2010 California Building Code
Building Standards Commission Logo

California Code of Regulations
Title 24, Part 2, Volume 1 of 2

California Building
Standards Commission

Based on the 2009 International Building Code®

Public Domain Mark

EFFECTIVE DATE: January 1, 2011

(For Errata and supplements, See History Note Appendix)

Public Domain: U.S. Court of Appeals, Fifth Circuit, 99-40632

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2010 California Building Code
California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Volume 1 of Part 2

First Printing: June 2010

ISBN 978-1-58001-974-3

Copyright © 2010
Held by

California Building Standards Commission
2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130
Sacramento, CA 95833-2936

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. This 2010 California Building Code contains substantial copyrighted material from the 2009 International Building Code, Second Printing, which is a copyrighted work owned by the International Code Council, Inc. Without advance written permission from the copyright owner, no part of this book may be reproduced, distributed or transmitted in any form or by any means, including, without limitation, electronic, optical or mechanical means (by way of example and not limitation, photocopying, or recording by or in an information storage retrieval system). For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233).

Trademarks: “International Code Council,” the “International Code Council” logo and the “International Building Code” are trade marks of the International Code Council, Inc.

PRINTED IN THE U.S.A.

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PREFACE

This document is Part 2 of 12 parts of the official triennial compilation and publication of the adoptions, amendments and repeal of administrative regulations to California Code of Regulations, Title 24, also referred to as the California Building Standards Code. This Part is known as the California Building Code.

The California Building Standards Code is published in its entirety every three years by order of the California legislature, with supplements published in intervening years. The California legislature delegated authority to various state agencies, boards, commissions and departments to create building regulations to implement the State’s statutes. These building regulations or standards, have the same force of law, and take effect 180 days after their publication unless otherwise stipulated. The California Building Standards Code applies to occupancies in the State of California as annotated.

A city, county or city and county may establish more restrictive building standards reasonably necessary because of local climatic, geological or topographical conditions. Findings of the local condition(s) and the adopted local building standard(s) must be filed with the California Building Standards Commission to become effective and may not be effective sooner than the effective date of this edition of California Building Standards Code. Local building standards that were adopted and applicable to previous editions of the California Building Standards Code do not apply to this edition without appropriate adoption and the required filing.

Should you find publication (e.g., typographical) errors or inconsistencies in this code or wish to offer comments toward improving its format, please address your comments to:

California Building Standards Commission
2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130
Sacramento, CA 95833-2936
Phone:
(916) 263-0916
Fax: (916) 263-0959

Web Page: www.bsc.ca.gov

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The 2010 California Building Standards Code (Code) was developed through the outstanding collaborative efforts of the Department of Housing and Community Development, the Division of State Architect, the Office of the State Fire Marshal, the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, the California Energy Commission, and the Building Standards Commission (Commission).

This collaborative effort included the assistance of the Commission’s Code Advisory Committees and many other volunteers that worked tirelessly to assist the Commission in the production of this Code.

Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger

Members of the Building Standards Commission

Acting Secretary Tom Sheehy – Chair

Isam Hasenin – Vice-Chair
James Barthman
Craig Daley
Susan Dowty
Tony Hoffman
Christina Jamison
Stephen Jensen
Michael Paravagna
Richard Sawhill
Steven Winkel

David Walls – Executive Director
Thomas Morrison – Deputy Executive Director

For questions on California state agency amendments; please refer to the contact list on the following page.

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California Code of Regulations, Title 24

California Agency Information Contact List

California Energy Commission
Energy Hotline(800) 772-3300
 or (916) 654-5106
Building Efficiency Standards 
Appliance Efficiency Standards 
Compliance Manual/Forms 
California State Lands Commission
Marine Oil Terminals(562) 499-6317
California State Library
Resources and Information(916) 654-0261
Government Publication Section(916) 654-0069
Corrections Standards Authority
Local Adult Jail Standards(916) 324-1914
Local Juvenile Facility Standards(916) 324-1914
Department of Consumer Affairs–Acupuncture Board
Office Standards(916) 445-3021
Department of Consumer Affairs–Board of Pharmacy
Pharmacy Standards(916) 574-7900
Department of Consumer Affairs–Bureau of Barbering And Cosmetology
Barber and Beauty Shop and College Standards(916) 574-7570
Structural Standards(800) 952-5210
Department of Consumer Affairs–Bureau of Home Furnishings and Thermal Insulation
Insulation Testing Standards(916) 574-2041
Department of Consumer Affairs–Structural Pest Control Board
Structural Standards(800) 737-8188
 (916) 561-8708
Department of Consumer Affairs–Veterinary Medical Board
Veterinary Hospital Standard(916) 263-2610
Department of Food and Agriculture
Meat and Poultry Packing Plant Standards(916) 654-1447
Dairy Standards(916) 654-1447
Department of Public Health
Organized Camps Standards(916) 449-5661
Public Swimming Pools Standards(916) 449-5693
Asbestos Standards(510) 620-2874
Department of Housing and Community Development
Residential–Hotels, Motels, Apartments,
Single-Family Dwellings
(916) 445-9471
Permanent Structures in Mobilehome and
Special Occupancy Parks
(916) 445-9471
Factory-Built Housing, Manufactured
Housing and Commercial Modular
(916) 445-3338
Mobilehomes–Permits and Inspections
Northern Region
(916) 225-2501
Southern Region(951) 782-4420
Employee Housing Standards(916) 445-9471
Department of Water Resources
Gray Water Installations Standards(916) 651-9667
Division of the State Architect–Access Compliance
Access Compliance Standards(916) 445-8100
Division of the State Architect–Structural Safety
Public Schools Standards(916) 445-8100
Essential Services Building Standards(916) 445-8100
Community College Standards(916) 445-8100
Division of the State Architect–State Historical Building
Safety Board
Alternative Building Standards(916) 445-8100
Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development
Hospital Standards(916) 440-8409
Skilled Nursing Facility Standards(916) 440-8409
Clinic Standards(916) 440-8409
Permits(916) 440-8409
Office of the State Fire Marshal
Code Development and Analysis(916) 445-8200
Fire Safety Standards(916) 445-8200
Fireplace Standards(916) 445-8200
Day-Care Centers Standards(916) 445-8200
Exit Standards(916) 445-8200
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EFFECTIVE USE OF THE IBC/CBC

Distilling the code review process down to a methodical, sequential list of considerations is generally problematic. In many cases, related provisions from various chapters of the code must be considered simultaneously, or reconsidered later in the process to arrive at the correct classification or determination. Any number of acceptable alternatives may exist for construction of the building and its specific features. Each choice provided by the code must be evaluated for its specific impact on other aspects of the building's analysis. With a basic understanding of the interrelationship of the various chapters, the practiced code user will make an initial assessment of the building as a first step of the code review process. The following outline may be helpful as a guide for the effective use of the IBC, with the understanding that final resolution of each step is often dependant on subsequent steps.

The following process begins with a brief discussion of the key administrative areas of the code. The process addressing technical provisions is divided into two distinct areas of analysis, the nonstructural provisions of the IBC and the structural provisions. Although reference is not made to all provisions set forth in the IBC, the process is intended to be representative of an approach to using the IBC in an effective manner.

