emergency alarms. Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein.

[F] 414.7.1 Storage. An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activation ofan emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials.

[F] 414.7.2 Dispensing, use and handling. Where hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors or exit enclosures, there shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating device at not more than ISO-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway throughout the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.

[F] 414.7.3 Supervision. Emergency alarm systems shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.

SECTION 415
GROUPS H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 AND H-5

[F] 415.1 Scope. The provisions of Sections 415.1 through 415.8 shall apply to the storage and use of hazardous materials in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Section 307.1. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of Section 414 and the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in the code, have the meanings shown herein.

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained in continuous operation and sampling is performed without interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes.

[F] DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story bUilding, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from all structures.

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved location on the premises where signals from emergency equipment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel.

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of equipment that consists ofa top, a back and two sides providing a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to locally retain and exhaust the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could

62

be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures.

[F] FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility and related research and development areas in which there are processes using hazardous production materials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to the fabrication area processes.

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL).

[F] GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclosure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating controls are allowed to be included.

[F] GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and supplies are stored or used.

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufacturing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or instability of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or production processes which have as their end product materials that are not hazardous.

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or Class IlIA combustible liquid.

[F] HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy.

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contaminants which poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from such an environment. This contaminant concentration level is established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3). Ifadequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by the bUilding official shall make such determination.

[F] LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal to or less than 68°F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term "liqUid" includes both flammable and combustible liquids.

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in a closed condition.

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. A room in which Class I, II and IlIA flammable or combustible liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers.

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum concentration ofvapor in air at which propagation offlame will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes referred to as "LEL" or "lower explosive limit."

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)].

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD LEVEL. A concentration of air-borne contaminants, normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), that represents the concentration at which persons can sense the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or other quick-acting physiological response. When used in conjunction with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) the physiological warning threshold levels are those consistent with the classification system used to establish the PEL. See the definition of "Permissible exposure limit (PEL)" in the InternationalFire Code.

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for transporting HPM and purposes other than required means ofegress.

[F] SOLID. A material that has a melting point, decomposes or sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°C).

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.

  1. The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials in closed containers, tanks, cylinders or similar vessels, or
  2. Vessels supplying operations through closed connections to the vessel.

[F] USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, including solids, liquids and gases.

[F] WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent principal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serving a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and other processing and scientific equipment.

[F] 415.3 Fire separation distance. Group H occupancies shall be located on property in accordance with the other provisions of this chapter. In Groups H-2 and H-3, not less than 25 percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an exterior wall.

Exceptions:

  1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter of the building where they are in accordance with the International Fire Code and NFPA 30. 63
  2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with the International Fire Code and NFPA 30.
  3. Spray paint booths that comply with the International Fire Code need not be located on the outer perimeter.

[F] 415.3.1 Group" occupancy minimum fire separation distance. Regardless of any other provisions, buildings containing Group H occupancies shall be set back to the minimum fire separation distance as set forth in Items 1 through 4 below. Distances shall be measured from the walls enclosing the occupancy to lot lines, including those on a public way: Distances to assumed lot lines established for the purpose of determining exterior wall and opening protection are not to be used to establish the minimum fire separation distance for buildings on sites where explosives are manufactured or used when separation is provided in accordance with the quantity distance tables specified for explosive materials in the International Fire Code.

  1. Group H-1. Not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and not less than required by the International Fire Code.

    Exceptions:

    1. Fireworks manufacturing buildings separated in accordance with NFPA 1124.
    2. Buildings containing the following materials when separated in accordance with Table 415.3.1:

      2.1. Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable.
      2.2. Unstable reactive materials, Class 4.
      2.3. Unstable reactive materials, Class 3 detonable.
      2.4. Detonable pyrophoric materials.

  2. Group H-2. Not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) where the area of the occupancy exceeds 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and it is not required to be located in a detached building.
  3. Groups H-2 and H-3. Not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) where a detached building is required (see Table 415.3.2).
  4. Groups H-2 and H-3. Occupancies containing materials with explosive characteristics shall be separated as required by the International Fire Code. Where separations are not specified, the distances required shall not be less than the distances required by Table 415.3.1.

[F] 415.3.2 Detached buildings for Group "-1, "-2 or "-3 occupancy. The storage of hazardous materials in excess of those amounts listed in Table 415.3.2 shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 415.4 and 415.5. Where a detached building is required by Table 415.3.2, there are no requirements for wall and opening protection based on fire separation distance.

[F] 415.4 Special provisions for Group "-1 occupancies. Group H-1 occupancies shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and be without basements, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. Roofs shall be of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insulation to prevent sensitive material from reaching its decomposition temperature. Group H-l occupancies containing materials that are in themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1. (2) shall comply with requirements for both Group H-1 and H-4 occupancies.

[F] 415.4.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and unstable (reactive) materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

[F] 415.5 Special provisions for Groups "-2 and "-3 occupancies. Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 415.3.2 shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and shall be without basements, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces.

Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for conveying liquids shall not be over or through areas containing water reactives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight construction.

Exception: Fire protection piping.

[F] 415.5.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials' unstable (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids and liquids shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

[F] 415.5.2 Waterproof room. Rooms or areas used for the storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be constructed in a manner that resists the penetration of water through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying water for other than approved automatic fire sprinkler systems shall not be within such rooms or areas.

[F] 415.6 Group "-2. Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 415.6.1 through 415.6.4 and the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.1 Combustible dusts, grain processing and storage. The provisions of Sections 415 .6.1.1 through 415.6.1.6 shall apply to buildings in which materials that produce combustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings that store or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the applicable provisions of NFPA 61, NFPA 85, NFPA 120, NFPA 484, NFPA 654, NFPA 655 and NFPA 664, and the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.1.1 Type of construction and height exceptions. Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with the height and area limitations of Table 503 for Group H-2; except that where erected of Type I or II construction, the heights and areas of grain elevators and similar structures shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV construction, the maximum height shall be 65 feet (19 812 mm) and except further that, in isolated areas, the maximum height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 85 feet (25 908 mm).

64
[F] TABLE 415.3.1
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS
QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALa MINIMUM DISTANCE (feet)
Lot linesb and inhabited buildings Separation of magazinesd,e,f
Pounds over Pounds not over Barricadedd Unbarricaded
2 5 70 140 12
5 10 90 180 16
10 20 110 220 20
20 30 125 250 22
30 40 140 280 24
40 50 150 300 28
50 75 170 340 30
75 100 190 380 32
100 125 200 400 36
125 150 215 430 38
150 200 235 470 42
200 250 255 510 46
250 300 270 540 48
300 400 295 590 54
400 500 320 640 58
500 600 340 680 62
600 700 355 710 64
700 800 375 750 66
800 900 390 780 70
900 1,000 400 800 72
1,000 1,200 425 850 78
1,200 1,400 450 900 82
1,400 1,600 470 940 86
1,600 1,800 490 980 88
1,800 2,000 505 1,010 90
2,000 2,500 545 1,090 98
2,500 3,000 580 1,160 104
3,000 4,000 635 1,270 116
4,000 5,000 685 1,370 122
5,000 6,000 730 1,460 130
6,000 7,000 770 1,540 136
7,000 8,000 800 1,600 144
8,000 9,000 835 1,670 150
9,000 10,000 865 1,730 156
10,000 12,000 875 1,750 164
12,000 14,000 885 1,770 174
14,000 16,000 900 1,800 180
16,000 18,000 940 1,880 188
18,000 20,000 975 1,950 196
20,000 25,000 1,055 2,000 210
25,000 30,000 1,130 2,000 224
30,000 35,000 1,205 2,000 238
35,000 40,000 1,275 2,000 248 65
40,000 45,000 1,340 2,000 258
45,000 50,000 1,400 2,000 270
50,000 55,000 1,460 2,000 280
55,000 60,000 1,515 2,000 290
60,000 65,000 1,565 2,000 300
65,000 70,000 1,610 2,000 310
70,000 75,000 1,655 2,000 320
75,000 80,000 1,695 2,000 330
80,000 85,000 1,730 2,000 340
85,000 90,000 1,760 2,000 350
90,000 95,000 1,790 2,000 360
95,000 100,000 1,815 2,000 370
100,000 110,000 1,835 2,000 390
110,000 120,000 1,855 2,000 410
120,000 130,000 1,875 2,000 430
130,000 140,000 1,890 2,000 450
140,000 150,000 1,900 2,000 470
150,000 160,000 1,935 2,000 490
160,000 170,000 1,965 2,000 510
170,000 180,000 1,990 2,000 530
180,000 190,000 2,010 2,010 550
190,000 200,000 2,030 2,030 570
200,000 210,000 2,055 2,055 590
210,000 230,000 2,100 2,100 630
230,000 250,000 2,155 2,155 670
250,000 275 ,000 2,215 2,215 720
275,000 300,000 2,275 2,275 770
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2
a. The number of pounds of explosives listed is the number of pounds of trinitrotoluene (TNT) or the equivalent pounds of other explosive.
b. The distance listed is the distance to lot line, including lot lines at public ways.
c. For the purpose of this table, an inhabited building is any building on the same lot that is regularly occupied by people. Where two or more buildings containing explosives or magazines are located on the same lot, each building or magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings and, in addition, they shall be separated from each other by not less than the distance shown for" Separation ofmagazines," except that the quantity ofexplosive materials contained in detonator buildings or magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator buildings or magazines from buildings or magazines containing other explosive materials. If any two or more buildings or magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified "Separation of Magazines" distances, then such two or more buildings or magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one building or magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in such group shall be treated as if the explosive were in a single building or magazine located on the site of any building or magazine of the group,and shall comply with the minimum distance specified from other magazines or inhabited buildings.
d. Barricades shall effectively screen the building containing explosives from other buildings, public ways or magazines.Where mounds or revetted walls ofearth are used for barricades, they shall not be less than 3 feet in thickness. A straight line from the top of any side wall of the building containing explosive materials to the eave line of any other building, magazine or a point 12 feet above the centerline of a public way shall pass through the barricades.
e. Magazine is a building or structure, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 120 square feet in area need not comply with the requirements of this code, hONever, all magazines shall comply with the International Fire Code.
f. The distance listed is permitted to be reduced by 50 percent where approved natural or artificial barriers are provided in accordance with the requirements in Note d.
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[F] TABLE 415.3.2
DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED
A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN
Material Class Solids and Liquids (tons)a, b Gases (cubic feet)a, b
Explosives Division 1.1
Division 1.2
Division 1.3
Division 1.4
  Division 1.4c
Division 1.5
Division 1.6
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
1
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Not Applicable
Oxidizers Class 4 Maximum Allowable Quantity Maximum Allowable Quantity
Unstable (reactives) detonable Class 3 or 4 Maximum Allowable Quantity Maximum Allowable Quantity
Oxidizer, liquids and solids Class 3
Class 2
1,200
2,000
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Organic peroxides Detonable
Class I
Class II
Class III
Maximum Allowable Quantity
Maximum Allowable Quantity
25
50
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Unstable (reactives) nondetonable Class 3
Class 2
1
25
2,000
10,000
Water reactives Class 3
Class 2
1
25
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Pyrophoric gases Not Applicable Not Applicable 2,000
For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in Table 415 .3.1 based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 33 the International Fire Code. For all other materials, the distance shall be as indicated in Section 415.3.1.
b. "Maximum Allowable Quantity" means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.7(1) .
c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles, providing the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.

[F] 415.6.1.2 Grinding rooms. Every room or space occupied for grinding or other operations that produce combustible dusts shall be enclosed with fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours where the area is not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2), and 4 hours where the area is greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

[F] 415.6.1.3 Conveyors. Conveyors, chutes, piping and similar equipment passing through the enclosures of rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials complying with Chapter 30.

[F] 415.6.1.4 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided as specified in the International Fire Code, or spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent mechanical ventilation complying with the International Mechanical Code.

[F] 415.6.1.5 Grain elevators. Grain elevators, malt houses and buildings for similar occupancies shall not be located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot lines or structures on the same lot, except where erected along a railroad right-of-way.

[F] 415.6.1.6 Coal pockets. Coal pockets located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less than Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lotlines, or where erected along a railroad right-of-way, the minimum type of construction ofsuch structures not more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in building height shall be Type IV.

[F] 415.6.2 Flammable and combustible liquids. The storage, handling, processing and transporting of flammable and combustible liquids in Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies shall be in accordance with Sections 415.6.2.1 through 415.6.2.10, the International Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.2.1 Mixed occupancies. Where the storage tank area is located in a building oftwo or more occupancies and the quantity of liquid exceeds the maximum allowable quantity for one control area, the use shall be completely separated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with the requirements of Section 508.4.

[F] 415.6.2.1.1 Height exception. Where storage tanks are located within a building no more than one story above grade plane, the height limitation of Section 503 shall not apply for Group H.

[F] 415.6.2.2 Tank protection. Storage tanks shall be noncombustible and protected from physical damage. Fire barriers or horizontal assemblies or both around the

67

storage tank(s) shall be permitted as the method of protection from physical damage.

[F] 415.6.2.3 Tanks. Storage tanks shall be approved tanks conforming to the requirements of the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.2.4 Suppression. Group H shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, installed in accordance with Section 903.

[F] 415.6.2.5 Leakage containment. A liquid-tight containment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be provided. The method of spill control, drainage control and secondary containment shall be in accordance with the International Fire Code.

Exception: Rooms where only double-wall storage tanks conforming to Section 415.6.2.3 are used to store Class I, II and IlIA flammable and combustible liquids shall not be required to have a leakage containment area.

[F] 415.6.2.6 Leakage alarm. An approved automatic alarm shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage tank and room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 15 dBa above the ambient sound level, at every point of entry into the room in which the leaking storage tank is located. An approved sign shall be posted on every entry door to the tank storage room indicating the potential hazard of the interior room environment, or the sign shall state: WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE HAZARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be supervised in accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble signal.

[F] 415.6.2.7 Tank vent. Storage tank vents for Class I, II or IlIA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in accordance with the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.2.8 Room ventilation. Storage tank areas storing Class I, II or IlIA liquids shall be provided with mechanical ventilation. The mechanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.2.9 Explosion venting. Where Class I liquids are being stored, explosion venting shall be provided in accordance with the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.2.10 Tank openings other than vents. Tank openings other than vents from tanks inside buildings shall be designed to ensure that liquids or vapor concentrations are not released inside the building.

[F] 415.6.3 Liquefied petroleum gas facilities. The construction and installation of liquefied petroleum gas facilities shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code, the International Fire Code, the International Mechanical Code, the International Fuel Gas Code and NFPA 58.

[F] 415.6.4 Dry cleaning plants. The construction and installation of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code, the International Mechanical Code, the International Plumbing Code and NFPA 32. Dry cleaning solvents and systems shall be classified in accordance with the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.7 Groups H-3 and H-4. Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code and the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.7.1 Flammable and combustible liquids. The storage, handling, processing and transporting of flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-3 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 415.6.2.

[F] 415.7.2 Gas rooms. When gas rooms are provided, such rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

[F] 415.7.3 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for corrosive liquids and highly toxic or toxic materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

[F] 415.7.4 Separation-highly toxic solids and liquids. Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approved hazardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from other hazardous materials storage by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

[F] 415.8 Group H-5.

[F] 415.8.1 General. In addition to the requirements set forth elsewhere in this code, Group H-5 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 415.8.1 through 415.8.11 and the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.8.2 Fabrication areas.

[F] 415.8.2.1 Hazardous materials in fabrication areas.

[F] 415.8.2.1.1 Aggregate quantities. The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities set forth in Table 415.8.2.1.1.

Exception: The quantity limitations for any hazard category in Table 415.8.2.1.1 shall not apply where the fabrication area contains quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2).

[F] 415.8.2.1.2 Hazardous production materials. The maximum quantities of hazardous production materials (HPM) stored in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1(2).

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[F] TABLE 415.8.2.1.1
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5a
HAZARD CATEGORY SOLIDS
(pounds per square feet)
LIQUIDS
(gallons per square feet)
GAS
(feet3 @ NTP/square feet)
PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS
Combustible dust Note b Not Applicable Not Applicable
Combustible fiber Loose
Baled
Note b
Notes b, c
Not Applicable Not Applicable
Combustible liquid


Combination Class I, II and IlIA
II
IlIA
I1IB
Not Applicable 0.01
0.02
Not Limited
0.04
Not Applicable
Cryogenic gas Flammable
Oxidizing
Not Applicable Not Applicable Noted
1.25
Explosives Note b Note b Note b
Flammable gas Gaseous
Liquefied
Not Applicable Not Applicable Noted
Noted
Flammable liquid


Combination Class lA, IB and IC
Combination Class I, II and IlIA
IA
IB
IC
Not Applicable 0.0025
0.025
0.025
0.025
0.04
Not Applicable
Flammable solid 0.001 Not Applicable Not Applicable
Organic peroxide
    Unclassified detonable
        Class I
        Class II
        Class III
        Class IV
        Class V

Note b
Note b
0.025
0.1
Not Limited
Not Limited
Not Applicable Not Applicable
Oxidizing gas


Combination of gaseous and liquefied
Gaseous
Liquefied
Not Applicable Not Applicable 1.25
1.25

1.25
Oxidizer



Combination
Class 4
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
        Class 1, 2, 3
Note b
0.003
0.003
0.003
0.003
Note b
0.03
0.03
0.03
0.03
Not Applicable
Pyrophoric material Noteb 0.00125 Notes d and e
Unstable reactive Class 4
Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
Note b
0.025
0.1
Not Limited
Note b
0.0025
0.1
Not Limited
Note b
Note b
Note b
Not Limited
Water reactive Class 3
Class 2
Class 1
Note b
0.25
Not Limited
0.00125
0.025
Not Limited
Not Applicable
HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS
Corrosives Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited
Highly toxic Not Limited Not Limited Noted
Toxics Not Limited Not Limited Noted
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2, 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m2, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m3 @ NTP/m2,
1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.
a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities.
b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 307.1(l) and 307.1(2).
c. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.
d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP.
e. The aggregate quantity ofpyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.3.2.
69

[F] 415.8.2.2 Separation. Fabrication areas, whose sizes are limited by the quantity of hazardous materials allowed by Table 415.8.2.1.1, shall be separated from each other, from corridors and from other parts of the building by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exceptions:

  1. Doors within such fire barrier walls, including doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing fire door assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.
  2. Windows between fabrication areas and corridors are permitted to be fixed glazing listed and labeled for a fire protection rating of at least 3/4 hour in accordance with Section 715.

[F] 415.8.2.3 Location of occupied levels. Occupied levels of fabrication areas shall be located at or above the first story above grade plane.

[F] 415.8.2.4 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors within fabrication areas shall be of noncombustible construction.

Openings through floors of fabrication areas are permitted to be unprotected where the interconnected levels are used solely for mechanical equipment directly related to such fabrication areas (see also Section 415.8.2.5).

Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation shall be liquid tight.

[F] 415.8.2.5 Shafts and openings through floors. Elevator shafts, vent shafts and other openings through floors shall be enclosed when required by Section 708. Mechanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fabrication area shall not extend through more than two floors. The annular space around penetrations for cables, cable trays, tubing, piping, conduit or ducts shall be sealed at the floor level to restrict the movement of air. The fabrication area, including the areas through which the ductwork and piping extend, shall be considered a single conditioned environment.

[F] 415.8.2.6 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation at the rate of not less than 1cubic foot per minute per square foot [0.0051 m3/ (s. m2)] of floor area shall be provided throughout the portions of the fabrication area where HPM are used or stored. The exhaust air duct system of one fabrication area shall not connect to another duct system outside that fabrication area within the building.

A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations.

Two or more operations at a workstation shall not be connected to the same exhaust system where either one or the combination of the substances removed could constitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical reaction within the exhaust duct system.

Exhaust ducts penetrating occupancy separations shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not penetrate fire walls.

Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts.

[F] 415.8.2.7 Transporting hazardous production materials to fabrication areas. HPM shall be transported to fabrication areas through enclosed piping or tubing systems that comply with Section 415.8.6.1, through service corridors complying with Section 415.8.4, or in corridors as permitted in the exception to Section 415.8.3. The handling or transporting of HPM within service corridors shall comply with the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.8.2.8 Electrical.

[F] 415.8.2.8.1 General. Electrical equipment and devices within the fabrication area shall comply with NFPA 70. The requirements for hazardous locations need not be applied where the average air change is at least four times that set forth in Section 415.8.2.6 and where the number of air changes at any location is not less than three times that required by Section 415.8.2.6. The use of recirculated air shall be permitted.

[F] 415.8.2.8.2 Workstations. Workstations shall not be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation. See Section 415.8.2.6 for workstation exhaust ventilation requirements.

[F] 415.8.3 Corridors. Corridors shall comply with Chapter 10 and shall be separated from fabrication areas as specified in Section 415.8.2 .2. Corridors shall not contain HPM and shall not be used for transporting such materials, except through closed piping systems as provided in Section 415.8.6.3.

Exception: Where existing fabrication areas are altered or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing corridors, subject to the following conditions:

  1. Corridors. Corridors adjacent to the fabrication area where the alteration work is to be done shall comply with Section 1018 for a length determined as follows:

    1.1. The length of the common wall of the corridor and the fabrication area; and

    1.2. For the distance along the corridor to the point of entry of HPM into the corridor serving that fabrication area.

  2. Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or other approved alarm-initiating device within corridors at not more than ISO-foot (45720 mm) intervals and at each exit and doorway. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or the emergency control station and shall also initiate a local audible alarm. 70
  3. Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour shall separate pass-throughs from existing corridors. Pass-throughs shall be constructed as required for the corridors and protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system.

[F] 415.8.4 Service corridors.

[F] 415.8.4.1 Occupancy. Service corridors shall be classified as Group H-5.

[F] 415.8.4.2 Use conditions. Service corridors shall be separated from corridors as required by Section 415.8.2.2. Service corridors shall not be used as a required corridor.

[F] 415.8.4.3 Mechanical ventilation. Service corridors shall be mechanically ventilated as required by Section 415.8.2.6 or at not less than six air changes per hour, whichever is greater.

[F] 415.8.4.4 Means of egress. The maximum distance of travel from any point in a service corridor to an exit, exit access corridor or door into a fabrication area shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There shall be not less than two exits, and not more than one-half of the required means of egress shall require travel into a fabrication area. Doors from service corridors shall swing in the direction of egress travel and shall be self-closing.

[F] 415.8.4.5 Minimum width. The minimum clear width of a service corridor shall be 5 feet (1524 mm), or 33 inches (838 mm) wider than the widest cart or truck used in the corridor, whichever is greater.

[F] 415.8.4.6 Emergency alarm system. Emergency alarm systems shall be provided in accordance with this section and Sections 414.7.1 and 414.7.2. The maximum allowable quantity per control area provisions shall not apply to emergency alarm systems required for HPM.

[F] 415.8.4.6.1 Service corridors. An emergency alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, with at least one alarm device in each service corridor.

[F] 415.8.4.6.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. Emergency alarms for exit access corridors and exit enclosures shall comply with Section 414.7.2.

[F] 415.8.4.6.3 Liquid storage rooms, "PM rooms and gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with Section 414.7.1.

[F] 415.8.4.6.4 Alarm-initiating devices. An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations, or other approvedalarm-initiating devices are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initiating devices.

[F] 415.8.4.6.5 Alarm signals. Activation of the emergency alarm system shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station.

[F] 415.8.5 Storage of hazardous production materials.

[F] 415.8.5.1 General. Storage of HPM in fabrication areas shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets or gas cabinets or within a workstation. The storage of HPM in quantities greater than those listed in Section 1804.2 of the International Fire Code shall be in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appropriate for the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous materials shall be in accordance with other applicable provisions of this code and the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.8.5.2 Construction.

[F] 415.8.5.2.1 "PM rooms and gas rooms. HPM rooms and gas rooms shall be separated from other areas by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours where the area is 300 square feet (27.9 m2) or more and 1 hour where the area is less than 300 square feet (27.9 m2).

[F] 415.8.5.2.2 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid storage rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the following requirements:

  1. Rooms in excess of 500 square feet (46.5 m2) shall have at least one exterior door approved for fire department access.
  2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 1 hour for rooms up to 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area and not less than 2 hours where the room is more than 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area.
  3. Shelving, racks and wainscotting in such areas shall be of noncombustible construction or wood of not less than I-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness.
  4. Rooms used for the storage of Class I flammable liquids shall not be located in a basement.

[F] 415.8.5.2.3 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors of HPM rooms and liquid storage rooms shall be of noncombustible liquid-tight construction. Raised grating over floors shall be of noncombustible materials.

[F] 415.8.5.3 Location. Where HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms are provided, they shall have at least one exterior wall and such wall shall be not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lotlines, including lotlines adjacent to public ways.

[F] 415.8.5.4 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided where required by Section 414.5.1.

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[F] 415.8.5.5 Exits. Where two exits are required from HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms, one shall be directly to the outside of the building.

[F] 415.8.5.6 Doors. Doors in a fire barrier wall, including doors to corridors, shall be self-closing fire door assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not less than 3/4 hour.

[F] 415.8.5.7 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (0.044 L/s/m2) of floor area or six air changes per hour, whichever is greater, for categories of material.

Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding areas and direct the exhaust ventilation to an exhaust system.

[F] 415.8.5.8 Emergency alarm system. An approved emergency alarm system shall be provided for HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms.

Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit door of such rooms.

Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station.

An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations or other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initiating devices.

[F] 415.8.6 Piping and tubing.

[F] 415.8.6.1 General. Hazardous production materials piping and tubing shall comply with this section and ASME B31.3.

[F] 415.8.6.2 Supply piping and tubing.

[F] 415.8.6.2.1 "PM having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4. Systems supplying HPM liquids or gases having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be welded throughout, except for connections, to the systems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment is provided for the connections if the material is a liquid.

[F] 415.8.6.2.2 Location in service corridors. Hazardous production materials supply piping or tubing in service corridors shall be exposed to view.

[F] 415.8.6.2.3 Excess flow control. Where HPM gases or liquids are carried in pressurized piping above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa), excess flow control shall be provided. Where the piping originates from within a liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room, the excess flow control shall be located within the liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room. Where the piping originates from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be located as close to the bulk source as practical.

[F] 415.8.6.3 Installations in corridors and above other occupancies. The installation of HPM piping and tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors and the floor or roof above, or in concealed spaces above other occupancies, shall be in accordance with Section 415.8.6.2 and the following conditions:

  1. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 mm) in the least dimension.
  2. Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour shall be provided. The space shall not be used to convey air from any other area.
  3. Where the piping or tubing is used to transport HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be designed to collect any discharge or leakage and drain it to an approved location. The I-hour enclosure shall not be used as part of the receptor.
  4. HPM supply piping and tubing and nonmetallic waste lines shall be separated from the corridor and from occupancies other than Group H-5 by fire barriers that have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Where gypsum wallboard is used, joints on the piping side of the enclosure are not required to be taped, provided the joints occur over framing members. Access openings into the enclosure shall be protected by approved fire protection-rated assemblies.
  5. Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall be installed on piping and tubing other than waste lines at the following locations:

5.1. At branch connections into the fabrication area.

5.2. At entries into corridors.

Exception: Transverse crossings of the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed within a ferrous pipe or tube for the width ofthe corridorneed not comply with Items 1 through 5.

[F] 415.8.6.4 Identification. Piping, tubing and HPM waste lines shall be identified in accordance with ANSI A13.1 to indicate the material being transported.

[F] 415.8.7 Continuous gas detection systems. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases when the physiological warning threshold level of the gas is at a higher level than the accepted PEL for the gas and for flammable gases in accordance with Sections 415.8.7.1 and 415.8.7.2.

[F] 415.8.7.1 Where required. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in the areas identified in Sections 415.8.7.1.1 through 415.8.7.1.4.

[F] 415.8.7.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in fabrication areas when gas is used in the fabrication area.

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[F] 415.8.7.1.2 "PM rooms. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in HPM rooms when gas is used in the room.

[F] 415.8.7.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures and gas rooms. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas rooms when gases are not located in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures.

[F] 415.8.7.1.4 Corridors. When gases are transported in piping placed within the space defined by the walls of a corridor and the floor or roof above the corridor, a continuous gas detection system shall be provided where piping is located and in the corridor.

Exception: A continuous gas detection system is not required for occasional transverse crossings of the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor.

[F] 415.8.7.2 Gas detection system operation. The continuous gas detection system shall be capable of monitoring the room, area or equipment in which the gas is located at or below all the following gas concentrations:

  1. Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) values when the monitoring point is within an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.
  2. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) levels when the monitoring point is in an area outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.
  3. For flammable gases, the monitoring detection threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) when the monitoring is within or outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.
  4. Except as noted in this section, monitoring for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 37 of the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.8.7.2.1 Alarms. The gas detection system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station when a short-term hazard condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visual and audible and shall provide warning both inside and outside the area where the gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms.

[F] 415.8.7.2.2 Shutoffofgas supply. The gas detection system shall automatically close the shutoffvalve at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being monitored for which gas is detected when a short-term hazard condition is detected. Automatic closure of shutoff valves shall comply with the following:

  1. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.
  2. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a room and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.
  3. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the compressed gas container of the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

Exception: Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at the use location or within a gas valve enclosure ofa branch line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line located in the piping distribution manifold enclosure shall automatically close.

[F] 415.8.8 Manual fire alarm system. An approved manual fire alarm system shall be provided throughout buildings containing Group H-5. Activation of the alarm system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. The fire alarm system shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 907.

[F] 415.8.9 Emergency control station. An emergency control station shall be provided in accordance with Sections 415.8.9.1 through 415.8.9.3.

[F] 415.8.9.1 Location. The emergency control station shall be located on the premises at an approved location outside the fabrication area.

[F] 415.8.9.2 Staffing. Trained personnel shall continuously staff the emergency control station.

[F] 415.8.9.3 Signals. The emergency control station shall receive signals from emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems. Such emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems shall include, but not be limited to, the following where such equipment or systems are required to be provided either in this chapter or elsewhere in this code:

  1. Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring systems.
  2. Manual fire alarm systems.
  3. Emergency alarm systems.
  4. Continuous gas detection systems.
  5. Smoke detection systems.
  6. Emergency power system.
  7. Automatic detection and alarm systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the International Fire Code. 73
  8. Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the International Fire Code.

[F] 415.8.10 Emergency power system. An emergency power system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies where required in Section 415.8.10.1. The emergency power system shall be designed to supply power automatically to required electrical systems when the normal electrical supply system is interrupted.

[F] 415.8.10.1 Required electrical systems. Emergency power shall be provided for electrically operated equipment and connected control circuits for the following systems:

  1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems.
  2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems.
  3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems.
  4. HPM gas room ventilation systems.
  5. HPM gas detection systems.
  6. Emergency alarm systems.
  7. Manual fire alarm systems.
  8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm systems.
  9. Automatic alarm and detection systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the International Fire Code.
  10. Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the International Fire Code.
  11. Electrically operated systems required elsewhere in this code or in the International Fire Code applicable to the use, storage or handling of HPM.

[F] 415.8.10.2 Exhaust ventilation systems. Exhaust ventilation systems are allowed to be designed to operate at not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the emergency power system where it is demonstrated that the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere.

[F] 415.8.11 Automatic sprinkler system protection in exhaust ducts for "PM.

[F] 415.8.11.1 Exhaust ducts for "PM. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust ducts conveying gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated from HPM in accordance with this section and the International Mechanical Code.

[F] 415.8.11.2 Metallic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts when all of the following conditions apply:

  1. Where the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).
  2. The ducts are within the building.
  3. The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors or fumes.

[F] 415.8.11.3 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts. Automatic sprinkler system protection shall be provided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. Ducts listed or approved for applications without automatic fire sprinkler system protection.
  2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in length installed below ceiling level.

[F] 415.8.11.4 Automatic sprinkler locations. Sprinkler systems shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In vertical ducts, sprinklers shall be installed at the top and at alternate floor levels.

SECTION 416
APPLICATION OF FLAMMABLE FINISHES

[F] 416.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to the construction, installation and use of buildings and structures, or parts thereof, for the spraying of flammable paints, varnishes and lacquers or other flammable materials or mixtures or compounds used for painting, varnishing, staining or similar purposes. Such construction and equipment shall comply with the International Fire Code.

[F] 416.2 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be enclosed with not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Floors shall be waterproofed and drained in an approved manner.

[F] 416.2.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray rooms shall be smooth and shall be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and cleaning, and shall be so designed to confine residues within the room. Aluminum shall not be used.

[F] 416.3 Spraying spaces. Spraying spaces shall be ventilated with an exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of flammable mist or vapors in accordance with the International Mechanical Code. Where such spaces are not separately enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to restrict the spread of flammable vapors.

[F] 416.3.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spraying spaces shall be smooth and continuous without edges; shall be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and

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cleaning; and shall be so designed to confine residues within the spraying space. Aluminum shall not be used.

[F] 416.4 Spray booths. Spray booths shall be designed, constructed and operated in accordance with the International Fire Code.

[F] 416.5 Fire protection. An automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in all spray, dip and immersing spaces and storage rooms and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 9.

SECTION 417
DRYING ROOMS

[F] 417.1 General. A drying room or dry kiln installed within a building shall be constructed entirely of approved noncombustible materials or assemblies of such materials regulated by the approved rules or as required in the general and specific sections of Chapter 4 for special occupancies and where applicable to the general requirements of Chapter 28.

[F] 417.2 Piping clearance. Overhead heating pipes shall have a clearance of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from combustible contents in the dryer.

[F] 417.3 Insulation. Where the operating temperature of the dryer is 175°F (79°C) or more, metal enclosures shall be insulated from adjacent combustible materials by not less than 12 inches (305 mm) of airspace, or the metal walls shall be lined with 1/4-inch (6.35 mm) insulating mill board or other approved equivalent insulation.

[F] 417.4 Fire protection. Drying rooms designed for high-hazard materials and processes, including special occupancies as provided for in Chapter 4, shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of Chapter 9.

SECTION 418
ORGANIC COATINGS

[F] 418.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coatings shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or basements.

[F] 418.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing operations and operations incidental to or connected therewith shall not be located in buildings having other occupancies.

[F] 418.3 Process mills. Mills operating with close clearances and that process flammable and heat-sensitive materials, such as nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or noncombustible structure.

[F] 418.4 Tank storage. Storage areas for flammable and combustible liquid tanks inside of structures shall be located at or above grade and shall be separated from the processing area by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

[F] 418.5 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitrocellulose storage shall be located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room enclosed with no less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

[F] 418.6 Finished products. Storage rooms for finished products that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be separated from the processing area by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

SECTION 419
LIVE/WORK UNITS

419.1 General. A live/work unit is a dwelling unit or sleeping unit in which a significant portion of the space includes a non-residential use that is operated by the tenant and shall comply with Sections 419.1 through 419.8.

Exception: Dwelling or sleeping units that include an office that is less than 10 percent of the area of the dwelling unit shall not be classified as a live/work unit.

419.1.1 Limitations. The following shall apply to all live/work areas:

  1. The live/work unit is permitted to be a maximum of 3,000 square feet (279 m2);
  2. The nonresidential area is permitted to be a maximum 50 percent of the area of each live/work unit;
  3. The nonresidential area function shall be limited to the first or main floor only ofthe live/work unit; and
  4. A maximum of five nonresidential workers or employees are allowed to occupy the nonresidential area at anyone time.

419.2 Occupancies. Live/work units shall be classified as a Group R-2 occupancy. Separation requirements found in Sections 420 and 508 shall not apply within the live/work unit when the live/work unit is in compliance with Section 419. High-hazard and storage occupancies shall not be permitted in a live/work unit. The aggregate area of storage in the nonresidential portion of the live/work unit shall be limited to 10 percent of the space dedicated to nonresidential activities.

419.3 means of egress. Except as modified by this section, the provisions for Group R-2 occupancies in Chapter 10 shall apply to the entire live/work unit.

419.3.1 Egress capacity. The egress capacity for each element of the live/work unit shall be based on the occupant load for the function served in accordance with Table 1004.1.1.

419.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means of egress are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N).

419.3.3 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform to the requirements of Section 1009.9 shall be permitted.

419.3.4 Locks. Egress doors shall be permitted to be locked in accordance with Exception 4 of Section 1008.1.9.3.

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419.4 Vertical openings. Floor openings between floor levels of a live/work unit are permitted without enclosure.

419.5 Fire protection. The live/work unit shall be provided with a monitored fire alarm system where required by Section 907.2.9 and an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.8.

419.6 Structural. Floor loading for the areas within a live/work unit shall be designed to conform to Table 1607.1 based on the function within the space.

419.7 Accessibility. Accessibility shall be designed in accordance with Chapter 11.

419.8 Ventilation. The applicable requirements of the International Mechanical Code shall apply to each area within the live/work unit for the function within that space.

SECTION 420
GROUPS 1-1, R-1, R-2, R-3

420.1 General. Occupancies in Groups 1-1, R-l, R-2 and R-3 shall comply with the provisions of this section and other applicable provisions of this code.

420.2 Separation walls. Walls separating dwelling units in the same building, walls separating sleeping units in the same building and walls separating dwelling or sleeping units from other occupancies contiguous to them in the same building shall be constructed as fire partitions in accordance with Section 709.

420.3 Horizontal separation. Floor assemblies separating dwelling units in the same buildings, floor assemblies separating sleeping units in the same building and floor assemblies separating dwelling or sleeping units from other occupancies contiguous to them in the same building shall be constructed as horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 712.

SECTION 421
HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOMS

[F] 421.1 General. When required by the International Fire Code, hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 421.1 through 421.8.

[F] 421.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of piping, devices and apparatus designed to generate, store, contain, distribute or transport a nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen-containing mixture having at least 95-percent hydrogen gas by volume and not more than I-percent oxygen by volume. Gaseous hydrogen systems consist of items such as compressed gas containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pressure regulators, pressure relief devices, manifolds, pumps, compressors and interconnecting piping and tubing and controls.

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. A room or space that is intended exclusively to house a gaseous hydrogen system.

[F] 421.3 Location. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall not be located below grade.

[F] 421.4 Design and construction. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be classified with respect to occupancy in accordance with Section 302.1 and separated from other areas of the building by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both; or as required by Section 508.2, 508.3 or 508.4, as applicable.

[F] 421.4.1 Opening protectives. Doors within the fire barriers, including doors to corridors, shall be self-closing in accordance with Section 715. Interior door openings shall be electronically interlocked to prevent operation of the hydrogen system when doors are opened or ajar or the room shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust ventilation system designed in accordance with Section 421.4.1.1.

[F] 421.4.1.1 Ventilation alternative. When an exhaust system is used in lieu of the interlock system required by Section 421.4.1, exhaust ventilation systems shall operate continuously and shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. The average velocity of ventilation at the face of the door opening with the door in the fully open position shall not be less than 60 feet per minute (0.3048 m/s) with a minimum of 45 feet per minute (0.2287 m/s) at any point in the door opening.

[F] 421.4.2 Windows. Operable windows in interior walls shall not be permitted. Fixed windows shall be permitted when in accordance with Section 715.

[F] 421.5 Ventilation. Cutoff rooms shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in accordance with the applicable provisions for repair garages in Chapter 5 of the International Mechanical Code.

[F] 421.6 Gas detection system. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be provided with an approved flammable gas detection system in accordance with Sections 421 .6.1 through 421 .6.3.

[F] 421.6.1 System design. The flammable gas detection system shall be listed for use with hydrogen and any other flammable gases used in the room. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL) for the gas or mixtures present at their anticipated temperature and pressure.

[F] 421.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:

  1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals both inside and outside of the cutoff room.
  2. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system.

[F] 421.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Failure of the gas detection system shall result in activation of the mechanical ventilation system, cessation of hydrogen generation and the sounding of a trouble signal in an approved location.

[F] 421.7 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 9 of the International Fire Code.

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[F] 421.8 Standby power. Mechanical ventilation and gas detection systems shall be connected to a standby power system in accordance with Chapter 27.

SECTION 422
AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE FACILITIES

422.1 General. Occupancies classified as Group B ambulatory health care facilities shall comply with the provisions of Sections 422.1 through 422.6 and other applicable provisions of this code.

422.2 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide every ambulatory care facility greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2) into a minimum of two smoke compartments per story. The travel distance from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be installed in accordance with Section 710.

422.3 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) per nonambulatory patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke barrier.

422.4 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.

422.5 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 903.2.2.

422.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.2.1.

SECTION 423
STORM SHELTERS

423.1 General. In addition to other applicable requirements in this code, storm shelters shall be constructed in accordance with ICC-SOO.

423.1.1 Scope. This section applies to the construction of storm shelters constructed as separate detached buildings or constructed as safe rooms within buildings for the purpose of providing safe refuge from storms that produce high winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. Such structures shall be designated to be hurricane shelters, tornado shelters, or combined hurricane and tornado shelters.

423.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

STORM SHELTER. A building, structure or portions(s) thereof, constructed in accordance with ICC SOO and designated for use during a severe wind storm event, such as a hurricane or tornado.

Community storm shelter. A storm shelter not defined as a "Residential Storm Shelter."

Residential storm shelter. A storm shelter serving occupants of dwelling units and having an occupant load not exceeding 16 persons.

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CHAPTER 5
GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS

SECTION 501
GENERAL

501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter control the height and area of structures hereafter erected and additions to existing structures.

[F] 501.2 Address identification. New and existing buildings shall be provided with approved address numbers or letters. Each character shall be a minimum 4 inches (102 mm) high and a minimum of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) wide. They shall be installed on a contrasting background and be plainly visible from the street or road fronting the property. Where access is by means of a private road and the building address cannot be viewed from the public way; a monument, pole or other approved sign or means shall be used to identify the structure.

SECTION 502
DEFINITIONS

502.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

AREA, BUILDING. The area included within surrounding exterior walls (or exterior walls and fire walls) exclusive of vent shafts and courts. Areas of the building not provided with surrounding walls shall be included in the building area if such areas are included within the horizontal projection of the roof or floor above.

BASEMENT. A story that is not a storyabovegrade plane (see "Story above grade plane" in Section 202).

The definition of "Basement" does not apply to the provisions of Section 1612 for flood loads (see "Basement" in Section 1612.2).

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. An unoccupied, elevated platform used exclusively for mechanical systems or industrial process equipment, including the associated elevated walk-ways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders necessary to access the platform (see Section 505.5).

GRADE PLANE. A reference plane representing the average of finished ground level adjoining the building at exterior walls. Where the finished ground level slopes away from the exterior walls, the reference plane shall be established by the lowest points within the area between the building and the lot line or, where the lot line is more than 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building, between the building and a point 6 feet (1829 mm) from the building.

HEIGHT, BUILDING. The vertical distance from grade plane to the average height of the highest roof surface.

MEZZANINE. An intermediate level or levels between the floor and ceiling of any story and in accordance with Section 505.

SECTION 503
GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHT AND
AREA LIMITATIONS

503.1 General. The bUilding height and area shall not exceed the limits specified in Table 503 based on the type of construction as determined by Section 602 and the occupancies as determined by Section 302 except as modified hereafter. Each portion of a building separated by one or more fire walls complying with Section 706 shall be considered to be a separate building.

503.1.1 Special industrial occupancies. Buildings and structures designed to house special industrial processes that require large areas and unusual bUilding heights to accommodate craneways or special machinery and equipment, including, among others, rolling mills; structural metal fabrication shops and foundries; or the production and distribution of electric, gas or steam power, shall be exempt from the building height and area limitations of Table 503.

503.1.2 Buildings on same lot. Two or more buildings on the same lot shall be regulated as separate buildings or shall be considered as portions of one building if the bUilding height of each building and the aggregate building area of the buildings are within the limitations ofTable 503 as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The provisions of this code applicable to the aggregate building shall be applicable to each building.

503.1.3 Type I construction. Buildings of Type I construction permitted to be of unlimited tabular building heights and areas are not subject to the special requirements that allow unlimited area buildings in Section 507 or unlimited building height in Sections 503.1.1 and 504.3 or increased building heights and areas for other types of construction.

SECTION 504
BUILDING HEIGHT

504.1 General. The bUilding height permitted by Table 503 shall be increased in accordance with this section.

Exception: The building height of one-story aircraft hangars, aircraft paint hangars and buildings used for the manufacturing of aircraft shall not be limited if the building is provided with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9 and is entirely surrounded by public ways or yards not less in width than one and one-half times the bUilding height.

79
TABLE 503
ALLOWABLE BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREASa
Building height limitations shown in feet above grade plane. Story limitations shown as stories above grade plane. Building area limitations shown in square feet, as determined by the definition of "Area, building," per story
GROUP   TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
TYPE I TYPE II TYPE III TYPE IV TYPE V
A B A B A B HT A B
HEIGHT(feet) UL 160 65 55 65 55 65 50 40
STORIES(S)
AREA (A)
A-I S
A
UL
UL
5
UL
3
15,500
2
8,500
3
14,000
2
8,500
3
15,000
2
11,500
1
5,500
A-2 S
A
UL
UL
11
UL
3
15,500
2
9,500
3
14,000
2
9,500
3
15,000
2
11,500
1
6,000
A-3 S
A
UL
UL
11
UL
3
15,500
2
9,500
3
14,000
2
9,500
3
15,000
2
11,500
1
6,000
A-4 S
A
UL
UL
11
UL
3
15,500
2
9,500
3
14,000
2
9,500
3
15,000
2
11,500
1
6,000
A-5 S
A
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
UL
B S
A
UL
UL
11
UL
5
37,500
3
23,000
5
28,500
3
19,000
5
36,000
3
18,000
2
9,000
E S
A
UL
UL
5
UL
3
26,500
2
14,500
3
23,500
2
14,500
3
25,500
1
18,500
1
9,500
F-l S
A
UL
UL
11
UL
4
25,000
2
15,500
3
19,000
2
12,000
4
33,500
2
14,000
1
8,500
F-2 S
A
UL
UL
11
UL
5
37,500
3
23,000
4
28,500
3
18,000
5
50,500
3
21,000
2
13,000
H-l S
A
1
21,000
1
16,500
1
11,000
1
7,000
1
9,500
1
7,000
1
10,500
1
7,500
NP
NP
H-2d S
A
UL
21,000
3
16,500
2
11,000
1
7,000
2
9,500
1
7,000
2
10,500
1
7,500
1
3,000
H-3d S
A
UL
UL
6
60,000
4
26,500
2
14,000
4
17,500
2
13,000
4
25,500
2
10,000
1
5,000
H-4 S
A
UL
UL
7
UL
5
37,500
3
17,500
5
28,500
3
17,500
5
36,000
3
18,000
2
6,500
H-5 S
A
4
UL
4
UL
3
37,500
3
23,000
3
28,500
3
19,000
3
36,000
3
18,000
2
9,000
1-1 S
A
UL
UL
9
55,000
4
19,000
3
10,000
4
16,500
3
10,000
4
18,000
3
10,500
2
4,500
1-2 S
A
UL
UL
4
UL
2
15,000
1
11,000
1
12,000
NP
NP
1
12,000
1
9,500
NP
NP
1-3 S
A
UL
UL
4
UL
2
15,000
1
10,000
2
10,500
1
7,500
2
12,000
2
7,500
1
5,000
1-4 S
A
UL
UL
5
60,500
3
26,500
2
13,000
3
23,500
2
13,000
3
25,500
1
18,500
1
9,000
M S
A
UL
UL
11
UL
4
21,500
2
12,500
4
18,500
2
12,500
4
20,500
3
14,000
1
9,000
R-l S
A
UL
UL
11
UL
4
24,000
4
16,000
4
24,000
4
16,000
4
20,500
3
12,000
2
7,000
R-2 S
A
UL
UL
11
UL
4
24,000
4
16,000
4
24,000
4
16,000
4
20,500
3
12,000
2
7,000
R-3 S
A
UL
UL
11
UL
4
UL
4
UL
4
UL
4
UL
4
UL
3
UL
3
UL
R-4 S
A
UL
UL
11
UL
4
24,000
4
16,000
4
24,000
4
16,000
4
20,500
3
12,000
2
7,000
S-1 S
A
UL
UL
11
48,000
4
26,000
2
17,500
3
26,000
2
17,500
4
25,500
3
14,000
1
9,000
S_2b,c S
A
UL
UL
11
79,000
5
39,000
3
26,000
4
39,000
3
26,000
5
38,500
4
21,000
2
13,500
Uc S
A
UL
UL
5
35,500
4
19,000
2
8,500
3
14,000
2
8,500
4
18,000
2
9,000
1
5,500
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2
A = building area per story, S = stories above grade plane, UL = Unlimited, NP = Not permitted.
a. See the following sections for general exceptions to Table 503:
       1. Section 504.2, Allowable building height and story increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation.
       2. Section 506.2, Allowable building area increase due to street frontage.
       3. Section 506.3, Allowable building area increase due to automatic sprinkler system installation.
       4. Section 507, Unlimited area buildings.
b. For open parking structures, see Section 406.3.
c. For private garages, see Section 406.1.
d. See Section 415.5 for limitations.
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504.2 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the value specified in Table 503 for maximum bUilding height is increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of stories is increased by one. These increases are permitted in addition to the building area increase in accordance with Sections 506.2 and 506.3. For Group R buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, the value specified in Table 503 for maximum bUildingheight is increased by 20 feet (6096 mm) and the maximum number of stories is increased by one, but shall not exceed 60 feet (18 288 mm) or four stories, respectively.

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as a Group 1-2 occupancy of Type lIB, III, IV or V construction.
  2. Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as a Group H-l, H-2, H-3 or H-5 occupancy.
  3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with Table 601, Note d.

504.3 Roof structures. Towers, spires, steeples and other roof structures shall be constructed of materials consistent with the required type of construction of the building except where other construction is permitted by Section 1509.2.4. Such structures shall not be used for habitation or storage. The structures shall be unlimited in height if of noncombustible materials and shall not extend more than 20 feet (6096 mm) above the allowable bUilding height if of combustible materials (see Chapter 15 for additional requirements).

SECTION 505
MEZZANINES

505.1 General. A mezzanine or mezzanines in compliance with Section 505 shall be considered a portion of the story in which it is contained. Such mezzanines shall not contribute to either the bUilding area or number of stories as regulated by Section 503.1. The area of the mezzanine shall be included in determining the fire area defined in Section 902. The clear height above and below the mezzanine floor construction shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm).

505.2 Area limitation. The aggregate area of a mezzanine or mezzanines within a room shall not exceed one-third of the floor area of that room or space in which they are located. The enclosed portion of a room shall not be included in a determination of the floor area of the room in which the mezzanine is located. In determining the allowable mezzanine area, the area of the mezzanine shall not be included in the floor area of the room.

Exceptions:

  1. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and structures of Type I or II construction for special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1 shall not exceed two-thirds of the floor area of the room.
  2. The aggregate area of mezzanines in buildings and structures of Type lor II construction shall not exceed one-half of the floor area of the room in buildings and structures equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and an approved emergency voice/alarm communication system in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

505.3 Egress. Each occupant of a mezzanine shall have access to at least two independent means of egress where the common path ofegress travel exceeds the limitations of Section 1014.3. Where a stairway provides a means of exit access from a mezzanine, the maximum travel distance includes the distance traveled on the stairway measured in the plane of the tread nosing. Accessible means of egress shall be provided in accordance with Section 1007.

Exception: A single means of egress shall be permitted in accordance with Section 1015.1.

505.4 Openness. A mezzanine shall be open and unobstructed to the room in which such mezzanine is located except for walls not more than 42 inches (1067 mm) high, columns and posts.

Exceptions:

  1. Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, provided that the occupant load of the aggregate area of the enclosed space does not exceed 10.
  2. A mezzanine having two or more means of egress is not required to be open to the room in which the mezzanine is located if at least one of the means of egress provides direct access to an exit from the mezzanine level.
  3. Mezzanines or portions thereof are not required to be open to the room in which the mezzanines are located, provided that the aggregate floor area of the enclosed space does not exceed 10 percent of the mezzanine area.
  4. In industrial facilities, mezzanines used for control equipment are permitted to be glazed on all sides.
  5. In occupancies other than Groups H and I, that are no more than two stories above grade plane and equipped throughout with an automatic sprinklersystem in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, a mezzanine having two or more means of egress shall not be required to be open to the room in which the mezzanine is located.

505.5 Equipment platforms. Equipment platforms in buildings shall not be considered as a portion of the floor below. Such equipment platforms shall not contribute to either the building area or the number of stories as regulated by Section 503.1. The area of the equipmentplatform shall not be included in determining the fire area in accordance with Section 903. Equipment platforms shall not be a part of any mezzanine and such platforms and the walkways, stairs, alternating tread devices and ladders providing access to an equipmentplatform shall not serve as a part of the means of egress from the building.

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505.5.1 Area limitations. The aggregate area of all equipmentplatforms within a room shall not exceed two-thirds of the area of the room in which they are located. Where an equipmentplatform is located in the same room as a mezzanine, the area of the mezzanine shall be determined by Section 505.2 and the combined aggregate area of the equipment platforms and mezzanines shall not exceed two-thirds of the room in which they are located.

[F] 505.5.2 Fire suppression. Where located in a building that is required to be protected by an automatic sprinkler system, equipment platforms shall be fully protected by sprinklers above and below the platform, where required by the standards referenced in Section 903.3.

505.5.3 Guards. Equipment platforms shall have guards where required by Section 1013.1.

SECTION 506
BUILDING AREA MODIFICATIONS

506.1 General. The bUilding areas limited by Table 503 shall be permitted to be increased due to frontage (I)f and automatic sprinkler system protection (I) in accordance with the following:

Aa={At+[Atx If]+[Atx Is]}      (Equation 5-1)

where:

Aa = Allowable bUilding area per story (square feet).

At = Tabular bUilding area per story in accordance with Table 503 (square feet).

If = Area increase factor due to frontage as calculated in accordance with Section 506.2.

= Area increase factor due to sprinkler protection as calculated in accordance with Section 506.3.

506.2 Frontage increase. Every building shall adjoin or have access to a public way to receive a bUilding area increase for frontage. Where a building has more than 25 percent of its perimeter on a public way or open space having a minimum width of 20 feet (6096 mm), the frontage increase shall be determined in accordance with the following:

If ==[F/ P-0.25]W/30      (Equation 5-2)

where:

If = Area increase due to frontage.

F = Building perimeter that fronts on a public way or open space having 20 feet (6096 mm) open minimum width (feet).

P = Perimeter of entire building (feet).

W = Width of public wayor open space (feet) in accordance with Section 506.2.1.

506.2.1 Width limits. The value of W shall be at least 20 feet (6096 mm). Where the value of Wvaries along the perimeter of the building, the calculation performed in accordance with Equation 5-2 shall be based on the weighted average of each portion of exterior wall and open space where the value of Wis greater than or equal to 20 feet (6096 mm). Where the value of Wexceeds 30 feet (9144 mm), a value of 30 feet (9144 mm) shall be used in calculating the weighted average, regardless of the actual width of the open space. Where two or more buildings are on the same lot, W shall be measured from the exterior face of a building to the exterior face of an opposing building, as applicable.

Exception: The value of W divided by 30 shall be permitted to be a maximum of 2 when the building meets all requirements of Section 507 except for compliance with the 60-foot (18288 mm) public way or yardrequirement, as applicable.

506.2.2 Open space limits. Such open space shall be either on the same lot or dedicated for public use and shall be accessed from a street or approved fire lane.

506.3 Automatic sprinkler system increase. Where a building is equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, the building area limitation in Table 503 is permitted to be increased by an additional 200 percent (~= 2) for buildings with more than one story above grade plane and an additional 300 percent (~= 3) for buildings with no more than one story above grade plane. These increases are permitted in addition to the height and story increases in accordance with Section 504.2.

Exception: The building area limitation increases shall not be permitted for the following conditions:

  1. The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not apply to bUildings with an occupancy in Group H-1.
  2. The automatic sprinkler system increase shall not apply to the bUilding area of an occupancy in Group H-2 or H-3. For buildings containing such occupancies, the allowable building area shall be determined in accordance with Section 508.4.2, with the sprinkler system increase applicable only to the portions of the building not classified as Group H-2 or H-3.
  3. Fire-resistance rating substitution in accordance with Table 601, Note d.

506.4 Single occupancy buildings with more than one story. The total allowable bUilding area of a single occupancy building with more than one story above grade plane shall be determined in accordance with this section. The actual aggregate building area at all stories in the building shall not exceed the total allowable building area.

Exception: A single basement need not be included in the total allowable bUilding area, provided such basement does not exceed the area permitted for a building with no more than one story above grade plane.

506.4.1 Area determination. The total allowable building area of a single occupancy building with more than one story above grade plane shall be determined by multiplying the allowable building area per story (AJ, as determined in Section 506.1, by the number of stories above grade plane as listed below:

  1. For buildings with two stories above grade plane, multiply by 2; 82
  2. For buildings with three or more stories above grade plane, multiply by 3; and
  3. No storyshall exceed the allowable bUilding area per story (Aa), as determined in Section 506.1, for the occupancies on that story.

Exceptions:

  1. Unlimited area buildings in accordance with Section 507.
  2. The maximum area of a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2 shall be determined by multiplying the allowable area per story (AJ, as determined in Section 506.1, by the number of stories above grade plane.

506.5 Mixed occupancy area determination. The total allowable building area for buildings containing mixed occupancies shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provisions of this section. A single basement need not be included in the total allowable bUildingarea, provided such basement does not exceed the area permitted for a building with no more than one story above grade plane.

506.5.1 No more than one story above grade plane. For buildings with no more than one story above grade plane and containing mixed occupancies, the total building area shall be determined in accordance with the applicable provisions of Section 508.1.

506.5.2 More than one story above grade plane. For buildings with more than one story above grade plane and containing mixed occupancies, each storyshall individually comply with the applicable requirements of Section 508.1. For buildings with more than three stories above grade plane, the total buildingarea shall be such that the aggregate sum of the ratios of the actual area of each story divided by the allowable area of such stories based on the applicable provisions of Section 508.1 shall not exceed 3.

SECTION 507
UNLIMITED AREA BUILDINGS

507.1 General. The area of buildings of the occupancies and configurations specified herein shall not be limited.

507.2 Nonsprinklered, one story. The area of a Group F-2 or S-2 building no more than one storyin height shall not be limited when the building is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.

507.3 Sprinklered, one story. The area of a Group B, F, M or S building no more than one story above grade plane, or a Group A-4 building no more than one storyabove gradeplane of other than Type V construction, shall not be limited when the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.

Exceptions:

  1. Buildings and structures of Types I and II construction for rack storage facilities that do not have access by the public shall not be limited in height, provided that such buildings conform to the requirements of Sections 507.3,903.3.1.1 and Chapter 23 of the International Fire Code.
  2. The automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in areas occupied for indoor participant sports, such as tennis, skating, swimming and equestrian activities in occupancies in Group A-4, provided that:

    2.1. Exit doors directly to the outside are provided for occupants of the participant sports areas; and

    2.2. The building is equipped with a fire alarm system with manual fire alarm boxes installed in accordance with Section 907.

507.3.1 Mixed occupancy buildings with Groups A-I and A-2. Group A-I and A-2 occupancies of other than Type V construction shall be permitted within mixed occupancy buildings of unlimited area complying with Section 507.3, provided:

  1. Group A-I and A-2 occupancies are separated from other occupancies as required for separated occupancies in Section 508.4.4 with no reduction allowed in the fire-resistance rating ofthe separation based upon the installation of an automatic sprinkler system;
  2. Each area of the portions of the building used for Group A-lor A-2 occupancies shall not exceed the maximum allowable area permitted for such occupancies in Section 503.1; and
  3. All exit doors from Group A-I and A-2 occupancies shall discharge directly to the exterior ofthe building.

507.4 Two story. The area of a Group B, F, M or S building no more than two stories above grade plane shall not be limited when the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.

507.5 Reduced open space. The public ways or yards of 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width required in Sections 507.2, 507.3, 507.4,507.6 and 507.11 shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width provided all of the following requirements are met:

  1. The reduced width shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the building.
  2. The exterior walls facing the reduced width shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours.
  3. Openings in the exterior walls facing the reduced width shall have opening protectives with a minimum fire protection rating of 3 hours.

507.6 Group A-3 buildings ofType II construction. The area of a Group A-3 building no more than one story above grade plane, used as a place ofreligious worship, community hall, dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, indoor swimming pool or tennis court of Type II construction, shall not be limited when all of the following criteria are met:

  1. The building shall not have a stage other than a platform. 83
  2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  3. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by public ways oryards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.

507.7 Group A-3 buildings of Types III and IV construction. The area of a Group A-3 building no more than one story above grade plane, used as a place ofreligious worship, community hall, dance hall, exhibition hall, gymnasium, lecture hall, indoor swimming pool or tennis court of Type III or IV construction, shall not be limited when all of the following criteria are met:

  1. The building shall not have a stage other than a platform.
  2. The building shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  3. The assembly floor shall be located at or within 21 inches (533 mm) of street or grade level and all exits are provided with ramps complying with Section 1010.1 to the street or grade level.
  4. The building shall be surrounded and adjoined by public ways oryards not less than 60 feet (18288 mm) in width.

507.8 Group H occupancies. Group H-2, H-3 and H-4 occupancies shall be permitted in unlimited area buildings containing Group F and S occupancies, in accordance with Sections 507.3 and 507.4 and the limitations of this section. The aggregate floor area of the Group H occupancies located at the perimeter of the unlimited area building shall not exceed 10 percent of the area of the building nor the area limitations for the Group H occupancies as specified in Table 503 as modified by Section 506.2, based upon the percentage of the perimeter of each Group H floor area that fronts on a street or other unoccupied space. The aggregate floor area of Group H occupancies not located at the perimeter of the building shall not exceed 25 percent of the area limitations for the Group H occupancies as specified in Table 503. Group H occupancies shall be separated from the rest of the unlimited area building and from each other in accordance with Table 508.4. For two-story unlimited area buildings, the Group H occupancies shall not be located more than one story above grade plane unless permitted by the allowable height in stories and feet as set forth in Table 503 based on the type of construction of the unlimited area building.

507.9 Aircraft paint hangar. The area of a Group H-2 aircraft paint hangar no more than one story above grade plane shall not be limited where such aircraft paint hangar complies with the provisions of Section 412.6 and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less in width than one and one-half times the building height.

507.10 Group E buildings. The area of a Group E building no more than one story above grade plane, of Type II, IlIA or IV construction, shall not be limited when all of the following criteria are met:

  1. Each classroom shall have not less than two means of egress, with one of the means of egress being a direct exit to the outside of the building complying with Section 1020.
  2. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  3. The building is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.

507.11 Motion picture theaters. In buildings of Type II construction, the area of a motion picture theater located on the first story above grade plane shall not be limited when the building is provided with an automatic sprinkler system throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and is surrounded and adjoined by public ways or yards not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in width.

507.12 Covered mall buildings and anchor stores. The area of covered mall buildings and anchor stores not exceeding three stories in height that comply with Section 402.6 shall not be limited.

SECTION 508
MIXED USE AND OCCUPANCY

508.1 General. Each portion of a building shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. Where a building contains more than one occupancy group, the building or portion thereof shall comply with the applicable provisions of Section 508.2,508.3 or 508.4, or a combination ofthese sections.

Exceptions:

  1. Occupancies separated in accordance with Section 509.
  2. Where required by Table 415.3.2, areas of Group H-1, H-2 and H-3 occupancies shall be located in a separate and detached building or structure.
  3. Uses within live/work units, complying with Section 419, are not considered separate occupancies.

508.2 Accessory occupancies. Accessory occupancies are those occupancies that are ancillary to the main occupancy of the building or portion thereof. Accessory occupancies shall comply with the provisions of Sections 508.2.1 through 508.2.5.3.

508.2.1 Area limitations. Aggregate accessory occupancies shall not occupy more than 10 percent of the building area of the story in which they are located and shall not exceed the tabular values in Table 503, without building area increases in accordance with Section 506 for such accessory occupancies.

508.2.2 Occupancy classification. Accessory occupancies shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. The requirements of this code shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy classification of that space.

508.2.3 Allowable building area and height. The allowable building area and height of the building shall be based on the allowable bUildingarea andheight for the main occupancy in accordance with Section 503.1. The height of each accessory occupancy shall not exceed the tabular values in

84

Table 503, without increases in accordance with Section 504 for such accessory occupancies. The bUilding area of the accessory occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 508.2.1.

508.2.4 Separation of occupancies. No separation is required between accessory occupancies and the main occupancy.

Exceptions:

  1. Group H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 occupancies shall be separated from all other occupancies in accordance with Section 508.4.
  2. Incidental accessory occupancies required to be separated or protected by Section 508.2.5.
  3. Group 1-1, R-I, R-2 and R-3 dwelling units and sleeping units shall be separated from other dwellingor sleeping units and from accessory occupancies contiguous to them in accordance with the requirements of Section 420.

508.2.5 Separation of incidental accessory occupancies. The incidental accessory occupancies listed in Table

508.2.5 shall be separated from the remainder of the building or equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system, or both, in accordance with Table 508.2.5.

Exception: Incidental accessory occupancies within and serving a dwelling unit are not required to comply with this section.

508.2.5.1 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Where Table 508.2.5 specifies a fire-resistance-rated separation, the incidental accessory occupancies shall be separated from the remainder of the bUilding by a fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Construction supporting I-hour fire-resistance-rated fire barriers or horizontal assemblies used for incidental accessory occupancy separations in buildings of Type lIB, IIIB and VB construction are not required to be fire-resistance rated unless required by other sections of this code.

508.2.5.2 Nonfire-resistance-rated separation and protection. Where Table 508.2.5 permits an automatic fire-extinguishing system without a fire barrier, the incidental

TABLE 508.2.5
INCIDENTAL ACCESSORY OCCUPANCIES
ROOM OR AREA SEPARATION AND/OR PROTECTION
Furnace room where any piece of equipment is over 400,000 Btu per hour input 1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system
Rooms with boilers where the largest piece of equipment is over 15 psi and 10 horsepower 1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system
Refrigerant machinery room 1 hour or provide automatic sprinkler system
Hydrogen cutoff rooms, not classified as Group H 1 hour in Group B, F, M, Sand U occupancies; 2 hours in Group A, E, I and R occupancies.
Incinerator rooms 2 hours and automatic sprinkler system
Paint shops, not classified as Group H, located in occupancies other than Group F 2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic fire-extinguishing system
Laboratories and vocational shops, not classified as Group H, located in a Group E or 1-2 occupancy 1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system
Laundry rooms over 100 square feet 1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system
Group 1-3 cells equipped with padded surfaces 1 hour
Group 1-2 waste and linen collection rooms 1 hour
Waste and linen collection rooms over 100 square feet 1 hour or provide automatic fire-extinguishing system
Stationary storage battery systems having a liquid electrolyte capacity of more than 50 gallons, or a lithium-ion capacity of 1,000 pounds used for facility standby power, emergency power or uninterrupted power supplies 1 hour in Group B, F, M, Sand U occupancies; 2 hours in Group A,E, I and R occupancies.
Rooms containing fire pumps in nonhigh-rise buildings 2 hours; or 1 hour and provide automatic sprinkler system throughout the building
Rooms containing fire pumps in high-rise buildings 2 hours
For 51: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2, 1 pound per square inch (psi) = 6.9 kPa, 1 British thermal unit (Btu) per hour = 0.293 watts, 1 horsepower = 746 watts, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
85

accessory occupancies shall be separated from the remainder of the building by construction capable of resisting the passage of smoke. The walls shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor assembly below to the underside of the ceiling that is a component of a fire-resistance-rated floor assembly or roof assembly above or to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing upon detection of smoke in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3. Doors shall not have air transfer openings and shall not be undercut in excess of the clearance permitted in accordance with NFPA 80. Walls surrounding the incidental accessory occupancy shall not have air transfer openings unless provided with smoke dampers in accordance with Section 711.7.

508.2.5.3 Protection. Except as specified in Table 508.2.5 for certain incidental accessory occupancies, where an automatic fire-extinguishing system or an automatic sprinkler system is provided in accordance with Table 508.2.5, only the space occupied by the incidental accessory occupancy need be equipped with such a system.

508.3 Nonseparated occupancies. Buildings or portions of buildings that comply with the provisions of this section shall be considered as nonseparated occupancies.

508.3.1 Occupancy classification. Nonseparated occupancies shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. The requirements of this code shall apply to each portion of the building based on the occupancy classification of that space except that the most restrictive applicable provisions of Section 403 and Chapter 9 shall apply to the building or portion thereof in which the nonseparated occupancies are located.

508.3.2 Allowable building area and height. The allowable building area and height of the building or portion thereof shall be based on the most restrictive allowances for the occupancy groups under consideration for the type of construction of the building in accordance with Section 503.1.

508.3.3 Separation. No separation is required between nonseparated occupancies.

Exceptions:

  1. Group H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 occupancies shall be separated from all other occupancies in accordance with Section 508.4.
  2. Group 1-1, R-l, R-2 and R-3 dwelling units and sleeping units shall be separated from other dwelling or sleeping units and from other occupancies contiguous to them in accordance with the requirements of Section 420.

508.4 Separated occupancies. Buildings or portions of buildings that comply with the provisions of this section shall be considered as separated occupancies.

508.4.1 Occupancy classification. Separated occupancies shall be individually classified in accordance with Section 302.1. Each separated space shall comply with this code

TABLE 508.4
REQUIRED SEPARATION OF OCCUPANCIES (HOURS)
OCCUPANCY Ad, E 1-1,1-3,1-4 1-2 R F-2, 5-2b, U B, F-1, M, 5-1 H-1 H-2 H-3, H-4, H-5
5 N5 5 N5 5 N5 5 N5 5 N5 5 N5 5 N5 5 N5 5 N5
Ad, E N N 1 2 2 NP 1 2 N 1 1 2 NP NP 3 4 2 3a
1-1,1-3,1-4 - - N N 2 NP 1 NP 1 2 1 2 NP NP 3 NP 2 NP
1-2 - - - - N N 2 NP 2 NP 2 NP NP NP 3 NP 2 NP
R - - - - - - N N 1c 2c 1 2 NP NP 3 NP 2 NP
F-2, S-2b, U - - - - - - - - N N 1 2 NP NP 3 4 2 3a
B, F-l, M, S-1 - - - - - - - - - - N N NP NP 2 3 1 2a
H-l - - - - - - - - - - - - N NP NP NP NP NP
H-2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - N NP 1 NP
H-3, H-4, H-5 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1e, f NP
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2
S = Buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
NS = Buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
N = No separation requirement.
NP = Not permitted.
a. For Group H-5 occupancies, see Section 903.2.5.2.
b. The required separation from areas used only for private or pleasure vehicles shall be reduced by 1 hour but to not less than 1 hour.
c. See Section 406.1.4.
d. Commercial kitchens need not be separated from the restaurant seating areas that thEY serve.
e. Separation is not required between occupancies of the same classification.
f. For H-5 occupancies, see Section 415.8.2.2.
86

based on the occupancy classification of that portion of the building.

508.4.2 Allowable building area. In each story, the building area shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the actual bUilding area of each separated occupancy divided by the allowable building area of each separated occupancy shall not exceed 1.

508.4.3 Allowable height. Each separated occupancy shall comply with the building height limitations based on the type of construction of the building in accordance with Section 503.1.

Exception: Special provisions permitted by Section 509.

508.4.4 Separation. Individual occupancies shall be separated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with Table 508.4.

508.4.4.1 Construction. Required separations shall be fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both, so as to completely separate adjacent occupancies.

SECTION 509
SPECIAL PROVISIONS

509.1 General. The provisions in this section shall permit the use of special conditions that are exempt from, or modify, the specific requirements of this chapter regarding the allowable heights and areas of buildings based on the occupancy classification and type of construction, provided the special condition complies with the provisions specified in this section for such condition and other applicable requirements of this code. The provisions of Sections 509.2 through 509.8 are to be considered independent and separate from each other.

509.2 Horizontal building separation allowance. A building shall be considered as separate and distinct buildings for the purpose of determining area limitations, continuity of fire walls, limitation of number of stories and type of construction where all of the following conditions are met:

  1. The buildings are separated with a horizontal assembly having a minimum 3-hour fire-resistance rating.
  2. The building below the horizontal assembly is no more than one story above grade plane.
  3. The building below the horizontal assembly is of Type IA construction.
  4. Shaft, stairway, ramp and escalator enclosures through the horizontal assembly shall have not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in accordance with Section 715.4.

    Exception: Where the enclosure walls below the horizontal assembly have not less than a 3-hour fire-resistance rating with opening protectives in accordance with Section 715.4, the enclosure walls extending above the horizontal assembly shall be permitted to have a I-hour fire-resistance rating, provided:

    1. The building above the horizontal assembly is not required to be of Type I construction;
    2. The enclosure connects less than four stories; and
    3. The enclosure opening protectives above the horizontal assembly have a minimum I-hour fire protection rating.
  5. The building or buildings above the horizontal assembly shall be permitted to have multiple Group A occupancy uses, each with an occupant load of less than 300, or Group B, M, R or S occupancies.
  6. The building below the horizontal assemblyshall be protected throughout by an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, and shall be permitted to be any of the following occupancies:

    6.1. Group S-2 parking garage used for the parking and storage of private motor vehicles;

    6.2. Multiple Group A, each with an occupantloadof less than 300;

    6.3. Group B;

    6.4. Group M;

    6.5. Group R; and

    6.6. Uses incidental to the operation of the building (including entry lobbies, mechanical rooms, storage areas and similar uses).

  7. The maximum bUilding height in feet (mm) shall not exceed the limits set forth in Section 503 for the building having the smaller allowable height as measured from the grade plane.

509.3 Group S-2 enclosed parking garage with Group S-2 open parking garage above. A Group S-2 enclosed parking garage with no more than one story above grade plane and located below a Group S-2 open parkinggarage shall be classified as a separate and distinct building for the purpose of determining the type of construction where all of the following conditions are met:

  1. The allowable area of the building shall be such that the sum of the ratios of the actual area divided by the allowable area for each separate occupancy shall not exceed 1.
  2. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is ofType I or II construction and is at least equal to the fire-resistance requirements of the Group S-2 open parking garage.
  3. The height and the number of tiers of the Group S-2 open parking garage shall be limited as specified in Table 406.3.5.
  4. The floor assembly separating the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage and Group S-2 openparkinggarage shall be protected as required for the floor assembly of the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage. Openings between the Group S-2 enclosed parking garage and Group S-2 87
  5. open parking garage, except exit openings, shall not be required to be protected.
  6. The Group S-2 enclosed parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, but shall be permitted to contain an office, waiting room and toilet room having a total area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2), and mechanical equipment rooms incidental to the operation of the building.

509.4 Parking beneath Group R. Where a maximum one storyabovegrade plane Group S-2 parking garage, enclosed or open, or combination thereof, of Type I construction or open of Type IV construction, with grade entrance, is provided under a building of Group R, the number of stories to be used in determining the minimum type of construction shall be measured from the floor above such a parking area. The floor assembly between the parking garage and the Group R above shall comply with the type of construction required for the parking garage and shall also provide a fire-resistance rating not less than the mixed occupancy separation required in Section 508.4.

509.5 Group R-l and R-2 buildings of Type IlIA construction. The height limitation for buildings ofType IlIA construction in Groups R-l and R-2 shall be increased to six stories and 75 feet (22 860 mm) where the first floor assembly above the basement has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 3 hours and the floor area is subdivided by 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire walls into areas of not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

509.6 Group R-l and R-2 buildings of Type IIA construction. The height limitation for buildings of Type IIA construction in Groups R-l and R-2 shall be increased to nine stories and 100 feet (30 480 mm) where the building is separated by not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from any other building on the lot and from lot lines, the exits are segregated in an area enclosed by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated fire wall and the first floor assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1½ hours.

509.7 Open parking garage beneath Groups A, I, B, M and R. Open parkinggarages constructed under Groups A, I, B, M and R shall not exceed the height and area limitations permitted under Section 406.3. The height and area of the portion of the building above the open parking garage shall not exceed the limitations in Section 503 for the upper occupancy. The height, in both feet and stories, of the portion of the building above the open parking garage shall be measured from grade plane and shall include both the open parking garage and the portion of the building above the parking garage.

509.7.1 Fire separation. Fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712 between the parking occupancy and the upper occupancy shall correspond to the required fire-resistance rating prescribed in Table 508.4 for the uses involved. The type of construction shall apply to each occupancy individually, except that structural members, including main bracing within the open parking structure, which is necessary to support the upper occupancy, shall be protected with the more restrictive fire-resistance-rated assemblies of the groups involved as shown in Table 601. Means of egress for the upper occupancy shall conform to Chapter 10 and shall be separated from the parking occupancy by fire barriers having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating as required by Section 706 with self-closing doors complying with Section 715 or horizontal assemblies having at least a 2-hour fire-resistance rating as required by Section 712, with self-closing doors complying with Section 715. means of egress from the open parking garage shall comply with Section 406.3.

509.8 Group B or M with Group 5-2 open parking garage. Group B or M occupancies located no higher than the first story above grade plane shall be considered as a separate and distinct building for the purpose of determining the type of construction where all of the following conditions are met:

  1. The buildings are separated with a horizontal assembly having a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance rating.
  2. The occupancies in the building below the horizontal assembly are limited to Groups Band M.
  3. The occupancy above the horizontal assembly is limited to a Group S-2 open parking garage.
  4. The building below the horizontal assembly is of Type I or II construction but not less than the type of construction required for the Group S-2 open parking garage above.
  5. The height and area of the building below the horizontal assembly does not exceed the limits set forth in Section 503.
  6. The height and area of the Group S-2 open parking garage does not exceed the limits set forth in Section 406.3. The height, in both feet and stories, of the Group S-2 open parking garage shall be measured from grade plane and shall include the building below the horizontal assembly.
  7. Exits serving the Group S-2 open parking garage discharge directly to a street or public wayand are separated from the building below the horizontal assembly by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 2-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

509.9 Multiple buildings above Group 5-2 parking garages. Where two or more buildings are provided above the horizontal assembly separating a Group S-2 open or closed parking garage from the buildings above in accordance with the special provisions in Sections 509.2, 509.3 or 509.8, the buildings above the horizontal assembly shall be regarded as separate and distinct buildings from each other and shall comply with all other provisions of this code as applicable to each separate and distinct building.

88

CHAPTER 6
TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION

SECTION 601
GENERAL

601.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the classification of buildings as to type of construction.