Administrative Provisions

Prior to any analysis based on the technical provisions of the IBC, it is important that the fundamental administrative aspects of the code be reviewed. It is critical that the basis of technical decisions be consistent with the approach established in IBC Chapter 1, including:

Nonstructural Provisions

  1. Classify the building for occupancy and construction type. The first step in analyzing a building for code compliance is its proper classification based on anticipated use(s) and construction features.
    Identify the distinct and varied uses of the building. The uses that will occur within the building must be identified, evaluated and classified into one or more of the distinct occupancy classifications established in the IBC. Some buildings will be classified as single-occupancy, where there is only one applicable occupancy classification. Others will be considered as mixed-occupancy due to the presence of two or more uses that are classified into different occupancy groups.
    Sec. 302.1 Classify the building into one or more occupancy groups. Although there are 10 general occupancy groups, many of the groups are subdivided into sub-groups to allow for a more exacting analysis of the building under consideration.
    Sec. 303Group A
    Sec. 304Group B
    Sec. 305Group E
    Sec. 306Group F
    Sec. 307Group H
    Sec. 308Group I
    Sec. 309Group M
    Sec. 310Group R
    Sec. 311Group S
    Sec. 312Group U

    Identify the building's type of construction based on the materials of construction and degree of fire-resistance for the building's major elements. The primary structural frame, exterior walls, interior walls, floor construction and roof construction, as applicable, must be evaluated in regard to their degree of fire-resistance and materials of construction in order to classify the building based upon type of construction.
    v
    Sec. 602.1 Classify the building into a single type of construction. Five general types of construction have been established and further subdivided into nine specific construction types. The classification of construction type is based on a combination of the degree of fire-resistance and the type of materials of the key building elements.
    Sec. 602Type of construction based on materials of construction
    Table 601Type of construction based on fire rating of the building elements
    Sec. 603Combustible materials in Type I and II buildings

    Sec. 1505 Verify classification of roof covering. Roof coverings are typically required to provide protection against moderate or light fire exposures from the exterior. Their minimum required classification is based upon the type of construction of the building.
  2. Determine if the building is to be fully sprinklered. Many of the code provisions vary based upon the presence of an automatic sprinkler system throughout, or in specific portions of, the building.
    Sec. 903.2 Determine if the building requires a fire sprinkler system. Many of the mandates for the installation of a sprinkler system are based upon the occupancy or occupancies that occur within the building. The provisions will often require some degree of occupant load and fire area determination. Other conditions may also trigger a required sprinkler installation, such as building height or the lack of exterior openings. Table 903.2.13 should also be consulted.
    If a sprinkler system is not required, review for potential code modifications if a sprinkler system is installed. There are a significant number of benefits provided by the code if a sprinkler system is installed. An initial analysis of the building will typically allow for an early determination of the value of such sprinkler benefits, including:
    Sec. 504.2Story and height increase (reduced type of construction)
    Sec. 506.3Allowable area increase (reduced type of construction)
    Sec. 507.3Unlimited area building (reduced type of construction)
    Sec. 1018.1Elimination of corridor fire-resistance rating
  3. Locate the building on the site. The location of the building(s) on the lot is fundamental to the degree of fire exposure to and from adjoining buildings and lots. In addition, the building's location influences the amount of fire department access that can be provided from the exterior of the building.
    Sec.503.1.2 Determine the number of buildings on the site. Where two or more buildings are located on the same lot, they can be evaluated as a single building or multiple buildings. The type of construction requirements may differ based upon which of the two methods is utilized.
    Sec.602.1 Determine minimum required fire rating of exterior walls. The fire separation distance is the measurement used in evaluating the necessary fire rating for exterior walls. It is measured from the building to the lot line, to the center line of a public way, or to an imaginary assumed line between two buildings on the same lot. Projections and parapets, if applicable, are also regulated.
    Sec.704.8 Determine exterior opening protection requirements. Openings in exterior walls are regulated by the fire separation distance and the rating of the exterior wall in which they are located.
    Sec.506.2 Determine frontage increase for allowable area purposes. Utilized primarily for fire department access, open space adjacent to a building's perimeter provides for an increase in the allowable area.
  4. Verify building's construction type by determining the allowable building size. The permitted types of construction are primarily based upon the occupancy classifications involved, the building's height and the building's floor area. Other conditions may also affect the appropriate construction types, including the building's location on the lot and the intended materials of construction. In buildings with mixed-occupancy conditions, the methods of addressing the relationship between the multiple occupancies indirectly affect construction type.
    Sec. 202 and 502 Calculate actual height of building in both'feet' and 'stories above grade plane'. The code specifically describes the method for assigning a building height, measure both in 2:55 PM 10/25/2010the number of feet and the number of stories above grade plane. The actual height must be compared with the allowable height to determine if the building's type of construction is acceptable.
    Sec. 504 Determine allowable height permitted for 'feet' and 'stories'
    Sec. 505 Determine if mezzanine provisions are applicable
    Sec. 504.3 Determine if any rooftop structures are in compliance
    Sec. 502 Calculate actual floor area of each story of building. The building area is typically the entire floor area that occurs within the surrounding exterior walls. The building area for each individual story must be calculated, as well as for the building as a whole.
    vi
    Sec.507 Determine if building qualifies as an unlimited area building
    Sec.506 Determine allowable area permitted for each story and building as a whole if:
    Sec. 506Single-occupancy building
    Sec. 508.2Multi-occupancy w/accessory occupancies
    Sec. 508.3Multi-occupancy building w/nonseparated occupancies
    Sec. 508.4Multi-occupancy building w/separated occupancies
    Sec. 706.1Use of fire walls

    Sec. 509 Determine if special provisions are to be applied for height and/or area. The general requirements for allowable height and area may be modified under limited conditions, typically where a parking garage is located in a building with other occupancies.
  5. Identify extent of any special detailed occupancy requirements. Special types of buildings, special uses that occur within buildings, and special elements of a building are further regulated through specific requirements found in Chapter 4. Since these provisions are specific in nature, they apply in lieu of the general requirements found elsewhere in the code.
    Chapter 4. Determine special detailed requirements based on occupancy. A number of the special provisions are applicable to a specific occupancy or group of similar occupancies.
    Sec. 402Covered mall buildings
    Sec. 403High-rise buildings
    Sec. 404Atriums
    Sec. 405Underground buildings
    Sec. 406Motor-vehicle-related occupancies
    Sec. 407Group I-2 occupancies
    Sec. 408Group I-3 occupancies
    Sec. 411Special amusement buildings
    Sec. 412Aircraft-related occupancies
    Sec. 415Group H occupancies
    Sec. 419Live/work units
    Sec. 420Groups I-1, R-1, R-2 and R-3
    Sec. 422Ambulatory health care facilities