SECTION 602
CONSTRUCTION CLASSIFICATION

602.1 General. Buildings and structures erected or to be erected, altered or extended in height or area shall be classified in one of the five construction types defined in Sections 602.2 through 602.5. The building elements shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that specified in Table 601 and exterior walls shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than that specified in Table 602. Where required to have a fire-resistance rating by Table 601, building elements shall comply with the applicable provisions of Section 703.2. The protection ofopenings, ducts and air transfer openings in building elements shall not be required unless required by other provisions ofthis code.

602.1.1 Minimum requirements. A building or portion thereof shall not be required to conform to the details of a type of construction higher than that type which meets the minimum requirements based on occupancy even though certain features of such a building actually conform to a higher type of construction.

602.2 Types I and II. Types I and II construction are those types of construction in which the building elements listed in Table 601 are of noncombustible materials, except as permitted in Section 603 and elsewhere in this code.

602.3 Type III. Type III construction is that type of construction in which the exterior walls are of noncombustible materials and the interior building elements are of any material permitted by this code. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exterior wall assemblies of a 2-hour rating or less.

602.4 Type IV. Type IV construction (Heavy Timber, HT) is that type of construction in which the exterior walls are of noncombustible materials and the interior building elements are of solid or laminated wood without concealed spaces. The

TABLE 601
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR BUILDING ELEMENTS (hours)
BUILDING ELEMENT TYPE I TYPE II TYPE III TYPE IV TYPE V
A B Ad B Ad B HT Ad B
Primary structural frameg (see Section 202) 3a 2a 1 0 1 0 HT 1 0
Bearing walls
Exteriorf,g
Interior
3
3a
2
2a
1
1
0
0
2
1
2
0
2
1/HT
1
1
0
0
Nonbearing walls and partitions Exterior See Table 602
Nonbearing walls and partitions Interiore 0 0 0 0 0 0 See Section 602.4.6 0 0
Floor construction and secondary members (see Section 202) 2 2 1 0 1 0 HT 1 0
Roof construction and secondary members (see Section 202) b 1 b,c 1 b,c oc 1 b,c 0 H T 1 b,c 0
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Roof supports: Fire-resistance ratings of primary structural frame and bearing walls are permitted to be reduced by 1 hour where supporting a roof only.
b. Except in Group F-1, H, M and S-1 occupancies, fire protection of structural members shall not be required, including protection of roof framing and decking where every part of the roof construction is 20 feet or more above any floor immediately below. Fire-retardant-treated wood members shall be allowed to be used for such unprotected members.
c. In all occupancies, heavy timber shall be allowed where a I-hour or less fire-resistance rating is required.
d. An approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 shall be allowed to be substituted for I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction, provided such system is not otherwise required by other provisions of the code or used for an allowable area increase in accordance with Section 506.3 or an allowable height increase in accordance with Section 504.2. The I-hour substitution for the fire resistance of exterior walls shall not be permitted.
e. Not less than the fire-resistance rating required by other sections of this code.
f. Not less than the fire-resistance rating based on fire separation distance (see Table 602).
g. Not less than the fire-resistance rating as referenced in Section 704.10
89

details of Type IV construction shall comply with the provisions of this section. Fire-retardant-treated wood framing complying with Section 2303.2 shall be permitted within exterior wall assemblies with a 2-hour rating or less. Minimum solid sawn nominal dimensions are required for structures built using Type IV construction (HT) . For glued-laminated members the equivalent net finished width and depths corresponding to the minimum nominal width and depths of solid sawn lumber are required as specified in Table 602.4.

602.4.1 Columns. Wood columns shall be sawn or glued laminated and shall not be less than 8 inches (203 mm), nominal, in any dimension where supporting floor loads and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth where supporting roof and ceiling loads only. Columns shall be continuous or superimposed and connected in an approved manner.

602.4.2 Floor framing. Wood beams and girders shall be of sawn or glued-laminated timber and shall be not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width and not less than 10 inches (254 mm) nominal in depth. Framed sawn or glued-laminated timber arches, which spring from the floor line and support floor loads, shall be not less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in any dimension. Framed timber trusses supporting floor loads shall have members of not less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in any dimension.

602.4.3 Roof framing. Wood-frame or glued-laminated arches for roof construction, which spring from the floor line or from grade and do not support floor loads, shall have members not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in width and have not less than 8 inches (203 mm) nominal in depth for the lower half of the height and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in depth for the upper half. Framed or glued-laminated arches for roof construction that spring from the top of walls or wall abutments, framed timber trusses and other roof framing, which do not support floor loads, shall have members not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in width and not less than 6 inches (152 mm) nominal in depth. Spaced members shall be permitted to be composed of two or more pieces not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in thickness where blocked solidly throughout their intervening spaces or where spaces are tightly closed by a continuous wood cover plate of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness secured to the underside of the members. Splice plates shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in thickness. Where protected by approved automatic sprinklers under the roof deck, framing members shall be not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in width.

TABLE 602
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTERIOR WALLS BASED ON FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCEa, e
FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE =X (feet) TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION OCCUPANCY GROUPHf OCCUPANCY GROUP F-1, M, S-1 9 OCCUPANCY GROUP A, B, E, F-2, I, R, S-29, ub
X< 5° All 3 2 1
5<X <10 IA
Others
3
2
2
1
1
1
10< X<30 IA,IB
lIB, VB
Others
2
1
1
1
0
1
Id
0
Id
X>30 All 0 0 0
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Load-bearing exterior walls shall also comply with the fire-resistance rating requirements of Table 601.
b. For special requirements for Group U occupancies, see Section 406.1.2.
c. See Section 706.1.1 for party walls.
d. Open parking garages complying with Section 406 shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating.
e. The fire-resistance rating ofan exterior wall is determined based upon the fire separation distance ofthe exterior wall and the story in which the wall is located.
f. For special requirements for Group H occupancies, see Section 415.3.
g. For special requirements for Group S aircraft hangars, see Section 412.4.1.

 

TABLE 602.4
WOOD MEMBER SIZE
MINIMUM NOMINAL SOLID SAWN SIZE MINIMUM GLUED-LAMINATED NET SIZE
Width, inch Depth, inch Width, inch Depth, inch
8 8
6 10 5 10½
6 8 5 8114
6 6 5 6
4 6 3 67/ s
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
90

602.4.4 Floors. Floors shall be without concealed spaces. Wood floors shall be of sawn or glued-laminated planks, splined or tongue-and-groove, of not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in thickness covered with I-inch (25 mm) nominal dimension tongue-and-groove flooring, laid cross-wise or diagonally, or 0.5-inch (12. 7 mm) particleboard or planks not less than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal in width set on edge close together and well spiked and covered with I-inch (25 mm) nominal dimension flooring or 15/32-inch (12 mm) wood structural panel or 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) particleboard. The lumber shall be laid so that no continuous line of joints will occur except at points of support. Floors shall not extend closer than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) to walls. Such 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) space shall be covered by a molding fastened to the wall and so arranged that it will not obstruct the swelling or shrinkage movements of the floor. Corbeling of masonry walls under the floor shall be permitted to be used in place of molding.

602.4.5 Roofs. Roofs shall be without concealed spaces and wood roof decks shall be sawn or glued laminated, splined or tongue-and-groove plank, not less than 2 inches (51 mm) nominal in thickness, 11/s-inch-thick (32 mm) wood structural panel (exterior glue), or of planks not less than 3 inches (76 mm) nominal in width, set on edge close together and laid as required for floors. Other types of decking shall be permitted to be used if providing equivalent fire resistance and structural properties.

602.4.6 Partitions. Partitions shall be of solid wood construction formed by not less than two layers of I-inch (25 mm) matched boards or laminated construction 4 inches (102 mm) thick, or of I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

602.4.7 Exterior structural members. Where a horizontal separation of 20 feet (6096 mm) or more is provided, wood columns and arches conforming to heavy timber sizes shall be permitted to be used externally.

602.5 Type V. Type V construction is that type of construction in which the structural elements, exterior walls and interior walls are of any materials permitted by this code.

SECTION 603
COMBUSTIBLE MATERIAL IN TYPE I AND II CONSTRUCTION

603.1 Allowable materials. Combustible materials shall be permitted in buildings ofType I or II construction in the following applications and in accordance with Sections 603.1.1 through 603.1.3:

  1. Thermal and acoustical insulation, other than foam plastics, having a flame spread index of not more than25.

    Exceptions:

    1. Insulation placed between two layers of noncombustible materials without an intervening airspace shall be allowed to have a flame spread index of not more than 100.
    2. Insulation installed between a finished floor and solid decking without intervening airspace shall be allowed to have a flame spreadindex of not more than 200.
  2. Foam plastics in accordance with Chapter 26 .
  3. Roof coverings that have an A, B or C classification.
  4. Interior floor finish and floor covering materials installed in accordance with Section 804.
  5. Millwork such as doors, door frames, window sashes and frames.
  6. Interior wall and ceiling finishes installed in accordance with Sections 801 and 803.
  7. Trim installed in accordance with Section 806.
  8. Where not installed over 15 feet (4572 mm) above grade, show windows, nailing or furring strips and wooden bulkheads below show windows, including their frames, aprons and show cases.
  9. Finish flooring installed in accordance with Section 805.
  10. Partitions dividing portions of stores, offices or similar places occupied by one tenant only and that do not establish a corridor serving an occupant load of 30 or more shall be permitted to be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood, I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or ofwood panels or similar light construction up to 6 feet (1829 mm) in height.
  11. Stages and platforms constructed in accordance with Sections 410.3 and 410.4, respectively.
  12. Combustible exterior wall coverings, balconies and similar projections and bay or oriel windows in accordance with Chapter 14.
  13. Blocking such as for handrails, millwork, cabinets and window and door frames.
  14. Light-transmitting plastics as permitted by Chapter 26.
  15. Mastics and caulking materials applied to provide flexible seals between components of exterior wall construction.
  16. Exterior plastic veneer installed in accordance with Section 2605.2.
  17. Nailing or furring strips as permitted by Section 803.4.
  18. Heavy timber as permitted by Note c to Table 601 and Sections 602.4.7 and 1406.3.
  19. Aggregates, component materials and admixtures as permitted by Section 703.2.2.
  20. Sprayed fire-resistant materials and intumescent and mastic fire-resistant coatings, determined on the basis of fire-resistance tests in accordance with Section 703.2 and installed in accordance with Sections 1704.12 and 1704.13, respectively.
  21. Materials used to protect penetrations in fire-resistance-rated assemblies in accordance with Section 713.
  22. Materials used to protect joints in fire-resistance-rated assemblies in accordance with Section 714. 91
  23. Materials allowed in the concealed spaces of buildings of Types I and II construction in accordance with Section 717.5.
  24. Materials exposed within plenums complying with Section 602 of the International Mechanical Code.
  25. 25. Fire-retardant-treated wood shall be permitted in:

    25.1. Nonbearing partitions where the required fire-resistance rating is 2 hours or less.

    25.2. Nonbearing exterior walls where no fire rating is required.

    25.3. Roof construction, including girders, trusses, framing and decking.

    Exception: In buildings of Type IA construction exceeding two stories above grade plane, fire-retardant-treated woodis not permitted in roof construction when the vertical distance from the upper floor to the roof is less than 20 feet (6096 mm).

603.1.1 Ducts. The use of nonmetallic ducts shall be permitted when installed in accordance with the limitations of the International Mechanical Code.

603.1.2 Piping. The use of combustible piping materials shall be permitted when installed in accordance with the limitations of the International Mechanical Code and the International Plumbing Code.

603.1.3 Electrical. The use of electrical wiring methods with combustible insulation, tubing, raceways and related components shall be permitted when installed in accordance with the limitations of this code.

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CHAPTER 7
FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES

SECTION 701
GENERAL

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the materials, systems and assemblies used for structural fire resistance and fire-resistance-rated construction separation of adjacent spaces to safeguard against the spread of fire and smoke within a building and the spread of fire to or from buildings.

SECTION 702
DEFINITIONS

702.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter, and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ANNULAR SPACE. The opening around the penetrating item.

BUILDING ELEMENT. A fundamental component of building construction, listed in Table 601, which mayor may not be of fire-resistance-rated construction and is constructed of materials based on the building type of construction.

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. A listeddevice installed in a ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly to limit automatically the radiative heat transfer through an air inlet/outlet opening.

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon the detection of heat and resist the passage of flame and smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.

DAMPER. See "Ceiling radiation damper," "Combination fire/smoke damper," "Fire damper" and "Smoke damper."

DRAFTSTOP. A material, device or construction installed to restrict the movement of air within open spaces of concealed areas of building components such as crawl spaces, floor/ceiling assemblies, roof/ceiling assemblies and attics.

F RATING. The time period that the through-penetration firestop system limits the spread of fire through the penetration when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479.

FIRE BARRIER. A fire-resistance-rated wall assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained.

FIRE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to close automatically upon detection of heat and resist the passage of flame. Fire dampers are classified for use in either static systems that will automatically shut down in the event of a fire, or in dynamic systems that continue to operate during a fire. A dynamic fire damper is tested and rated for closure under elevated temperature airflow.

FIRE DOOR. The door component of a fire door assembly.

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. Any combination of a fire door, frame, hardware and other accessories that together provide a specific degree of fire protection to the opening.

FIRE PARTITION. A vertical assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread offire in which openings are protected.

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. The period of time that an opening protective will maintain the ability to confine a fire as determined by tests prescribed in Section 715. Ratings are stated in hours or minutes.

FIRE RESISTANCE. That property of materials or their assemblies that prevents or retards the passage of excessive heat, hot gases or flames under conditions of use.

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. The period of time a building element, component or assembly maintains the ability to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on tests, prescribed in Section 703.

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. An assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, tested and fire-resistance rated in accordance with either ASTM E 1966 or UL 2079 to resist for a prescribed period of time the passage of fire through joints made in or between fire-resistance-rated assemblies.

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. The distance measured from the building face to one of the following:

  1. The closest interior lot line;
  2. To the centerline of a street, an alley or public way; or
  3. To an imaginary line between two buildings on the property.

The distance shall be measured at right angles from the face of the wall.

FIRE WALL. A fire-resistance-rated wall having protected openings, which restricts the spread of fire and extends continuously from the foundation to or through the roof, with sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall.

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. A window constructed and glazed to give protection against the passage of fire.

FIREBLOCKING. Building materials or materials for use as fireblocking, installed to resist the free passage of flame to other areas of the building through concealed spaces.

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. A combination of a fire door, a frame, hardware and other accessories installed in a horizontal plane, which together provide a specific degree of fire protection to a through-opening in a fire-resistance-rated floor (see Section 712.8).

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HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. A fire-resistance-rated floor or roof assembly of materials designed to restrict the spread of fire in which continuity is maintained.

JOINT. The linear opening in or between adjacent fire-resistance-rated assemblies that is designed to allow independent movement of the building in any plane caused by thermal, seismic, wind or any other loading.

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. An opening made through one side (wall, floor or ceiling membrane) of an assembly.

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A material, device or construction installed to resist for a prescribed time period the passage of flame and heat through openings in a protective membrane in order to accommodate cables, cable trays, conduit, tubing, pipes or similar items.

MINERAL FIBER. Insulation composed principally offibers manufactured from rock, slag or glass, with or without binders.

MINERAL WOOL. Synthetic vitreous fiber insulation made by melting predominately igneous rock or furnace slag, and other inorganic materials, and then physically forming the melt into fibers.

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. A through-penetration firestop or a membrane-penetration firestop.

SELF-CLOSING. As applied to a fire door or other opening protective, means equipped with an device that will ensure closing after having been opened.

SHAFT. An enclosed space extending through one or more stories of a building, connecting vertical openings in successive floors, or floors and roof.

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. The walls or construction forming the boundaries of a shaft.

SMOKE BARRIER. A continuous membrane, either vertical or horizontal, such as a wall, floor or ceiling assembly, that is designed and constructed to restrict the movement of smoke.

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. A space within a building enclosed by smoke barriers on all sides, including the top and bottom.

SMOKE DAMPER. A listed device installed in ducts and air transfer openings designed to resist the passage of smoke. The device is installed to operate automatically, controlled by a smoke detection system, and where required, is capable of being positioned from a fire command center.

SPLICE. The result of a factory and/or field method ofjoining or connecting two or more lengths of a fire-resistantjoint system into a continuous entity.

T RATING. The time period that the penetration firestop system, including the penetrating item, limits the maximum temperature rise to 325°F (163°C) above its initial temperature through the penetration on the nonfire side when tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479.

THROUGH PENETRATION. An opening that passes through an entire assembly.

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. An assemblage of specific materials or products that are designed, tested and fire-resistance rated to resist for a prescribed period of time the spread of fire through penetrations. The F and T Irating criteria for penetration firestop systems shall be in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479. See definitions of "F rating" and "T rating."

SECTION 703
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS AND FIRE TESTS

703.1 Scope. Materials prescribed herein for fire resistance shall conform to the requirements of this chapter.

703.2 Fire-resistance ratings. The fire-resistance rating of building elements, components or assemblies shall be determined in accordance with the test procedures set forth in ASTM E 119 or UL 263 or in accordance with Section 703.3. Where materials, systems or devices that have not been tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly are incorporated into the building element, component or assembly, sufficient data shall be made available to the building official to show that the required fire-resistance rating is not reduced. Materials and methods of construction used to protectjoints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated building elements, components or assemblies shall not reduce the required fire-resistance rating.

Exception: In determining the fire-resistance rating of exterior bearing walls, compliance with the ASTM E 119 or UL 263 criteria for unexposed surface temperature rise and ignition of cotton waste due to passage of flame or gases is required only for a period of time corresponding to the required fire-resistance rating of an exterior nonbearing wall with the same fire separation distance, and in a building of the same group. When the fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with this exception exceeds the fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263, the fire exposure time period, water pressure and application duration criteria for the hose stream test of ASTM E 119 or UL 263 shall be based upon the fire-resistance rating determined in accordance with this exception.

703.2.1 Nonsymmetrical wall construction. Interior walls and partitions of nonsymmetrical construction shall be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263. When evidence is furnished to show that the wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, the wall need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side (see Section 705.5 for exterior walls).

703.2.2 Combustible components. Combustible aggregates are permitted in gypsum and portland cement concrete mixtures for fire-resistance-rated construction. Any component material or admixture is permitted in assemblies if the resulting tested assembly meets the fire-resistance test requirements of this code.

703.2.3 Restrained classification. Fire-resistance-rated assemblies tested under ASTM E 119 or UL 263 shall not be considered to be restrained unless evidence satisfactory to the bUilding official is furnished by the registered design professional showing that the construction qualifies for a

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restrained classification in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263. Restrained construction shall be identified on the plans.

703.3 Alternative methods for determining fire resistance.

The application of any of the alternative methods listed in this section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance criteria specified in ASTM E 119 or UL 263. The required fire resistance of a building element, component or assembly shall be permitted to be established by any of the following methods or procedures:

  1. Fire-resistance designs documented in sources.
  2. Prescriptive designs of fire-resistance-rated building elements, components or assemblies as prescribed in Section 720.
  3. Calculations in accordance with Section 721 .
  4. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of building element, component or assemblies designs having fire-resistance ratings as determined by the test procedures set forth in ASTM E 119 or UL 263.
  5. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 104.11.

703.4 Noncombustibility tests. The tests indicated in Sections 703.4.1 and 703.4.2 shall serve as criteria for acceptance of building materials as set forth in Sections 602.2, 602.3 and 602.4 in Type I, II, III and IV construction. The term "noncombustible" does not apply to the flame spread characteristics of interior finish or trim materials. A material shall not be classified as a noncombustible building construction material if it is subject to an increase in combustibility or flame spread beyond the limitations herein established through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions.

703.4.1 Elementary materials. Materials required to be noncombustible shall be tested in accordance with ASTM E 136.

703.4.2 Composite materials. Materials having a structural base of noncombustible material as determined in accordance with Section 703.4.1 with a surfacing not more than 0.125 inch (3.18 mm) thick that has a flame spread index not greater than 50 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 shall be acceptable as noncombustible materials.

703.5 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Fire-resistance-rated glazing, when tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 and complying with the requirements of Section 707, shall be permitted. Fire-resistance-rated glazing shall bear a label or other identification showing the name of the manufacturer, the test standard and the identifier "W-XXX," where the "XXX" is the fire-resistance rating in minutes. Such label or identification shall be issued by an agency and shall be permanently affixed to the glazing.

703.6 Marking and identification. Fire walls, fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and smoke partitions or any other wall required to have protected openings or penetrations shall be effectively and permanently identified with signs or stenciling. Such identification shall:

  1. Be located in accessible concealed floor, floor-ceiling or attic spaces;
  2. Be repeated at intervals not exceeding 30 feet (914 mm) measured horizontally along the wall or partition; and
  3. Include lettering not less than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in height, incorporating the suggested wording: "FIRE AND/OR SMOKE BARRIER-PROTECT ALL OPENINGS," or other wording.

    Exception: Walls in Group R-2 occupancies that do not have a removable decorative ceiling allowing access to the concealed space.

SECTION 704
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF STRUCTURAL MEMBERS

704.1 Requirements. The fire-resistance ratings of structural members and assemblies shall comply with this section and the requirements for the type of construction as specified in Table 601. The fire-resistance ratings shall not be less than the ratings required for the fire-resistance-rated assemblies supported by the structural members.

Exception: Fire barriers, fire partitions, smoke barriers and horizontal assemblies as provided in Sections 707.5, 709.4, 710.4 and 712.4, respectively.

704.2 Column protection. Where columns are required to be fire-resistance rated, the entire column shall be provided individual encasement protection by protecting it on all sides for the full column length, including connections to other structural members, with materials having the required fire-resistance rating. Where the column extends through a ceiling, the encasement protection shall be continuous from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below through the ceiling space to the top of the column.

704.3 Protection of the primary structural frame other than columns. Members of the primary structural frame other than columns that are required to have a fire-resistance rating and support more than two floors or one floor and roof, or support a load-bearing wall or a nonload-bearing wall more than two stories high, shall be provided individual encasement protection by protecting them on all sides for their full length, including connections to other structural members, with materials having the required fire-resistance rating.

Exception: Individual encasement protection on all sides shall be permitted on all exposed sides provided the extent of protection is in accordance with the required fire-resistance rating, as determined in Section 703.

704.4 Protection of secondary members. Secondary members that are required to have a fire-resistance rating shall be protected by individual encasement protection, by the membrane or ceiling of a horizontal assembly in accordance with Section 712, or by a combination of both.

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704.4.1 Light-frame construction. King studs and boundary elements that are integral elements in load-bearing walls of light-frame construction shall be permitted to have required fire-resistance ratings provided by the membrane protection provided for the load-bearing wall.

704.5 Truss protection. The required thickness and construction of fire-resistance-rated assemblies enclosing trusses shall be based on the results of full-scale tests or combinations of tests on truss components or on approved calculations based on such tests that satisfactorily demonstrate that the assembly has the required fire resistance.

704.6 Attachments to structural members. The edges of lugs, brackets, rivets and bolt heads attached to structural members shall be permitted to extend to within 1 inch (25 mm) of the surface of the fire protection.

704.7 Reinforcing. Thickness of protection for concrete or masonry reinforcement shall be measured to the outside of the reinforcement except that stirrups and spiral reinforcement ties are permitted to project not more than 0.5-inch (12.7 mm) into the protection.

704.8 Embedments and enclosures. Pipes, wires, conduits, ducts or other service facilities shall not be embedded in the required fire protective covering of a structural member that is required to be individually encased.

704.9 Impact protection. Where the fire protective covering of a structural member is subject to impact damage from moving vehicles, the handling of merchandise or other activity, the fire protective covering shall be protected by corner guards or by a substantialjacket of metal or other noncombustible material to a height adequate to provide full protection, but not less than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the finished floor.

Exception: Corner protection is not required on concrete columns in open or enclosed parking garages.

704.10 Exterior structural members. Load-bearing structural members located within the exterior walls or on the outside of a building or structure shall be provided with the highest fire-resistance rating as determined in accordance with the following:

  1. As required by Table 601 for the type of building element based on the type of construction of the building;
  2. As required by Table 601 for exterior bearing walls based on the type of construction; and
  3. As required by Table 602 for exterior walls based on the fire separation distance.

704.11 Bottom flange protection. Fire protection is not required at the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates, spanning not more than 6 feet (1829 mm) whether part of the primary structural frame or not, and from the bottom flange of lintels, shelf angles and plates not part of the primary structural frame, regardless of span.

704.12 Seismic isolation systems. Fire-resistance ratings for the isolation system shall meet the fire-resistance rating required for the columns, walls or other structural elements in which the isolation system is installed in accordance with Table 601. Isolation systems required to have a fire-resistance rating shall be protected with approved materials or construction assemblies designed to provide the same degree of fire resistance as the structural element in which it is installed when tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 (see Section 703.2).

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units shall be capable of retarding the transfer of heat to the isolator unit in such a manner that the required gravity load-carrying capacity of the isolator unit will not be impaired after exposure to the standard time-temperature curve fire test prescribed in ASTM E 119 or UL 263 for a duration not less than that required for the fire-resistance rating of the structure element in which it is installed.

Such isolation system protection applied to isolator units shall be suitably designed and securely installed so as not to dislodge, loosen, sustain damage or otherwise impair its ability to accommodate the seismic movements for which the isolator unit is designed and to maintain its integrity for the purpose of providing the required fire-resistance protection.

704.13 Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM). Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM) shall comply with Sections 704.13.1 through 704.13.5.

704.13.1 Fire-resistance rating. The application of SFRM shall be consistent with the fire-resistance rating and the listing, including, but not limited to, minimum thickness and dry density of the applied SFRM, method of application, substrate surface conditions and the use of bonding adhesives, sealants, reinforcing or other materials.

704.13.2 Manufacturer's installation instructions. The application of SFRM shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. The instructions shall include, but are not limited to, substrate temperatures and surface conditions and SFRM handling, storage, mixing, conveyance, method of application, curing and ventilation.

704.13.3 Substrate condition. The SFRM shall be applied to a substrate in compliance with Sections 704.13.3.1 through 704.13.3.2.

704.13.3.1 Surface conditions. Substrates to receive SFRM shall be free of dirt, oil, grease, release agents, loose scale and any other condition that prevents adhesion. The substrates shall also be free of primers, paints and encapsulants other than those fire tested and listed by a nationally recognized testing agency. Primed, painted or encapsulated steel shall be allowed, provided that testing has demonstrated that required adhesion is maintained.

704.13.3.2 Primers, paints and encapsulants. Where the SFRM is to be applied over primers, paints or encapsulants other than those specified in the listing, the material shall be field tested in accordance with ASTM E 736. Where testing of the SFRM with primers, paints or encapsulants demonstrates that required adhesion is maintained, SFRM shall be permitted to be applied to primed, painted or encapsulated wide flange steel shapes in accordance with the following conditions:

  1. The beam flange width does not exceed 12 inches (305 mm); or 96
  2. The column flange width does not exceed 16 inches (400 mm); or
  3. The beam or column web depth does not exceed 16 inches (400 mm).
  4. The average and minimum bond strength values shall be determined based on a minimum of five bond tests conducted in accordance with ASTM E 736. Bond tests conducted in accordance with ASTM E 736 shall indicate a minimum average bond strength of 80 percent and a minimum individual bond strength of 50 percent, when compared to the bond strength of the SFRM as applied to clean uncoated l/s-inch-thick (3-mm) steel plate.

704.13.4 Temperature. A minimum ambient and substrate temperature of 40°F (4.44°C) shall be maintained during and for a minimum of 24 hours after the application of the SFRM, unless the manufacturer's installation instructions allow otherwise.

704.13.5 Finished condition. The finished condition of SFRM applied to structural members or assemblies shall not, upon complete drying or curing, exhibit cracks, voids, spalls, delamination or any exposure of the substrate. Surface irregularities of SFRM shall be deemed acceptable.

SECTION 705
EXTERIOR WALLS

705.1 General. Exterior walls shall comply with this section.

705.2 Projections. Cornices, eave overhangs, exterior balconies and similar projections extending beyond the exterior wall shall conform to the requirements of this section and Section 1406. Exterior egress balconies and exterior exit stairways shall also comply with Sections 1019 and 1026, respectively. Projections shall not extend beyond the distance determined by the following three methods, whichever results in the lesser projection:

  1. A point one-third the distance from the exterior face of the wall to the lot line where protected openings or a combination of protected and unprotected openings are required in the exterior wall.
  2. A point one-halfthe distance from the exterior face of the wall to the lotline where all openings in the exterior wall are permitted to be unprotected or the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed under the provisions of Section 705.8.2.
  3. More than 12 inches (305 mm) into areas where openings are prohibited.

Buildings on the same lot and considered as portions of one building in accordance with Section 705.3 are not required to comply with this section.

705.2.1 Type I and II construction. Projections from walls of Type I or II construction shall be of noncombustible materials or combustible materials as allowed by Sections 1406.3 and 1406.4.

705.2.2 Type III, IV or V construction. Projections from walls of Type III, IV or V construction shall be of any approved material.

705.2.3 Combustible projections. Combustible projections located where openings are not permitted or where protection of openings is required shall be of at least I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction, Type IV construction, fire-retardant-treated wood or as required by Section 1406.3.

Exception: Type V construction shall be allowed for R-3 occupancies.

705.3 Buildings on the same lot. For the purposes of determining the required wall and opening protection and roof-covering requirements, buildings on the same lot shall be assumed to have an imaginary line between them.

Where a new building is to be erected on the same lot as an existing building, the location of the assumed imaginary line with relation to the existing building shall be such that the exterior wall and opening protection of the existing building meet the criteria as set forth in Sections 705.5 and 705.8.

Exception: Two or more buildings on the same lot shall either be regulated as separate buildings or shall be considered as portions of one building if the aggregate area ofsuch buildings is within the limits specified in Chapter 5 for a single building. Where the buildings contain different occupancy groups or are of different types of construction, the area shall be that allowed for the most restrictive occupancy or construction.

705.4 Materials. Exterior walls shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.

705.5 Fire-resistance ratings. Exterior walls shall be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Tables 601 and 602 and this section. The required fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation distance of greater than 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be rated for exposure to fire from the inside. The required fire-resistance rating of exterior walls with a fire separation distance of less than or equal to 10 feet (3048 mm) shall be rated for exposure to fire from both sides.

705.6 Structural stability. The wall shall extend to the height required by Section 705.11 and shall have sufficient structural stability such that it will remain in place for the duration of time indicated by the required fire-resistance rating.

705.7 Unexposed surface temperature. Where protected openings are not limited by Section 705.8, the limitation on the rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls as required by ASTM E 119 or UL 263 shall not apply. Where protected openings are limited by Section 705.8, the limitation on the rise of temperature on the unexposed surface of exterior walls as required by ASTM E 119 or UL 263 shall not apply provided that a correction is made for radiation from the unexposed exterior wall surface in accordance with the following formula:

Ae = A + (Af×Feo)                                       (Equation 7-1)

where:

Ae = Equivalent area of protected openings.

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A = Actual area of protected openings.

Af = Area of exterior wall surface in the story under consideration exclusive of openings, on which the temperature limitations of ASTM E 119 or UL 263 for walls are exceeded.

Feo = An "equivalent opening factor" derived from Figure 705.7 based on the average temperature of the unexposed wall surface and the fire-resistance rating of the wall.

705.8 Openings. Openings in exterior walls shall comply with Sections 705.8.1 through 705.8.6.

705.8.1 Allowable area ofopenings. The maximum area of unprotected and protected openings permitted in an exterior wall in any story of a building shall not exceed the percentages specified in Table 705.8.

Exceptions:

  1. In other than Group H occupancies, unlimited unprotected openings are permitted in the first story above grade either:

    1.1. Where the wall faces a street and has a fire separation distance of more than 15 feet (4572 mm); or

    1.2. Where the wall faces an unoccupied space. The unoccupied space shall be on the same lot or dedicated for public use, shall not be less than 30 feet (9144 mm) in width and shall have access from a street by a posted fire lane in accordance with the International Fire Code.

  2. Buildings whose exterior bearing walls, exterior nonbearing walls and exterior primary structural frame are not required to be fire-resistance rated shall be permitted to have unlimited unprotected openings.

705.8.2 Protected openings. Where openings are required to be protected, fire doors and fire shutters shall comply with Section 715.4 and fire windowassemblies shall comply with Section 715.5.

Exception: Opening protectives are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and the exterior openings are protected by a water curtain using automatic sprinklers approved for that use.

705.8.3 Unprotected openings. Where unprotected openings are permitted, windows and doors shall be constructed of any approved materials. Glazing shall conform to the requirements of Chapters 24 and 26.

FIGURE 705.7 EQUIVALENT OPENING FACTOR

FIGURE 705.7 EQUIVALENT OPENING FACTOR

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TABLE 705.8
MAXIMUM AREA OF EXTERIOR WALL OPENINGS BASED ON FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE AND DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTION
FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE (feet) DEGREE OF OPENING PROTECTION ALLOWABLE AREAa
O to less than 3b, c Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) Not Permitted
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i Not Permitted
Protected (P) Not Permitted
3 to less than 5d, e Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) Not Permitted
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 15%
Protected (P) 15%
5 to less than 10e, f Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 10%h
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 25%
Protected (P) 25%
10 to less than 15e, f, g Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 15%h
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 45%
Protected (P) 45%
15 to less than 20f, g Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 25%
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i 75%
Protected (P) 75%
20 to less than 25f, g Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 45%
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i No Limit
Protected (P) No Limit
25 to less than 30f, g Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) 70%
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i No Limit
Protected (P) No Limit
30 or greater Unprotected, Nonsprinklered (UP, NS) No Limit
Unprotected, Sprinklered (UP, S)i Not Required
Protected (P) Not Required
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
UP, NS = Unprotected openings in buildings not equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
UP, S = Unprotected openings in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
P = Openings protected with an opening protective assembly in accordance with Section 705.8.2.
a. Values indicated are the percentage of the area of the exterior wall, per story.
b. For the requirements for fire walls of buildings with differing heights, see Section 706.6.1.
c. For openings in a fire wall for buildings on the same lot, see Section 706.8.
d. The maximum percentage of unprotected and protected openings shall be 25 percent for Group R-3 occupancies.
e. Unprotected openings shall not be permitted for openings with a :fire separation distance of less than 15 feet for Group H-2 and H-3 occupancies.
f. The area of unprotected and protected openings shall not be limited for Group R-3 occupancies, with afire separation distance of 5 feet or greater.
g. The area of openings in an open parking structure with a :fire separation distance of 10 feet or greater shall not be limited.
h. Includes buildings accessory to Group R-3.
i. Not applicable to Group H-l, H-2 and H-3 occupancies.
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705.8.4 Mixed openings. Where both unprotected and protected openings are located in the exterior wall in any story of a building, the total area of openings shall be determined in accordance with the following:

(Ap/ap) + (Au/au) ≤ 1                             (Equation 7-2)

where:

Ap = Actual area of protected openings, or the equivalent area of protected openings, Ae (see Section 705.7).

ap = Allowable area of protected openings.

Au = Actual area of unprotected openings.

au = Allowable area of unprotected openings.

705.8.5 Vertical separation ofopenings. Openings in exterior walls in adjacent stories shall be separated vertically to protect against fire spread on the exterior of the buildings where the openings are within 5 feet (1524 mm) of each other horizontally and the opening in the lower storyis not a protected opening with a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour. Such openings shall be separated vertically at least 3 feet (914 mm) by spandrel girders, exterior walls or other similar assemblies that have a fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour or by flame barriers that extend horizontally at least 30 inches (762 mm) beyond the exterior wall. Flame barriers shall also have a fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour. The unexposed surface temperature limitations specified in ASTM E 119 or UL 263 shall not apply to the flame barriers or vertical separation unless otherwise required by the provisions of this code.

Exceptions:

  1. This section shall not apply to buildings that are three stories or less above grade plane.
  2. This section shall not apply to buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.
  3. Open parking garages.

705.8.6 Vertical exposure. For buildings on the same lot, opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour shall be provided in every opening that is less than 15 feet (4572 mm) vertically above the roof of an adjacent building or structure based on assuming an imaginary line between them. The opening protectives are required where the fire separation distance between the imaginary line and the adjacent building or structure is less than 15 feet (4572 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. Opening protectives are not required where the roof assembly of the adjacent building or structure has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour for a minimum distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) from the exterior wall facing the imaginary line and the entire length and span of the supporting elements for the fire-resistance-rated roof assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
  2. Buildings on the same lot and considered as portions of one building in accordance with Section 705.3 are not required to comply with Section 705.8.6.

705.9 Joints. Joints made in or between exterior walls required by this section to have a fire-resistance rating shall comply with Section 714.

Exception: Joints in exterior walls that are permitted to have unprotected openings.

705.9.1 Voids. The void created at the intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 714.4.

705.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations by air ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exterior walls required to have protected openings shall comply with Section 716.

Exception: Foundation vents installed in accordance with this code are permitted.

705.11 Parapets. Parapets shall be provided on exterior walls of buildings.

Exceptions: A parapet need not be provided on an exterior wall where any of the following conditions exist:

  1. The wall is not required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Table 602 because of fire separation distance.
  2. The building has an area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) on any floor.
  3. Walls that terminate at roofs of not less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction or where the roof, including the deck or slab and supporting construction, is constructed entirely of noncombustible materials.
  4. One-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior walls that terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab, provided:

    4.1. Where the roof/ceiling framing elements are parallel to the walls, such framing and elements supporting such framing shall not be of less than I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a width of 4 feet (1220 mm) for Groups Rand U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupancies, measured from the interior side of the wall.

    4.2. Where roof/ceiling framing elements are not parallel to the wall, the entire span of such framing and elements supporting such framing shall not be of less than I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

    4.3. Openings in the roof shall not be located within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the I-hour fire-resistance-rated exterior wall for Groups Rand U and 10 feet (3048 mm) for other occupancies, measured from the interior side of the wall.

    4.4. The entire building shall be provided with not less than a Class B roof covering.

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  5. In Groups R-2 and R-3 where the entire building is provided with a Class C roof covering, the exterior wall shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing or deck in Type III, IV and V construction, provided:

    5.1. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of approved noncombustible materials or of fire-retardant-treated wood for a distance of 4 feet (1220 mm); or

    5.2. The roof is protected with 0.625-inch (16 mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath the underside of the roof sheathing or deck, supported by a minimum of nominal 2-inch (51 mm) ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members for a minimum distance of 4 feet (1220 mm).

  6. Where the wall is permitted to have at least 25 percent of the exterior wall areas containing unprotected openings based on fire separation distance as determined in accordance with Section 705.8.

705.11.1 Parapet construction. Parapets shall have the same fire-resistance rating as that required for the supporting wall, and on any side adjacent to a roof surface, shall have noncombustible faces for the uppermost 18 inches (457 mm), including counterflashing and coping materials. The height of the parapet shall not be less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the point where the roof surface and the wall intersect. Where the roof slopes toward a parapet at a slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (16.7-percent slope), the parapet shall extend to the same height as any portion of the roof within a fire separation distance where protection of wall openings is required, but in no case shall the height be less than 30 inches (762 mm).

SECTION 706
FIRE WALLS

706.1 General. Each portion of a building separated by one or more fire walls that comply with the provisions of this section shall be considered a separate building. The extent and location of such fire walls shall provide a complete separation. Where a fire wall also separates occupancies that are required to be separated by a fire barrier wall, the most restrictive requirements of each separation shall apply.

706.1.1 Party walls. Any wall located on a lot line between adjacent buildings, which is used or adapted for joint service between the two buildings, shall be constructed as a fire wall in accordance with Section 706. Party walls shall be constructed without openings and shall create separate buildings.

Exception: Openings in a party wall separating an anchor building and a mall shall be in accordance with Section 402 .7.3.1.

706.2 Structural stability. Fire walls shall have sufficient structural stability under fire conditions to allow collapse of construction on either side without collapse of the wall for the duration of time indicated by the required fire-resistance rating.

706.3 Materials. Fire walls shall be of any approved noncombustible materials.

Exception: Buildings of Type V construction.

706.4 Fire-resistance rating. Fire walls shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Table 706.4.

TABLE 706.4
FIRE WALL FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS
GROUP FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
A, B, E, H-4, I, R-1, R-2, U 3a
F-1, H-3b, H-S, M, 5-1
H-1, H-2 4b
F-2, 5-2, R-3, R-4 2
a. In Type II or V construction, walls shall be permitted to have a 2-hour fire-resistance rating.
b. For Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 buildings, also see Sections 415.4 and 415 .5.

706.5 Horizontal continuity. Fire walls shall be continuous from exterior wall to exterior wall and shall extend at least 18 inches (457 mm) beyond the exterior surface of exterior walls.

Exceptions:

  1. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of combustible exterior sheathing or siding provided the exterior wall has a fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour for a horizontal distance of at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour.
  2. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing, exterior siding or other noncombustible exterior finishes provided the sheathing, siding, or other exterior noncombustible finish extends a horizontal distance of at least 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall.
  3. Fire walls shall be permitted to terminate at the interior surface of noncombustible exterior sheathing where the building on each side of the fire wall is protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

706.5.1 Exterior walls. Where the fire wall intersects exterior walls, the fire-resistance rating and opening protection ofthe exterior walls shall comply with one ofthe following:

  1. The exterior walls on both sides of the fire wall shall have a I-hour fire-resistance rating with ¾-hour protection where opening protection is required by Section 705.8. The fire-resistance rating of the exterior wall shall extend a minimum of 4 feet (1220 mm) on each side of the intersection of the fire wallto exterior wall. Exterior wall intersections at fire walls that form an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3.14 rad) do not need exterior wall protection. 101
  2. Buildings or spaces on both sides of the intersecting fire wall shall assume to have an imaginary lot line at the fire wall and extending beyond the exterior of the fire wall. The location of the assumed line in relation to the exterior walls and the fire wall shall be such that the exterior wall and opening protection meet the requirements set forth in Sections 705.5 and 705.8. Such protection is not required for exterior walls terminating at fire walls that form an angle equal to or greater than 180 degrees (3.14 rad).

706.5.2 Horizontal projecting elements. Fire walls shall extend to the outer edge of horizontal projecting elements such as balconies, roof overhangs, canopies, marquees and similar projections that are within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall.

Exceptions:

  1. Horizontal projecting elements without concealed spaces, provided the exterior wall behind and below the projecting element has not less than I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance not less than the depth of the projecting element on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour.
  2. Noncombustible horizontal projecting elements with concealed spaces, provided a minimum I-hour fire-resistance-rated wall extends through the concealed space. The projecting element shall be separated from the building by a minimum of I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance on each side of the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting element. The wall is not required to extend under the projecting element where the building exterior wall is not less than I-hour fire-resistance rated for a distance on each side of the fire wall equal to the depth of the projecting element. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour.
  3. For combustible horizontal projecting elements with concealed spaces, the fire wall need only extend through the concealed space to the outer edges of the projecting elements. The exterior wall behind and below the projecting element shall be of not less than I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction for a distance not less than the depth of the projecting elements on both sides of the fire wall. Openings within such exterior walls shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire-protection rating of not less than ¾ hour.

706.6 Vertical continuity. Fire walls shall extend from the foundation to a termination point at least 30 inches (762 mm) above both adjacent roofs.

Exceptions:

  1. Stepped buildings in accordance with Section 706.6.1.
  2. Two-hour fire-resistance-rated walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of the roof sheathing, deck or slab, provided:

    2.1. The lower roof assembly within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the wall has not less than a I-hour fire-resistance rating and the entire length and span of supporting elements for the rated roof assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.

    2.2. Openings in the roof shall not be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall.

    2.3. Each building shall be provided with not less than a Class B roof covering.

  3. Walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of noncombustible roof sheathing, deck or slabs where both buildings are provided with not less than a Class B roof covering. Openings in the roof shall not be located within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall.
  4. In buildings of Type III, IV and V construction, walls shall be permitted to terminate at the underside of combustible roof sheathing or decks, provided:

    4.1. There are no openings in the roof within 4 feet (1220 mm) of the fire wall,

    4.2. The roof is covered with a minimum Class B roof covering, and

    4.3. The roof sheathing or deck is constructed of fire-retardant-treated woodfor a distance of 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the wall or the roofis protected with 5/s-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board directly beneath the under-side of the roof sheathing or deck, supported by a minimum of 2-inch (51 mm) nominal ledgers attached to the sides of the roof framing members for a minimum distance of 4 feet (1220 mm) on both sides of the fire wall.

  5. In buildings designed in accordance with Section 509.2, fire walls located above the 3-hour horizontal assembly required by Section 509.2, Item 1 shall be permitted to extend from the top of this horizontal assembly.

706.6.1 Stepped buildings. Where a fire wall serves as an exterior wall for a building and separates buildings having different roof levels, such wall shall terminate at a point not less than 30 inches (762 mm) above the lower roof level, provided the exterior wall for a height of 15 feet (4572 mm) above the lower roof is not less than I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction from both sides with openings protected by fire assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour.

Exception: Where the fire wall terminates at the under-side of the roof sheathing, deck or slab of the lower roof, provided:

  1. The lower roof assembly within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the wall has not less than a I-hour fire-resistance rating and the entire length and span of supporting 102 elements for the rated roof assembly has a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.
  2. Openings in the lower roof shall not be located within 10 feet (3048 mm) of the fire wall.

706.7 Combustible framing in fire walls. Adjacent combustible members entering into a concrete or masonry fire wall from opposite sides shall not have less than a 4-inch (102 mm) distance between embedded ends. Where combustible members frame into hollow walls or walls of hollow units, hollow spaces shall be solidly filled for the full thickness of the wall and for a distance not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above, below and between the structural members, with noncombustible materials approved for fireblocking.

706.8 Openings. Each opening through a fire wall shall be protected in accordance with Section 715.4 and shall not exceed 156 square feet (15 m2). The aggregate width of openings at any floor level shall not exceed 25 percent of the length of the wall.

Exceptions:

  1. Openings are not permitted in party walls constructed in accordance with Section 706.1.1.
  2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) where both buildings are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

706.9 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire walls shall comply with Section 713.

706.10 Joints. Joints made in or between fire walls shall comply with Section 714.

706.11 Ducts and air transfer openings. Ducts and air transfer openings shall not penetrate fire walls.

Exception: Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings of fire walls that are not on a lot line shall be allowed provided the penetrations comply with Section 716. The size and aggregate width ofall openings shall not exceed the limitations of Section 706.8.

SECTION 707
FIRE BARRIERS

707.1 General. Fire barriers installed as required elsewhere in this code or the International Fire Code shall comply with this section.

707.2 Materials. Fire barriers shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.

707.3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of fire barriers shall comply with this section.

707.3.1 Shaft enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrierseparating building areas from a shaft shall comply with Section 708.4.

707.3.2 Exit enclosures. The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrierseparating building areas from an exitshall comply with Section 1022.1.

707.3.3 Exit passageway. The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier separating building areas from an exit passageway shall comply with Section 1023.3.

707.3.4 Horizontal exit. The fire-resistance rating of the separation between building areas connected by a horizontal exit shall comply with Section 1025.1.

707.3.5 Atriums. The fire-resistance rating of the fire barrierseparating atriums shall comply with Section 404.6.

707.3.6 Incidental accessory occupancies. The fire barrierseparating incidental accessory occupancies from other spaces in the building shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table 508.2.5.

707.3.7 Control areas. Fire barriers separating control areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required in Section 414.2.4.

707.3.8 Separated occupancies. Where the provisions of Section 508.4 are applicable, the fire barrier separating mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table 508.4 based on the occupancies being separated.

707.3.9 Fire areas. The fire barriers or horizontal assemblies, or both, separating a single occupancy into different fire areas shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that indicated in Table 707.3.9. The fire barriers or horizontal assemblies, or both, separating fire areas of mixed occupancies shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than the highest value indicated in Table 707.3.9 for the occupancies under consideration.

TABLE 707.3.9
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING REQUIREMENTS FOR FIRE BARRIER ASSEMBLIES OR HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES BETWEEN FIRE AREAS
OCCUPANCY GROUP FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
H-1, H-2 4
F-1, H-3, 5-1 3
A, B, E, F-2, H-4, H-5 ,I, M, R, 5-2 2
U 1

707.4 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a required fire-resistance-rated shaft or exitenclosure, or separation, such walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls and the fire-resistance-rated enclosure or separation requirements shall not apply.

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 1019 for exterior egress balconies, Section 1022.6 for exit enclosures and Section 1026.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways.

707.5 Continuity. Fire barriers shall extend from the top of the floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above and shall be securely attached thereto. Such fire barriers shall be continuous through concealed spaces, such as the space above a suspended ceiling.

103

707.5.1 Supporting construction. The supporting construction for a fire barrier shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barrier supported. Hollow vertical spaces within a fire barrier shall be fireblocked in accordance with Section 717.2 at every floor level.

Exceptions:

  1. The maximum required fire-resistance rating for assemblies supporting fire barriers separating tank storage as provided for in Section 415.6.2.1 shall be 2 hours, but not less than required by Table 601 for the building construction type.
  2. Shaft enclosures shall be permitted to terminate at a top enclosure complying with Section 708.12.
  3. Supporting construction for I-hour fire barriers required by Table 508.2.5 in buildings of Type lIB, IIIB and VB construction is not required to be fire-resistance rated unless required by other sections of this code.

707.6 Openings. Openings in a fire barrier shall be protected in accordance with Section 715. Openings shall be limited to a maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall, and the maximum area of any single opening shall not exceed 156 square feet (15 m2). Openings in exit enclosures and exit passageways shall also comply with Sections 1022.3 and 1023.5, respectively.

Exceptions:

  1. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) where adjoining floor areas are equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall where the opening protective is a fire door serving an exit enclosure.
  3. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall where the opening protective has been tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 and has a minimum fire-resistance rating not less than the fire-resistance rating of the wall.
  4. Fire window assemblies permitted in atrium separation walls shall not be limited to a maximum aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall.
  5. Openings shall not be limited to 156 square feet (15 m2) or an aggregate width of 25 percent of the length of the wall where the opening protective is a fire door assembly in a fire barrier separating an exit enclosure from an exit passageway in accordance with Section 1022.2.1.

707.7 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire barriers shall comply with Section 713.

707.7.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations into an exit enclosure or an exit passageway shall be allowed only when permitted by Section 1022.4 or 1023.6, respectively.

707.8 Joints. Joints made in or between fire barriers, andjoints made at the intersection of fire barriers with underside of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above, shall comply with Section 714.

707.9 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a fire barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 716.

SECTION 708
SHAFT ENCLOSURES

708.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to shafts required to protect openings and penetrations through floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling assemblies. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 712, or both.

708.2 Shaft enclosure required. Openings through a floor/ceiling assembly shall be protected by a shaft enclosure complying with this section.

Exceptions:

  1. A shaft enclosure is not required for openings totally within an individual residential dwelling unit and connecting four stories or less.
  2. A shaft enclosure is not required in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 for an escalator opening or stairway that is not a portion of the means of egress protected according to Item 2.1 or 2.2.

    2.1. Where the area of the floor opening between stories does not exceed twice the horizontal projected area of the escalator or stairway and the opening is protected by a draft curtain and closely spaced sprinklers in accordance with NFPA 13. In other than Groups Band M, this application is limited to openings that do not connect more than four stories.

    2.2. Where the opening is protected by approved power-operated automatic shutters at every penetrated floor. The shutters shall be of noncombustible construction and have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1.5 hours. The shutter shall be so constructed as to close immediately upon the actuation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 907.3 and shall completely shut off the well opening. Escalators shall cease operation when the shutter begins to close. The shutter shall operate at a speed of not more than 30 feet per minute (152.4 mm/s) and shall be equipped with a sensitive leading edge to arrest its progress where in contact with any obstacle, and to continue its progress on release therefrom.

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  3. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by pipe, tube, conduit, wire, cable and vents protected in accordance with Section 713.4.
  4. A shaft enclosure is not required for penetrations by ducts protected in accordance with Section 716.6. Grease ducts shall be protected in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.
  5. In other than Group H occupancies, a shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings complying with the provisions for atriums in Section 404.
  6. A shaft enclosure is not required for approved masonry chimneys where annular space is fireblocked at each floor level in accordance with Section 717.2.5.
  7. In other than Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a shaft enclosure is not required for a floor opening or an air transfer opening that complies with the following:

    7.1. Does not connect more than two stories.

    7.2. Is not part of the required means ofegress system.

    7.3. Is not concealed within the construction of a wall or a floor/ceiling assembly.

    7.4. Is not open to a corridorin Group I and R occupancies.

    7.5. Is not open to a corridor on nonsprinklered floors in any occupancy.

    7.6. Is separated from floor openings and air transfer openings serving other floors by construction conforming to required shaft enclosures.

    7.7. Is limited to the same smoke compartment.

  8. A shaft enclosure is not required for automobile ramps in open and enclosed parking garages constructed in accordance with Sections 406.3 and 406.4, respectively.
  9. A shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings between a mezzanine and the floor below.
  10. A shaft enclosure is not required for joints protected by a fire-resistant joint system in accordance with Section 714.
  11. A shaft enclosure shall not be required for floor openings created by unenclosed stairs or ramps in accordance with Exception 3 or 4 in Section 1016.1.
  12. Floor openings protected by floor fire doors in accordance with Section 712.8.
  13. In Group 1-3 occupancies, a shaft enclosure is not required for floor openings in accordance with Section 408.5.
  14. A shaft enclosure is not required for elevator hoistways in open or enclosed parking garages that serve only the parking garage.
  15. In open or enclosed parking garages a shaft enclosure is not required to enclose mechanical exhaust or supply duct systems when such duct system is contained within and serves only the parking garage.
  16. Where permitted by other sections of this code.

708.3 Materials. The shaft enclosure shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.

708.4 Fire-resistance rating. Shaft enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 2 hours where connecting four stories or more, and not less than 1 hour where connecting less than four stories. The number of stories connected by the shaft enclosure shall include any basements but not any mezzanines. Shaft enclosures shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than the floor assembly penetrated, but need not exceed 2 hours. Shaft enclosures shall meet the requirements of Section 703.2.1.

708.5 Continuity. Shaft enclosures shall be constructed as fire barriers in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both, and shall have continuity in accordance with Section 707.5 for fire barriers or Section 712.4 for horizontal assemblies as applicable.

708.6 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a required shaft enclosure, such walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls and the fire-resistance-rated enclosure requirements shall not apply.

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 1019.2 for exterior egress balconies, Section 1022.6 for exit enclosures and Section 1026.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways.

708.7 Openings. Openings in a shaft enclosure shall be protected in accordance with Section 715 as required for fire barriers. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3.

708.7.1 Prohibited openings. Openings other than those necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be permitted in shaft enclosures.

708.8 Penetrations. Penetrations in a shaft enclosure shall be protected in accordance with Section 713 as required for fire barriers.

708.8.1 Prohibited penetrations. Penetrations other than those necessary for the purpose of the shaft shall not be permitted in shaft enclosures.

708.9 Joints. Joints in a shaft enclosure shall comply with Section 714.

708.10 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of a shaft enclosure by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 716.

708.11 Enclosure at the bottom. Shafts that do not extend to the bottom of the building or structure shall comply with one of the following:

  1. They shall be enclosed at the lowest level with construction of the same fire-resistance rating as the lowest floor through which the shaft passes, but not less than the rating required for the shaft enclosure. 105
  2. They shall terminate in a room having a use related to the purpose of the shaft. The room shall be separated from the remainder of the building by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The fire-resistance rating and opening protectives shall be at least equal to the protection required for the shaft enclosure.
  3. They shall be protected by approved fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing at the lowest floor level within the shaft enclosure.

Exceptions:

  1. The fire-resistance-rated room separation is not required, provided there are no openings in or penetrations of the shaft enclosure to the interior of the building except at the bottom. The bottom of the shaft shall be closed off around the penetrating items with materials permitted by Section 717.3.1 for draftstopping, or the room shall be provided with an approved automatic fire suppression system.
  2. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse chute or laundry chute shall not be used for any other purpose and shall terminate in a room protected in accordance with Section 708.13.4.
  3. The fire-resistance-rated room separation and the protection at the bottom of the shaft are not required provided there are no combustibles in the shaft and there are no openings or other penetrations through the shaft enclosure to the interior of the building.

708.12 Enclosure at the top. A shaft enclosure that does not extend to the underside ofthe roofsheathing, deck or slab ofthe building shall be enclosed at the top with construction of the same fire-resistance rating as the topmost floor penetrated by the shaft, but not less than the fire-resistance rating required for the shaft enclosure.

708.13 Refuse and laundry chutes. Refuse and laundry chutes, access and termination rooms and incinerator rooms shall meet the requirements of Sections 708.13.1 through 708.13.6.

Exception: Chutes serving and contained within a single dwelling unit.

708.13.1 Refuse and laundry chute enclosures. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse or laundry chute shall not be used for any other purpose and shall be enclosed in accordance with Section 708.4. Openings into the shaft, including those from access rooms and termination rooms, shall be protected in accordance with this section and Section 715. Openings into chutes shall not be located in corridors. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing upon the actuation of a smoke detector in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3, except that heat-activated closing devices shall be permitted between the shaft and the termination room.

708.13.2 Materials. A shaft enclosure containing a refuse or laundry chute shall be constructed of materials as permitted by the building type of construction.

708.13.3 Refuse and laundry chute access rooms. Access openings for refuse and laundry chutes shall be located in rooms or compartments enclosed by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Openings into the access rooms shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing upon the detection of smoke in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3.

708.13.4 Termination room. Refuse and laundry chutes shall discharge into an enclosed room separated from the remainder of the building by not less than I-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Openings into the termination room shall be protected by opening protectives having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour. Doors shall be self- or automatic-closing upon the detection of smoke in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3. Refuse chutes shall not terminate in an incinerator room. Refuse and laundry rooms that are not provided with chutes need only comply with Table 508.2.5.

708.13.5 Incinerator room. Incinerator rooms shall comply with Table 508.2.5.

708.13.6 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed in accordance with Section 903.2.11.2.

708.14 Elevator, dumbwaiter and other hoistways. Elevator, dumbwaiter and other hoistway enclosures shall be constructed in accordance with Section 708 and Chapter 30.

708.14.1 Elevator lobby. An enclosed elevator lobby shall be provided at each floor where an elevator shaft enclosure connects more than three stories. The lobby enclosure shall separate the elevator shaft enclosure doors from each floor by fire partitions. In addition to the requirements in Section 709 for fire partitions, doors protecting openings in the elevator lobby enclosure walls shall also comply with Section 715.4.3 as required for corridor walls and penetrations of the elevator lobby enclosure by ducts and air transfer openings shall be protected as required for corridors in accordance with Section 716.5.4.1. Elevator lobbies shall have at least one means of egress complying with Chapter 10 and other provisions within this code.

Exceptions:

  1. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required at the street floor, provided the entire street floor is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Elevators not required to be located in a shaft in accordance with Section 708.2 are not required to have enclosed elevator lobbies.
  3. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where additional doors are provided at the hoistway 106 opening in accordance with Section 3002.6. Such doors shall be tested in accordance with UL 1784 without an artificial bottom seal.
  4. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where the building is protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2. This exception shall not apply to the following:

    4.1. Group 1-2 occupancies;

    4.2. Group 1-3 occupancies; and

    4.3. High-rise buildings.

  5. Smoke partitions shall be permitted in lieu of fire partitions to separate the elevator lobby at each floor where the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1 .2. In addition to the requirements in Section 711 for smoke partitions, doors protecting openings in the smoke partitions shall also comply with Sections 711.5.2, 711.5.3, and 715.4.8 and duct penetrations of the smoke partitions shall be protected as required for corridors in accordance with Section 716.5.4.1.
  6. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where the elevator hoistway is pressurized in accordance with Section 708.14.2.
  7. Enclosed elevator lobbies are not required where the elevator serves only open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3.

708.14.1.1 Areas ofrefuge. Areas of refuge shall be provided as required in Section 1007.

708.14.2 Enclosed elevator lobby. Where elevator hoist-way pressurization is provided in lieu of required enclosed elevator lobbies, the pressurization system shall comply with this section.

708.14.2.1 Pressurization requirements. Elevator hoistways shall be pressurized to maintain a minimum positive pressure of 0.10 inches of water (25 Pa) and a maximum positive pressure of 0.25 inches of water (67 Pa) with respect to adjacent occupied space on all floors. This pressure shall be measured at the midpoint of each hoistway door, with all elevator cars at the floor of recall and all hoistway doors on the floor of recall open and all other hoistway doors closed. The opening and closing of hoistway doors at each level must be demonstrated during this test. The supply air intake shall be from an outside, uncontaminated source located a minimum distance of 20 feet (6096 mm) from any air exhaust system or outlet.

708.14.2.2 Rational analysis. A rational analysis complying with Section 909.4 shall be submitted with the construction documents.

708.14.2.3 Ducts for system. Any duct system that is part of the pressurization system shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating as required for the elevator shaft enclosure.

708.14.2.4 Fan system. The fan system provided for the pressurization system shall be as required by this section.

708.14.2.4.1 Fire resistance. When located within the building, the fan system that provides the pressurization shall be protected with the same fire-resistance rating required for the elevator shaft enclosure.

708.14.2.4.2 Smoke detection. The fan system shall be equipped with a smoke detector that will automatically shut down the fan system when smoke is detected within the system.

708.14.2.4.3 Separate systems. A separate fan system shall be used for each elevator hoistway.

708.14.2.4.4 Fan capacity. The supply fan shall either be adjustable with a capacity of at least 1,000 cfm (.4719 m3/s) per door, or that specified by a registered design professional to meet the requirements of a designed pressurization system.

708.14.2.5 Standby power. The pressurization system shall be provided with standby power from the same source as other required emergency systems for the building.

708.14.2.6 Activation of pressurization system. The elevator pressurization system shall be activated upon activation of the building fire alarm system or upon activation ofthe elevator lobby smoke detectors. Where both a building fire alarm system and elevator lobby smoke detectors are present, each shall be independently capable of activating the pressurization system.

708.14.2.7 Special inspection. Special inspection for performance shall be required in accordance with Section 909.18.8. System acceptance shall be in accordance with Section 909.19.

708.14.2.8 Marking and identification. Detection and control systems shall be marked in accordance with Section 909.14.

708.14.2.9 Control diagrams. Control diagrams shall be provided in accordance with Section 909.15.

708.14.2.10 Control panel. A control panel complying with Section 909.16 shall be provided.

708.14.2.11 System response time. Hoistway pressurization systems shall comply with the requirements for smoke control system response time in Section 909.1 7.

SECTION 709
FIRE PARTITIONS

709.1 General. The following wall assemblies shall comply with this section.

  1. Walls separating dwelling units in the same building as required by Section 420.2.
  2. Walls separating sleeping units in the same building as required by Section 420.2.
  3. Walls separating tenant spaces in coveredmall bUildings as required by Section 402.7.2. 107
  4. Corridor walls as required by Section 1018.1.
  5. Elevator lobby separation as required by Section 708.14.1.

709.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.

709.3 Fire-resistance rating. Fire partitions shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour.

Exceptions:

  1. Corridor walls permitted to have a 1/2 hour fire-resistance rating by Table 1018.1.
  2. Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in buildings of Type lIB, IIIB and VB construction shall have fire-resistance ratings of not less than 1/2 hour in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

709.4 Continuity. Fire partitions shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the under-side of the floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above or to the fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly above, and shall be securely attached thereto. If the partitions are not continuous to the sheathing, deck or slab, and where constructed of combustible construction, the space between the ceiling and the sheathing, deck or slab above shall be fireblocked or draftstopped in accordance with Sections 717.2 and 717.3 at the partition line. The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the wall supported, except for walls separating tenant spaces in covered mall bUildings, walls separating dwelling units, walls separating sleeping units and corridor walls in buildings of Type lIB, IIIB and VB construction.

Exceptions:

  1. The wall need not be extended into the crawl space below where the floor above the crawl space has a minimum I-hour fire-resistance rating.
  2. Where the room-side fire-resistance-rated membrane of the corridor is carried through to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab of a fire-resistance-rated floor or roof above, the ceiling of the corridor shall be permitted to be protected by the use of ceiling materials as required for a I-hour fire-resistance-rated floor or roof system.
  3. Where the corridor ceiling is constructed as required for the corridorwalls, the walls shall be permitted to terminate at the upper membrane of such ceiling assembly.
  4. The fire partitions separating tenant spaces in a covered mall bUilding, complying with Section 402.7.2, are not required to extend beyond the underside of a ceiling that is not part ofa fire-resistance-rated assembly. A wall is not required in attic or ceiling spaces above tenant separation walls.
  5. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the partition line in Group R-2 buildings that do not exceed four stories above grade plane, provided the attic space is subdivided by draftstopping into areas not exceeding 3,000 square feet (279 m2) or above every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller.
  6. Fireblocking or draftstopping is not required at the partition line in buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed throughout in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2, provided that automatic sprinklers are installed in combustible floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling spaces.

709.5 Exterior walls. Where exterior walls serve as a part of a required fire-resistance-rated separation, such walls shall comply with the requirements of Section 705 for exterior walls, and the fire-resistance-rated separation requirements shall not apply.

Exception: Exterior walls required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 1019.2 for exterior egress balconies, Section 1022.6 for exit enclosures and Section 1026.6 for exterior exit ramps and stairways.

709.6 Openings. Openings in a fire partition shall be protected in accordance with Section 715.

709.7 Penetrations. Penetrations of fire partitions shall comply with Section 713.

709.8 Joints. Joints made in or between fire partitions shall comply with Section 714.

709.9 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a fire partition by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 716.

SECTION 710
SMOKE BARRIERS

710.1 General. Smoke barriers shall comply with this section.

710.2 Materials. Smoke barriers shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.

710.3 Fire-resistance rating. A I-hour fire-resistance rating is required for smoke barriers.

Exception: Smoke barriers constructed of minimum 0.10-inch-thick (2.5 mm) steel in Group 1-3 buildings.

710.4 Continuity. Smoke barriers shall form an effective membrane continuous from outside wall to outside wall and from the top of the foundation or floor/ceiling assembly below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above, including continuity through concealed spaces, such as those found above suspended ceilings, and interstitial structural and mechanical spaces. The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the wall or floor supported in buildings of other than Type lIB, IIIB or VB construction.

Exception: Smoke-barrier walls are not required in interstitial spaces where such spaces are designed and constructed with ceilings that provide resistance to the passage of fire and smoke equivalent to that provided by the smoke-barrier walls.

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710.5 Openings. Openings in a smoke barrier shall be protected in accordance with Section 715.

Exceptions:

  1. In Group 1-2, where doors are installed across corridors, a pair of opposite-swinging doors without a center mullion shall be installed having vision panels with fire-protection-rated glazing materials in fire-protection-rated frames, the area of which shall not exceed that tested. The doors shall be close fitting within operational tolerances, and shall not have undercuts in excess of 3/4-inch, louvers or grilles. The doors shall have head and jamb stops, astragals or rabbets at meeting edges and shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3. Where permitted by the door manufacturer's listing, positive-latching devices are not required.
  2. In Group 1-2, horizontal sliding doors installed in accordance with Section 1008.1.4.3 and protected in accordance with Section 715.

710.6 Penetrations. Penetrations of smoke barriers shall comply with Section 713.

710.7 Joints. Joints made in or between smoke barriers shall comply with Section 714.

710.8 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in a smoke barrier by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 716.

SECTION 711
SMOKE PARTITIONS

711.1 General. Smoke partitions installed as required elsewhere in the code shall comply with this section.

711.2 Materials. The walls shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.

711.3 Fire-resistance rating. Unless required elsewhere in the code, smoke partitions are not required to have a fire-resistance rating.

711.4 Continuity. Smoke partitions shall extend from the top of the foundation or floor below to the underside of the floor or roof sheathing, deck or slab above or to the underside of the ceiling above where the ceiling membrane is constructed to limit the transfer of smoke.

711.5 Openings. Windows shall be sealed to resist the free passage of smoke or be automatic-closing upon detection ofsmoke. Doors in smoke partitions shall comply with this section.

711.5.1 Louvers. Doors in smoke partitions shall not include louvers.

711.5.2 Smoke and draft control doors. Where required elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall meet the requirements for a smoke and draft control door assembly tested in accordance with UL 1784. The air leakage rate of the door assembly shall not exceed 3.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot (0.015424 m3/ (s. m2)) of door opening at 0.10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature test and the elevated temperature exposure test. Installation of smoke doors shall be in accordance with NFPA 105.

711.5.3 Self- or automatic-closing doors. Where required elsewhere in the code, doors in smoke partitions shall be self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3.

711.6 Penetrations and joints. The space around penetrating items and in joints shall be filled with an approved material to limit the free passage of smoke.

711.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. The space around a duct penetrating a smoke partition shall be filled with an approved material to limit the free passage of smoke. Air transfer openings in smoke partitions shall be provided with a smoke damper complying with Section 716.3.2.2.

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper will interfere with the operation of a required smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative protection shall be utilized.

SECTION 712
HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLIES

712.1 General. Floor and roof assemblies required to have a fire-resistance rating shall comply with this section. Nonfire-resistance-rated floor and roof assemblies shall comply with Section 713.4.2.

712.2 Materials. The floor and roof assemblies shall be of materials permitted by the building type of construction.

712.3 Fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating of floor and roof assemblies shall not be less than that required by the building type of construction. Where the floor assembly separates mixed occupancies, the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Section 508.4 based on the occupancies being separated. Where the floor assembly separates a single occupancy into different fire areas, the assembly shall have a fire-resistance rating of not less than that required by Section 707.3.9. Horizontal assemblies separating dwelling units in the same building and horizontal assemblies separating sleeping units in the same building shall be a minimum of I-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

Exception: Dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations in buildings of Type lIB, IIIB and VB construction shall have fire-resistance ratings of not less than 1/2 hour in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

712.3.1 Ceiling panels. Where the weight of lay-in ceiling panels, used as part of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assemblies, is not adequate to resist an upward force of 1 pound per square foot (48 Pa), wire or other approved devices shall be installed above the panels to prevent vertical displacement under such upward force.

712.3.2 Access doors. Access doors shall be permitted in ceilings of fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling and roof/ceiling assemblies provided such doors are tested in accordance

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with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 as horizontal assemblies and labeled by an approved agency for such purpose.

712.3.3 Unusable space. In I-hour fire-resistance-rated floor assemblies, the ceiling membrane is not required to be installed over unusable crawl spaces. In I-hour fire-resistance-rated roof assemblies, the floor membrane is not required to be installed where unusable attic space occurs above.

712.4 Continuity. Assemblies shall be continuous without openings, penetrations orjoints except as permitted by this section and Sections 708.2,713.4,714 and 1022.1. Skylights and other penetrations through a fire-resistance-rated roof deck or slab are permitted to be unprotected, provided that the structural integrity of the fire-resistance-rated roof assembly is maintained. Unprotected skylights shall not be permitted in roof assemblies required to be fire-resistance rated in accordance with Section 704.10. The supporting construction shall be protected to afford the required fire-resistance rating of the horizontal assembly supported.

Exception: In buildings of Type lIB, IIIB or VB construction, the construction supporting the horizontal assembly is not required to be fire-resistance-rated at the following:

  1. Horizontal assemblies at the separations of incidental uses as specified by Table 508.2.5, provided the required fire-resistance rating does not exceed 1 hour.
  2. Horizontal assemblies at the separations of dwelling units and sleeping units as required by Section 420.3.
  3. Horizontal assemblies at smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 710.

712.5 Penetrations. Penetrations of horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 713.

712.6 Joints. Joints made in or between horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 714. The void created at the intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 714.4.

712.7 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations in horizontal assemblies by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 716.

712.8 Floor fire door assemblies. Floor fire door assemblies used to protect openings in fire-resistance-rated floors shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 288, and shall achieve a fire-resistance rating not less than the assembly being penetrated. Floor fire door assemblies shall be labeled by an approved agency. The label shall be permanently affixed and shall specify the manufacturer, the test standard and the fire-resistance rating.

712.9 Smoke barrier. Where horizontal assemblies are required to resist the movement of smoke by other sections of this code in accordance with the definition of smoke barrier, penetrations and joints in such horizontal assemblies shall be protected as required for smoke barriers in accordance with Sections 713.5 and 714.6. Regardless of the number of stories connected by elevator shaft enclosures, doors located in elevator shaft enclosures that penetrate the horizontal assembly shall be protected by enclosed elevator lobbies complying with Section 708.14.1. Openings through horizontal assemblies shall be protected by shaft enclosures complying with Section 708. Horizontal assemblies shall not be allowed to have unprotected vertical openings.

SECTION 713
PENETRATIONS

713.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall govern the materials and methods of construction used to protect through penetrations and membrane penetrations of horizontal assemblies and fire-resistance-rated wall assemblies.

713.1.1 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of fire-resistance-rated walls by ducts that are not protected with dampers shall comply with Sections 713.2 through 713.3.3. Penetrations of horizontal assemblies not protected with a shaft as permitted by Exception 4 of Section 708.2, and not required to be protected with fire dampers by other sections ofthis code, shall comply with Sections 713.4 through 713.4.2.2. Ducts and air transfer openings that are protected with dampers shall comply with Section 716.

713.2 Installation details. Where sleeves are used, they shall be securely fastened to the assembly penetrated. The space between the item contained in the sleeve and the sleeve itself and any space between the sleeve and the assembly penetrated shall be protected in accordance with this section. Insulation and coverings on or in the penetrating item shall not penetrate the assembly unless the specific material used has been tested as part of the assembly in accordance with this section.

713.3 Fire-resistance-rated walls. Penetrations into or through fire walls, fire barriers, smoke barrier walls and fire partitions shall comply with Sections 713.3.1 through 713.3.3. Penetrations in smoke barrier walls shall also comply with Section 713.5.

713.3.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of fire-resistance-rated walls shall comply with Section 713.3.1.1 or 713.3.1.2.

Exception: Where the penetrating items are steel, ferrous or copper pipes, tubes or conduits, the annular space between the penetrating item and the fire-resistance-rated wall is permitted to be protected as follows:

  1. In concrete or masonry walls where the penetrating item is a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal diameter and the area of the opening through the wall does not exceed 144 square inches (0.0929 m2, concrete, grout or mortar is permitted where it is installed the full thickness of the wall or the thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating, or
  2. The material used to fill the annular space shall prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to ASTM E 119 or UL 263 time-temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the penetration for the time period 110 equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the construction penetrated.

713.3.1.1 Fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations shall be installed as tested in an approvedfire-resistance-rated assembly.

713.3.1.2 Through-penetration firestop system. Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water and shall have an F rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated.

713.3.2 Membrane penetrations. Membrane penetrations shall comply with Section 713.3.1. Where walls or partitions are required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that the required fire-resistance will not be reduced.

Exceptions:

  1. Membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour fire-resistance-rated walls and partitions by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (0.0103 m2) in area, provided the aggregate area of the openings through the membrane does not exceed 100 square inches (0.0645 m2) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of wall area. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed l/S inch (3.1 mm). Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall or partition shall be separated by one of the following:

    1.1. By a horizontal distance of not less than 24 inches (610 mm) where the wall or partition is constructed with individual noncommunicating stud cavities;

    1.2. Bya horizontal distance of not less than the depth of the wall cavity where the wall cavity is filled with cellulose loose-fill, rockwool or slag mineral wool insulation;

    1.3. By solid fireblocking in accordance with Section 717.2.1;

    1.4. By protecting both outlet boxes with listed putty pads; or

    1.5. By other listed materials and methods.

  2. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any material, provided such boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing. The annular space between the wall membrane and the box shall not exceed l/S inch (3.1 mm) unless listed otherwise. Such boxes on opposite sides of the wall or partition shall be separated by one of the following:

    2.1. By the horizontal distance specified in the listing of the electrical boxes;

    2.2. By solid fireblocking in accordance with Section 717.2.1;

    2.3. By protecting both boxes with listed putty pads; or

    2.4. By other listed materials and methods.

  3. Membrane penetrations by electrical boxes of any size or type, which have been listed as part of a wall opening protective material system for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing.
  4. Membrane penetrations by boxes other than electrical boxes, provided such penetrating items and the annular space between the wall membrane and the box, are protected by an approved membrane penetration firestop system installed as tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water, and shall have an F and T rating of not less than the required fire-resistance rating of the wall penetrated and be installed in accordance with their listing.
  5. The annular space created by the penetration of an automatic sprinkler, provided it is covered by a metal escutcheon plate.

713.3.3 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible penetrating items shall not connect to combustible items beyond the point of firestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the fire-resistance integrity of the wall is maintained.

713.4 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations of a floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly not required to be enclosed in a shaft by Section 708.2 shall be protected in accordance with Sections 713.4.1 through 713.4.2.2.

713.4.1 Fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations of the fire-resistance-rated floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall comply with Sections 713.4.1.1 through 713.4.1.4. Penetrations in horizontal smoke barriers shall also comply with 713.5.

713.4.1.1 Through penetrations. Through penetrations of fire-resistance-rated horizontal assemblies shall comply with Section 713.4.1.1.1 or 713.4.1.1.2.

Exceptions:

  1. Penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents or concrete or masonry items through a single fire-resistance-rated floor assembly where the annular space is protected with materials that prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste when subjected to ASTM E 119 or UL 263 time-temperature fire conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the construction penetrated. Penetrating items with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal diameter shall not be limited to the penetration of a single fire-resistance-rated 111 floor assembly, provided the aggregate area of the openings through the assembly does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm2) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of floor area.
  2. Penetrations in a single concrete floor by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents with a maximum 6-inch (152 mm) nominal diameter, provided the concrete, grout or mortar is installed the full thickness of the floor or the thickness required to maintain the fire-resistance rating. The penetrating items shall not be limited to the penetration of a single concrete floor, provided the area of the opening through each floor does not exceed 144 square inches (92 900 mm2).
  3. Penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any material, provided such boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing.

713.4.1.1.1 Installation. Through penetrations shall be installed as tested in the approved fire-resistance-rated assembly.

713.4.1.1.2 Through-penetration firestop system. Through penetrations shall be protected by an approved through-penetration [irestop system installed and tested in accordance with ASTM E 814 or UL 1479, with a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch ofwater (2.49 Pa). The system shall have an F rating/T rating of not less than 1 hour but not less than the required rating of the floor penetrated.

Exception: Floor penetrations contained and located within the cavity of a wall above the floor or below the floor do not require a T rating.

713.4.1.2 Membrane penetrations. Penetrations of membranes that are part of a horizontal assembly shall comply with Section 713.4.1.1.1 or 713.4.1.1.2. Where floor/ceiling assemblies are required to have a fire-resistance rating, recessed fixtures shall be installed such that the required fire resistance will not be reduced.