    Table 508.2.5 Determine if building contains any incidental accessory occupancies. The uses identified in Table 508.5.2 are considered as a portion of the occupancy in which they are located, but special conditions required that they be addressed in a more specific manner.
    Sec. 508.2.5 Provide fire separation and/or fire-extinguishing system
  6. Identify and evaluate fire and smoke protective elements. Where fire-resistance-rated construction and/or smoke protection is mandated by other provisions of the code, the provisions of Chapter 7 identify the appropriate methods for gaining compliance.
    Chapter 7. Verify compliance w/details of fire and smoke resistance. The various elements of fire-resistance-rated and smoke-resistant construction are detailed, including walls, horizontal assemblies, shaft enclosures, including openings such as doors and windows, as well as the penetration of such elements by conduit, ducts, piping and other items.
    Sec. 704Structural members
    Sec. 707Fire barriers
    Sec. 709Fire partitions
    Sec. 710Smoke barriers
    Sec. 711Smoke partitions
    Sec. 712Horizontal assemblies
    Sec. 708Shaft enclosures
    Sec. 713Penetrations
    Sec. 714Joint systems
    Sec. 715Opening protectives
    Sec. 716Ducts and air transfer openings
    vii
  7. Identify additional fire protection systems that may be required. In addition to automatic sprinkler systems, there are several other types of fire protection systems that may be required in a building.
    Sec. 907.2. Determine compliance with fire alarm provisions. Fire alarm systems are typically mandated based upon the occupancy classification and the number of occupants.
    Sec. 905.3. Determine if standpipe system is required. A standpipe system is required in buildings once a specified height is reached to provide for a more effective means of fighting a fire within the building.
    Sec. 905.4.6 Verify location of standpipe hose connections.
  8. Identify and evaluate materials utilized as interior floor, wall and ceiling finishes. Finish materials within the building are primarily regulated for flame spread and smoke development characteristics.
    Sec. 803.9. Verify compliance of wall and ceiling finishes. Interior wall and ceiling finishes are egulated based upon the occupancy classification of the space and their location within the means of egress system. The classification may typically be reduced where sprinkler protection is provided.
    Sec. 804.4. Verify compliance of floor finishes. While regulated differently than wall and ceiling finishes, floor finishes comprised of fibers are also controlled based upon their use in the egress system, the occupancy classification, and the presence of a sprinkler system.
  9. Evaluate means of egress system based on anticipated occupant loads. The expected occupant load is the basic for the design of the means of egress system. The egress elements must provide for a direct, continuous, obvious, undiminished and unobstructed path of travel from any occupiable point in the building to the public way.
    Sec. 1004. Determine the design occupant load. Although the primary use of an occupant load is in the design of the building's means of egress system, occupant load is also occasionally an important factor in occupancy classification, sprinkler system and fire alarm system requirements, and plumbing fixture counts.
    Chapter 10. Verify compliance with means of egress provisions. The means of egress system is intended to provide the primary occupant protection from fire and other hazards. The system consists of two major components, egress components and egress design.
    Sec. 1005.1Egress width and distribution
    Sec. 1006.3Emergency lighting
    Sec. 1007Accessible means of egress
    Sec. 1008.1.2Door swing
    Sec. 1008.1.9Door operations
    Sec. 1008.1.10Panic hardware
    Sec. 1009.1Stairway width
    Sec. 1009.4Stairway treads and risers
    Sec. 1011Exit signs
    Sec. 1012Stairway and ramp handrails
    Sec. 1013Guards
    Sec. 1014.2Egress through intervening spaces
    Sec. 1014.3Common path of egress travel
    Sec. 1015.1Number of exit or exit access doorways
    Sec. 1015.2Egress separation
    Sec. 1016.1Travel distance
    Sec. 1018.1Corridor construction
    Sec. 1021Number of exits
    Sec. 1022Vertical exit enclosures
    Sec. 1023Exit passageways
    Sec. 1025Horizontal exits
    Sec. 1026Exterior exit stairways
    Sec. 1027Exit discharge
    Sec. 1028Egress from assembly occupancies
    viii
  10. Identify any special use features of the building. The activities that occur within the building pose varying risks to the occupants. Special conditions are applicable when such activities are anticipated.
    Chapter 4. Verify compliance with special detailed requirements. These provisions are often an extension of the general requirements found elsewhere in the code.
    Sec. 410Stages and platforms
    Sec. 413Combustible storage
    Sec. 414Hazardous materials
    Sec. 416Application of flammable finishes
  11. Determine areas of building and site required to be accessible. In general, access to persons with disabilities is required for all buildings.
    Chapter 11A and/or 11B. Verify compliance with accessibility provisions. In order to be considered as accessible, buildings and their individual elements must comply with the applicable technical provisions of Chapters 11A and/or 11B.
  12. Determine extent of other miscellaneous provisions. Additional provisions may be applicable based upon each individual building and its characteristics.
    Sec. 2406.3. Verify safety glazing provided in hazardous locations. Safety glazing must be appropriately identified to ensure the proper glazing material is installed in areas considered as subject to human impact.
    Chapter 12. Interior environment. Provisions regulating ventilation, temperature control, lighting, sound transmission, room dimensions and surrounding materials associated with interior spaces.
    Chapter 14 Exterior walls. Requirements for installation of wall coverings and the permissible use of combustible materials on the exterior side of exterior walls.
    Chapter 24. Glass and glazing. General provisions for the installation of glazing materials and skylights.
    Chapter 30. Elevators. Elevator hoistway provisions, including enclosure of hoistways, emergency operations and hoistway venting.
    Chapter 31. Special construction. A variety of special conditions are addressed, including membrane structures, temporary structures, pedestrian walkways and tunnels, awnings and canopies, marquees, signs and swimming pool enclosures.

Structural Provisions

General Requirements

  1. Design Loads.

    The 2009 IBC reference the national load standard, Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE/SEI 7—O5) with Supplement Number 2.

    Determine the applicable design loads that the building structure is expected to be subjected to. Code prescribed loads are given in Chapter 16 and the referenced standard, ASCE/SEI 7. The code prescribed minimum live loads are given in IBC Table 1607.1.

    The various code prescribed loads are probabilistic in nature. Environmental loads, such as flood, rain, snow, seismic and wind vary based on the location of the building site. The following table gives the IBC section and ASCE/SEI 7 chapter for various types of load.

    REFERENCED IBC SECTIONS AND ASCE/SEI 7 CHAPTERS FOR LOADS
    TYPE OF LOADIBC SECTIONASCE/SEI 7 CHAPTER
    Dead loadsSection 1606Chapter 3
    Live loadsSection 1607, Table 1607.1Chapter 4
    Snow loadsSection 1608Chapter 7
    Wind loadsSection 1609Chapter 6
    Soil lateral loadsSection 1610Chapter 3
    Rain loadsSection 1611Chapter 8
    Flood loadsSection 1612Chapter 51
    Earthquake loadsSection 1613Chapter 11-22
    1 Section 1612 references ASCE 24 which references Chapter 5 of ASCE/SEI 7
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  2. Structural Materials.

    The structural design begins with the selection of the type of structural materials to be used to support the building. Structural framing systems are constructed of concrete, masonry, steel or wood. Some miscellaneous or specialty structures and components, such as awnings, canopies and cladding, are often constructed of aluminum.