Exceptions:

  1. Membrane penetrations by steel, ferrous or copper conduits, pipes, tubes or vents, or concrete or masonry items where the annular space is protected either in accordance with Section 713.4.1.1 or to prevent the free passage of flame and the products of combustion. The aggregate area of the openings through the membrane shall not exceed 100 square inches (64 500 mm2) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of ceiling area in assemblies tested without penetrations.
  2. Ceiling membrane penetrations of maximum 2-hour horizontal assemblies by steel electrical boxes that do not exceed 16 square inches (10 323 mm2) in area, provided the aggregate area of such penetrations does not exceed 100 square inches (44 500 mm2) in any 100 square feet (9.29 m2) of ceiling area, and the annular space between the ceiling membrane and the box does not exceed 1/8 inch (3.2 mm).
  3. Membrane penetrations by electrical boxes of any size or type, which have been listed as part of an opening protective material system for use in horizontal assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing.
  4. Membrane penetrations by listed electrical boxes of any material, provided such boxes have been tested for use in fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are installed in accordance with the instructions included in the listing. The annular space between the ceiling membrane and the box shall not exceed 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) unless listed otherwise.
  5. The annular space created by the penetration of a fire sprinkler, provided it is covered by a metal eschutcheon plate.

713.4.1.3 Ducts and air transfer openings. Penetrations of horizontal assemblies by ducts and air transfer openings shall comply with Section 716.

713.4.1.4 Dissimilar materials. Noncombustible penetrating items shall not connect to combustible materials beyond the point offirestopping unless it can be demonstrated that the fire-resistance integrity of the horizontal assembly is maintained.

713.4.2 Nonfire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations of nonfire-resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies or the ceiling membrane of a nonfire-resistance-rated roof/ceiling assembly shall meet the requirements of Section 708 or shall comply with Section 713.4.2.1 or 713.4.2.2.

713.4.2 .1 Noncombustible penetrating items. Noncombustible penetrating items that connect not more than three stories are permitted, provided that the annular space is filled to resist the free passage of flame and the products of combustion with an approved noncombustible material or with a fill, void or cavity material that is tested and classified for use in through-penetration firestop systems.

713.4.2.2 Penetrating items. Penetrating items that connect not more than two stories are permitted, provided that the annular space is filled with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and the products of combustion.

713.5 Penetrations in smoke barriers. Penetrations in smoke barriers shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of UL 1479 for air leakage. The air leakage rate of the penetration assemblies measured at 0.30 inch (7.47 Pa) of water in both the

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ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests, shall not exceed:

  1. 5.0 cfm per square foot (0.025m3 / s. m2) of penetration opening for each through-penetration firestop system; or
  2. A total cumulative leakage of 50 cfm (0.024m3/s) for any 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of wall area, or floor area.

SECTION 714
FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEMS

714.1 General. Joints installed in or between fire-resistance-rated walls, floor or floor/ceiling assemblies and roofs or roof/ceiling assemblies shall be protected by an approved fire-resistantjoint system designed to resist the passage of fire for a time period not less than the required fire-resistance ratingofthe wall, floor or roof in or between which it is installed. Fire-resistantjoint systems shall be tested in accordance with Section 714.3. The void created at the intersection of a floor/ceiling assembly and an exterior curtain wall assembly shall be protected in accordance with Section 714.4.

Exception: Fire-resistantjointsystems shall not be required for joints in all of the following locations:

  1. Floors within a single dwelling unit.
  2. Floors where the joint is protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 708.
  3. Floors within atriums where the space adjacent to the atrium is included in the volume of the atrium for smoke control purposes.
  4. Floors within malls.
  5. Floors and ramps within open and enclosed parking garages or structures constructed in accordance with Sections 406.3 and 406.4, respectively.
  6. Mezzanine floors.
  7. Walls that are permitted to have unprotected openings.
  8. Roofs where openings are permitted.
  9. Control joints not exceeding a maximum width of 0.625 inch (15.9 mm) and tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263.

714.2 Installation. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be securely installed in or on the joint for its entire length so as not to dislodge, loosen or otherwise impair its ability to accommodate expected building movements and to resist the passage of fire and hot gases.

714.3 Fire test criteria. Fire-resistant joint systems shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of either ASTM E 1966 or UL 2079. Nonsymmetrical walljoint systems shall be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned fire-resistance rating shall be the shortest duration obtained from the two tests. When evidence is furnished to show that the wall was tested with the least fire-resistant side exposed to the furnace, subject to acceptance of the building official, the wall need not be subjected to tests from the opposite side.

Exception: For exterior walls with a horizontal fire separation distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the joint system shall be required to be tested for interior fire exposure only.

714.4 Exterior curtain wall/floor intersection. Where fire resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies are required, voids created at the intersection of the exterior curtain wall assemblies and such floor assemblies shall be sealed with an approved system to prevent the interior spread of fire. Such systems shall be securely installed and tested in accordance with ASTM E 2307 to prevent the passage of flame for the time period at least equal to the fire-resistance rating of the floor assembly and prevent the passage of heat and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste. Height and fire-resistance requirements for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 705.8.5.

714.4.1 Exterior curtain wall/nonfire-resistance-rated floor assembly intersections. Voids created at the intersection of exterior curtain wall assemblies and nonfire-resistance-rated floor or floor/ceiling assemblies shall be sealed with an approved material or system to retard the interior spread of fire and hot gases between stories.

714.5 Spandrel wall. Height and fire-resistance requirements for curtain wall spandrels shall comply with Section 705.8.5 . Where Section 705.8.5 does not require a fire-resistance-rated spandrel wall, the requirements of Section 714.4 shall still apply to the intersection between the spandrel wall and the floor.

714.6 Fire-resistant joint systems in smoke barriers. Fire-resistant joint systems in smoke barriers, and joints at the intersection of a horizontal smoke barrier and an exterior curtain wall, shall be tested in accordance with the requirements of UL 2079 for air leakage. The air leakage rate of the joint shall not exceed 5 cfm per lineal foot (0.00775 m3/s. m) ofjoint at 0.30 inch (7.47 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests.

SECTION 715
OPENING PROTECTIVES

715.1 General. Opening protectives required by other sections of this code shall comply with the provisions of this section.

715.2 Fire-resistance-rated glazing. Fire-resistance-rated glazing tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated wall assembly in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 and labeled in accordance with Section 703.5 shall be permitted in fire doors and fire window assemblies in accordance with their listings and shall not otherwise be required to comply with this section.

715.3 Alternative methods for determining fire protection ratings. The application of any of the alternative methods listed in this section shall be based on the fire exposure and acceptance criteria specified in NFPA 252, NFPA 257 or UL 9. The required fire resistance of an opening protective shall be

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permitted to be established by any of the following methods or procedures:

  1. Designs documented in approved sources.
  2. Calculations performed in an approved manner.
  3. Engineering analysis based on a comparison of opening protective designs having fire protection ratings as determined by the test procedures set forth in NFPA 252, NFPA 257 or UL 9.
  4. Alternative protection methods as allowed by Section 104.11.

715.4 Fire door and shutter assemblies. Approved fire door and fire shutter assemblies shall be constructed of any material or assembly of component materials that conforms to the test requirements of Section 715.4.1,715.4.2 or 715.4.3 and the fire protection rating indicated in Table 715.4. Fire door frames with transom lights, sidelights or both shall be permitted in accordance with Section 715.4.5. Fire door assemblies and shutters shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of this section and NFPA 80.

Exceptions:

  1. Labeled protective assemblies that conform to the requirements of this section or UL lOA, UL 14B and UL 14C for tin-clad fire door assemblies.
  2. Floor fire door assemblies in accordance with Section 712.8.

715.4.1 Side-hinged or pivoted swinging doors. Fire door assemblies with side-hinged and pivoted swinging doors shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 252 or UL 1OC. After 5 minutes into the NFPA 252 test, the neutral pressure level in the furnace shall be established at 40 inches (1016mm) or less above the sill.

715.4.2 Other types of assemblies. Fire door assemblies with other types of doors, including swinging elevator doors and fire shutter assemblies, shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 252 or UL lOB. The pressure in the furnace shall be maintained as nearly equal to the atmospheric pressure as possible. Once established, the pressure shall be maintained during the entire test period.

715.4.3 Door assemblies in corridors and smoke barriers. Fire door assemblies required to have a minimum fire protection rating of 20 minutes where located in corridor walls or smoke barrier walls having a fire-resistance rating in accordance with Table 715.4 shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 252 or UL 10C without the hose stream test.

Exceptions:

  1. Viewports that require a hole not larger than 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter through the door, have at least a 0.25-inch-thick (6.4 mm) glass disc and the holder is of metal that will not melt out where subject to temperatures of 1,700°F (927°C).
  2. Corridordoor assemblies in occupancies of Group I-2 shall be in accordance with Section 407.3.1.
  3. Unprotected openings shall be permitted for corridors in multitheater complexes where each motion picture auditorium has at least one-half of its required exit or exit access doorways opening directly to the exterior or into an exitpassageway.
  4. Horizontal sliding doors in smoke barriers that comply with Sections 408.3 and 408.8.4 in occupancies in Group 1-3.
TABLE 715.4
FIRE DOOR AND FIRE SHUTTER FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS
TYPE OF ASSEMBLY REQUIRED ASSEMBLY RATING (hours) MINIMUM FIRE DOOR AND FIRE SHUTTER ASSEMBLY RATING (hours)
Fire walls and fire barriers having a required fire-resistance rating greater than 1 hour 4
3
2
3
3a

Fire barriers having a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour:
    Shaft, exit enclosure and exit passageway walls
    Other fire barriers
1
1
1
¾
Fire partitions:
    Corridor walls
    Other fire partitions
1
0.5
1
0.5
b
b
¾
Exterior walls 3
2
1


¾
Smoke barriers 1 b
a. Two doors, each with a fire protection rating of 1½ hours, installed on opposite sides of the same opening in a fire wall, shall be deemed equivalent in fire protection rating to one 3-hour fire door.
b. For testing requirements, see Section 715.4.3.
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715.4.3.1 Smoke and draft control. Fire door assemblies shall also meet the requirements for a smoke and draft control door assembly tested in accordance with UL 1784. The air leakage rate of the door assembly shall not exceed 3.0 cubic feet per minute per square foot (0.01524 m3/s. m2) of door opening at 0.10 inch (24.9 Pa) of water for both the ambient temperature and elevated temperature tests. Louvers shall be prohibited. Installation of smoke doors shall be in accordance with NFPA 105.

715.4.3.2 Glazing in door assemblies. In a 20-minute fire door assembly, the glazing material in the door itself shall have a minimum fire-protection-rated glazing of 20 minutes and shall be exempt from the hose stream test. Glazing material in any other part of the door assembly, including transom lights and sidelights, shall be tested in accordance with NFPA 257 or UL 9, including the hose stream test, in accordance with Section 715.5.

715.4.4 Doors in exit enclosures and exit passageways. Fire door assemblies in exit enclosures and exit passageways shall have a maximum transmitted temperature end point of not more than 450°F (250°C) above ambient at the end of 30 minutes of standard fire test exposure.

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature rise is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

715.4.4.1 Glazing in doors. Fire-protection-rated glazing in excess of 100 square inches (0.065 m2) shall be permitted in fire door assemblies when tested as components of the door assemblies and not as glass lights, and shall have a maximum transmitted temperature rise of 450°F (250°C) in accordance with Section 715.4.4.

Exception: The maximum transmitted temperature rise is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2.

715.4.5 Fire door frames with transom lights and sidelights. Door frames with transom lights, sidelights, or both, shall be permitted where a ¾-hour fire protection rating or less is required in accordance with Table 715.4. Where a fire protection rating exceeding ¾-hour is required in accordance with Table 715.4, fire door frames with transom lights, sidelights, or both, shall be permitted where installed with fire-resistance-rated glazing tested as an assembly in accordance with ASTM El19 or UL 263.

715.4.6 Labeled protective assemblies. Fire door assemblies shall be labeled by an approved agency. The labels shall comply with NFPA 80, and shall be permanently affixed to the door or frame.

715.4.6.1 Fire door labeling requirements. Fire doors shall be labeled showing the name of the manufacturer or other identification readily traceable back to the manufacturer, the name or trademark of the third-party inspection agency, the fire protection rating and, where required for fire doors in exit enclosures and exit passageways by Section 715.4.4, the maximum transmitted temperature end point. Smoke and draft control doors complying with UL 1784 shall be labeled as such and shall also comply with Section 715.4.6.3. Labels shall be approved and permanently affixed. The label shall be applied at the factory or location where fabrication and assembly are performed.

715.4.6.2 Oversized doors. Oversized fire doors shall bear an oversized fire door label by an approved agency or shall be provided with a certificate of inspection furnished by an approvedtesting agency. When a certificate of inspection is furnished by an approved testing agency, the certificate shall state that the door conforms to the requirements of design, materials and construction, but has not been subjected to the fire test.

715.4.6.3 Smoke and draft control door labeling requirements. Smoke and draft control doors complying with UL 1784 shall be labeled in accordance with Section 715.4.6.1 and shall show the letter" S" on the fire rating label of the door. This marking shall indicate that the door and frame assembly are in compliance when listed or labeled gasketing is also installed.

715.4.6.4 Fire door frame labeling requirements. Fire door frames shall be labeled showing the names of the manufacturer and the third-party inspection agency.

715.4.7 Glazing material. Fire-protection-rated glazing conforming to the opening protection requirements in Section 715.4 shall be permitted in fire door assemblies.

715.4.7.1 Size limitations. Fire-protection-rated glazing used in fire doors shall comply with the size limitations ofNFPA 80.

Exceptions:

  1. Fire-protection-rated glazing in fire doors located in fire walls shall be prohibited except where serving in a fire door in a horizontal exit, a self-closing swinging door shall be permitted to have a vision panel of not more than 100 square inches (0.065 m2) without a dimension exceeding 10 inches (254 mm).
  2. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall not be installed in fire doors having a 1½-hour fire protection rating intended for installation in fire barriers, unless the glazing is not more than 100 square inches (0.065 m2) in area.

715.4.7.2 Exit and elevator protectives. Approved fire-protection-rated glazing used in fire door assemblies in elevator and exit enclosures shall be so located as to furnish clear vision of the passageway or approach to the elevator, ramp or stairway.

715.4.7.3 Labeling. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall bear a label or other identification showing the name of the manufacturer, the test standard and information required in Section 715.5.9.1 that shall be issued by an

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approved agency and shall be permanently affixed to the glazing.

715.4.7.3.1 Identification. For fire protection-rated glazing, the label shall bear the following four-part identification: "D - H or NH - T or NT - XXX." "D" indicates that the glazing shall be used in fire door assemblies and that the glazing meets the fire protection requirements of NFPA 252. "H" shall indicate that the glazing meets the hose stream requirements of NFPA 252. "NH" shall indicate that the glazing does not meet the hose stream requirements of the test. "T" shall indicate that the glazing meets the temperature requirements of Section 715.4.4.1. "NT" shall indicate that the glazing does not meet the temperature requirements of Section 715.4.4.1. The placeholder "XXX" shall specify the fire-protection-rating period, in minutes.

715.4.7.4 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing installed in fire doors in areas subject to human impact in hazardous locations shall comply with Chapter 24.

715.4.8 Door closing. Fire doors shall be self- or automatic-closing in accordance with this section.

Exceptions:

  1. Fire doors located in common walls separating sleeping units in Group R-1 shall be permitted without automatic- or self-closing devices.
  2. The elevator car doors and the associated hoistway enclosure doors at the floor level designated for recall in accordance with Section 3003.2 shall be permitted to remain open during Phase I emergency recall operation.

715.4.8.1 Latch required. Unless otherwise specifically permitted, single fire doors and both leaves of pairs of side-hinged swinging fire doors shall be provided with an active latch bolt that will secure the door when it is closed.

715.4.8.2 Automatic-closing fire door assemblies. Automatic-closing fire door assemblies shall be self-closing in accordance with NFPA 80.

715.4.8.3 Smoke-activated doors. Automatic-closing doors installed in the following locations shall be automatic-closing by the actuation of smoke detectors installed in accordance with Section 907.3 or by loss of power to the smoke detector or hold-open device. Doors that are automatic-closing by smoke detection shall not have more than a 10-second delay before the door starts to close after the smoke detector is actuated:

  1. Doors installed across a corridor.
  2. Doors that protect openings in exits or corridors required to be of fire-resistance-rated construction.
  3. Doors that protect openings in walls that are capable of resisting the passage of smoke in accordance with Section 508.2.5.2.
  4. Doors installed in smoke barriers in accordance with Section 710.5.
  5. Doors installed in fire partitions in accordance with Section 709.6.
  6. Doors installed in a fire wall in accordance with Section 706.8.
  7. Doors installed in shaft enclosures in accordance with Section 708.7.
  8. Doors installed in refuse and laundry chutes and access and termination rooms in accordance with Section 708.13.
  9. Doors installed in the walls for compartmentation of underground buildings in accordance with Section 405.4.2.
  10. Doors installed in the elevator lobby walls of underground buildings in accordance with Section 405.4.3.
  11. Doors installed in smoke partitions in accordance with Section 711.5.3.

715.4.8.4 Doors in pedestrian ways. Vertical sliding or vertical rolling steel fire doors in openings through which pedestrians travel shall be heat activated or activated by smoke detectors with alarm verification.

715.4.9 Swinging fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the swinging type are installed in exterior openings, not less than one row in every three vertical rows shall be arranged to be readily opened from the outside, and shall be identified by distinguishing marks or letters not less than 6 inches (152 mm) high.

715.4.10 Rolling fire shutters. Where fire shutters of the rolling type are installed, such shutters shall include approved automatic-closing devices.

715.5 Fire-protection-rated glazing. Glazing in fire window assemblies shall be fire-protection rated in accordance with this section and Table 715.5. Glazing in fire door assemblies shall comply with Section 715.4.7. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be tested in accordance with and shall meet the acceptance criteria of NFPA 257 or UL 9. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall also comply with NFPA 80. Openings in nonfire-resistance-rated exterior wall assemblies that require protection in accordance with Section 705.3, 705.8, 705.8.5 or 705.8.6 shall have a fire-protection rating of not less than ¾ hour.

Exceptions:

  1. Wired glass in accordance with Section 715.5.4.
  2. Fire protection-rated glazing in 0.5-hour fire-resistance-rated partitions is permitted to have an 0.33-hour fire-protection rating.
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TABLE 715.5
FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY FIRE PROTECTION RATINGS
TYPE OF ASSEMBLY REQUIRED ASSEMBLY RATING (hours) MINIMUM FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY RATING (hours)
Interior walls: Fire walls All Npa
Fire barriers > 1
1
Npa
¾
Smoke barriers 1 ¾
Fire partitions 1
½
¾
Exterior walls > 1
1

¾
Party wall All NP
NP = Not Permitted.
a. Not permitted except as specified in Section 715 .2.

715.5.1 Testing under positive pressure. NFPA 257 or UL 9 shall evaluate fire-protection-rated glazing under positive pressure. Within the first 10 minutes of a test, the pressure in the furnace shall be adjusted so at least two-thirds of the test specimen is above the neutral pressure plane, and the neutral pressure plane shall be maintained at that height for the balance of the test.

715.5.2 Nonsymmetrical glazing systems. Nonsymmetrical fire-protection-rated glazing systems in fire partitions, fire barriers or in exterior walls with a fire separation distance of 5 feet (1524 mm) or less pursuant to Section 705 shall be tested with both faces exposed to the furnace, and the assigned fire protection rating shall be the shortest duration obtained from the two tests conducted in compliance with NFPA 257 or UL 9.

715.5.3 Safety glazing. Fire-protection-rated glazing installed in fire window assemblies in areas subject to human impact in hazardous locations shall comply with Chapter 24.

715.5.4 Wired glass. Steel window frame assemblies of 0.125-inch (3.2 mm) minimum solid section or of not less than nominal 0.048-inch-thick (1.2 mm) formed sheet steel members fabricated by pressing, mitering, riveting, inter-locking or welding and having provision for glazing with ¼-inch (6.4 mm) wired glass where securely installed in the building construction and glazed with 1/4-inch (6.4 mm) labeled wired glass shall be deemed to meet the requirements for a ¾-hour fire window assembly. Wired glass panels shall conform to the size limitations set forth in Table 715.5.4.

715.5.5 Nonwired glass. Glazing other than wired glass in fire window assemblies shall be fire-protection-rated glazing installed in accordance with and complying with the size limitations set forth in NFPA 80.

715.5.6 Installation. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall be in the fixed position or be automatic-closing and shall be installed in approved frames.

TABLE 715.5.4
LIMITING SIZES OF WIRED GLASS PANELS
OPENING FIRE PROTECTION RATING MAXIMUM AREA (square inches) MAXIMUM HEIGHT (inches) MAXIMUM WIDTH (inches)
3 hours 0 0 0
1½ hour doors in exterior walls 0 0 0
1 and 1½ hours 100 33 10
¾ hour 1,296 54 54
20 minutes Not Limited Not Limited Not Limited
Fire window assemblies 1,296 54 54
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm2

715.5.7 Window mullions. Metal mullions that exceed a nominal height of 12 feet (3658 mm) shall be protected with materials to afford the same fire-resistance rating as required for the wall construction in which the protective is located.

715.5.8 Interior fire window assemblies. Fire-protection-rated glazing used in fire window assemblies located in fire partitions and fire barriers shall be limited to use in assemblies with a maximum fire-resistance rating of 1 hour in accordance with this section.

715.5.8.1 Where ¾-hour fire protection window assemblies permitted. Fire-protection-rated glazing requiring 45-minute opening protection in accordance with Table 715.5 shall be limited to fire partitions designed in accordance with Section 709 and fire barriers utilized in the applications set forth in Sections 707.3.6 and 707.3.8 where the fire-resistance rating does not exceed 1 hour.

715.5.8.2 Area limitations. The total area of windows shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of a common wall with any room.

715.5.9 Labeling requirements. Fire-protection-rated glazing shall bear a label or other identification showing the name of the manufacturer, the test standard and information required in Section 715.5.9.1 that shall be issued by an approved agency and shall be permanently affixed to the glazing.

715.5.9.1 Identification. For fire-protection-rated glazing, the labelshall bear the following two-part identification: "OH - XXX." "OH" indicates that the glazing meets both the fire protection and the hose-stream requirements of NFPA 257 or UL 9 and is permitted to be used in openings. "XXX" represents the fire-protection rating period, in minutes, that was tested.

SECTION 716
DUCTS AND AIR TRANSFER OPENINGS

716.1 General. The provisions of this section shall govern the protection of duct penetrations and air transfer openings in assemblies required to be protected.

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716.1.1 Ducts that penetrate fire-resistance-rated assemblies without dampers. Ducts that penetrate fire-resistance-rated assemblies and are not required by this section to have dampers shall comply with the requirements of Sections 713.2 through 713.3.3. Ducts that penetrate horizontal assemblies not required to be contained within a shaft and not required by this section to have dampers shall comply with the requirements of Sections 713.4 through 713.4.2.2.

716.1.1.1 Ducts that penetrate nonfire-resistance-rated assemblies. The space around a duct penetrating a nonfire-resistance-rated floor assembly shall comply with Section 716.6.3.

716.2 Installation. Fire dampers, smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers and ceilingradiation dampers located within air distribution and smoke control systems shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of this section, the manufacturer's installation instructions and the dampers' listing.

716.2.1 Smoke control system. Where the installation of a fire damper will interfere with the operation of a required smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative protection shall be utilized. Where mechanical systems including ducts and dampers utilized for normal building ventilation serve as part of the smoke control system, the expected performance of these systems in smoke control mode shall be addressed in the rational analysis required by Section 909.4.

716.2.2 Hazardous exhaust ducts. Fire dampers for hazardous exhaust duct systems shall comply with the International Mechanical Code.

716.3 Damper testing, ratings and actuation. Damper testing, ratings and actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 716.3.1 through 716.3.3.

716.3.1 Damper testing. Dampers shall be listed and bear the label of an approved testing agency indicating compliance with the standards in this section. Fire dampers shall comply with the requirements ofUL 555. Only fire dampers labeled for use in dynamic systems shall be installed in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning systems designed to operate with fans on during a fire. Smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of UL 555S. Combination fire/smoke dampers shall comply with the requirements of both UL 555 and UL 555S. Ceiling radiation dampers shall comply with the requirements of UL 555C.

716.3.2 Damper rating. Damper ratings shall be in accordance with Sections 716.3.2.1 through 716.3.2.3.

716.3.2.1 Fire damper ratings. Fire dampers shall have the minimum fire protection rating specified in Table 716.3.2.1 for the type of penetration.

716.3.2.2 Smoke damper ratings. Smoke damper leakage ratings shall not be less than Class II. Elevated temperature ratings shall not be less than 250°F (121°C).

TABLE 716.3.2.1
FIRE DAMPER RATING
TYPE OF PENETRATION MINIMUM DAMPER RATING (hours)
Less than 3-hour fire-resistance-rated assemblies 1.5
3-hour or greater fire-resistance-rated assemblies 3

716.3.2.3 Combination fire/smoke damper ratings. Combination fire/smoke dampers shall have the minimum fire protection rating specified for fire dampers in Table 716.3.2.1 for the type of penetration and shall also have a minimum Class II leakage rating and a minimum elevated temperature rating of 250°F (121°C) .

716.3.3 Damper actuation. Damper actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 716.3.3.1 through 716.3.3.4 as applicable.

716.3.3.1 Fire damper actuation device. The fire damper actuation device shall meet one of the following requirements:

  1. The operating temperature shall be approximately 50°F (10°C) above the normal temperature within the duct system, but not less than 160°F (71°C) .
  2. The operating temperature shall be not more than 350°F (177°C) where located in a smoke control system complying with Section 909.

716.3.3.2 Smoke damper actuation. The smoke damper shall close upon actuation of a listed smoke detector or detectors installed in accordance with Section 907.3 and one of the following methods, as applicable:

  1. Where a smoke damper is installed within a duct, a smoke detector shall be installed in the duct within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the damperwith no air outlets or inlets between the detector and the damper. The detector shall be listedfor the air velocity, temperature and humidity anticipated at the point where it is installed. Other than in mechanical smoke control systems, dampers shall be closed upon fan shutdown where local smoke detectors require a minimum velocity to operate.
  2. Where a smoke damper is installed above smoke barrier doors in a smoke barrier, a spot-type detector listed for releasing service shall be installed on either side of the smoke barrier door opening.
  3. Where a smoke damper is installed within an air transfer opening in a wall, a spot-type detector listed for releasing service shall be installed within 5 feet (1524 mm) horizontally of the damper.
  4. Where a smoke damper is installed in a corridor wall or ceiling, the dampershall be permitted to be 118 controlled by a smoke detection system installed in the corridor.
  5. Where a total-coverage smoke detector system is provided within areas served by a heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, smoke dampers shall be permitted to be controlled by the smoke detection system.

716.3.3.3 Combination fire/smoke damper actuation. Combination fire/smoke damper actuation shall be in accordance with Sections 716.3.3.1 and 716.3.3.2. Combination fire/smoke dampers installed in smoke control system shaft penetrations shall not be activated by local area smoke detection unless it is secondary to the smoke management system controls.

716.3.3.4 Ceiling radiation damper actuation. The operating temperature of a ceiling radiation damper actuation device shall be 50°F (27.8°C) above the normal temperature within the duct system, but not less than 160°F (71°C).

716.4 Access and identification. Fire and smoke dampers shall be provided with an approved means of access, which is large enough to permit inspection and maintenance of the damper and its operating parts. The access shall not affect the integrity of fire-resistance-rated assemblies. The access openings shall not reduce the fire-resistance rating of the assembly. Access points shall be permanently identified on the exterior by a label having letters not less than 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) in height reading: FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER, SMOKE DAMPER or FIRE DAMPER. Access doors in ducts shall be tight fitting and suitable for the required duct construction.

716.5 Where required. Fire dampers, smoke dampers and combination fire/smoke dampers shall be provided at the locations prescribed in Sections 716.5.1 through 716.5.7 and 716.6. Where an assembly is required to have both fire dampers and smoke dampers, combination fire/smoke dampers or a fire damper and a smoke damper shall be required.

716.5.1 Fire walls. Ducts and air transfer openings permitted in fire walls in accordance with Section 706.11 shall be protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing.

716.5.1.1 Horizontal exits. A listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a fire wall that serves as a horizontal exit.

716.5.2 Fire barriers. Ducts and air transfer openings of fire barriers shall be protected with approved fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing. Ducts and air transfer openings shall not penetrate exit enclosures and exit passageways except as permitted by Sections 1022.4 and 1023.6, respectively.

Exception: Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of fire barriers where any of the following apply:

  1. Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 as part of the fire-resistance-rated assembly.
  2. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke control system in accordance with Section 909 and where the use ofa fire damperwould interfere with the operation of a smoke control system.
  3. Such walls are penetrated by ducted HVAC systems, have a required fire-resistance rating of 1 hour or less, are in areas of other than Group Hand are in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1. 2. For the purposes of this exception, a ducted HVAC system shall be a duct system for conveying supply, return or exhaust air as part of the structure's HVAC system. Such a duct system shall be constructed of sheet steel not less than No. 26 gage thickness and shall be continuous from the air-handling appliance or equipment to the air outlet and inlet terminals.

716.5.2.1 Horizontal exits. A listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a fire barrier that serves as a horizontal exit.

716.5.3 Shaft enclosures. Shaft enclosures that are permitted to be penetrated by ducts and air transfer openings shall be protected with approved fire and smoke dampers installed in accordance with their listing.

Exceptions:

  1. Fire dampers are not required at penetrations of shafts where:

    1.1. Steel exhaust subducts are extended at least 22 inches (559 mm) vertically in exhaust shafts, provided there is a continuous airflow upward to the outside; or

    1.2. Penetrations are tested in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 as part of the fire-resistance-rated assembly; or

    1.3. Ducts are used as part of an approved smoke control system designed and installed in accordance with Section 909 and where the fire damper will interfere with the operation of the smoke control system; or

    1.4. The penetrations are in parking garage exhaust or supply shafts that are separated from other building shafts by not less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.

  2. In Group Band R occupancies equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, smoke dampers are not required at penetrations of shafts where:

    2.1. Kitchen, clothes dryer, bathroom and toilet room exhaust openings are installed with steel exhaust subducts, having a minimum wall thickness ofO.187-inch (0.4712 mm) (No. 26 gage);

    2.2. The subducts extend at least 22 inches (559 mm) vertically; and

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    2.3. An exhaust fan is installed at the upper terminus of the shaft that is powered continuously in accordance with the provisions of Section 909.11, so as to maintain a continuous upward airflow to the outside.

  3. Smoke dampers are not required at penetration of exhaust or supply shafts in parking garages that are separated from other building shafts by not less than 2-hour fire-resistance-rated construction.
  4. Smoke dampers are not required at penetrations of shafts where ducts are used as part of an approved mechanical smoke control system designed in accordance with Section 909 and where the smoke damper will interfere with the operation of the smoke control system.
  5. Fire dampers and combination fire/smoke dampers are not required in kitchen and clothes dryer exhaust systems when installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code.

716.5.4 Fire partitions. Ducts and air transfer openings that penetrate fire partitions shall be protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing.

Exceptions: In occupancies other than Group H, fire dampers are not required where any of the following apply:

  1. Corridor walls in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 or 903.3.1.2 and the duct is protected as a through penetration in accordance with Section 713.
  2. Tenant partitions in covered mall buildings where the walls are not required by provisions elsewhere in the code to extend to the underside ofthe floor or roof sheathing, slab or deck above.
  3. The duct system is constructed of approved materials in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the duct penetrating the wall complies with all of the following requirements:

    3.1. The duct shall not exceed 100 square inches (0.06 m2).

    3.2. The duct shall be constructed of steel a minimum of 0.0217 inch (0.55 mm) in thickness.

    3.3. The duct shall not have openings that communicate the corridorwith adjacent spaces or rooms.

    3.4. The duct shall be installed above a ceiling.

    3.5. The duct shall not terminate at a wall register in the fire-resistance-rated wall.

    3.6. A minimum 12-inch-long (305 mm) by 0.060-inch-thick (1.52 mm) steel sleeve shall be centered in each duct opening. The sleeve shall be secured to both sides of the wall and all four sides of the sleeve with minimum 1½-inch by 1½ -inch by 0.060-inch (38 mm by 38 mm by 1.52 mm) steel retaining angles. The retaining angles shall be secured to the sleeve and the wall with No. 10 (M5) screws. The annular space between the steel sleeve and the wall opening shall be filled with mineral wool batting on all sides.

716.5.4.1 Corridors. A listedsmoke damper designed to resist the passage of smoke shall be provided at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a corridor enclosure required to have smoke and draft control doors in accordance with Section 715.4.3.

Exceptions:

  1. Smoke dampers are not required where the building is equipped throughout with an approved smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, and smoke dampers are not necessary for the operation and control of the system.
  2. Smoke dampers are not required in corridor penetrations where the duct is constructed of steel not less than 0.019 inch (0.48 mm) in thickness and there are no openings serving the corridor.

716.5.5 Smoke barriers. A listed smoke damper designed to resist the passage ofsmoke shall be provided at each point a duct or air transfer opening penetrates a smoke barrier. Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall comply with Section 716.3.3.2.

Exception: Smoke dampers are not required where the openings in ducts are limited to a single smoke compartment and the ducts are constructed of steel.

716.5.6 Exterior walls. Ducts and air transfer openings in fire-resistance-rated exterior walls required to have protected openings in accordance with Section 705.10 shall be protected with listed fire dampers installed in accordance with their listing.

716.5.7 Smoke partitions. A listedsmoke damper designed to resist the passage ofsmoke shall be provided at each point that an air transfer opening penetrates a smoke partition. Smoke dampers and smoke damper actuation methods shall comply with Section 716.3.3.2.

Exception: Where the installation of a smoke damper will interfere with the operation ofa required smoke control system in accordance with Section 909, approved alternative protection shall be utilized.

716.6 Horizontal assemblies. Penetrations by ducts and air transfer openings of a floor, floor/ceiling assembly or the ceiling membrane of a roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected by a shaft enclosure that complies with Section 708 or shall comply with Sections 716.6.1 through 716.6.3.

716.6.1 Through penetrations. In occupancies other than Groups 1-2 and 1-3, a duct constructed of approvedmaterials in accordance with the International Mechanical Code that penetrates a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling assembly that connects not more than two stories is permitted without

120

shaft enclosure protection, provided a listed fire damper is installed at the floor line or the duct is protected in accordance with Section 713.4. For air transfer openings, see Exception 7 to Section 708.2.

Exception: A duct is permitted to penetrate three floors or less without a fire damper at each floor, provided such duct meets all of the following requirements:

  1. The duct shall be contained and located within the cavity of a wall and shall be constructed of steel having a minimum wall thickness of 0.187 inches (0.4712 mm) (No. 26 gage).
  2. The duct shall open into only one dwelling or sleeping unit and the duct system shall be continu-0us from the unit to the exterior of the building.
  3. The duct shall not exceed 4-inch (102 mm) nominal diameter and the total area of such ducts shall not exceed 100 square inches (0.065 m2) in any 100 square feet (9.3 m2) of floor area.
  4. The annular space around the duct is protected with materials that prevent the passage of flame and hot gases sufficient to ignite cotton waste where subjected to ASTM E 119 or UL 263 time-temperature conditions under a minimum positive pressure differential of 0.01 inch (2.49 Pa) of water at the location of the penetration for the time period equivalent to the fire-resistance rating of the construction penetrated.
  5. Grille openings located in a ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected with a listed ceiling radiation damper installed in accordance with Section 716.6.2.1.

716.6.2 Membrane penetrations. Ducts and air transfer openings constructed of approved materials in accordance with the International Mechanical Code that penetrate the ceiling membrane of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly shall be protected with one of the following:

  1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 708.
  2. A listed ceilingradiation damper installed at the ceiling line where a duct penetrates the ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly.
  3. A listed ceilingradiation damper installed at the ceiling line where a diffuser with no duct attached penetrates the ceiling of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly.

716.6.2.1 Ceiling radiation dampers. Ceilingradiation dampers shall be tested as part of a fire-resistance-rated floor/ceiling or roof/ceiling assembly in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263. Ceilingradiation dampers shall be installed in accordance with the details listed in the fire-resistance-rated assembly and the manufacturer's installation instructions and the listing. Ceilingradiation dampers are not required where either of the following applies:

  1. Tests in accordance with ASTM E 119 or UL 263 have shown that ceiling radiation dampers are not necessary in order to maintain the fire-resistance rating of the assembly.
  2. Where exhaust duct penetrations are protected in accordance with Section 713.4.1.2, are located within the cavity of a wall and do not pass through another dwelling unit or tenant space.

716.6.3 Nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies. Duct systems constructed of approved materials in accordance with the International Mechanical Code that penetrate nonfire-resistance-rated floor assemblies shall be protected by any of the following methods:

  1. A shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 708.
  2. The duct connects not more than two stories, and the annular space around the penetrating duct is protected with an approved noncombustible material that resists the free passage of flame and the products of combustion.
  3. The duct connects not more than three stories, and the annular space around the penetrating duct is protected with an approved noncombustible material that resists the free passage of flame and the products of combustion and a fire damperis installed at each floor line.

Exception: Fire dampers are not required in ducts within individual residential dwelling units.

716.7 Flexible ducts and air connectors. Flexible ducts and air connectors shall not pass through any fire-resistance-rated assembly. Flexible air connectors shall not pass through any wall, floor or ceiling.

SECTION 717
CONCEALED SPACES

717.1 General. Fireblocking and draftstopping shall be installed in combustible concealed locations in accordance with this section. Fireblocking shall comply with Section 717.2. Draftstopping in floor/ceiling spaces and attic spaces shall comply with Sections 717.3 and 717.4, respectively. The permitted use of combustible materials in concealed spaces of buildings of Type I or II construction shall be limited to the applications indicated in Section 717.5.

717.2 Fireblocking. In combustible construction, fireblocking shall be installed to cut off concealed draft openings (both vertical and horizontal) and shall form an effective barrier between floors, between a top story and a roof or attic space. Fireblocking shall be installed in the locations specified in Sections 717.2.2 through 717.2.7.

717.2.1 Fireblocking materials. Fireblocking shall consist of the following materials:

  1. Two-inch (51 mm) nominal lumber. 121
  2. Two thicknesses of I-inch (25 mm) nominal lumber with broken lap joints.
  3. One thickness of 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels with joints backed by 0.719-inch (18.3 mm) wood structural panels.
  4. One thickness of 0.7S-inch (19.1 mm) particleboard with joints backed by 0.7S-inch (19 mm) particleboard.
  5. One-half-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board.
  6. One-fourth-inch (6.4 mm) cement-based millboard.
  7. Batts or blankets of mineral wool, mineral fiber or other approved materials installed in such a manner as to be securely retained in place.

717.2.1.1 Batts or blankets ofmineral wool or mineral fiber. Batts or blankets of mineral wool or mineral fiber or other approved nonrigid materials shall be permitted for compliance with the 10-foot (3048 mm) horizontal fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs.

717.2.1.2 Unfaced fiberglass. Unfaced fiberglass batt insulation used as fireblocking shall fill the entire cross section of the wall cavity to a minimum height of 16 inches (406 mm) measured vertically. When piping, conduit or similar obstructions are encountered, the insulation shall be packed tightly around the obstruction.

717.2.1.3 Loose-fill insulation material. Loose-fill insulation material, insulating foam sealants and caulk materials shall not be used as a fireblock unless specifically tested in the form and manner intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and to retard the spread of fire and hot gases.

717.2.1.4 Fireblocking integrity. The integrity of fireblocks shall be maintained.

717.2.1.5 Double stud walls. Batts or blankets of mineral or glass fiber or other approved nonrigid materials shall be allowed as fireblocking in walls constructed using parallel rows of studs or staggered studs.

717.2.2 Concealed wall spaces. Fireblocking shall be provided in concealed spaces of stud walls and partitions, including furred spaces, and parallel rows of studs or staggered studs, as follows:

  1. Vertically at the ceiling and floor levels.
  2. Horizontally at intervals not exceeding 10 feet (3048 mm).

717.2.3 Connections between horizontal and vertical spaces. Fireblocking shall be provided at interconnections between concealed vertical stud wall or partition spaces and concealed horizontal spaces created by an assembly of floor joists or trusses, and between concealed vertical and horizontal spaces such as occur at soffits, drop ceilings, cove ceilings and similar locations.

717.2.4 Stairways. Fireblocking shall be provided in concealed spaces between stair stringers at the top and bottom of the run. Enclosed spaces under stairs shall also comply with Section 1009.6.3.

717.2.5 Ceiling and floor openings. Where required by Exception 6 of Section 708.2, Exception 1 of Section 713.4.1.2 or Section 713.4.2, fireblocking of the annular space around vents, pipes, ducts, chimneys and fireplaces at ceilings and floor levels shall be installed with a material specifically tested in the form and manner intended for use to demonstrate its ability to remain in place and resist the free passage of flame and the products of combustion.

717.2.5.1 Factory-built chimneys and fireplaces. Factory-built chimneys and fireplaces shall be fireblocked in accordance with UL 103 and UL 127.

717.2.6 Architectural trim. Fireblocking shall be installed within concealed spaces of exterior wall finish and other exterior architectural elements where permitted to be of combustible construction as specified in Section 1406 or where erected with combustible frames, at maximum intervals of 20 feet (6096 mm), so that there will be no open space exceeding 100 square feet (9.3 m3). Where wood fur-ring strips are used, they shall be of approved wood of natural decay resistance or preservative-treated wood. If noncontinuous, such elements shall have closed ends, with at least 4 inches (102 mm) of separation between sections.

Exceptions:

  1. Fireblocking of cornices is not required in single-family dwellings. Fireblocking of cornices of a two-family dwelling is required only at the line of dwelling unit separation.
  2. Fireblocking shall not be required where installed on noncombustible framing and the face of the exterior wall finish exposed to the concealed space is covered by one of the following materials:

    2.1. Aluminum having a minimum thickness of 0.019 inch (0.5 mm).

    2.2. Corrosion-resistant steel having a base metal thickness not less than 0.016 inch (0.4 mm) at any point.

    2.3. Other approved noncombustible materials.

717.2.7 Concealed sleeper spaces. Where wood sleepers are used for laying wood flooring on masonry or concrete fire-resistance-rated floors, the space between the floor slab and the underside of the wood flooring shall be filled with an approved material to resist the free passage of flame and products of combustion or fireblocked in such a manner that there will be no open spaces under the flooring that will exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m2) in area and such space shall be filled solidly under permanent partitions so that there is no communication under the flooring between adjoining rooms.

Exceptions:

  1. Fireblocking is not required for slab-on-grade floors in gymnasiums. 122
  2. Fireblocking is required only at the juncture of each alternate lane and at the ends of each lane in a bowling facility.

717.3 Draftstopping in floors. In combustible construction, draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide floor/ceiling assemblies in the locations prescribed in Sections 717.3.2 through 717.3.3.

717.3.1 Draftstopping materials. Draftstopping materials shall not be less than1/z-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board, 3/s-inch (9.5 mm) wood structural panel, 3/s-inch (9.5 mm) particleboard, I-inch (2S-mm) nominal lumber, cement fiberboard, batts or blankets of mineral wool or glass fiber, or other approved materials adequately supported. The integrity of draftstops shall be maintained.

717.3.2 Groups R-l, R-2, R-3 and R-4. Draftstopping shall be provided in floor/ceiling spaces in Group R-l buildings, in Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling units, in Group R-3 buildings with two dwelling units and in Group R-4 buildings. Draftstopping shall be located above and in line with the dwelling unit and sleeping unit separations.

Exceptions:

  1. Draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, provided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in the combustible concealed spaces.

717.3.3 Other groups. In other groups, draftstopping shall be installed so that horizontal floor areas do not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 mZ).

Exception: Draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

717.4 Draftstopping in attics. In combustible construction, draftstopping shall be installed to subdivide attic spaces and concealed roof spaces in the locations prescribed in Sections 71 7.4.2 and 71 7.4.3. Ventilation of concealed roof spaces shall be maintained in accordance with Section 1203.2.

717.4.1 Draftstopping materials. Materials utilized for draftstopping of attic spaces shall comply with Section 717.3.1.

717.4.1.1 Openings. Openings in the partitions shall be protected by self-closing doors with automatic latches constructed as required for the partitions.

717.4.2 Groups R-l and R-2. Draftstopping shall be provided in attics, mansards, overhangs or other concealed roof spaces of Group R-2 buildings with three or more dwelling units and in all Group R-1 buildings. Draftstopping shall be installed above, and in line with, sleeping unit and dwelling unit separation walls that do not extend to the underside of the roof sheathing above.

Exceptions:

  1. Where corridor walls provide a sleeping unit or dwelling unit separation, draftstopping shall only be required above one of the corridor walls.
  2. Draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
  3. In occupancies in Group R-2 that do not exceed four stories above grade plane, the attic space shall be subdivided by draftstops into areas not exceeding 3,000 square feet (279 mZ) or above every two dwelling units, whichever is smaller.
  4. Draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.2, provided that automatic sprinklers are also installed in the combustible concealed spaces.

717.4.3 Other groups. Draftstopping shall be installed in attics and concealed roof spaces, such that any horizontal area does not exceed 3,000 square feet (279 mZ).

Exception: Draftstopping is not required in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

717.5 Combustible materials in concealed spaces in Type I or II construction. Combustible materials shall not be permitted in concealed spaces of buildings of Type I or II construction.

Exceptions:

  1. Combustible materials in accordance with Section 603.
  2. Combustible materials exposed within plenums complying with Section 602 of the International Mechanical Code.
  3. Class A interior finish materials classified in accordance with Section 803.
  4. Combustible piping within partitions or shaft enclosures installed in accordance with the provisions of this code.
  5. Combustible piping within concealed ceiling spaces installed in accordance with the International Mechanical Code and the International Plumbing Code.
  6. Combustible insulation and covering on pipe and tubing, installed in concealed spaces other than plenums, complying with Section 719.7.
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SECTION 718
FIRE-RESISTANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR PLASTER

718.1 Thickness of plaster. The minimum thickness of gypsum plaster or portland cement plaster used in a fire-resistance-rated system shall be determined by the prescribed fire tests. The plaster thickness shall be measured from the face of the lath where applied to gypsum lath or metal lath.

718.2 Plaster equivalents. For fire-resistance purposes, 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of unsanded gypsum plaster shall be deemed equivalent to 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) of one-to-three gypsum sand plaster or 1 inch (25 mm) of portland cement sand plaster.

718.3 Noncombustible furring. In buildings of Type I and II construction, plaster shall be applied directly on concrete or masonry or on approved noncombustible plastering base and furring.

718.4 Double reinforcement. Plaster protection more than 1 inch (25 mm) in thickness shall be reinforced with an additionallayer of approved lath embedded at least 3/4 inch (19.1mm) from the outer surface and fixed securely in place.

Exception: Solid plaster partitions or where otherwise determined by fire tests.

718.5 Plaster alternatives for concrete. In reinforced concrete construction, gypsum plaster or portland cement plaster is permitted to be substituted for 1/2 inch (12.7 mm) of the required poured concrete protection, except that a minimum thickness of 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) of poured concrete shall be provided in reinforced concrete floors and 1 inch (25 mm) in reinforced concrete columns in addition to the plaster finish. The concrete base shall be prepared in accordance with Section 2510.7.

SECTION 719
THERMAL- AND SOUND-INSULATING MATERIALS

719.1 General. Insulating materials, including facings such as vapor retarders and vapor-permeable membranes, similar coverings and all layers of single and multilayer reflective foil insulations, shall comply with the requirements of this section. Where a flame spread index or a smoke-developed index is specified in this section, such index shall be determined in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723. Any material that is subject to an increase in flame spread index or smoke-developed index beyond the limits herein established through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric conditions shall not be permitted.

Exceptions:

  1. Fiberboard insulation shall comply with Chapter 23.
  2. Foam plastic insulation shall comply with Chapter 26.
  3. Duct and pipe insulation and duct and pipe coverings and linings in plenums shall comply with the International Mechanical Code.
  4. All layers of single and multilayer reflective plastic core insulation shall comply with Section 2613.

719.2 Concealed installation. Insulating materials, where concealed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450.

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray applied, complying with the requirements of Section 719.6, shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of not more than 450.

719.2.1 Facings. Where such materials are installed in concealed spaces in buildings of Type III, IV or V construction, the flame spread and smoke-developed limitations do not apply to facings, coverings, and layers of reflective foil insulation that are installed behind and in substantial contact with the unexposed surface of the ceiling, wall or floor finish.

Exception: All layers of single and multilayer reflective plastic core insulation shall comply with Section 2613.

719.3 Exposed installation. Insulating materials, where exposed as installed in buildings of any type of construction, shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450.

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation that is not spray applied complying with the requirements of Section 719.6 shall only be required to meet the smoke-developed index of not more than 450.

719.3.1 Attic floors. Exposed insulation materials installed on attic floors shall have a critical radiant flux of not less than 0.12 watt per square centimeter when tested in accordance with ASTM E 970.

719.4 Loose-fill insulation. Loose-fill insulation materials that cannot be mounted in the ASTM E 84 or UL 723 apparatus without a screen or artificial supports shall comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed limits of Sections 719.2 and 719.3 when tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2.

Exception: Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall not be required to be tested in accordance with CAN/ULC S102.2, provided such insulation complies with the requirements of Section 719.2 or 719.3, as applicable, and Section 719.6.

719.5 Roofinsulation. The use of combustible roof insulation not complying with Sections 719.2 and 719.3 shall be permitted in any type of construction provided it is covered with approved roof coverings directly applied thereto.

719.6 Cellulose loose-fill insulation. Cellulose loose-fill insulation shall comply with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1209 and CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1404. Each package of such insulating material shall be clearly labeled in accordance with CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1209 and CPSC 16 CFR, Part 1404.

719.7 Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing. Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing shall have a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450.

Exception: Insulation and covering on pipe and tubing installed in plenums shall comply with the International Mechanical Code.

124

SECTION 720
PRESCRIPTIVE FIRE RESISTANCE

720.1 General. The provisions of this section contain prescriptive details of fire-resistance-rated building elements, components or assemblies. The materials of construction listed in Tables 720.1 (1), 720.1 (2), and 720.1 (3) shall be assumed to have the fire-resistance ratings prescribed therein. Where materials that change the capacity for heat dissipation are incorporated into a fire-resistance-rated assembly, fire test results or other substantiating data shall be made available to the bUilding official to show that the required fire-resistance-rating time period is not reduced.

720.1.1 Thickness of protective coverings. The thickness of fire-resistant materials required for protection of structural members shall be not less than set forth in Table 720.1 (1), except as modified in this section. The figures shown shall be the net thickness of the protecting materials and shall not include any hollow space in back of the protection.

720.1.2 Unit masonry protection. Where required, metal ties shall be embedded in bedjoints of unit masonry for protection of steel columns. Such ties shall be as set forth in Table 720.1 (1) or be equivalent thereto.

720.1.3 Reinforcement for cast-in-place concrete column protection. Cast-in-place concrete protection for steel columns shall be reinforced at the edges of such members with wire ties of not less than 0.18 inch (4.6 mm) in diameter wound spirally around the columns on a pitch of not more than 8 inches (203 mm) or by equivalent reinforcement.

720.1.4 Plaster application. The finish coat is not required for plaster protective coatings where they comply with the design mix and thickness requirements of Tables 720.1 (1), 720.1 (2) and 720.1 (3).

720.1.5 Bonded prestressed concrete tendons. For members having a single tendon or more than one tendon installed with equal concrete cover measured from the nearest surface, the cover shall not be less than that set forth in Table 720.1 (1). For members having multiple tendons installed with variable concrete cover, the average tendon cover shall not be less than that set forth in Table 720.1 (1), provided:

  1. The clearance from each tendon to the nearest exposed surface is used to determine the average cover.
  2. In no case can the clear cover for individual tendons be less than one-half of that set forth in Table 720.1(1). A minimum cover of 3/4 inch (19.1 mm) for slabs and 1 inch (25 mm) for beams is required for any aggregate concrete.
  3. For the purpose of establishing a fire-resistance rating, tendons having a clear covering less than that set forth in Table 720.1(1) shall not contribute more than 50 percent of the required ultimate moment capacity for members less than 350 square inches (0.226 m2) in cross-sectional area and 65 percent for larger members. For structural design purposes, however, tendons having a reduced cover are assumed to be fully effective.

SECTION 721
CALCULATED FIRE RESISTANCE

721.1 General. The provisions of this section contain procedures by which the fire resistance of specific materials or combinations of materials is established by calculations. These procedures apply only to the information contained in this section and shall not be otherwise used. The calculated fire resistance of concrete, concrete masonry and clay masonry assemblies shall be permitted in accordance with ACI 216.1/TMS 0216. The calculated fire resistance of steel assemblies shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 5 of ASCE 29. The calculated fire resistance of exposed wood members and wood decking shall be permitted in accordance with Chapter 16 of ANSI/AF&PA National Design Specification for Wood Construction (NDS).

721.1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. A mineral wool insulation material made of alumina-silica fibers and weighing 4 to 10 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (64 to 160 kg/m3).

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. Concrete made with aggregates consisting mainly of calcium or magnesium carbonate, such as limestone or dolomite, and containing 40 percent or less quartz, chert or flint.

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. A lightweight insulating concrete made by mixing a preformed foam with portland cement slurry and having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3).

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. Concrete made with aggregates of expanded clay, shale, slag or slate or sintered fly ash or any natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and weighing 85 to 115 pcf (1360 to 1840 kg/m3).

CONCRETE, PERLITE. A lightweight insulating concrete having a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3) made with perlite concrete aggregate. Perlite aggregate is produced from a volcanic rock which, when heated, expands to form a glass-like material of cellular structure.

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. Concrete made with a combination of expanded clay, shale, slag, slate, sintered fly ash, or any natural lightweight aggregate meeting ASTM C 330 and possessing equivalent fire-resistance properties and natural sand. Its unit weight is generally between 105 and 120 pcf (1680 and 1920 kg/m3).

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. Concrete made with normal-weight aggregates consisting mainly of silica or compounds other than calcium or magnesium carbonate, which contains more than 40-percent quartz, chert or flint.

(Section 721.1.1, Definitions, continued on page 146)

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TABLE 720.1(1)
MINIMUM PROTECTION OF STRUCTURAL PARTS BASED ON TIME PERIODS FOR VARIOUS NONCOMBUSTIBLE INSULATING MATERIALSm
STRUCTURAL PARTS TO BE PROTECTED ITEM NUMBER INSULATING MATERIAL USED MINIMUM THICKNESS OF INSULATING MATERIAL FOR THE FOLLOWING FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS (inches)
4
hour
3
hour
2
hour
1
hour
1. Steel columns and all of primary trusses 1-1.1 Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 6" × 6" or greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel).a 2 1
1-1.2 Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 8" × 8" or greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel).a 2 1 1
1-1.3 Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 12" × 12" or greater (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel).a 1 1 1
1-1.4 Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 6" × 6" or greater.a 3 2 1
1-1.5 Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 8" × 8" or greater.a 2 1 1
1-1.6 Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 1-1.1, members 12" × 12" or greater.a 2 1 1 1
1-2.1 Clay or shale brick with brick and mortar fill.a - -
1-3.1 4" hollow clay tile in two 2" layers; ½" mortar between tile and column; ⅜" metal mesh 0.046" wire diameter in horizontaljoints; tile fill. a 4 - - -
1-3.2 2" hollow clay tile; ¾" mortar between tile and column; ⅜" metal mesh 0.046" wire diameter in horizontal joints; limestone concrete fill; a plastered with ¾" gypsum plaster. 3 - - -
1-3.3 2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile or ⅜" metal mesh 0.046" diameter wire in horizontal joints; limestone or trap-rock concrete filla extending 1" outside column on all sides. - - 3 -
1-3.4 2" hollow clay tile with outside wire ties 0.08" diameter at each course of tile with or without concrete fill; ¾" mortar between tile and column. - - - 2
1-4.1 Cement plaster over metal lath wire tied to ¾" cold-rolled vertical channels with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2½ by volume, cement to sand. - - 2½b
1-5.1 Vermiculite concrete, 1:4 mix by volume over paperbacked wire fabric lath wrapped directly around column with additional 2" × 2" 0.065"/0.065" (No. 16/16 B.W. gage) wire fabric placed ¾" from outer concrete surface. Wire fabric tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire spaced 6" on center for inner layer and 2" on center for outer layer. 2 - - -
1-6.1 Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over metal lath wrapped around column and furred 1¼" from column flanges. Sheets lapped at ends and tied at 6" intervals with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) tie wire. Plaster pushed through to flanges. 1 - -
1-6.2 Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over self-furring metal lath wrapped directly around column, lapped 1" and tied at 6" intervals with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire. 1⅜ 1 -
1-6.3 Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath applied to ¾" cold-rolled channels spaced 24" apart vertically and wrapped flatwise around column. - - -
1-6.4 Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster over two layers of ½" plain full-length gypsum lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath wrapped with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 20 gage wire and tied with doubled 0.035" diameter (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 23" on center. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2½ cubic feet of aggregate for the 3-hour system. 2 - -
1-6.5 Perlite or vermiculate gypsum plaster over one layer of ½" plain full-length gypsum lath applied tight to column flanges. Lath tied with doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 23" on center and scratch coat wrapped with 1" hexagonal mesh 0.035" (No. 20 B.W. gage) wire fabric. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2½ cubic feet of aggregate. - 2 - - 126
1-7.1 Multiple layers of ½" gypsum wallboardc adhesivelyd secured to column flanges and successive layers. Wallboard applied without horizontal joints. Corner edges of each layer staggered. Wallboard layer below outer layer secured to column with doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel wire ties spaced 15" on center. Exposed corners taped and treated. - - 2 1
1-7.2 Three layers of 5/S" Type X gypsum wallboard.c First and second layer held in place by l/S" diameter by 1 3/s" long ring shank nails with 5/16" diameter heads spaced 24" on center at corners. Middle layer also secured with metal straps at mid-height and 18" from each end, and by metal corner bead at each corner held by the metal straps. Third layer attached to corner bead with 1" long gypsum wallboard screws spaced 12" on center. - - 17/S -
1-7.3 Three layers of 5/S" Type X gypsum wallboard,c each layer screw attached to 15/S" steel studs 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) at each corner of column. Middle layer also secured with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) double-strand steel wire ties, 24" on center. Screws are No.6 by 1" spaced 24" on center for inner layer, No. 6 by 15/S" spaced 12" on center for middle layer and No. 8 by 2¼" spaced 12" on center for outer layer. - 1 7/S - -
1-8.1 Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight gypsum-to-sand aggregate applied over metal lath. Lath lapped 1" and tied 6" on center at all end, edges and spacers with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Lath applied over ½" spacers made of ¾" furring channel with 2" legs bent around each corner. Spacers located 1" from top and bottom of member and a maximum of 40" on center and wire tied with a single strand of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) steel tie wires. Corner bead tied to the lath at 6" on center along each corner to provide plaster thickness. - - 1 5/S -
1-9.1 Minimum W8x35 wide flange steel column (w/d ≥ 0.75) with each web cavity filled even with the flange tip with normal weight carbonate or siliceous aggregate concrete (3,000 psi minimum compressive strength with 145 pcf ± 3 pcf unit weight). Reinforce the concrete in each web cavity with a minimum No.4 deformed reinforcing bar installed vertically and centered in the cavity, and secured to the column web with a minimum No. 2 horizontal deformed reinforcing bar welded to the web every 18" on center vertically. As an alternative to the No.4 rebar, ¾" diameter by 3" long headed studs, spaced at 12" on center vertically, shall be welded on each side of the web midway between the column flanges. - - - See Note n
2. Webs or flanges of steel beams and girders 2-1.1 Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete (not including sandstone, granite and siliceous gravel) with 3" or finer metal mesh placed 1" from the finished surface anchored to the top flange and providing not less than 0.025 square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 2 1 1
2-1.2 Siliceous aggregate concrete and concrete excluded in Item 2-1.1 with 3" or finer metal mesh placed 1" from the finished surface anchored to the top flange and providing not less than 0.025 square inch of steel area per foot in each direction. 2 1
2-2.1 Cement plaster on metal lath attached to ¾" cold-rolled channels with 0.04" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 3" to 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2½ by volume, cement to sand. - - 2½b 7/S 127
2-3.1 Vermiculite gypsum plaster on a metal lath cage, wire tied to 0.165" diameter (No.8 B.W. gage) steel wire hangers wrapped around beam and spaced 16" on center. Metal lath ties spaced approximately 5" on center at cage sides and bottom. - - -
2-4.1 Two layers of ⅝" Type X gypsum wallboardc are attached to U-shaped brackets spaced 24" on center. 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) 1⅝" deep by 1" galvanized steel runner channels are first installed parallel to and on each side of the top beam flange to provide a ½" clearance to the flange. The channel runners are attached to steel deck or concrete floor construction with approved fasteners spaced 12" on center. U-shaped brackets are formed from members identical to the channel runners. At the bent portion of the U-shaped bracket, the flanges of the channel are cut out so that 1⅝" deep corner channels can be inserted without attachment parallel to each side of the lower flange.
As an alternate, 0.021" thick (No. 24 carbon sheet steel gage) l"x 2" runner and corner angles may be used in lieu of channels, and the web cutouts in the U-shaped brackets may be omitted. Each angle is attached to the bracket with ½"-long No.8 self-drilling screws. The vertical legs of the U-shaped bracket are attached to the runners with one ½" long No. 8 self-drilling screw. The completed steel framing provides a 2⅛" and 1½" space between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides and bottom of the steel beam, respectively. The inner layer of wallboard is attached to the top runners and bottom corner channels or corner angles with 1¼"-long No. 6 self-drilling screws spaced 16" on center. The outer layer of wallboard is applied with 1¾"-long No.6 self-drilling screws spaced 8" on center. The bottom corners are reinforced with metal corner beads.
- - -
2-4.2 Three layers of ⅝" Type X gypsum wallboardc attached to a steel suspension system as described immediately above utilizing the 0.018" thick (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) 1" × 2" lower corner angles. The framing is located so that a 2⅛" and 2" space is provided between the inner layer of wallboard and the sides and bottom of the beam, respectively. The first two layers of wallboard are attached as described immediately above. A layer of 0.035" thick (No. 20 B.W. gage) 1" hexagonal galvanized wire mesh is applied under the soffit of the middle layer and up the sides approximately 2". The mesh is held in position with the No.6 1⅝"-long screws installed in the vertical leg of the bottom corner angles. The outer layer of wallboard is attached with No.6 2¼"-long screws spaced 8" on center. One screw is also installed at the mid-depth of the bracket in each layer. Bottom corners are finished as described above. - 1⅞ - -
3. Bonded pretensioned reinforcement in prestressed concretee 3-1.1 Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceousf aggregate concrete
Beams or girders
Solid slabsh
4g 3g

2




1
4. Bonded or unbonded post-tensioned tendons in prestressed concretee,i 4-1.1 Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceousf aggregate concrete
Unrestrained members:
Solid slabsh
Beams and girderj
8" wide
greater than 12" wide


-
3


2


2 1/?





2


-


1 1/?
4-1.2 Carbonate, lightweight, sand-lightweight and siliceous aggregate
Restrained members:k
Solid slabsh
Beams and girdersj
8" wide
greater than 12" wide





2


1

2


¾


1 1/?


-

-
- 128
5. Reinforcing steel in reinforced concrete columns, beams girders and trusses 5-1.1 Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete, members 12" or larger, square or round. (Size limit does not apply to beams and girders monolithic with floors.)
Siliceous aggregate concrete, members 12" or larger, square or round. (Size limit does not apply to beams and girders monolithic with floors.)




2












6. Reinforcing steel in reinforced concrete joists1 6-1.1
6-1.2
Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete.
Siliceous aggregate concrete.


1
1
¾
¾
7. Reinforcing and tie rods in floor and roof slabs1 7-1.1
7-1.2
Carbonate, lightweight and sand-lightweight aggregate concrete.
Siliceous aggregate concrete.
1
1
1
¾
1
¾
¾
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mmz, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m3, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kg/m3
a. Reentrant parts of protected members to be filled solidly.
b. Two layers of equal thickness with a ¾-inch airspace between.
c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in Table 720.1(1), gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permitted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard and thejoints on the face layer are reinforced, and the entire surface is covered with a minimum of 1/16-inch gypsum veneer plaster.