    The design of various structural materials is covered in specific material chapters in the code which in turn reference design standards for the type of material involved. The referenced standards in the 2009 IBC for the structural materials are shown in the following table:

    STRUCTURAL DESIGN STANDARDS FOR STRUCTURAL MATERIALS1
    MATERIALIBC/CBC CHAPTERREFERENCED STANDARD
    Concrete19ACI 318—08 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete
    Aluminum20ADM 1—05 Aluminum Design Manual
    Masonry21TMS 402-08/ACI 530-08/ASCE 5-08 Building Code Requirements and Specification for Masonry Structures (MSJC Code)
    Steel22AISC 360—05 Specification for Structural Steel Buildings AISC 341—05 Seismic Provisions for Structural Steel Buildings, including Supplement No. 1 dated 2006 AISI S100—2007 North American Specification for the Design of Cold-Formed Steel Structural Members
    Wood23AF&PA NDS—05 National Design Specification (NDS) for Wood Construction with 2005 Supplement AF&PA SDPWS—08 Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic
    1. The above table shows the main structural design standards for these structural materials. For a complete list of referenced standards, see IBC Chapter 35.
  3. Structural Analysis, Design and Detailing.

    Once the applicable loads are determined, the structural system of the building must be analyzed to determine the effects of the governing gravity and lateral loads that act on the structure. The structural system of a typical building consists of the roof and floor systems, walls, beams and columns, and the foundation. From the structural analysis, the next step is to design the structural members, elements and systems to provide the minimum level of resistance in accordance with the various load combinations prescribed in Section 1605.

    Once the structural elements and systems are designed, the next step is to detail the load transfer connections to provide a complete load path from the point of origin to the resisting element. In general, the ultimate resisting element of buildings and structures is the foundation and supporting ground. The final step is to prepare a complete set of construction documents as required by Sections 107 and 1603. Construction documents are defined in Section 202 as "Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit." In general, construction documents consist of plans, specifications and calculations.

    Section 1603.1 requires construction documents to show the size, section and relative locations of structural members with floor levels, column centers and offsets dimensioned. Design loads required by Sections 1603.1.1 through 1603.1.9 must be indicated on the construction documents. If complete construction documents consisting of plans, specifications and calculations are provided, the items listed in Sections 1603.1.1 through 1603.9 are generally included.

    x

    The exception permits construction documents for buildings constructed in accordance with the conventional light-frame construction provisions of Section 2308 need only indicate the following:

    Floor and roof live loads

    Ground snow load, Pg.

    Basic (3-second gust) wind speed (mph) and wind exposure category.

    Seismic design category and site class.

    Flood design data where sited in flood hazard areas

    Design load-bearing values of soils.

General Requirements

  1. Occupancy Category (IBC/CBC Table 1604.5).

    Determine the occupancy category of the building based on Table 1604.5.

    Where a structure is occupied by two or more occupancies that are not the same occupancy category, the building must be classified in the highest occupancy category corresponding to the various occupancies.

    Where structures have two or more portions that are structurally separated, each separate portion should be separately classified.

    Where a separated portion of a structure provides required access or egress from another portion of the building with a higher occupancy category, both portions of the building must be assigned the higher occupancy category.

    Where a separated portion of a structure shares life safety components with another portion of the building with a higher occupancy category, both portions of the building must be assigned the higher occupancy category.

  2. Floor and roof live loads (IBC/CBC Table 1607.1).

    Determine uniformly distributed and concentrated floor live load for the floor areas of the building in accordance with Section 1603.1.1 and Table 1607.1.

    Floor live load reduction in accordance with Section 1607.9 should be indicated for each type of live load that is reduced.

    Determine the roof live load for roof areas in accordance with Section 1607.11.

    Roof live load reduction in accordance with Section 1607.11.2 should be indicated for roof live loads that are reduced.

  3. Snow load (IBC/CBC Section 1608, ASCE/SEI 7 Section 7).

    Determine the ground snow load, Pg, based on the location of the building site in accordance with Figure 1608.2 for the contiguous United States and Table 1608.2 for Alaska.

    In areas where the ground snow load, Pg, exceeds 10 psf, the following information should be determined:

    1. Flat-roof snow load, Pf.
    2. Snow exposure factor, Ce.
    3. Snow load importance factor, I.
    4. Thermal factor, Ct.
  4. Wind speed and wind exposure category.

    Determine the following information related to wind loads in accordance with Section 1603.1.4:

    1. Basic 3-second gust wind speed (mph).
    2. Wind importance factor, I.
    3. Wind exposure category (B, C, D). If more than one wind exposure is used, the wind exposure for each wind direction should be determined.
    4. The applicable internal pressure coefficient.
    5. The design wind pressure (psf) used for the design of exterior component and cladding materials not specifically designed by the registered design professional should be indicated.
    xi
  5. Earthquake design requirements.

    Determine the following information related to seismic loads regardless of whether seismic loads govern the design of the lateral-force-resisting system of the building:

    1. Seismic importance factor, I, based on occupancy category.
    2. Mapped spectral response accelerations, Ss and S1.
    3. Site class.
    4. Design spectral response coefficients, SDS and SD1.
    5. seismic design category.
    6. Basic seismic-force-resisting system(s).
    7. Design base shear.
    8. Seismic response coefficient(s), Cs.
    9. Response modification factor(s), R.
    10. Analysis procedure used.
  6. Geotechnical information.

    The design load bearing values of soils shall be shown on the construction documents in accordance with Section 1603.1.6.

  7. Special loads.

    Determine any special loads that are applicable to the design of the building, structure or portions thereof along with the specific section of the code that addresses the special loading condition in accordance with Section 1603.1.8.

  8. Load combinations.

    Buildings and other structures and portions thereof are required to be designed to resist the load combinations specified in Section 1605.2 or 1605.3 and Chapters 18 through 23, and the special seismic load combinations with overstrength as required by Section 1605.1 and ASCE/SEI 7.

  9. Wind and seismic detailing.

    Lateral-force-resisting systems are required to conform to the seismic detailing requirements of the code and ASCE/SEI 7 (excluding Chapter 14 and Appendix 11A) even when wind load effects are greater than seismic load effects. See Section 1604.10.

  10. Serviceability.

    Structural systems and members shall be designed to have adequate stiffiness to limit deflections and lateral drift. The deflection of structural members shall not exceed the more restrictive of the limitations of Sections 1604.3.2 through 1604.3.6 or that permitted by Table 1604.3. Structural systems shall be designed to have adequate stiffness to limit deformation and lateral drift due to earthquake loading in accordance with Section 12.12.1 of ASCE/SEI 7.

  11. Foundation.

    A foundation system must be designed that provides adequate support for gravity and lateral loads. Walls of buildings of conventional light frame construction, as defined in Section 202, are permitted to be supported by footings constructed in accordance with Table 1809.7. Otherwise, the foundation system must be designed in accordance with other provisions of Chapter 18. The following table gives a summary of applicable sections for foundation systems.