d. An approved adhesive qualified under ASTM E 119 or UL 263.
e. Where lightweight or sand-lightweight concrete having an oven-dry weight of 110 pounds per cubic foot or less is used, the tabulated minimum cover shall be permitted to be reduced 25 percent, except that in no case shall the cover be less than ¾ inch in slabs or l 1/z inches in beams or girders.
f. For solid slabs of siliceous aggregate concrete, increase tendon cover 20 percent.
g. Adequate provisions against spalling shall be provided by U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth ofthe member with a clear cover of 1 inch.
h. Prestressed slabs shall have a thickness not less than that required in Table 720.1 (3) for the respective fire-resistance time period.
i. Fire coverage and end anchorages shall be as follows: Cover to the prestressing steel at the anchor shall be liz inch greater than that required away from the anchor. Minimum cover to steel-bearing plate shall be 1 inch in beams and ¾ inch in slabs.
j. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, cover thickness shall be permitted to be determined by interpolation.
k. Interior spans of continuous slabs, beams and girders shall be permitted to be considered restrained.
1. For use with concrete slabs having a comparable fire endurance where members are framed into the structure in such a manner as to provide equivalent performance to that of monolithic concrete construction.
m. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed.
n. No additional insulating material is required on the exposed outside face of the column flange to achieve a I-hour fire-resistance rating.
129
TABLE 720.1 (2)
RATED FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS FOR VARIOUS WALLS AND PARTITIONS a,a,p
MATERIAL ITEM NUMBER CONSTRUCTION MINIMUM FINISHED THICKNESS FACE-TO-FACEb (inches)
4
hour
3
hour
2
hour
1
hour
1. Brick of clay or shale 1-1.1 Solid brick of clay or shalec. 6 4.9 3.8 2.7
1-1.2 Hollow brick, not filled. 5.0 4.3 3.4 2.3
1-1.3 Hollow brick unit wall, grout or filled with perlite vermiculite or expanded shale aggregate. 6.6 5.5 4.4 3.0
1-2.1 4" thick formed from 0.021" sheet metal attached to the brick wall on 24" centers with approved fasteners , and ½" Type X gypsum wallboard attached to the metal furring strips with 1"-long Type S screws spaced 8" on center. - - 5d -
2. Combination of clay brick and load-bearing hollow clay tile 2-1.1 4" solid brick and 4" tile (at least 40 percent solid). - 8 - -
2-1.2 4" solid brick and 8" tile (at least 40 percent solid). 12 - - -
3. Concrete masonry units 3-1.1f, g Expanded slag or pumice. 4.7 4.0 3.2 2.1
3-1.2f, g Expanded clay, shale or slate. 5.1 4.4 3.6 2.6
3-1.3f Limestone, cinders or air-cooled slag. 5.9 5.0 4.0 2.7
3-1.4f, g Calcareous or siliceous gravel. 6.2 5.3 4.2 2.8
4. Solid concreteh, i 4-1.1 Siliceous aggregate concrete. 7.0 6.2 5.0 3.5
Carbonate aggregate concrete. 6.6 5.7 4.6 3.2
Sand-lightweight concrete. 5.4 4.6 3.8 2.7
Lightweight concrete. 5.1 4.4 3.6 2.5
5. Glazed or unglazed facing tile, nonloadbearing 5-1.1 One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 25 percent maximum with ¾" mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions reversed in alternate courses. - 6⅜ - -
5-1.2 One 2" unit cored 15 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 40 percent maximum with 3/ 4" mortar-filled collar joint. Unit positions side with 3/ 4" gypsum plaster. Two wythes tied together every fourth course with No. 22 gage corrugated metal ties. - - -
5-1.3 One unit with three cells in wall thickness, cored 29 percent maximum. - - 6 -
5-1.4 One 2" unit cored 22 percent maximum and one 4" unit cored 41 percent maximum with ¼" mortar-filled collar joint. Two wythes tied together every third course with 0.030" (No. 22 galvanized sheet steel gage) corrugated metal ties. - - 6 -
5-1.5 One 4" unit cored 25 percent maximum with ¾" gypsum plaster on one side. - - -
5-1.6 One 4" unit with two cells in wall thickness, cored 22 percent maximum. - - - 4
5-1.7 One 4" unit cored 30 percent maximum with ¾" vermiculite gypsum plaster on one side. - - -
5-1.8 One 4" unit cored 39 percent maximum with ¾" gypsum plaster on one side. - - - 130
6. Solid gypsum plaster 6-1.1 ¾" by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" on center with 2.6-pound flat metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. Gage) wire at 6" spacing. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. - - - 2d
6-1.2 ¾" by 0.05" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels 16" on center with metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire at 6" spacing. Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster each side. For three-coat work, the plaster mix for the second coat shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2112 cubic feet of aggregate for the I-hour system. - - 21/2d 2d
6-1.3 ¾" by 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) vertical cold-rolled channels, 16" on center with ⅜" gypsum lath applied to one face and attached with sheet metal clips. Gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. - - - 2d
6-2.1 Studless with ½" full-length plain gypsum lath and gypsum plaster each side. Plaster mixed 1: 1 for scratch coat and 1: 2 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. - - - 2d
6-2.2 Studless with ½" full-length plain gypsum lath and perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster each side. - - 21/2d 2d
6-2.3 Studless partition with ⅜" rib metal lath installed vertically adjacent edges tied 6" on center with No. 18 gage wire ties, gypsum plaster each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. - - - 2d
7. Solid perlite and portland cement 7-1.1 Perlite mixed in the ratio of 3 cubic feet to 100 pounds of portland cement and machine applied to stud side of 1½" mesh by 0.OS8-inch (No. 17 B.W. gage) paper-backed woven wire fabric lath wire-tied to 4"-deep steel trussed wirej studs 16" on center. Wire ties of 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) galvanized steel wire 6" on center vertically. - - 3⅛d -
8. Solid neat wood fibered gypsum plaster 8-1.1 ¾" by O.OSS-inch (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) cold-rolled channels, 12" on center with 2.S-pound flat metal lath applied to one face and tied with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire at 6" spacing. Neat gypsum plaster applied each side. - - 2d -
9. Solid wallboard partition 9-1.1 One full-length layer ½" Type X gypsum wallboarde laminated to each side of 1" full-length V-edge gypsum coreboard with approved laminating compound. Vertical joints of face layer and coreboard staggered at least 3". - - 2d -
10. Hollow (studless) gypsum wallboard partition 10-1.1 One full-length layer of ⅝" Type X gypsum wallboarde attached to both sides of wood or metal top and bottom runners laminated to each side of 1" × 6" full-length gypsum coreboard ribs spaced 2" on center with approved laminating compound. Ribs centered at vertical joints of face plies and joints staggered 24" in opposing faces. Ribs may be recessed 6" from the top and bottom. - - - 2¼d
10-1.2 1" regular gypsum V-edge full-length backing board attached to both sides of wood or metal top and bottom runners with nails or 1⅝" drywall screws at 24" on center. Minimum width of rumors 1⅝". Face layer of 112" regular full-length gypsum wallboard laminated to outer faces of backing board with approved laminating compound. - - 4⅝d - 131
11. Noncombustible studs-interior partition with plaster each side 11-1.1 3¼" × 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 24" on center. ⅝" gypsum plaster on metal lath each side mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. - - - 43/4d
11-1.2 3⅜" × 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailablek studs spaced 24" on center. ⅝" neat gypsum wood-fibered plaster each side over ⅜" rib metal lath nailed to studs with 6d common nails, 8" on center. Nails driven 1¼" and bent over. - - 5⅝ -
11-1.3 4" × 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped steel studs at 16" on center. On each side approved resilient clips pressed onto stud flange at 16" vertical spacing, ¼" pencil rods snapped into or wire tied onto outer loop of clips, metal lath wire-tied to pencil rods at 6" intervals, 1" perlite gypsum plaster, each side. - 7⅝d - -
11-1.4 21//' × 0.044" (No. 18 carbon sheet steel gage) steel studs spaced 16" on center. Wood fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1: 1 by weight gypsum to sand aggregate applied on 3/r Pound metal lath wire tied to studs, each side. ¾" plaster applied over each face, including finish coat. - - 4¼d -
12. Wood studs interior partition with plaster each side 12-1.11, m 2" × 4" wood studs 16" on center with ⅝" gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath attached by 4d common nails bent over or No. 14 gage by 1¼" by 314" crown width staples spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:1½ for scratch coat and 1:3 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. - - - 5
12-1.21 2" × 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and ⅞" neat wood-fibered gypsum plaster each side. Lath attached by 6d common nails, 7" on center. Nails driven 1¼" and bent over. - - 5½d -
12-1.3 1 2" × 4" wood studs 16" on center with ⅜" perforated or plain gypsum lath and ½" gypsum plaster each side. Lath nailed with 1⅛" by No. 13 gage by 19/64" head plasterboard blued nails, 4" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. - - - 5 ¼
12-1.41 8" Type X gypsum lath and ½" gypsum plaster each side. Lath nailed with 1⅛" by No. 13 gage by 19/64" head plasterboard blued nails,S" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum to sand aggregate. - - -
13.Noncombustible studs-interior partition with gypsum wallboard each side 13-1.1 0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped studs 24" on center with one full-length layer of ⅝" Type X gypsum wallboarde applied vertically attached with 1" long No. 6 drywall screws to each stud. Screws are 8" on center around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. The wallboard may be applied horizontally when attached to 3⅝" studs and the horizontal joints are staggered with those on the opposite side. Screws for the horizontal application shall be 8" on center at vertical edges and 12" on center at intermediate studs. - - - 2⅞d
13-1.2 0.018" (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) channel-shaped studs 25" on center with two full-length layers of ½" Type X gypsum wallboarde applied vertically each side. First layer attached with 1"-long, No.6 drywall screws, 8" on center around the perimeter and 12" on center on the intermediate stud. Second layer applied with vertical joints offset one stud space from first layer using 1⅝" long, No.6 drywall screws spaced 9" on center along vertical joints, 12" on center at intermediate studs and 24" on center along top and bottom runners. - - 3⅝d -
13-1.3 0.055" (No. 16 carbon sheet steel gage) approved nailable metal studse 24" on center with full-length ⅝" Type X gypsum wallboarde applied vertically and nailed 7" on center with 6d cement-coated common nails. Approved metal fastener grips used with nails at vertical butt joints along studs. - - - 4⅞ 132
14.Wood studs-interior partition with gypsum wallboard each side 14-1.1h, m 2" × 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers of 3/s" regular gypsum wallboarde each side, 4d coolern or wallboardn nails at 8" on center first layer, 5d coolern or wallboardn nails at 8" on center second layer with laminating compound between layers, joints staggered. First layer applied full length vertically, second layer applied horizontally or vertically. - - - 5
14-1.21,m 2" × 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers ½" regular gypsum wallboarde applied vertically or horizontally each sidek, joints staggered. Nail base layer with 5d coolern or wallboardn nails at 8" on center face layer with 8d coolern or wallboardn nails at 8" on center. - - -
14-1.31, m 2" × 4" wood studs 24" on center with sis" Type X gypsum wallboarde applied vertically or horizontally nailed with 6d coolern or wallboardn nails at 7" on center with end joints on nailing members. Stagger joints each side. - - -
14-1.41 2" × 4" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of sis" Type X gypsum wallboarde applied with face paper grain (long dimension) parallel to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d coolern or wallboardn nails at 7" on center. - - - 4¾d
14-1.51, m 2" × 4" wood studs 16" on center with two layers Sis" Type X gypsum wallboarde each side. Base layers applied vertically and nailed with 6d coolern or wallboardn nails at 9" on center. Face layer applied vertically or horizontally and nailed with 8d coolern or wallboardn nails at 7" on center. For nail-adhesive application, base layers are nailed 6" on center. Face layers applied with coating of approved wallboard adhesive and nailed 12" on center. - - 6 -
14-1.61 2" × 3" fire-retardant-treated wood studs spaced 24" on center with one layer of Sis" Type X gypsum wallboarde applied with face paper grain (long dimension) at right angles to studs. Wallboard attached with 6d cement-coated box nails spaced 7" on center. - - - 3 5/sd
15. Exterior or interior walls 15-1.11, m Exterior surface with 314" drop siding over ½" gypsum sheathing on 2" × 4" wood studs at 16" on center, interior surface treatment as required for I-hour-rated exterior or interior 2" × 4" wood stud partitions. Gypsum sheathing nailed with 1¾" by No. 11 gage by 7116" head galvanized nails at 8" on center. Siding nailed with 7d galvanized smooth box nails. - - - Varies
15-1.21,m 2" × 4" wood studs 16" on center with metal lath and ¾" cement plaster on each side. Lath attached with 6d common nails 7" on center driven to 1" minimum penetration and bent over. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown coat, by volume, cement to sand. - - - 5 3/S
15-1.31,m 2" × 4" wood studs 16" on center with 71 s" cement plaster (measured from the face of studs) on the exterior surface with interior surface treatment as required for interior wood stud partitions in this table. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown coat, by volume, cement to sand. - - - Varies
15-1.4 35Is" No. 16 gage noncombustible studs 16" on center with 71 s" cement plaster (measured from the face of the studs) on the exterior surface with interior surface treatment as required for interior, nonbearing, noncombustible stud partitions in this table. Plaster mix 1:4 for scratch coat and 1:5 for brown coat, by volume, cement to sand. - - - Variesd 133
15-1.5m 2¼" × 3¾" clay face brick with cored holes over 112" gypsum sheathing on exterior surface of 2" × 4" wood studs at 16" on center and two layers ⅝" Type X gypsum wallboarde on interior surface. Sheathing placed horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs nailed 6" on center with 1¾" × No. 11 gage by 7/16" head galvanized nails. Inner layer of wallboard placed horizontally or vertically and nailed 8" on center with 6d coolern or wallboardn nails. Outer layer of wallboard placed horizontally or vertically and nailed 8" on center with 8d coolern or wallboardn nails. All joints staggered with vertical joints over studs. Outer layer joints taped and finished with compound. Nail heads covered with joint compound. 0.035 inch (No. 20 galvanized sheet gage) corrugated galvanized steel wall ties ¾" by 6⅝" attached to each stud with two 8d coolern or wallboardn nails every sixth course of bricks. - - 10 -
15-1.61,m 2" × 6" fire-retardant-treated wood studs 16" on center. Interior face has two layers of ⅝" Type X gypsum with the base layer placed vertically and attached with 6d box nails 12" on center. The face layer is placed horizontally and attached with 8d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. The exterior face has a base layer of ⅝" Type X gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed by self-furred exterior lath attached with 2½", No. 12 gage galvanized roofing nails with a 318" diameter head and spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster consisting of a ½" brown coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by weight, cement to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:4 by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of hydrated lime and approved additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. - - -
15-1.71, m 2" × 6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of ⅝" Type X gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed by 1" by No. 18 gage self-furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2½" long galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster consisting of all2" scratch coat, a bonding agent and all2" brown coat and a finish coat is then applied. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:3 by weight, cement to sand with 10 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or admixtures per sack of cement. The brown coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:4 by weight, cement to sand with the same amounts of hydrated lime and approved additives or admixtures used in the scratch coat. The interior is covered with ⅜" gypsum lath with 1" hexagonal mesh of 0.035 inch (No. 20 B.W. gage) woven wire lath furred out 5/16" and 1" perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with 1⅛" by No. 13 gage by 19/64" head plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh attached by 1¾" by No. 12 gage by ⅜" head nails with ⅜" furrings, spaced 8" on center. The plaster mix shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 21/') cubic feet of aggregate. - - 8⅜ -
15-1.81,m 2" × 6" wood studs 16" on center. The exterior face has a layer of ⅝" Type X gypsum sheathing placed vertically with 6d box nails 8" on center at joints and 12" on center elsewhere. An approved building paper is next applied, followed by 1½" by No. 17 gage self-furred exterior lath attached with 8d by 2½" long galvanized roofing nails spaced 6" on center along each stud. Cement plaster consisting of all2" scratch coat, and all2" brown coat is then applied. The plaster may be placed by machine. The scratch coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:4 by weight, plastic cement to sand. The brown coat is mixed in the proportion of 1:5 by weight, plastic cement to sand. The interior is covered with ⅜" gypsum lath with 1" hexagonal mesh of No. 20 gage woven wire lath furred out 5/16" and 1" perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster. Lath nailed with 1⅛" by No. 13 gage by 19/64" head plasterboard glued nails spaced 5" on center. Mesh attached by 1¾" by No. 12 gage by 318" head nails with ⅜" furrings , spaced 8" on center. The plaster mix shall not exceed 100 pounds of gypsum to 2112 cubic feet of aggregate. - - 8⅜ - 134
15-1.9 4" No. 18 gage, nonload-bearing metal studs, 16" on center, with I" portland cement lime plaster [measured from the back side of the ¾- pound expanded metal lath] on the exterior surface. Interior surface to be covered with 1" of gypsum plaster on ¾- pound expanded metal lath proportioned by weight-1 :2 for scratch coat, 1:3 for brown, gypsum to sand. Lath on one side of the partition fastened to 114" diameter pencil rods supported by No. 20 gage metal clips, located 16" on center vertically, on each stud. 3" thick mineral fiber insulating batts friction fitted between the studs. - - 6 1/zd -
15-1.10 Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, with liz" Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is attached with flex anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two 1/z"-long flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with Sis" thick GFRC bonding pads that extend 211 z" beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. Interior surface to have two layers of liz" Type X gypsum wallboard.e The first layer of wallboard to be attached with 1"-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 24" on center and the second layer is attached with 15/s"-long Type S screws spaced at 12" on center. Cavity is to be filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. GFRC has l 1/z" returns packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. - - 6 1/z -
15-1.11 Steel studs 0.060" thick, 4" deep or 6" at 16" or 24" centers, respectively, with liz" Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete (GFRC) on the exterior surface. GFRC is attached with flex anchors at 24" on center, with 5" leg welded to studs with two 1/z"-long flare-bevel welds, and 4" foot attached to the GFRC skin with 5/s"-thick GFRC bonding pads that extend 21/z" beyond the flex anchor foot on both sides. Interior surface to have one layer of Sis" Type X gypsum wallboarde, attached with 1¼"-long Type S buglehead screws spaced 12" on center. Cavity is to be filled with 5" of 4 pcf (nominal) mineral fiber batts. GFRC has l 1/z" returns packed with mineral fiber and caulked on the exterior. - - - 6 1/s
15-1.12q 2" × 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and exterior sides covered with Sis" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 21/4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. Cavity to be filled with 51/z" mineral wool insulation. - - -
15-1.13Q 2" × 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and exterior sides covered with Sis" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied vertically with all joints over framing or blocking and fastened with 21/4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. R-19 mineral fiber insulation installed in stud cavity. - - -
15-1.14Q 2" × 6" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and exterior sides covered with Sis" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 21/4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 7" on center. - - -
15-1.15Q 2" × 4" wood studs at 16" with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and exterior sides covered with Sis" Type X gypsum wallboard and sheathing, respectively, 4' wide, applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs, and fastened with 21/4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center. Cavity to be filled with 31/z" mineral wool insulation. - - -
15-1.16Q 2" × 6" wood studs at 24" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior and exterior side covered with two layers of sis" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied horizontally with vertical joints over studs. Base layer fastened with 21/4" Type S drywall screws, spaced 24" on center and face layer fastened with Type S drywall screws, spaced 8" on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads covered with joint compound. Cavity to be filled with 51/z" mineral wool insulation. - - - 135
15-2.1d 3 5/S" No. 16 gage steel studs at 24" on center or 2" × 4" wood studs at 24" on center. Metal lath attached to the exterior side of studs with minimum 1" long No.6 drywall screws at 6" on center and covered with minimum ¾" thick portland cement plaster. Thin veneer brick units of clay or shale complying with ASTM C 1088, Grade TBS or better, installed in running bond in accordance with Section 1405.10. Combined total thickness of the portland cement plaster, mortar and thin veneer brick units shall be not less than 1¾". Interior side covered with one layer of 5/S" thick Type X gypsum wallboard attached to studs with I" long No.6 drywall screws at 12" on center.       6
15-2.2d 3 5/S" No. 16 gage steel studs at 24" on center or 2" × 4" wood studs at 24" on center. Metal lath attached to the exterior side of studs with minimum 1" long No.6 drywall screws at 6" on center and covered with minimum ¾" thick portland cement plaster. Thin veneer brick units of clay or shale complying with ASTM C 1088, Grade TBS or better, installed in running bond in accordance with Section 1405.10. Combined total thickness of the portland cement plaster, mortar and thin veneer brick units shall be not less than 2". Interior side covered with two layers of 5/S" thick Type X gypsum wallboard. Bottom layer attached to studs with I" long No. 6 drywall screws at 24" on center. Top layer attached to studs with 1 5/S" long No. 6 drywall screws at 12" on center.     6 7/S  
15-2.3d 3 5/S" No. 16 gage steel studs at 16" on center or 2" × 4" wood studs at 16" on center. Where metal lath is used, attach to the exterior side of studs with minimum I" long No.6 drywall screws at 6" on center. Brick units of clay or shale not less than 2 5/S" thick complying with ASTM C 216 installed in accordance with Section 1405.6 with a minimum I" air space. Interior side covered with one layer of 5/S" thick Type X gypsum wallboard attached to studs with I" long No.6 drywall screws at 12" on center.       7 7/S
15-2.4d 3 5/S" No. 16 gage steel studs at 16" on center or 2" × 4" wood studs at 16" on center. Where metal lath is used, attach to the exterior side of studs with minimum I" long No.6 drywall screws at 6" on center. Brick units of clay or shale not less than 2 5/s" thick complying with ASTM C 216 installed in accordance with Section 1405.6 with a minimum I" air space. Interior side covered with two layers of 5/s" thick Type X gypsum wallboard. Bottom layer attached to studs with I" long No. 6 drywall screws at 24" on center. Top layer attached to studs with 1 5/S" long No.6 drywall screws at 12" on center.      
16. Exterior walls rated for fire resistance from the inside only in accordance with Section 705.5. 16-1.1q 2" × 4" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior side covered with 5/S" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied horizontally unblocked, and fastened with 2¼" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads covered with joint compound. Exterior covered with 3/s" wood structural panels, applied vertically, horizontal joints blocked and fastened with 6d common nails (bright) - 12" on center in the field, and 6" on center panel edges. Cavity to be filled with 3½" mineral wool insulation. Rating established for exposure from interior side only. - - - 136
16-1.2 Q 2" × 6" (51mm × 152 mm) wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plate; interior side covered with ⅝" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied horizontally or vertically with vertical joints over studs and fastened with 2¼" Type S drywall screws, spaced 12" on center, wallboard joints covered with paper tape and joint compound, fastener heads covered with joint compound, exterior side covered with 7/16" wood structural panels fastened with 6d common nails (bright) spaced 12" on center in the field and 6" on center along the panel edges. Cavity to be filled with 5½" mineral wool insulation. Rating established from the gypsum-covered side only. - - - 6 9/16
16-1.3 2" × 6" wood studs at 16" centers with double top plates, single bottom plates; interior side covered with ⅝" Type X gypsum wallboard, 4' wide, applied vertically with all joints over framing or blocking and fastened with 2¼" Type S drywall screws spaced 7" on center. Joints to be covered with tape andjoint compound. Exterior covered with ⅜" wood structural panels, applied vertically with edges over framing or blocking and fastened with 6d common nails (bright) at 12" on center in the field and 6" on center on panel edges. R-19 mineral fiber insulation installed in stud cavity. Rating established from the gypsum-covered side only. - - -
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square inch = 645.2 mm2, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283 m3
a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate fasteners to nails for attachment to wood framing.
b. Thickness shown for brick and clay tile is nominal thicknesses unless plastered, in which case thicknesses are net. Thickness shown for concrete masonry and clay masonry is equivalent thickness defined in Section 721.3.1 for concrete masonry and Section 721.4.1.1 for clay masonry. Where all cells are solid grouted or filled with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, the equivalent thickness shall be the thickness of the block or brick using specified dimensions as defined in Chapter 21. Equivalent thickness may also include the thickness ofapplied plaster and lath or gypsum wallboard, where specified.
c. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.
d. Shall be used for nonbearing purposes only:
e. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permitted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and the entire surface is covered with a minimum of 1/16-inch gypsum veneer plaster.
f. The fire-resistance time period for concrete masonry units meeting the equivalent thicknesses required for a 2-hour fire-resistance rating in Item 3, and having a thickness of not less than 758 inches is 4 hours when cores which are not grouted are filled with silicone-treated perlite loose-fill insulation; vermiculite loose-fill insulation; or expanded clay, shale or slate lightweight aggregate, sand or slag having a maximum particle size of ⅜ inch.
g. The fire-resistance rating of concrete masonry units composed of a combination of aggregate types or where plaster is applied directly to the concrete masonry shall be determined in accordance with ACI 216.lITMS 0216. Lightweight aggregates shall have a maximum combined density of 65 pounds per cubic foot.
h. See also Note b. The equivalent thickness shall be permitted to include the thickness ofcement plaster or 1.5 times the thickness of gypsum plaster applied in accordance with the requirements of Chapter 25.
i. Concrete walls shall be reinforced with horizontal and vertical temperature reinforcement as required by Chapter 19.
j. Studs are welded truss wire studs with 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W gage) flange wire and 0.18 inch (No. 7 B.W gage) truss wires.
k. Nailable metal studs consist of two channel studs spot welded back to back with a crimped web forming a nailing groove.
1. Wood structural panels shall be permitted to be installed between the fire protection and the wood studs on either the interior or exterior side of the wood frame assemblies in this table, provided the length of the fasteners used to attach the fire protection is increased by an amount at least equal to the thickness of the wood structural panel.
m. The design stress ofstuds shall be reduced to 78 percent of allowable P c with the maximum not greater than 78 percent of the calculated stress with studs having a slenderness ratio lid of 33.
n. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 514, ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667.
o. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed.
p. NCMA TEK 5-8A shall be permitted for the design of fire walls.
q. The design stress of studs shall be equal to a maximum of 100 percent of the allowable P ccalculated in accordance with Section 2306.
137
TABLE 720.1 (3)
MINIMUM PROTECTION FOR FLOOR AND ROOF SYSTEMSa,q
FLOOR OR ROOF CONSTRUCTION ITEM NUMBER CEILING CONSTRUCTION THICKNESS OF FLOOR OR ROOF SLAB (inches) MINIMUM THICKNESS OF CEILING (inches)
4
hour
3
hour
2
hour
1
hour
4
hour
3
hour
2
hour
1
hour
1. Siliceous aggregate concrete 1-1.1 Slab (no ceiling required). Minimum cover over nonprestressed reinforcement shall not be less than ¾" b. 7.0 6.2 5.0 3.5 - - - -
2. Carbonate aggregate concrete 2-1.1   6.6 5.7 4.6 3.2 - - - -
3. Sand-lightweight concrete 3-1.1   5.4 4.6 3.8 2.7 - - - -
4. Lightweight concrete 4-1.1 5.1 4.4 3.6 2.5 - - - -
5. Reinforced concrete 5-1.1 Slab with suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum plaster over metal lath attached to ¾" cold-rolled channels spaced 12" on center. Ceiling located 6" minimum below joists. 3 2 - - 1 ¾ - -
5-2.1 ⅜" Type X gypsum wallboardc attached to 0.018 inch (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) by ⅞" deep by 2⅝" hat-shaped galvanized steel channels with 1"-long No.6 screws. The channels are spaced 24" on center, span 35" and are supported along their length at 35" intervals by 0.033" (No. 21 galvanized sheet gage) galvanized steel flat strap hangers having formed edges that engage the lips of the channel. The strap hangers are attached to the side of the concrete joists with 5/32" by 1¼" long power-driven fasteners. The wallboard is installed with the long dimension perpendicular to the channels. All end joints occur on channels and supplementary channels are installed parallel to the main channels, 12" each side, at end joint occurrences. The finished ceiling is located approximately 12" below the soffit of the floor slab. - - - - - -
6. Steel joists constructed with a poured reinforced concrete slab on metal lath forms or steel form unitsd, e 6-1.1 Gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to the bottom cord with single No. 16 gage or doubled No. 18 gage wire ties spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat, 1:3 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum-to-sand aggregate for 2-hour system. For 3-hour system plaster is neat. - - - - ¾
6-2.1 Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to the bottom chord with single No.16 gage or doubled 0.049-inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties 6" on center. - 2 - - - - -
6-3.1 Cement plaster over metal lath attached to the bottom chord ofjoists with single No. 16 gage or doubled 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat, 1:3 for brown coat for I-hour system and 1:1 for scratch coat, 1:1½ for brown coat for 2-hour system, by weight, cement to sand. - - - 2 - - - ⅝f
6-4.1 Ceiling of ⅝" Type X wallboardc attached to ⅞" deep by 2⅝" by 0.021 inch (No. 25 carbon sheet steel gage) hat-shaped furring channels 12" on center with 1" long No.6 wallboard screws at 8" on center. Channels wire tied to bottom chord ofjoists with doubled 0.049 inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire or suspended below]oists on wire hangers.g - - - - - -
6-5.1 Wood-fibered gypsum plaster mixed 1:1 by weight gypsum to sand aggregate applied over metal lath. Lath tied 6" on center to ¾" channels spaced 13½" on center. Channels secured to joists at each intersection with two strands of 0.049 inch (No. 18 B.W. gage) galvanized wire. - - - - - ¾ - 138
7. Reinforced concrete slabs and joists with hollow clay tile fillers laid end to end in rows 2½ " or more apart; reinforcement placed between rows and concrete cast around and over tile. 7-1.1 5I s" gypsum plaster on bottom of floor or roof construction. - - 8h - - - sis -
7-1.2 None - - - 5½i - - - -
8. Steel joists constructed with a reinforced concrete slab on top poured on all2" deep steel deck.e 8-1.1 Vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to ¾" cold-rolled channels with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. 21/Zj - - - 314 - - -
9.3" deep cellular steel deck with concrete slab on top. Slab thickness measured to top. 9-1.1 Suspended ceiling of vermiculite gypsum plaster base coat and vermiculite acoustical plaster on metal lath attached at 6" intervals to ¾" cold-rolled channels spaced 12" on center and secured to 1½" cold-rolled channels spaced 36" on center with 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire. 1½" channels supported by No.8 gage wire hangers at 36" on center. Beams within envelope and with a 2½" airspace between beam soffit and lath have a 4-hour rating. 2½ - - - 11/Sk - - -
10. 1½"-deep steel roof deck on steel framing. Insulation board, 30 pcf density, composed of wood fibers with cement binders of thickness shown bonded to deck with unified asphalt adhesive. Covered with a Class A or B roof covering. 10-1.1 Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath attached to ¾" furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. ¾" channel saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel framing and saddle-tied with 0.165" (No.8 B.W. gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 by weight, gypsum-to-sand aggregate. - - 1 7/s 1 - - 3141 ¾1
11. 1½" -deep steel roof deck on steel-framing wood fiber insulation board, 17.5 pcf density on top applied over a 15-lb asphalt-saturated felt. Class A or B roof covering. 11-1.1 Ceiling of gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath attached to ¾" furring channels with 0.049" (No. 18 B.W. gage) wire ties spaced 6" on center. ¾" channels saddle tied to 2" channels with doubled 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties. 2" channels spaced 36" on center suspended 2" below steel framing and saddle tied with 0.165" (No.8 B.W. gage) wire. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 1:3 for brown coat, by weight, gypsum-to-sand aggregate for I-hour system. For 2-hour system, plaster mix is 1:2 by weight, gypsum-to-sand aggregate. - - 1 - - 7/Sg ¾1 139
12. 1½" deep steel roof deck on steel-framing insulation of rigid board consisting of expanded perlite and fibers impregnated with integral asphalt waterproofing; density 9 to 12 pcf secured to metal roof deck by ½" wide ribbons of waterproof, cold-process liquid adhesive spaced 6" apart. Steel joist or light steel construction with metal roof deck, insulation, and Class A or B built-up roof covering.e 12-1.1 Gypsum-vermiculite plaster on metal lath wire tied at 6" intervals to ¾" furring channels spaced 12" on center and wire tied to 2" runner channels spaced 32" on center. Runners wire tied to bottom chord of steel joists. - - 1 - - - -
13. Double wood floor over wood joists spaced 16" on center.ffi,n 13-1.1 Gypsum plaster over ⅜" Type X gypsum lath. Lath initially applied with not less than four 1⅛" by No. 13 gage by 19/64" head plasterboard blued nails per bearing. Continuous stripping over lath along all joist lines. Stripping consists of 3" wide strips of metal lath attached by 1½" by No. 11 gage by ½" head roofing nails spaced 6" on center. Alternate stripping consists of 3" wide 0.049" diameter wire stripping weighing 1 pound per square yard and attached by No.16 gage by 1½" by ¾" crown width staples, spaced 4" on center. Where alternate stripping is used, the lath nailing may consist of two nails at each end and one nail at each intermediate bearing. Plaster mixed 1: 2 by weight, gypsum-to-sand aggregate. - - - - - - -
13-1.2 Cement or gypsum plaster on metal lath. Lath fastened with 1½" by No. 11 gage by 7/16" head barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. Plaster mixed 1:2 for scratch coat and 1:3 for brown coat, by weight, cement to sand aggregate. - - - - - - -
13-1.3 Perlite or vermiculite gypsum plaster on metal lath secured to joists with 1½" by No. 11 gage by 7/16" head barbed shank roofing nails spaced 5" on center. - - - - - - -
13-1.4 ½" Type X gypsum wallboardc nailed to joists with 5d coolero or wallboardo nails at 6" on center. End joints of wallboard centered on joists. - - - - - - - ½
14. Plywood stressed skin panels consisting of ⅝"-thick interior C-D (exterior glue) top stressed skin on 2" × 6" nominal (minimum) stringers. Adjacent panel edges joined with 8d common wire nails spaced 6" on center. Stringers spaced 12" maximum on center. 14-1.1 ½"-thick wood fiberboard weighing 15 to 18 pounds per cubic foot installed with long dimension parallel to stringers or ⅜" C-D (exterior glue) plywood glued and/or nailed to stringers. Nailing to be with 5d coolero or wallboardo nails at 12" on center. Second layer of ½" Type X gypsum wallboardc applied with long dimension perpendicular to joists and attached with 8d coolero or wallboardo nails at 6" on center at end joints and 8" on center elsewhere. Wallboard joints staggered with respect to fiberboard joints. - - - - - - - 1 140
15. Vermiculite concrete slab proportioned 1:4 (portland cement to vermiculite aggregate) on a 1½"-deep steel deck supported on individually protected steel framing. Maximum span of deck 6'-10" where deck is less than 0.019 inch (No. 26 carbon steel sheet gage) or greater. Slab reinforced with 4" × 8" 0.109/0.083" (No. 12/14 B.W. gage) welded wire mesh. 15-1.1 None - - - 3j - - - -
16. Perlite concrete slab proportioned 1:6 (portland cement to perlite aggregate) on a 1¼"-deep steel deck supported on individually protected steel framing. Slab reinforced with 4" × 8" 0.109/0.083" (No. 12/14 B.W. gage) welded wire mesh. 16-1.1 None - - - j - - - -
17. Perlite concrete slab proportioned 1:6 (portland cement to perlite aggregate) on a 9/16"-deep steel deck supported by steel joists 4' on center. Class A or B roof covering on top. 17-1.1 Perlite gypsum plaster on metal lath wire tied to ¾" furring channels attached with 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) wire ties to lower chord ofjoists. - 2P 2P - - 7/s ¾ -
18. Perlite concrete slab proportioned 1:6 (portland cement to perlite aggregate) on 1¼"-deep steel deck supported on individually protected steel framing. Maximum span of deck 6'-10" where deck is less than 0.019" (No. 26 carbon sheet steel gage) and 8'-0" where deck is 0.019" (No. 26 carbon sheet steel gage) or greater. Slab reinforced with 0.042" (No. 19 B.W. gage) hexagonal wire mesh. Class A or B roof covering on top. 18-1.1 None - P P - - - - - 141
19. Floor and beam construction consisting of 3"-deep cellular steel floor unit mounted on steel members with 1:4 (proportion of portland cement to perlite aggregate) perlite-concrete floor slab on top. 19-1.1 Suspended envelope ceiling of perlite gypsum plaster on metal lath attached to ¾" cold-rolled channels, secured to 1½" cold-rolled channels spaced 42" on center supported by 0.203 inch (No.6 B.W. gage) wire 36" on center. Beams in envelope with 3" minimum airspace between beam soffit and lath have a 4-hour rating. 2P - - - 11 - - -
20. Perlite concrete proportioned 1:6 (portland cement to perlite aggregate) poured to ⅛" thickness above top of corrugations of 1 5/16" -deep galvanized steel deck maximum span 8'-0" for 0.024" (No. 24 galvanized sheet gage) or 6' 0" for 0.019" (No. 26 galvanized sheet gage) with deck supported by individually protected steel framing. Approved polystyrene foam plastic insulation board having a flame spread not exceeding 75 (1" to 4" thickness) with vent holes that approximate 3 percent of the board surface area placed on top of perlite slurry. A 2' by 4' insulation board contains six 2¾" diameter holes. Board covered with 2¼" minimum perlite concrete slab. 20-1.1 None - - Varies - - - - - 142
20. Slab reinforced with mesh consisting of 0.042" (No. 19 B.W. gage) galvanized steel wire twisted together to form 2" hexagons with straight 0.065" (No. 16 B.W. gage) galvanized steel wire woven into mesh and spaced 3". Alternate slab reinforcement shall be permitted to consist of 4" × 8", 0.109/0.238" (No. 12/4 B.W. gage), or 2" × 2", 0.083/0.083" (No. 14/14 B.W. gage) welded wire fabric. Class A or B roof covering on top. 20-1.1 None - - Varies - - - - -
21. Woodjoists, wood I-joists, floor trusses and flat or pitched roof trusses spaced a maximum 24" o.c. with ½" wood structural panels with exterior glue applied at right angles to top ofjoist or top chord of trusses with 8d nails. The wood structural panel thickness shall not be less than nominal ½" nor less than required by Chapter 23. 21-1.1 Base layer 5/S" Type X gypsum wallboard applied at right angles to joist or truss 24" o.c. with 1¼" Type S or Type W drywall screws 24" o.c. Face layer 5/s" Type X gypsum wallboard or veneer base applied at right angles to joist or truss through base layer with 1 7/s" Type S or Type W drywall screws 12" o.c. at joints and intermediate joist or truss. Face layer Type G drywall screws placed 2" back on either side of face layer end joints, 12" o.c. - - - Varies - - -
22. Steel joists, floor trusses and flat or pitched roof trusses spaced a maximum 24" o.c. with ½" wood structural panels with exterior glue applied at right angles to top ofjoist or top chord of trusses with No. 8 screws. The wood structural panel thickness shall not be less than nominal ½" nor less than required by Chapter 23. 22-1.1 Base layer 5/S" Type X gypsum board applied at right angles to steel framing 24" on center with 1" Type S drywall screws spaced 24" on center. Face layer 5/s" Type X gypsum board applied at right angles to steel framing attached through base layer with 1 5/S" Type S drywall screws 12" on center at end joints and intermediate joints and 1½" Type G drywall screws 12 inches on center placed 2" back on either side of face layer end joints. Joints of the face layer are offset 24" from theioints of the base layer. - - - Varies - - -
23. Wood I-joist (minimum joist depth 9¼" with a minimum flange depth of 15/16" and a minimum flange cross- sectional area of 2.3 square inches) at 24" o.c. spacing with 1 inch by 4 inch (nominal) wood furring strip spacer applied parallel to and covering the bottom of the bottom flange of each member, tacked in place. 2" mineral wool insulation, 3.5 pcf (nominal) installed adjacent to the bottom flange of the I-joist and supported by the 1" × 4" furring strip spacer. 23-1.1 ½" deep single leg resilient channel 16" on center (channels doubled at wallboard end joints), placed perpendicular to the furring strip and joist and attached to each joist by 1 7/s" Type S drywall screws. 5/S" Type C gypsum wallboard applied perpendicular to the channel with end joints staggered at least 4' and fastened with 1 1/S" Type S drywall screws spaced 7" on center. Wallboard joints to be taped and covered with joint compound. - - - Varies - - - 5/S 143
24. Wood I-joist (minimum I-joist depth 9¼" with a minimum flange depth of 1½" and a minimum flange cross-sectional area of 5.25 square inches; minimum web thickness of ⅜,) @ 24" o.c., 1½" mineral wool insulation (2.5 pcf-nominal) resting on hat-shaped furring channels. 24-1.1 Minimum 0.026" thick hat-shaped channel 16" o.c. (channels doubled at wallboard end joints), placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to each joist by 1⅝" Type S drywall screws. ⅝" Type C gypsum wallboard applied perpendicular to the channel with end joints staggered and fastened with 1⅛" Type S drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. in the field and 8" o.c. at the wallboard ends. Wallboard joints to be taped and covered with joint compound. - - - Varies - - -
25. Wood I-joist (minimum I-joist depth 9¼" with a minimum flange depth of 1½" and a minimum flange cross-sectional area of 5.25 square inches; minimum web thickness of 7/16") @ 24" o.c., 1½" mineral wool insulation (2.5 pcf-nominal) resting on resilient channels. 25-1.1 Minimum 0.019" thick resilient channel 16" o.c.(channels doubled at wallboard end joints), placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to each joist by 1⅝" Type S drywall screws. ⅝" Type C gypsum wallboard applied perpendicular to the channel with end joints staggered and fastened with 1" Type S drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. in the field and 8" o.c. at the wallboard ends. Wallboard joints to be taped and covered with joint compound. - - - Varies - - -
26. Wood I-joist (minimum I-joist depth 9¼" with a minimum flange thickness of 1½" and a minimum flange cross-sectional area of 2.25 square inches; minimum web thickness of ⅜,) @ 24" o.c. 26-1.1 Two layers of ½" Type X gypsum wallboard applied with the long dimension perpendicular to the I-joists with end joints staggered. The base layer is fastened with 1⅝" Type S drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. and the face layer is fastened with 2" Type S drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. in the field and 8" o.c. on the edges. Face layer end joints shall not occur on the same I-joist as base layer end joints and edge joints shall be offset 24" from base layer joints. Face layer to also be attached to base layer with 1½" Type G drywall screws spaced 8" o.c. placed 6" from face layer end joints. Face layer wallboard joints to be taped and covered with joint compound. - - - Varies - - - 1
27. Wood I-joist (minimum I-joist depth 9½" with a minimum flange depth of 1 15/16" and a minimum flange cross-sectional area of 1.95 square inches; minimum web thickness of ⅜") @ 24" o.c. 27-1.1 Minimum 0.019" thick resilient channel 16" o.c. (channels doubled at wallboard end joints) , placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to each joist by 1⅝" Type S drywall screws. Two layers of ½" Type X gypsum wallboard applied with the long dimension perpendicular to the I-joists with end joints staggered. The base layer is fastened with 1¼" Type S drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. and the face layer is fastened with 1⅝" Type S drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. Face layer endjoints shall not occur on the same I-joist as base layer end joints and edge joints shall be offset 24" from base layer joints. Face layer to also be attached to base layer with 1½" Type G drywall screws spaced 8" o.c. placed 6" from face layer end joints. Face layer wallboard joints to be taped and covered with joint compound. - - - Varies - - - 1 144
28. Wood I-joist (minimum I-joist depth 9¼" with a minimum flange depth of 1½" and a minimum flange cross-sectional area of 2.25 square inches; minimum web thickness of 3/s") @ 24" o.c. Unfaced fiberglass insulation is installed between the I-joists supported on the upper surface of the flange by stay wires spaced 12" o.c. 28-1.1 Base layer of 5/s" Type C gypsum wallboard attached directly to I-joists with 15/S" Type S drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. with ends staggered. Minimum 0.0179" thick hat-shaped 7/s-inch furring channel 16" o.c. (channels doubled at wallboard end joints), placed perpendicular to the joist and attached to each joist by 1 5/S" Type S drywall screws after the base layer of gypsum wallboard has been applied. The middle and face layers of 5/s" Type C gypsum wallboard applied perpendicular to the channel with end joints staggered. The middle layer is fastened with 1" Type S drywall screws spaced 12" o.c. The face layer is applied parallel to the middle layer but with the edge joints offset 24" from those of the middle layer and fastened with 1 5/S" Type S drywall screws 8" o.c. The joints shall be taped and covered withioint compound. - - - Varies - - -
29. Channel-shaped 18 gage steel joists (minimum depth 8") spaced a maximum 24" o.c. supporting tongue-and-groove wood structural panels (nominal minimum ¾" thick) applied perpendicular to framing members. Structural panels attached with 1-5/S" Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. 29-1.1 Base layer 5/s" Type X gypsum board applied perpendicular to bottom of framing members with 1 1/s" Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. Second layer 5/s" Type X gypsum board attached perpendicular to framing members wIth 1 5/ " Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. Second layer joints offset 24" from base layer. Third layer 5/S" Type X gypsum board attached perpendicular to framing members with 2 3/S" Type S-12 screws spaced 12" o.c. Third layer joints offset 12" from second layer joints. Hat-shaped 7/s-inch rigid furring channels applied at right angles to framing members over third layer with two 2 3/s" Type S-12 screws at. each framing member. Face layer 5/s" Type X gypsum board applied at right angles to furring channels with 1 1/S" Type S screws spaced 12" o.c. - - Varies - - - 3 3/S - 145
Table 720.1(3) Notes.
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.0283m3,
             1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 1 pound per lineal foot = 1.4882 kg/m.
a. Staples with equivalent holding power and penetration shall be permitted to be used as alternate fasteners to nails for attachment to wood framing.
b. When the slab is in an unrestrained condition, minimum reinforcement cover shall not be less than I Sis inches for 4-hour (siliceous aggregate only); inches for 4- and 3-hour; 1 inch for 2-hour (siliceous aggregate only) ; and 3/ 4 inch for all other restrained and unrestrained conditions.
c. For all of the construction with gypsum wallboard described in this table, gypsum base for veneer plaster of the same size, thickness and core type shall be permitted to be substituted for gypsum wallboard, provided attachment is identical to that specified for the wallboard, and the joints on the face layer are reinforced and the entire surface is covered with a minimum of 1/16- inch gypsum veneer plaster.
d. Slab thickness over steel joists measured at the joists for metal lath form and at the top of the form for steel form units.
e. (a)The maximum allowable stress level for H-Seriesjoists shall not exceed 22,000 psi.

(b) The allowable stress for K-Seriesjoists shall not exceed 26,000 psi, the nominal depth of suchjoist shall not be less than 10 inches and the nominaljoist weight shall not be less than 5 pounds per lineal foot.


f. Cement plaster with 15 pounds of hydrated lime and 3 pounds of approved additives or admixtures per bag of cement.
g. Gypsum wallboard ceilings attached to steel framing shall be permitted to be suspended with l 1/z-inch cold-formed carrying channels spaced 48 inches on center, which are suspended with No. 8 SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 SWG galvanized wire hangers spaced 48 inches on center. Cross-furring channels are tied to the carrying channels with No. 18 SWG galvanized wire (double strand) and spaced as required for direct attachment to the framing. This alternative is also applicable to those steel framing assemblies recognized under Noteq.
h. Six-inch hollow clay tile with 2-inch concrete slab above.
i. Four-inch hollow clay tile with l 1/z-inch concrete slab above.
j. Thickness measured to bottom of steel form units.
k. Five-eighths inch of vermiculite gypsum plaster plus liz inch of approved vermiculite acoustical plastic.
1. Furring channels spaced 12 inches on center.
m. Double wood floor shall be permitted to be either of the following:

(a) Subfloor of I-inch nominal boarding, a layer of asbestos paper weighing not less than 14 pounds per 100 square feet and a layer of I-inch nominal tongue-and-groove finished flooring; or

(b) Subfloor of I-inch nominal tongue-and-groove boarding or 19/3z-inch wood structural panels with exterior glue and a layer of I-inch nominal tongue-and-groove finished flooring or 193z-inch wood structural panel finish flooring or a layer ofType I Grade M-l particleboard not less than sis-inch thick.


n. The ceiling shall be permitted to be omitted over unusable space, and flooring shall be permitted to be omitted where unusable space occurs above.
o. For properties of cooler or wallboard nails, see ASTM C 514 , ASTM C 547 or ASTM F 1667.
p. Thickness measured on top of steel deck unit.
q. Generic fire-resistance ratings (those not designated as PROPRIETARY* in the listing) in the GA 600 shall be accepted as if herein listed.

(Section 721.1.1 continued from page 125)

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. A lightweight insulating concrete made with vermiculite concrete aggregate which is laminated micaceous material produced by expanding the ore at high temperatures. When added to a portland cement slurry the resulting concrete has a dry unit weight of approximately 30 pcf (480 kg/m3).

GLASS FIBERBOARD. Fibrous glass roof insulation consisting of inorganic glass fibers formed into rigid boards using a binder. The board has a top surface faced with asphalt and kraft reinforced with glass fiber.

MINERAL BOARD. A rigid felted thermal insulation board consisting of either felted mineral fiber or cellular beads of expanded aggregate formed into flat rectangular units.

721.2 Concrete assemblies. The provisions of this section contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of concrete assemblies are established by calculations.

721.2.1 Concrete walls. Cast-in-place and precast concrete walls shall comply with Section 721.2.1.1. Multiwythe concrete walls shall comply with Section 721.2.1.2. Joints between precast panels shall comply with Section 721.2.1.3. Concrete walls with gypsum wallboard or plaster finish shall comply with Section 721.2.1.4.

721.2.1.1 Cast-in-place or precast walls. The minimum equivalent thicknesses of cast-in-place or precast concrete walls for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours are shown in Table 721.2.1.1. For solid walls with flat vertical surfaces, the equivalent thickness is the same as the actual thickness. The values in Table 721.2.1.1 apply to plain, reinforced or prestressed concrete walls.

TABLE 721.2.1.1
MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS OF CAST-IN-PLACE OR PRECAST CONCRETE WALLS, LOAD-BEARING OR NONLOAD-BEARING
CONCRETE TYPE MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (inches) FOR FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING OF
l-hour 1½-hour 2-hour 3-hour 4-hour
Siliceous 3.5 4.3 5.0 6.2 7.0
Carbonate 3.2 4.0 4.6 5.7 6.6
Sand-Lightweight 2.7 3.3 3.8 4.6 5.4
Lightweight 2.5 3.1 3.6 4.4 5.1
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

721.2.1.1.1 Hollow-core precast wall panels. For hollow-core precast concrete wall panels in which the cores are of constant cross section throughout the length, calculation of the equivalent thickness by dividing the net cross-sectional area (the gross cross section minus the area of the cores) of the panel by its width shall be permitted.

721.2.1.1.2 Core spaces filled. Where all of the core spaces of hollow-core wall panels are filled with loose-fill material, such as expanded shale, clay, or slag, or vermiculite or perlite, the fire-resistance rating

146

of the wall is the same as that of a solid wall of the same concrete type and ofthe same overall thickness.

721.2.1.1.3 Tapered cross sections. The thickness of panels with tapered cross sections shall be that determined at a distance 2tor 6 inches (152 mm), whichever is less, from the point of minimum thickness, where t is the minimum thickness.

721.2.1.1.4 Ribbed or undulating surfaces. The equivalent thickness of panels with ribbed or undulating surfaces shall be determined by one of the following expressions:

For s ≥ 4t, the thickness to be used shall be t

For s ≤ 2t, the thickness to be used shall be te

For 4t > s > 2t, the thickness to be used shall be

Image

where:

s Spacing of ribs or undulations.
Minimum thickness.
te Equivalent thickness of the panel calculated as the net cross-sectional area of the panel divided by the width, in which the maximum thickness used in the calculation shall not exceed 2t.

721.2.1.2 Multiwythe walls. For walls that consist of two wythes of different types of concrete, the fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted to be determined from Figure 721.2.1.2.

FIGURE 721.2.1.2 FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS OF TWO-WYTHE CONCRETE WALLS

FIGURE 721.2.1.2 FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS OF TWO-WYTHE CONCRETE WALLS

721.2.1.2.1 Two or more wythes. The fire-resistance ratingfor wall panels consisting oftwo or more wythes shall be permitted to be determined by the formula:

R= (R1o.59 + RzO.59 +… + Rno.59) 1.7    (Equation 7-4)

where:

R = The fire endurance of the assembly, minutes.

R1, Rz, and Rn = The fire endurances of the individual wythes, minutes.Values ofRnO.59 for use in Equation 7-4 are given in Table 721.2.1.2(1). Calculated fire-resistance ratings are shown in Table 721.2.1.2(2).

TABLE 721.2.1.2(1)
VALUES OF Rno.59 FOR USE IN EQUATION 7-4
TYPE OF MATERIAL THICKNESS OF MATERIAL (inches)
2 3 4 5 6 7
Siliceous aggregate concrete 5.3 6.5 8.1 9.5 11.3 13.0 14.9 16.9 18.8 20.7 22.8 25.1
Carbonate aggregate concrete 5.5 7.1 8.9 10.4 12.0 14.0 16.2 18.1 20.3 21.9 24.7 27.2c
Sand-lightweight concrete 6.5 8.2 10.5 12.8 15.5 18.1 20.7 23.3 26.0 Note c Note c Note c
Lightweight concrete 6.6 8.8 11.2 13.7 16.5 19.1 21.9 24.7 27.8c Note c Note c Note c
Insulating concretea 9.3 13.3 16.6 18.3 23.1 26.5c Note c Note c Note c Note c Note c Note c
Airspaceb - - - - - - - - - - - -
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per cubic foot = 16.02 kgm3.
a. Dry unit weight of 35 pcf or less and consisting of cellular, perlite or vermiculite concrete.
b. The Rno.59 value for one ½" to 3 ½" airspace is 3.3. The Rno.59 value for two ½" to 3 ½" airspaces is 6.7.
c. The fire-resistance rating for this thickness exceeds 4 hours.
147
TABLE 721.2.1.2(2)
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS BASED ON RO.59
R a, MINUTES Ro.59
60
120
180
240
11.20
16.85
21.41
25.37
a. Based on Equation 7-4.