    FOUNDATION REQUIREMENTS
    SUBJECTIBC SECTION
    Presumptive load-bearing values of soils1806, Table 1806.2
    Foundation walls, retaining walls and embedded posts & poles1807
    General requirements for foundations1808
    Minimum concrete specified concrete strengthTable 1808.8.1
    Minimum concrete coverTable 1808.8.2
    Shallow foundations (footings)1809
    Prescriptive footings for light frame wallsTable 1809.7
    Deep foundations1810
    xii

    A geotechnical investigation is required where required by Section 1803.2 unless the building official determines that a soils investigation is not required in accordance with the exception. A geotechnical investigation is required for buildings assigned to Seismic Design Categories C, D, E and F in accordance with Sections 1803.5.11 and 1803.5.12.

  12. Excavation, grading and fill

    Requirements for excavation, grading and fill related to foundation construction are covered in Section 1804. General requirements for site grading are covered in Appendix J.

  13. Flood design data.

    Where required by Section 1612.5, buildings located in flood hazard areas as established in Section 1612.3 are required to provide documentation that includes the following information regardless of whether flood loads govern the design of the building:

    1. In flood hazard areas not subject to high-velocity wave action, the elevation of the proposed lowest floor, including the basement; and the elevation to which any nonresidential building will be dry flood proofed.
    2. In flood hazard areas not subject to high-velocity wave action, the elevation to which any nonresidential building will be dry floodproofed.
    3. In flood hazard areas subject to high-velocity wave action, the proposed elevation of the bottom of the lowest horizontal structural member of the lowest floor, including the basement.
  14. Special inspection.

    Where special inspection, special inspection for seismic resistance, or structural testing for seismic resistance is required by Section 1704, 1707 or 1708, the registered design professional in responsible charge is required to prepare a statement of special inspections in accordance with Section 1705. The statement of special inspections must be submitted by the permit applicant as a condition of permit issuance in accordance with Section 106.1.

    A statement of special inspections is not required for structures designed and constructed in accordance with the conventional construction provisions of Section 2308 unless specific components in the structure require special inspection.

    The statement of special inspections is permitted to be prepared by a qualified person approved by the building official for construction not designed by a registered design professional.

    SPECIAL INSPECTION REQUIREMENTS
    TYPE OF SPECIAL INSPECTIONAPPLICABLE SECTIONREQUIRED VERIFICATION AND INSPECTION
    Steel construction1704.3Table 1704.3
    Concrete construction1704.4Table 1704.4
    Masonry construction  
    Level 11704.5Table 1704.5.1
    Level 2 Table 1704.5.3
    Wood construction1704.6
    Soils1704.7Table 1704.7
    Driven deep foundations1704.8Table 1704.8
    Cast in place deep foundations1704.9Table 1704.9
    Helical pile foundations1704.10
    Vertical masonry foundations1704.11
    1704.5
    Sprayed fire resistant materials1704.12
    Mastic and intumescent fire resistive coatings1704.13
    Exterior insulation and finish (EIFS) systems1704.14
    Special cases1704.15
    Smoke control systems1704.16
    Where required by the provisions of Section 1709.2 or 1709.3, the owner shall employ a registered design professional to perform structural observations as defined in Section 1702. At the conclusion of the work included in the permit, the structural observer shall submit a written statement to the building official that identifies any reported deficiencies that have not been resolved.
    xiii
  15. Special inspection for wind and seismic resistance.

    Section 1706.1 requires special inspections for wind requirements based on wind speed and exposure category as prescribed in Section 1706.2 through 1706.4, unless exempted by the exceptions to Section 1704.1.

    Section 1707.1 requires special inspections for seismic resistance based on seismic design category as prescribed in Sections 1707.2 through 1707.9, unless exempted by the exceptions of Section 1704.1 or 1705.3.

  16. Structural testing for seismic resistance.

    Section 1708.1 requires specific testing and qualification for seismic resistance as prescribed in Sections 1708.2 through 1708.5, unless exempted from special inspections by the exceptions of Section 1704.1 and 1705.3:

  17. Structural observation.

    Where required by the provisions of Section 1710.2 or 1710.3 the owner is required to employ a registered design professional to perform structural observations as defined in Section 1702. Section 1710.2 requires structural observations for seismic resistance for certain structures assigned to Seismic Design Category D, E or F; Section 1710.3 requires structural observations for wind requirements for certain structures sited where the wind speed exceeds 110 mph.

    At the conclusion of the work included in the permit, the structural observer is required to submit a written statement to the building official that identifies any reported deficiencies that have not been resolved.

    Prior to the commencement of observations, the structural observer is required to submit a written statement to the building official identifying the structural observations.

    At the conclusion of the work included in the permit, the structural observer is required to submit a written statement to the building official indicating what site visits have been made, identifies any deficiencies that have not been resolved.

  18. Contractor responsibility.

    Section 1709 requires each contractor responsible for the construction of a main wind-or seismic-force-resisting system, designated seismic system or a wind- or seismic-resisting component listed in the statement of special inspections is required to submit a written statement of responsibility to the building official and the owner prior to the commencement of work on the system or component. (The term “designated seismic system” is defined in Section 1702 and Section 11.2 of ASCE/SEI 7). The contractor’s statement of responsibility is required to acknowledge awareness of the special requirements contained in the statement of special inspections.

  19. Phased approvals.

    Construction of foundations or other part of a building is permitted before the construction documents for the whole building or structure have been submitted, provided adequate information has been filed. The holder of such permit for the foundation or other part of a building proceeds at their own risk and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted.

  20. Amended construction documents.

    Work must be constructed in accordance with the approved construction documents and any changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents must be resubmitted for approval as amended construction documents.

  21. Deferred submittals.

    Deferred submittals are items that are not submitted at the time of permit application and must have the prior approval of the building official in accordance with Section 107.3.4.2. The registered design professional in responsible charge is required to list the deferred submittals on the construction documents for review by the building official. Documents for deferred submittal items must be reviewed by the registered design professional in responsible charge who will forward them to the building official with a notation indicating the they have been reviewed and are in general conformance with the design of the building.

xiv

How to Distinguish Between Model Code Language and California Amendments

To distinguish between model code language and the incorporated California amendments, including exclusive California standards, California amendments will appear in italics.

[BSC] This symbol within a section identifies which State agency(s), by its “acronym,”has amended a section of the model code.

Legend of Acronyms of Adopting State Agencies
BSC California Building Standards Commission
SFM Office of the State Fire Marshal
HCD Department of Housing and Community Development
DSA-AC Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance
DSA-SS Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety
DSA-SS/CC Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Colleges
OSHPD Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development
CSA Corrections Standards Authority
DPH Department of Public Health
AGR Department of Food and Agriculture
CEC California Energy Commission
CA Department of Consumer Affairs:
Board of Barbering and Cosmetology
Board of Examiners in Veterinary Medicine
Board of Pharmacy
Acupuncture Board
Bureau of Home Furnishings
Structural Pest Control Board
SL State Librarian
SLC State Lands Commission
DWR Department of Water Resources

Symbols in the margins indicate the status of code changes as follows:

This symbol indicates that a change has been made to a California amendment.

This symbol indicates California deletion of California language.

xv xvi

California Matrix Adoption Tables

Format of the California Matrix Adoption Tables

The matrix adoption tables, which follow, show the user which state agencies have adopted and/or amended given sections of the model code. The building application determines which state agency’s adoptions apply. See Section’s 102 through 114 for building applications and enforcement responsibilities.

Agencies are grouped together, based on either local or state enforcement responsibilities. For example, regulations from SFM are enforced both at the state and local levels; therefore, SFM is listed twice in each adoption table indicating state enforcement responsibilities and local enforcement responsibilities.

The side headings identify the scope of state agencies’ adoption as follows:

Adopt the entire IBC chapter without state amendments.

If there is an “X” under a particular state agency’s acronym on this row; this means that particular state agency has adopted the entire model code chapter without any state amendments.

Example:

CHAPTER 2-DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Adopting agencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCSADPHAGRDWRCASLSLC
121-ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopt entire chapter X                 
Adopt entire chapter as amended
(amended sections listed below)
     SAMPLE        
Adopt only those sections that are listed below                   
Chapter/Section                   

Adopt the entire IBC chapter as amended, state-amended sections are listed below:

If there is an “X” under a particular state agency’s acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency has adopted the entire model code chapter; with state amendments.

Each state-amended section that the agency has added to that particular chapter is listed. There will be an “X” in the column, by that particular section, under the agency’s acronym, as well as an “X” by each section that the agency has adopted.

Example:

CHAPTER 2-DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Adopting agencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCSADPHAGRDWRCASLSLC
121-ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopting entire chapter                   
Adopt entire chapter as amended
(amended sections listed below)
 X                 
Adopt only those sections that
are listed below
     SAMPLE        
Chapter/Section                   
202 X                 
xvii

Adopt only those sections that are listed below:

If there is an “X” under a particular state agency’s acronym on this row, it means that particular state agency is adopting only specific model code or state-amended sections within this chapter. There will be an “X” in the column under the agency’s acronym, as well as an “X” by each section that the agency has adopted.

Example:

CHAPTER 2-DEFINITIONS AND ABBREVIATIONS
Adopting agencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCSADPHAGRDWRCASLSLC
121-ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopt entire chapter                   
Adopt entire chapter as amended
(amended sections listed below)
                   
Adopt only those sections that
are listed below
   XX SAMPLE       
Chapter 1                   
202   XX SAMPLE       
202   XX  CONT.        
203   XX              
203   XX              
xviii

ORDINANCE

The International Codes are designed and promulgated to be adopted by reference by ordinance. Jurisdictions wishing to adopt the 2010 California Building Code as an enforceable regulation governing structures and premises should ensure that certain factual information is included in the adopting ordinance at the time adoption is being considered by the appropriate governmental body. The following sample adoption ordinance addresses several key elements of a code adoption ordinance, including the information required for insertion into the code text.

SAMPLE ORDINANCE FOR ADOPTION OF THE CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE ORDINANCE NO._______________

An ordinance of the [JURISDICTION] adopting the 2010 edition of the California Building Code, regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures in the [JURISDICTION]; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; repealing Ordinance No.— of the [JURISDICTION] and all other ordinances and parts of the ordinances in conflict therewith.

The [GOVERNING BODY] of the [JURISDICTION] does ordain as follows:

Section 1. That a certain document, three (3) copies of which are on file in the office of the [TITLE OF JURISDICTION’S KEEPER OF RECORDS] of [NAME OF JURISDICTION], being marked and designated as the California Building Code, 2010 edition, including Appendix Chapters [FILL IN THE APPENDIX CHAPTERS BEING ADOPTED] (see California Building Code Section 101.2.1, 2010 edition), as published by the International Code Council, be and is hereby adopted as the Building Code of the [JURISDICTION], in the State of California for regulating and governing the conditions and maintenance of all property, buildings and structures; by providing the standards for supplied utilities and facilities and other physical things and conditions essential to ensure that structures are safe, sanitary and fit for occupation and use; and the condemnation of buildings and structures unfit for human occupancy and use and the demolition of such structures as herein provided; providing for the issuance of permits and collection of fees therefor; and each and all of the regulations, provisions, penalties, conditions and terms of said Buildings Code on file in the office of the [JURISDICTION] are hereby referred to, adopted, and made a part hereof, as if fully set out in this ordinance, with the additions, insertions, deletions and changes, if any, prescribed in Section 2 of this ordinance.

Section 2. The following sections are hereby revised:

Section 101.1. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION]

Section 1612.3. Insert: [NAME OF JURISDICTION]

Section 1612.3. Insert: [DATE OF ISSUANCE]

Section 3412.2. Insert: [DATE IN ONE LOCATION]

Section 3. That Ordinance No. — of [JURISDICTION] entitled [FILL IN HERE THE COMPLETE TITLE OF THE ORDINANCE OR ORDINANCES IN EFFECT AT THE PRESENT TIME SO THAT THEY WILL BE REPEALED BY DEFINITE MENTION] and all other ordinances or parts of ordinances in conflict herewith are hereby repealed.

Section 4. That if any section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this ordinance is, for any reason, held to be unconstitutional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portions of this ordinance. The [GOVERNING BODY] hereby declares that it would have passed this ordinance, and each section, subsection, clause or phrase thereof, irrespective of the fact that any one or more sections, subsections, sentences, clauses and phrases be declared unconstitutional.

Section 5. That nothing in this ordinance or in the Building Code hereby adopted shall be construed to affect any suit or proceeding impending in any court, or any rights acquired, or liability incurred, or any cause or causes of action acquired or existing, under any act or ordinance hereby repealed as cited in Section 3 of this ordinance; nor shall any just or legal right or remedy of any character be lost, impaired or affected by this ordinance.

Section 6. That the [JURISDICTION'S KEEPER OF RECORDS] is hereby ordered and directed to cause this ordinance to be published. (An additional provision may be required to direct the number of times the ordinance is to be published and to specify that it is to be in a newspaper in general circulation. Posting may also be required.)

Section 7. That this ordinance and the rules, regulations, provisions, requirements, orders and matters established and adopted hereby shall take effect and be in full force and effect [TIME PERIOD] from and after the date of its final passage and adoption.