721.2.1.2.2 Foam plastic insulation. The fire-resistance ratings of precast concrete wall panels consisting of a layer of foam plastic insulation sandwiched between two wythes of concrete shall be permitted to be determined by use of Equation 7-4. Foam plastic insulation with a total thickness of less than 1 inch (25 mm) shall be disregarded. The Rn value for thickness of foam plastic insulation of 1 inch (25 mm) or greater, for use in the calculation, is 5 minutes; therefore Rn°·59 = 2.5.

721.2.1.3 Joints between precast wall panels. Joints between precast concrete wall panels which are not insulated as required by this section shall be considered as openings in walls. Uninsulatedjoints shall be included in determining the percentage of openings permitted by Table 705.8. Where openings are not permitted or are required by this code to be protected, the provisions of this section shall be used to determine the amount ofjoint insulation required. Insulatedjoints shall not be considered openings for purposes of determining compliance with the allowable percentage of openings in Table 705.8.

721.2.1.3.1 Ceramic fiber joint protection. Figure 721.2.1.3.1 shows thicknesses of ceramic fiber blankets to be used to insulate joints between precast concrete wall panels for various panel thicknesses and for joint widths of ⅜ inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 mm) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours. For joint widths between ⅜ inch (9.5 mm) and 1 inch (25 mm), the thickness ofceramic fiber blanket is allowed to be determined by direct interpolation. Other tested and labeled materials are acceptable in place of ceramic fiber blankets.

721.2.1.4 Walls with gypsum wallboard or plaster finishes. The fire-resistance rating of cast-in-place or pre-cast concrete walls with finishes of gypsum wallboard or plaster applied to one or both sides shall be permitted to be calculated in accordance with the provisions of this section.

721.2.1.4.1 Nonfire-exposed side. Where the finish of gypsum wallboard or plaster is applied to the side of the wall not exposed to fire, the contribution of the finish to the total fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: The thickness of the finish shall first be corrected by multiplying the actual thickness of the finish by the applicable factor determined from Table 721.2.1.4 (1) based on the type of aggregate in the concrete. The corrected thickness of finish shall then be added to the actual or equivalent thickness of concrete and fire-resistance rating of the concrete and finish determined from Table 721.2.1.1, Figure 721.2.1.2 or Table 721.2.1.2(1).

721.2.1.4.2 Fire-exposed side. Where gypsum wall-board or plaster is applied to the fire-exposed side of the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: The time assigned to the finish as established by Table 721.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rating determined from Table 721.2.1.1 or Figure 721.2.1.2, or Table 721.2.1.2(1) for the concrete alone, or to the rating determined in Section 721.2.1.4.1 for the concrete and finish on the nonfire-exposed side.

FIGURE 721.2.1.3.1 CERAMIC FIBER JOINT PROTECTION

FIGURE 721.2.1.3.1 CERAMIC FIBER JOINT PROTECTION

148
TABLE 721.2.1.4(1)
MULTIPLYING FACTOR FOR FINISHES ON NON FIRE-EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL
TYPE OF FINISH APPLIED TO CONCRETE OR CONCRETE MASONRY WALL TYPE OF AGGREGATE USED IN CONCRETE OR CONCRETE MASONRY
Concrete: siliceous or carbonate Concrete Masonry: siliceous or carbonate; solid clay brick Concrete: sand-lightweight Concrete Masonry: clay tile; hollow clay brick; concrete masonry units of expanded shale and <20% sand Concrete: lightweight Concrete Masonry: concrete masonry units of expanded shale, expanded clay, expanded slag, or pumice < 20% sand Concrete Masonry: concrete masonry units of expanded slag, expanded clay, or pumice
Portland cement-sand plaster 1.00 0.753 0.753 0.503
Gypsum-sand plaster 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.00
Gypsum-vermiculite or perlite plaster 1.75 1.50 1.25 1.25
Gypsum wallboard 3.00 2.25 2.25 2.25
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. For portland cement-sand plaster ⅝ inch or less in thickness and applied directly to the concrete or concrete masonry on the nonfire-exposed side of the wall, the multiplying factor shall be 1.00.

 

TABLE 721.2.1.4(2)
TIME ASSIGNED TO FINISH MATERIALS ON FIRE-EXPOSED SIDE OF WALL
FINISH DESCRIPTION TIME (minute)
Gypsum wallboard
   ⅜ inch
   ½ inch
   ⅝ inch
   2 layers of ⅜ inch
   1 layer ⅜ inch, 1 layer ½ inch
   2 layers ½ inch
10
15
20
25
35
40
Type X gypsum wallboard
   ½ inch
   ⅝ inch
25
40
Portland cement-sand plaster applied directly to concrete masonry See Note a
Portland cement-sand plaster on metal lath
   ¾ inch
   ⅞ inch
   1 inch
20
25
30
Gypsum sand plaster on ⅜-inch gypsum lath
   ½ inch
   ⅝ inch
   ¾ inch
35
40
50
Gypsum sand plaster on metal lath
   ¾ inch
   ⅞ inch
   1 inch
50
60
80
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. The actual thickness of portland cement-sand plaster, provided it is ⅝ inch or less in thickness, shall be permitted to be included in determining the equivalent thickness of the masonry for use in Table 721.3.2.

721.2.1.4.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall having no finish on one side or different types or thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation procedures of Sections 721.2.1.4.1 and 721.2.1.4.2 shall be performed twice, assuming either side of the wall to be the fire-exposed side. The fire-resistance rating of the wall shall not exceed the lower of the two values.

Exception: For an exterior wall with a fire separation distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) the fire shall be assumed to occur on the interior side only.

721.2.1.4.4 Minimum concrete fire-resistance rating. Where finishes applied to one or both sides of a concrete wall contribute to the fire-resistance rating, the concrete alone shall provide not less than one-half of the total required fire-resistance rating. Additionally, the contribution to the fire resistance of the finish on the nonfire-exposed side of a load-bearing wall shall not exceed one-half the contribution of the concrete alone.

721.2.1.4.5 Concrete finishes. Finishes on concrete walls that are assumed to contribute to the total

149

fire-resistance rating of the wall shall comply with the installation requirements of Section 721.3.2.5.

721.2.2 Concrete floor and roof slabs. Reinforced and prestressed floors and roofs shall comply with Section 721.2.2.1. Multicourse floors and roofs shall comply with Sections 721.2.2.2 and 721.2.2.3, respectively.

721.2.2.1 Reinforced and prestressed floors and roofs. The minimum thicknesses of reinforced and pre-stressed concrete floor or roof slabs for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours are shown in Table 721.2.2.1.

TABLE 721.2.2.1
MINIMUM SLAB THICKNESS (inches)
CONCRETE TYPE FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hour)
1 2 3 4
Siliceous 3.5 4.3 5.0 6.2 7.0
Carbonate 3.2 4.0 4.6 5.7 6.6
Sand-lightweight 2.7 3.3 3.8 4.6 5.4
Lightweight 2.5 3.1 3.6 4.4 5.1
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

721.2.2.1.1 Hollow-core prestressed slabs. For hollow-core prestressed concrete slabs in which the cores are of constant cross section throughout the length, the equivalent thickness shall be permitted to be obtained by dividing the net cross-sectional area of the slab including grout in the joints, by its width.

721.2.2.1.2 Slabs with sloping soffits. The thickness of slabs with sloping soffits (see Figure 721.2.2.1.2) shall be determined at a distance 2t or 6 inches (152 mm), whichever is less, from the point of minimum thickness, where t is the minimum thickness.

FIGURE 721.2.2.1.2 DETERMINATION OF SLAB THICKNESS FOR SLOPING SOFFITS

FIGURE 721.2.2.1.2 DETERMINATION OF SLAB THICKNESS FOR SLOPING SOFFITS

721.2.2.1.3 Slabs with ribbed soffits. The thickness of slabs with ribbed or undulating soffits (see Figure 721.2.2.1.3) shall be determined by one of the following expressions, whichever is applicable:

For s > 4t, the thickness to be used shall be t

For s ≥ 2t, the thickness to be used shall be te

For 4t > s > 2t, the thickness to be used shall be

Image

where:

s = Spacing of ribs or undulations.
  = Minimum thickness.
te = Equivalent thickness of the slab calculated as the net area of the slab divided by the width, in which the maximum thickness used in the calculation shall not exceed 2t.

FIGURE 721.2.2.1.3 SLABS WITH RIBBED OR UNDULATING SOFFITS

FIGURE 721.2.2.1.3 SLABS WITH RIBBED OR UNDULATING SOFFITS

721.2.2.2 Multicourse floors. The fire-resistance ratings offloors that consist ofa base slab ofconcrete with a topping (overlay) of a different type of concrete shall comply with Figure 721.2.2.2.

FIGURE 721.2.2.2 FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR TWO-COURSE CONCRETE FLOORS

FIGURE 721.2.2.2 FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR TWO-COURSE CONCRETE FLOORS

150

721.2.2.3 Multicourse roofs. The fire-resistance ratings of roofs which consist of a base slab of concrete with a topping (overlay) of an insulating concrete or with an insulating board and built-up roofing shall comply with Figures 721.2.2.3 (1) and 721.2.2.3 (2).

721.2.2.3.1 Heat transfer. For the transfer of heat, three-ply built-up roofing contributes 10 minutes to the fire-resistance rating. The fire-resistance rating for concrete assemblies such as those shown in Figure 721.2.2.3(1) shall be increased by 10 minutes. This increase is not applicable to those shown in Figure 721.2.2.3 (2).

721.2.2.4 Joints in precast slabs. Joints between adjacent precast concrete slabs need not be considered in calculating the slab thickness provided that a concrete topping at least 1 inch (25 mm) thick is used. Where no concrete topping is used, joints must be grouted to a depth of at least one-third the slab thickness at the joint, but not less than 1 inch (25 mm), or the joints must be made fire resistant by other approved methods.

721.2.3 Concrete cover over reinforcement. The minimum thickness of concrete cover over reinforcement in concrete slabs, reinforced beams and prestressed beams shall comply with this section.

721.2.3.1 Slab cover. The minimum thickness of concrete cover to the positive moment reinforcement shall comply with Table 721.2.3(1) for reinforced concrete and Table 721.2.3(2) for prestressed concrete. These tables are applicable for solid or hollow-core one-way or two-way slabs with flat undersurfaces. These tables are applicable to slabs that are either cast in place or precast. For precast prestressed concrete not covered elsewhere, the procedures contained in PCI MNL 124 shall be acceptable.

721.2.3.2 Reinforced beam cover. The minimum thickness of concrete cover to the positive moment reinforcement (bottom steel) for reinforced concrete beams is shown in Table 721.2.3(3) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours.

721.2.3.3 Prestressed beam cover. The minimum thickness of concrete cover to the positive moment prestressing tendons (bottom steel) for restrained and unrestrained prestressed concrete beams and stemmed units shall comply with the values shown in Tables 721.2.3(4) and 721.2.3(5) for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours. Values in Table 721.2.3(4) apply to beams 8 inches (203 mm) or greater in width. Values in Table 721.2.3(5) apply to beams or stems of any width, provided the cross-section area is not less than 40 square inches (25 806 mm2). In case of differences between the values determined from Table 721.2.3(4) or 721.2.3(5), it is permitted to use the smaller value. The concrete cover shall be calculated in accordance with Section 721.2.3.3.1. The minimum concrete cover for nonprestressed reinforcement in prestressed concrete beams shall comply with Section 721.2.3.2.

FIGURE 721.2.2.3(1) FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE ROOF ASSEMBLIES

FIGURE 721.2.2.3(1) FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE ROOF ASSEMBLIES

FIGURE 721.2.2.3(2) FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE ROOF ASSEMBLIES

FIGURE 721.2.2.3(2) FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR CONCRETE ROOF ASSEMBLIES

151
TABLE 721.2.3(1)
COVER THICKNESS FOR REINFORCED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (inches)
CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
Restrained Unrestrained
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Siliceous ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 1 1⅝
Carbonate ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾
Sand-lightweight or lightweight ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

 

TABLE 721.2.3(2)
COVER THICKNESS FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE FLOOR OR ROOF SLABS (inches)
CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
Restrained Unrestrained
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4
Siliceous ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 1⅛ 2⅜
Carbonate ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 1 1⅜ 1⅝ 2⅛
Sand-lightweight or lightweight ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ ¾ 1 1⅜ 2
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

 

TABLE 721.2.3(3)
MINIMUM COVER FOR MAIN REINFORCING BARS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMSc(APPLICABLE TO ALL TYPES OF STRUCTURAL CONCRETE)
RESTRAINED OR UNRESTRAINEDa BEAMWIDTHb (inches) FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
1 2 3 4
Restrained 5
7
10
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
¾
1a
¾
¾
1¼a
¾
¾
Unrestrained 5
7
10
¾
¾
¾
1
¾
¾

¾
¾
-
1
¾
1
-
3
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover of ¾ inch is adequate for ratings of 4 hours or less.
b. For beam widths between the tabulated values, the minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation.
c. The cover for an individual reinforcing bar is the minimum thickness of concrete between the surface ofthe bar and the fire-exposed surface ofthe beam. For beams in which several bars are used, the cover for corner bars used in the calculation shall be reduced to one-half of the actual value. The cover for an individual bar must be not less than one-half of the value given in Table 721.2.3(3) nor less than 3/ 4 inch.

 

TABLE 721.2.3(4)
MINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS 8 INCHES OR GREATER IN WIDTH
RESTRAINED OR UNRESTRAINEDa CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE BEAMWIDTHb (inches) FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
1 2 3 4
Restrained Carbonate or siliceous
Carbonate or siliceous
Sand lightweight
Sand lightweight
8
≥ 12
8
≥ 12









1¾a


a
1⅞a
2a
1⅝a
Unrestrained Carbonate or siliceous
Carbonate or siliceous
Sand lightweight
Sand lightweight
8
≥ 12
8
≥12







1⅞a
2
1⅝
5c


2
-
-
3
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover of 3/ 4 inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less.
b. For beam widths between 8 inches and 12 inches, minimum cover thickness can be determined by direct interpolation.
c. Not practical for 8-inch-wide beam but shown for purposes of interpolation.
152
TABLE 721.2.3(5)
MINIMUM COVER FOR PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAMS OF ALL WIDTHS
RESTRAINED OR UNRESTRAINEDa CONCRETE AGGREGATE TYPE BEAM AREAb A (square inches) FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
1 2 3 4
Restrained All 40≤A≤150 2 -
Carbonate or
siliceous
150<A≤300

2
300<A
Sand lightweight 150 <A 2
Unrestrained All 40≤A≤150 2 - - -
Carbonate or
siliceous
150<A≤300 - -
300<A 2 3c 4c
Sand lightweight 150 <A 2 3c 4c
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm.
a. Tabulated values for restrained assemblies apply to beams spaced more than 4 feet on center. For restrained beams spaced 4 feet or less on center, minimum cover of 34 inch is adequate for 4-hour ratings or less.
b. The cross-sectional area ofa stem is permitted to include a portion of the area in the flange, provided the width of the flange used in the calculation does not exceed three times the average width of the stem.
c. U-shaped or hooped stirrups spaced not to exceed the depth of the member and having a minimum cover of 1 inch shall be provided.

721.2.3.3.1 Calculating concrete cover. The concrete cover for an individual tendon is the minimum thickness of concrete between the surface of the tendon and the fire-exposed surface of the beam, except that for ungrouted ducts, the assumed cover thickness is the minimum thickness of concrete between the surface of the duct and the fire-exposed surface of the beam. For beams in which two or more ten-dons are used, the cover is assumed to be the average of the minimum cover of the individual tendons. For corner tendons (tendons equal distance from the bottom and side), the minimum cover used in the calculation shall be one-half the actual value. For stemmed members with two or more prestressing tendons located along the vertical centerline of the stem, the average cover shall be the distance from the bottom of the member to the centroid of the tendons. The actual cover for any individual tendon shall not be less than one-half the smaller value shown in Tables 721.2.3(4) and 721.2.3(5), or 1 inch (25 mm), whichever is greater.

721.2.4 Concrete columns. Concrete columns shall comply with this section.

TABLE 721.2.4
MINIMUM DIMENSION OF CONCRETE COLUMNS (inches)
TYPES OF CONCRETE FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
1 2a 3a 4b
Siliceous 8 9 10 12 14
Carbonate 8 9 10 11 12
Sand-lightweight 8 9 10½ 12
For 51: 1 inch = 25 mm.
a. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 8 inches for rectangular columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length.
b. The minimum dimension is permitted to be reduced to 10 inches for rectangular columns with two parallel sides at least 36 inches in length.

721.2.4.1 Minimum size. The minimum overall dimensions of reinforced concrete columns for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours for exposure to fire on all sides shall comply with this section.

721.2.4.1.1 Concrete strength less than or equal to 12,000 psi. For columns made with concrete having a specified compressive strength, I' of less than or equal to 12,000 psi (82.7 MPa), the minimum dimension shall comply with Table 721.2.4.

721.2.4.1.2 Concrete strength greater than 12,000 psi. For columns made with concrete having a specified compressive strength, I' greater than 12,000 psi (82.7 MPa), for fire-resistance ratings of 1 hour to 4 hours the minimum dimension shall be 24 inches (610 mm).

721.2.4.2 Minimum cover for RIC columns. The minimum thickness of concrete cover to the main longitudinal reinforcement in columns, regardless of the type of aggregate used in the concrete and the specified compressive strength of concrete, I' shall not be less than 1 inch (25 mm) times the number of hours of required fire resistance or 2 inches (51 mm), whichever is less.

721.2.4.3 Tie and spiral reinforcement. For concrete columns made with concrete having a specified compressive strength, I' greater than 12,000 psi (82.7 MPa), tie and spiral reinforcement shall comply with the following:

  1. The free ends of rectangular ties shall terminate with a 135-degree (2.4 rad) standard tie hook.
  2. The free ends of circular ties shall terminate with a gO-degree (1.6 rad) standard tie hook.
  3. The free ends of spirals, including at lap splices, shall terminate with a gO-degree (1.6 rad) standard tie hook.
153

The hook extension at the free end of ties and spirals shall be the larger of six bar diameters and the extension required by Section 7.1.3 of ACI 318. Hooks shall project into the core of the column.

721.2.4.4 Columns built into walls. The minimum dimensions of Table 721.2.4 do not apply to a reinforced concrete column that is built into a concrete or masonry wall provided all of the following are met:

  1. The fire-resistance rating for the wall is equal to or greater than the required rating of the column;
  2. The main longitudinal reinforcing in the column has cover not less than that required by Section 721.2.4.2; and
  3. Openings in the wall are protected in accordance with Table 715.4.

Where openings in the wall are not protected as required by Section 715.4, the minimum dimension of columns required to have a fire-resistance rating of 3 hours or less shall be 8 inches (203 mm), and 10 inches (254 mm) for columns required to have a fire-resistance rating of 4 hours, regardless of the type of aggregate used in the concrete.

721.2.4.5 Precast cover units for steel columns. See Section 721.5.1.4.

721.3 Concrete masonry. The provisions of this section contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of concrete masonry are established by calculations.

721.3.1 Equivalent thickness. The equivalent thickness of concrete masonry construction shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of this section.

721.3.1.1 Concrete masonry unit plus finishes. The equivalent thickness of concrete masonry assemblies, Tea' shall be computed as the sum of the equivalent thickness of the concrete masonry unit, Te, as determined by Section 721.3.1.2, 721.3.1.3 or 721.3.1.4, plus the equivalent thickness of finishes, Tef' determined in accordance with Section 721.3.2:

Tea = Te + Tef     (Equation 7-6)

721.3.1.2 Ungrouted or partially grouted construction. Te shall be the value obtained for the concrete masonry unit determined in accordance with ASTM C 140.

721.3.1.3 Solid grouted construction. The equivalent thickness, Te, of solid grouted concrete masonry units is the actual thickness of the unit.

721.3.1.4 Airspaces and cells filled with loose-fill material. The equivalent thickness of completely filled hollow concrete masonry is the actual thickness of the unit when loose-fill materials are: sand, pea gravel, crushed stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 requirements; pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, expanded slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or cinders that comply with ASTM C 331; or perlite or vermiculite meeting the requirements of ASTM C 549 and ASTM C 516, respectively.

721.3.2 Concrete masonry walls. The fire-resistance rating of walls and partitions constructed of concrete masonry units shall be determined from Table 721.3.2. The rating shall be based on the equivalent thickness of the masonry and type of aggregate used.

721.3.2.1 Finish on nonfire-exposed side. Where plaster or gypsum wallboard is applied to the side of the wall not exposed to fire, the contribution of the finish to the total fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: The thickness of gypsum wallboard or plaster shall be corrected by multiplying the actual thickness of the finish by applicable factor determined from Table 721.2.1.4(1). This corrected thickness of finish shall be added to the equivalent thickness of masonry and the fire-resistance rating of the masonry and finish determined from Table 721.3.2.

721.3.2.2 Finish on fire-exposed side. Where plaster or gypsum wallboard is applied to the fire-exposed side of the wall, the contribution of the finish to the total fire-resistance rating shall be determined as follows: The time assigned to the finish as established by Table 721.2.1.4(2) shall be added to the fire-resistance rating determined in Section 721.3.2 for the masonry alone, or

TABLE 721.3.2
MINIMUM EQUIVALENT THICKNESS (inches) OF BEARING OR NONBEARING CONCRETE MASONRY WALLSa,b,c,d
TYPE OF AGGREGATE FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
½ ¾ 1 2 3 4
Pumice or expanded slag 1.5 1.9 2.1 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.5 4.7
Expanded shale, clay or slate 1.8 2.2 2.6 2.9 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.8 4.0 4.2 4.4 4.6 4.8 4.9 5.1
Limestone, cinders or unexpanded slag 1.9 2.3 2.7 3.1 3.4 3.7 4.0 4.3 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.2 5.5 5.7 5.9
Calcareous or siliceous gravel 2.0 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 3.9 4.2 4.5 4.8 5.0 5.3 5.5 5.8 6.0 6.2
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Values between those shown in the table can be determined by direct interpolation.
b. Where combustible members are framed into the wall, the thickness ofsolid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or between members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shown in the table.
c. Requirements of ASTM C 55, ASTM C 73, ASTM C 90 or ASTM C 744 shall apply.
d. Minimum required equivalent thickness corresponding to the hourly fire-resistance rating for units with a combination of aggregate shall be determined by linear interpolation based on the percent by volume of each aggregate used in manufacture.
154

in Section 721.3.2.1 for the masonry and finish on the nonfire-exposed side.

721.3.2.3 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall having no finish on one side or having different types or thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation procedures of this section shall be performed twice, assuming either side of the wall to be the fire-exposed side. The fire-resistance rating of the wall shall not exceed the lower of the two values calculated.

Exception: For exterior walls with a fire separation distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm) the fire shall be assumed to occur on the interior side only.

721.3.2.4 Minimum concrete masonry fire-resistance rating. Where the finish applied to a concrete masonry wall contributes to its fire-resistance rating, the masonry alone shall provide not less than one-half the total required fire-resistance rating.

721.3.2.5 Attachment of finishes. Installation of finishes shall be as follows:

  1. Gypsum wallboard and gypsum lath applied to concrete masonry or concrete walls shall be secured to wood or steel furring members spaced not more than 16 inches (406mm) on center (o.c.).
  2. Gypsum wallboard shall be installed with the long dimension parallel to the furring members and shall have all joints finished.
  3. Other aspects of the installation of finishes shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapters 7 and 25.

721.3.3 Multiwythe masonry walls. The fire-resistance rating of wall assemblies constructed of multiple wythes of masonry materials shall be permitted to be based on the fire-resistance rating period of each wythe and the continuous airspace between each wythe in accordance with the following formula:

RA = (R1o.59 + R2o.59 +… + RnO.59 + Al + A2 +… + An)1.7 (Equation 7-7)

where:

RA = Fire-resistance rating of the assembly (hours).

R1 R2,…, Rn = Fire-resistance rating of wythes for 1,2, n (hours), respectively.

Aj, A2,…., An = 0.30, factor for each continuous airspace for 1, 2,. .n, respectively, having a depth of ½ inch (12.7 mm) or more between wythes.

721.3.4 Concrete masonry lintels. Fire-resistance ratings for concrete masonry lintels shall be determined based upon the nominal thickness of the lintel and the minimum thickness of concrete masonry or concrete, or any combination thereof, covering the main reinforcing bars, as determined according to Table 721.3.4, or by approved alternate methods.

TABLE 721.3.4
MINIMUM COVER OF LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT IN FIRE-RESISTANCE-RATED REINFORCED CONCRETE MASONRY LINTELS (inches)
NOMINAL WIDTH OF LINTEL (inches) FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
1 2 3 4
6 2 - -
8 3
10 or greater
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 illill.

721.3.5 Concrete masonry columns. The fire-resistance rating of concrete masonry columns shall be determined based upon the least plan dimension of the column in accordance with Table 721.3.5 or by approvedalternate methods.

TABLE 721.3.5
MINIMUM DIMENSION OF CONCRETE MASONRY COLUMNS (inches)
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hours)
1 2 3 4
8 inches 10 inches 12 inches 14 inches
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 illill.

721.4 Clay brick and tile masonry. The provisions of this section contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of clay brick and tile masonry are established by calculations.

721.4.1 Masonry walls. The fire-resistance rating of masonry walls shall be based upon the equivalent thickness as calculated in accordance with this section. The calculation shall take into account finishes applied to the wall and airspaces between wythes in multiwythe construction.

721.4.1.1 Equivalent thickness. The fire-resistance ratings of walls or partitions constructed of solid or hollow clay masonry units shall be determined from Table 721.4.1 (1) or 721.4.1 (2). The equivalent thickness of the clay masonry unit shall be determined by Equation 7-8 when using Table 721.4.1 (1). The fire-resistance rating determined from Table 721.4.1 (1) shall be permitted to be used in the calculated fire-resistance rating procedure in Section 721.4.2.

Te = Vn/LH      (Equation 7-8)

where:

Te = The equivalent thickness of the clay masonry unit (inches).

Vn = The net volume of the clay masonry unit (inch3).

L = The specified length of the clay masonry unit (inches).

H = The specified height of the clay masonry unit (inches).

721.4.1.1.1 Hollow clay units. The equivalent thickness, Te, shall be the value obtained for hollow clay units as determined in accordance with Equation 7-8. The net volume, Vn, of the units shall be determined using the gross volume and percentage of void area determined in accordance with ASTM C 67.

155
TABLE 721.4.1(1)
FIRE-RESISTANCE PERIODS OF CLAY MASONRY WALLS
MATERIAL TYPE MINIMUM REQUIRED EQUIVALENT THICKNESS FOR FIRE RESISTANCEa b, (inches)
1 hour 2 hour 3 hour 4 hour
Solid brick of clay or shaled 2.7 3.8 4.9 6.0
Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, unfilled 2.3 3.4 4.3 5.0
Hollow brick or tile of clay or shale, grouted or filled with materials specified in Section 721.4.1.1.3 3.0 4.4 5.5 6.6
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Equivalent thickness as determined from Section 721.4.1.1.
b. Calculated fire resistance between the hourly increments listed shall be determined by linear interpolation.
c. Where combustible members are framed in the wall, the thickness of solid material between the end of each member and the opposite face of the wall, or between members set in from opposite sides, shall not be less than 93 percent of the thickness shown.
d. For units in which the net cross-sectional area of cored brick in any plane parallel to the surface containing the cores is at least 75 percent of the gross cross-sectional area measured in the same plane.

 

TABLE 721.4.1 (2)
FIRE-RESISTANCE RATINGS FOR BEARING STEEL FRAME BRICK VENEER WALLS OR PARTITIONS
WALL OR PARTITION ASSEMBLY PLASTER SIDE EXPOSED (hours) BRICK FACED SIDE EXPOSED (hours)
Outside facing of steel studs:
½" wood fiberboard sheathing next to studs, ¾" airspace formed with ¾" × 1 ⅝" wood strips placed over the fiberboard and secured to the studs; metal or wire lath nailed to such strips, 3¾" brick veneer held in place by filling ¾" airspace between the brick and lath with mortar. Inside facing of studs: ¾" unsanded gypsum plaster on metal or wire lath attached to 5/16" wood strips secured to edges of the studs.
1.5 4
Outside facing of steel studs:
1" insulation board sheathing attached to studs, 1" airspace, and 3¾" brick veneer attached to steel frame with metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of studs: ⅞" sanded gypsum plaster (1: 2 mix) applied on metal or wire lath attached directly to the studs.
1.5 4
Same as above except use ⅞" vermiculite-gypsum plaster or 1" sanded gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) applied to metal or wire. 2 4
Outside facing of steel studs:
½" gypsum sheathing board, attached to studs, and 3¾" brick veneer attached to steel frame with metal ties every 5th course. Inside facing of studs: ½" sanded gypsum plaster (1:2 mix) applied to ½" perforated gypsum lath securely attached to studs and having strips of metal lath 3 inches wide applied to all horizontal joints of gypsum lath.
2 4
For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

721.4.1.1.2 Solid grouted clay units. The equivalent thickness of solid grouted clay masonry units shall be taken as the actual thickness of the units.

721.4.1.1.3 Units with filled cores. The equivalent thickness of the hollow clay masonry units is the actual thickness of the unit when completely filled with loose-fill materials of: sand, pea gravel, crushed stone, or slag that meet ASTM C 33 requirements; pumice, scoria, expanded shale, expanded clay, expanded slate, expanded slag, expanded fly ash, or cinders in compliance with ASTM C 331; or perlite or vermiculite meeting the requirements of ASTM C 549 and ASTM C 516, respectively.

721.4.1.2 Plaster finishes. Where plaster is applied to the wall, the total fire-resistance rating shall be determined by the formula:

R = (Rn0.59 + p1) 1.7               (Equation 7-9)

where:

R = The fire-resistance rating ofthe assembly (hours).

Rn = The fire-resistance rating of the individual wall (hours).

pi = Coefficient for thickness of plaster.

Values for Rno.59 for use in Equation 7-9 are given in Table 721.4.1 (3). Coefficients for thickness of plaster shall be selected from Table 721.4.1 (4) based on the actual thickness of plaster applied to the wall or partition and whether one or two sides of the wall are plastered.

721.4.1.3 Multiwythe walls with airspace. Where a continuous airspace separates multiple wythes of the wall or partition, the total fire-resistance rating shall be determined by the formula:

R = (R10.59 + R20.59 + … + Rn0.59 + as) 1.7               (Equation 7-10)

156

where:

R     The fire-resistance rating of the assembly (hours).

R1, R2 and Rn = The fire-resistance rating of the individual wythes (hours).

as     Coefficient for continuous airspace.

Values for RnO.59 for use in Equation 7-10 are given in Table 721.4.1 (3). The coefficient for each continuous airspace of ½ inch to 3½ inches (12.7 to 89 mm) separating two individual wythes shall be 0.3.

TABLE 721.4.1 (3)
VALUES OF Rno. 59
Rn 0.59 R(hours)
1 1.0
2 1.50
3 1.91
4 2.27

 

TABLE 721.4.1 (4)
COEFFICIENTS FOR PLASTER, pia
THICKNESS OF PLASTER (inch) ONE SIDE TWO SIDE
½ 0.3 0.6
0.37 0.75
¾ 0.45 0.90
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
a. Values listed in table are for 1:3 sanded gypsum plaster.

 

TABLE 721.4.1 (5)
REINFORCED MASONRY LINTELS
NOMINAL LINTEL WIDTH (inches) MINIMUM LONGITUDINAL REINFORCEMENT COVER FOR FIRE RESISTANCE (inch)
1 hour 2 hour 3 hour 4 hour
6 2 NP NP
8 3
10 or more
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.
NP = Not permitted.

 

TABLE 721.4.1 (6)
REINFORCED CLAY MASONRY COLUMNS
COLUMN SIZE FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING (hour)
1 2 3 4
Minimum column dimension (inches) 8 10 12 14
For 51: 1 inch = 25.4 mm.

721.4.1.4 Nonsymmetrical assemblies. For a wall having no finish on one side or having different types or thicknesses of finish on each side, the calculation procedures of this section shall be performed twice, assuming either side to be the fire-exposed side of the wall. The fire resistance of the wall shall not exceed the lower of the two values determined.

Exception: For exterior walls with a fire separation distance greater than 5 feet (1524 mm), the fire shall be assumed to occur on the interior side only.

721.4.2 Multiwythe walls. The fire-resistance rating for walls or partitions consisting of two or more dissimilar wythes shall be permitted to be determined by the formula:

R = (R10.59 + R2o.59 + … + Rn0.59) 1.7               (Equation 7-11)

where:

R = The fire-resistance rating of the assembly (hours).

Rl, R2 and Rn = The fire-resistance rating of the individual wythes (hours).

Values for RnO.59 for use in Equation 7-11 are given in Table 721.4.1 (3).

721.4.2.1 Multiwythe walls of different material. For walls that consist of two or more wythes of different materials (concrete or concrete masonry units) in combination with clay masonry units, the fire-resistance rating of the different materials shall be permitted to be determined from Table 721.2.1.1 for concrete; Table 721.3.2 for concrete masonry units or Table 721.4.1 (1) or 721.4.1 (2) for clay and tile masonry units.

721.4.3 Reinforced clay masonry lintels. Fire-resistance ratings for clay masonry lintels shall be determined based on the nominal width of the lintel and the minimum covering for the longitudinal reinforcement in accordance with Table 721.4.1 (5).

721.4.4 Reinforced clay masonry columns. The fire-resistance ratings shall be determined based on the last plan dimension of the column in accordance with Table 721.4.1 (6). The minimum cover for longitudinal reinforcement shall be 2 inches (51 mm).

721.5 Steel assemblies. The provisions of this section contain procedures by which the fire-resistance ratings of steel assemblies are established by calculations.

721.5.1 Structural steel columns. The fire-resistance ratings of steel columns shall be based on the size of the element and the type of protection provided in accordance with this section.

721.5.1.1 General. These procedures establish a basis for determining the fire resistance of column assemblies as a function of the thickness of fire-resistant material and, the weight, Wand heated perimeter, D, of steel columns. As used in these sections, Wis the average weight ofa structural steel column in pounds per linear foot. The heated perimeter, D, is the inside perimeter of the fire-resistant material in inches as illustrated in Figure 721.5.1 (1).

157

FIGURE 721.5.1(1) DETERMINATION OF THE HEATED PERIMETER OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS

FIGURE 721.5.1(1) DETERMINATION OF THE HEATED PERIMETER OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS

721.5.1.1.1 Nonload-bearing protection. The application of these procedures shall be limited to column assemblies in which the fire-resistant material is not designed to carry any of the load acting on the column.

721.5.1.1.2 Embedments. In the absence of substantiating fire-endurance test results, ducts, conduit, piping, and similar mechanical, electrical, and plumbing installations shall not be embedded in any required fire-resistant materials.

721.5.1.1.3 Weight-to-perimeter ratio. Table 721.5.1 (1) contains weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (WID) for both contour and box fire-resistant profiles, for the wide flange shapes most often used as columns. For different fire-resistant protection profiles or column cross sections, the weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (WID) shall be determined in accordance with the definitions given in this section.

721.5.1.2 Gypsum wallboard protection. The fire resistance of structural steel columns with weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (WID) less than or equal to 3.65 and which are protected with Type X gypsum wall-board shall be permitted to be determined from the following expression:

Image

where:

R      Fire resistance (minutes).

h      Total thickness of gypsum wallboard (inches).

D      Heated perimeter of the structural steel column (inches).

W      Total weight of the structural steel column and gypsum wallboard protection (pounds per linear foot).

W      W+ 50hD/144.

721.5.1.2.1 Attachment. The gypsum wallboard shall be supported as illustrated in either Figure 721.5.1 (2) for fire-resistance ratings of 4 hours or less, or Figure 721.5.1 (3) for fire-resistance ratings of 3 hours or less.

FIGURE 721.5.1(2) GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS WITH SHEET STEEL COLUMN COVERS

FIGURE 721.5.1(2) GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS WITH SHEET STEEL COLUMN COVERS

721.5.1.2.2 Gypsum wallboard equivalent to concrete. The determination of the fire resistance of structural steel columns from Figure 721.5.1 (4) is permitted for various thicknesses of gypsum wall-board as a function of the weight-to-heated-perimeter ratio (WID) of the column. For structural steel columns with weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (WID) greater than 3.65, the thickness of gypsum wallboard required for specified fire-resistance ratings shall be the same as the thickness determined for a Wl4 × 233 wide flange shape.

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721.5.1.3 Sprayed fire-resistant materials. The fire resistance of wide-flange structural steel columns protected with sprayed fire-resistant materials, as illustrated in Figure 721.5.1 (5), shall be permitted to be determined from the following expression:

R     =[C1(W/D)+C2]h      (Equation 7-13)

where:

R     = Fire resistance (minutes).

h     = Thickness of sprayed fire-resistant material (inches).

D     = Heated perimeter of the structural steel column (inches).

C1 and C2 = Material-dependent constants.

W     = Weight of structural steel columns (pounds per linear foot).

The fire resistance of structural steel columns protected with intumescent or mastic fire-resistant coatings

FIGURE 721.5.1(3) GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS WITH STEEL STUD/SCREW ATTACHMENT SYSTEM

FIGURE 721.5.1(3) GYPSUM WALLBOARD PROTECTED STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS WITH STEEL STUD/SCREW ATTACHMENT SYSTEM

721.5.1.3.1 Material-dependent constants. The material-dependent constants, C1 and C2, shall be determined for specific fire-resistant materials on the basis of standard fire endurance tests in accordance with Section 703.2. Unless evidence is submitted to the building official substantiating a broader application, this expression shall be limited to determining the fire resistance of structural steel columns with weight-to-heated-perimeter ratios (WID) between the largest and smallest columns for which standard fire-resistance test results are available.

FIGURE 721.5.1 (4) FIRE RESISTANCE OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS PROTECTED WITH VARIOUS THICKNESSES OF TYPE X GYPSUM WALLBOARD

FIGURE 721.5.1 (4) FIRE RESISTANCE OF STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS PROTECTED WITH VARIOUS THICKNESSES OF TYPE X GYPSUM WALLBOARD

  1. The WID ratios for typical wide flange columns are listed in Table 721.5.1(1) . For other column shapes, the WID ratios shall be determined in accordance with Section 720.5.1.1.

FIGURE 721.5.1 (5) WIDE FLANGE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS WITH SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS

FIGURE 721.5.1 (5) WIDE FLANGE STRUCTURAL STEEL COLUMNS WITH SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS

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721.5.1.3.2 Identification. Sprayed fire-resistant materials shall be identified by density and thickness required for a given fire-resistance rating.

721.5.1.4 Concrete-protected columns. The fire resistance of structural steel columns protected with concrete, as illustrated in Figure 721.5.1(6) (a) and (b), shall be permitted to be determined from the following expression:

R = R 0(1 + 0.03m)     (Equation 7-14)

where:

Ro= 10 (W/D) 0.7 + 17 (h1.6/Kc0.2) × [1 + 26 {H/pcCch (L + h)} 0.8]

As used in these expres