xix xx

TABLE OF CONTENTS

VOLUME 1
CHAPTER 1 SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION3
DIVISION I CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATION3
Section
1.1General3
1.2Building Standards Commission5
1.3Corrections Standards Authority6
1.4Department of Consumer Affairs6
1.5Reserved7
1.6Department of Food and Agriculture7
1.7California Department of Public Health7
1.8Department of Housing and Community Development7
1.8.2Authority and Abbreviations7
1.8.3Local Enforcing Agency8
1.8.4Permits, Fees, Applications and Inspections9
1.8.5Right-of-Entry for Enforcement10
1.8.6Local Modification by ordinance or Regulation10
1.8.7Alternate Materials, Designs, Tests and Methods of Construction10
1.8.8Appeals Board11
1.8.9Unsafe Buildings or Structures12
1.8.10Other Building Regulations12
1.9Division of the State Architect12
1.10Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development15
1.11Office of the State Fire Marshal16
1.12State Librarian20
1.13Reserved20
1.14California State Lands Commission20
DIVISION II SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION21
101General21
102Applicability21
103Department of Building Safety22
104Duties and Powers of Building Officials22
105Permits23
106Floor and Roof Design Loads25
107Submittal Documents25
108Temporary Structures and Uses27
109Fees27
110Inspections27
111Certificate of Occupancy28
112Service Utilities29
113Board of Appeals29
114Violations29
115Stop Work Order29
116Unsafe Structures and Equipment29
CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS39
Section
201General39
202Definitions39
CHAPTER 3 USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION59
Section
301General59
302Classification59
303Assembly Group A59
304Business Group B60
305Educational Group E60
306Factory Group F61
307High-Hazard Group H61
308Institutional Group I70
309Mercantile Group M71
310Residential Group R71
311Storage Group S74
312Utility and Miscellaneous Group U75
313Laboratories Group L [SFM]75
CHAPTER 4 SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED ON USE AND OCCUPANCY81
Section
401Scope81
402Covered Mall and Open Mall Buildings81
403High-Rise Buildings and Group I-2 Occupancies Having Occupied Floors Located more than 75 Feet Above the Lowest Level of Fire Department Vehicle Access84
404Atriums88
405Underground Buildings88
406Motor-Vehicle-Related Occupancies89
407Group I-293
408Group I-396
409Motion Picture Projection Rooms99
410Stages and Platforms100
411Special Amusement Buildings102
412Aircraft-Related Occupancies102
413Combustible Storage105
414Hazardous Materials105
415Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5109
416Application of Flammable Finishes122
417Drying Rooms122
418Organic Coatings122
419Live/Work Units123
420Groups R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3, R-3.1 and R-4123
421Hydrogen Cutoff Rooms124
422Ambulatory Health Care Facilities125
423Storm Shelters125
424Special Provisions for Residential Hotels [HCD 1 & HCD 1-AC]125
425Special Provisions for Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities in a Group R-2.1, R-3.1, R-4 [SFM]125
426Group I-4 [SFM]128
427Reserved129
428Reserved129
429Reserved129
430Horse Racing Stables [SFM]129
431Pet Kennels [SFM]129
432Combustion Engines and Gas Turbines [SFM]129
433Fixed Guideway Transit Systems [SFM]130
434Explosives [SFM]133
435Reserved136
436Winery Caves [SFM]136
437Reserved137
438Reserved137
439Public Libraries [SL AND SFM]137
440Group C [SFM]138
441Reserved140
442Group E [SFM]140
443Group L [SFM]141
444Reserved144
445Large Family Day-Care Homes [SFM]144
CHAPTER 5 GENERAL BUILDING HEIGHTS AND AREAS149
Section
501General149
502Definitions149
503General Building Height and Area Limitations149
504Building Height149
505Mezzanines151
506Building Area Modifications152
507Unlimited Area Buildings153
508Mixed Use and Occupancy154
509Special Provisions156
CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CONSTRUCTION163
Section
601General163
602Construction Classification163
603Combustible Material in Type I and II Construction165
CHAPTER 7 FIRE AND SMOKE PROTECTION FEATURES169
Section
701General169
702Definitions169
703Fire-Resistance Ratings and Fire Tests170
704Fire-Resistance Rating of Structural Members171
705Exterior Walls173
706Fire Walls177
707Fire Barriers179
708Shaft Enclosures180
709Fire Partitions184
710Smoke Barriers185
711Smoke Partitions185
712Horizontal Assemblies186
713Penetrations187
714Fire-Resistant Joint Systems189
715Opening Protectives190
716Ducts and Air Transfer Openings194
717Concealed Spaces199
718Fire-Resistance Requirements for Plaster201
719Thermal- and Sound-Insulating Materials201
720Prescriptive Fire Resistance202
721Calculated Fire Resistance224
CHAPTER 7A MATERIALS AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS FOR EXTERIOR WILDFIRE EXPOSURE255
Section
701AScope, Purpose and Application255
702ADefinitions256
703AStandards of Quality256
704AIgnition-Resistant Construction257
705ARoofing258
706AVents258
707AExterior Covering258
708AExterior Windows and Doors260
709ADecking260
710AAccessory Structures261
CHAPTER 8 INTERIOR FINISHES265
Section
801General265
802Definitions265
803Wall and Ceiling Finishes265
804Interior Floor Finish268
805Combustible Materials in Type I and II Construction268
806Decorative Materials and Trim269
807Insulation269
808Acoustical Ceiling Systems269
CHAPTER 9 FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS277
Section
901General277
902Definitions277
903Automatic Sprinkler Systems280
904Alternative Automatic Fire-Extinguishing Systems287
905Standpipe Systems289
906Portable Fire Extinguishers292
907Fire Alarm and Detection Systems294
908Emergency Alarm Systems308
909Smoke Control Systems308
910Smoke and Heat Vents315
911Fire Command Center317
912Fire Department Connections318
913Fire Pumps318
914Emergency Responder Safety Features319
915Emergency Responder Radio Coverage319
CHAPTER 10 MEANS OF EGRESS325
Section
1001Administration325
1002Definitions325
1003General Means of Egress326
1004Occupant Load329
1005Egress Width330
1006Means of Egress Illumination330
1007Accessible Means of Egress331
1008Doors, Gates and Turnstiles334
1009Stairways340
1010Ramps343
1011Exit Signs344
1012Handrails346
1013Guards347
1014Exit Access348
1015Exit and Exit Access Doorways349
1016Exit Access Travel Distance351
1017Aisles352
1018Corridors352
1019Egress Balconies354
1020Exits354
1021Number of Exits and Continuity354
1022Exit Enclosures355
1023Exit Passageways357
1024Luminous Egress Path Markings357
1025Horizontal Exits359
1026Exterior Exit Ramps and Stairways360
1027Exit Discharge360
1028Assembly361
1029Emergency Escape and Rescue366
CHAPTER 11 RESERVED369
CHAPTER 11A HOUSING ACCESSIBILITY373
Section
1101AApplication373
1102ABuilding Accessibility373
1103ADesign and Construction374
1104ACovered Multifamily Dwellings374
1105AGarages, Carports and Parking Facilities375
1106ASite and Building Characteristics375
1107ADefinitions375
1108AGeneral Requirements for Accessible Parking and Exterior Routes of Travel378
1109AParking Facilities378
1110AExterior Routes of Travel380
1111AChanges in Level on Accessible Routes380
1112ACurb Ramps on Accessible Routes381
1113AWalks and Sidewalks on an Accessible Route381
1114AExterior Ramps and Landings on Accessible Routes382
1115AExterior Stairways383
1116AHazards on Accessible Routes384
1117AGeneral Requirements for Accessible Entrances, Exits, Interior Routes of Travel and Facility Accessibility385
1118AEgress and Areas of Refuge385
1119AInterior Routes of Travel385
1120AInterior Accessible Routes385
1121AChanges in Level on Accessible Routes386
1122AInterior Ramps and Landings on Accessible Routes386
1123AInterior Stairways387
1124AElevators and Platform (Wheelchair) Lifts388
1125AHazards on Accessible Routes390
1126ADoors390
1127ACommon Use Facilities391
1128ACovered Dwelling Units398
1129AReserved398
1130AAccessible Route Within Covered Multifamily Dwelling Units398
1131AChanges in Level on Accessible Routes398
1132ADoors398
1133AKitchens400
1134ABathing and Toilet Facilities400
1135ALaundry Rooms403
1136AElectrical Receptacle, Switch and Control Heights403
1137AOther Features and Facilities405
1138AReserved405
1139AAccessible Drinking Fountains405
1140AAccessible Telephones405
1141AAccessible Swimming Pools406
1142AElectrical Receptacle, Switch and Control Heights407
1143ASignage407
1144AReserved408
1145AReserved408
1146AReserved408
1147AReserved408
1148AReserved408
1149AReserved408
1150ASite Impracticality Tests409
CHAPTER 11B ACCESSIBILITY TO PUBLIC BUILDINGS, PUBLIC ACCOMODATIONS, COMMERICAL BUILDINGS AND PUBLICLY FUNDED HOUSING465
Section
1101BScope465
1102BDefinitions465
1103BBuilding Accessibility468
1104BAccessibility for Group A Occupancies469
1105BAccessibility for Group B Occupancies472
1106BAccessibility for Group E Occupancies473
1107BFactories and Warehouses474
1108BAccessibility for Group H Occupancies474
1109BAccessibility for Group I Occupancies475
1110BAccessibility for Group M Occupancies475
1111BAccessibility for Group R Occupancies477
1112BReserved479
1113BReserved479
1114BFacility Accessibility479
1115BBathing and Toilet Facilities (Sanitary Facilities)480
1116BElevators and Special Access (Wheelchair) Lifts486
1117BOther Building Components489
1118BSpace Allowance and Reach Ranges497
1119BSpecial Standards of Accessibility for Buildings with Historical Significance497
1120BFloor and Levels497
1121BTransportation Facilities498
1122BFixed or Built-in Seating, Tables and Counters501
1123BAccess to Employee Areas502
1124BGround and Floor Surfaces502
1125BStorage502
1126BVending Machines and Other Equipment502
1127BExterior Routes of Travel503
1128BPedestrian Grade Separations (Overpasses and Underpasses)504
1129BAccessible Parking Required504
1130BParking Structures506
1131BPassenger Drop-off and Loading Zones506
1132BOutdoor Occupancies506
1133BGeneral Accessibility for Entrances, Exits and Paths of Travel508
1134BAccessibility for Existing Buildings515
1135BHistoric Preservation—Special Standards of Accessibility for Buildings with Historical Significance516
CHAPTER 11C STANDARDS FOR CARD READERS AT GASOLINE FUEL-DISPENSING FACILITIES587
Section
1101CCard-Reader Devices at Fuel-Dispensing Equipment587
1102CApplication587
1103CNumber of Accessible Card-Reading Devices Required587
1104CRequired Features587
CHAPTER 12 INTERIOR ENVIRONMENT593
Section
1201General593
1202Definitions593
1203Ventilation593
1204Temperature Control594
1205Lighting595
1206Yards or Courts595
1207Sound Transmission596
1208Interior Space Dimensions598
1209Access to Unoccupied Spaces599
1210Surrounding Materials599
1211Garage Door Springs599
1212Reserved600
1213Reserved600
1214Reserved600
1215Reserved600
1216Reserved600
1217Reserved600
1218Reserved600
1219Reserved600
1220Reserved600
1221Reserved600
1222Reserved600
1223Reserved600
1224Hospitals600
1225Skilled Nursing and Intermediate-Care Facilities628
1226Clinics633
1227Correctional Treatment Centers636
1228Reserved641
1229Reserved641
1230Minimum Standards for Juvenile Facilities641
1231Local Detention645
1232Reserved651
1233Reserved651
1234Reserved651
1235Sanitary Control of Shellfish (Plants and Operations)651
1236Laboratory Animal Quarters651
1237Wild Animal Quarantine Facilities652
1238Reserved652
1239Reserved652
1240Meat and Poultry Processing Plants652
1241Collection Centers and Facilities654
1242Renderers654
1243Horsemeat and Pet Food Establishments654
1244Reserved655
1245Reserved655
1246Reserved655
1247Reserved655
1248Reserved655
1249Reserved655
1250Pharmacies655
1251Veterinary Facilities655
1252Barber Colleges and Shops656
1253Schools of Cosmetology, Cosmetological Establishments and Satellite Classrooms656
1254Acupuncture Offices657
CHAPTER 13 ENERGY EFFICIENCY659
CHAPTER 14 EXTERIOR WALLS663
Section
1401General663
1402Definitions633
1403Performance Requirements663
1404Materials664
1405Installation of Wall Coverings665
1406Combustible Materials on the Exterior Side of Exterior Walls669
1407Metal Composite Materials (MCM)670
1408Exterior Insulation and Finish Systems (EIFS)671
1409[DSA-SS and DSA-SS⁄CC, OSHPD 1,2 & 4] Additional Requirements for Anchored and Adhered Veneer671
CHAPTER 15 ROOF ASSEMBLIES AND ROOFTOP STRUCTURES675
Section
1501General675
1502Definitions675
1503Weather Protection675
1504Performance Requirements676
1505Fire Classification677
1506Materials678
1507Requirements for Roof Coverings678
1508Roof Insulation687
1509Rooftop Structures688
1510Reroofing689
1511[DSA-SS and OSHPD 1,2 & 4] Seismic Anchorage of Slate Shingle, Clay and Concrete Tile Roof Coverings690
INDEX691
HISTORY NOTE731
VOLUME 2
CHAPTER 16 STRUCTURAL DESIGN5
Section
1601General5
1602Definitions and Notations5
1603Construction Documents6
1604General Design Requirements7
1605Load Combinations10
1606Dead Loads11
1607Live Loads11
1608Snow Loads17
1609Wind Loads20
1610Soil Lateral Loads33
1611Rain Loads34
1612Flood Loads40
1613Earthquake Loads42
1614Structural Integrity48
1615Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC]69
CHAPTER 16A STRUCTURAL DESIGN79
Section
1601AGeneral79
1602ADefinitions and Notations79
1603AConstruction Documents81
1604AGeneral Design Requirements82
1605ALoad Combinations84
1606ADead Loads86
1607ALive Loads86
1608ASnow Loads91
1609AWind Loads94
1610ASoil Lateral Loads104
1611ARain Loads104
1612AFlood Loads110
1613AEarthquake Loads112
1614AStructural Integrity117
1615AModifications to ASCE 7119
CHAPTER 17 STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS129
Section
1701General129
1702Definitions129
1703Approvals129
1704Special Inspections130
1705Statement of Special Inspections141
1706Special Inspections for Wind Requirements143
1707Special Inspections for Seismic Resistance143
1708Structural Testing for Seismic Resistance144
1709Contractor Responsibility145
1710Structural Observations145
1711Design Strengths of Materials145
1712Alternative Test Procedure145
1713Test Safe Load146
1714In-situ Load Tests146
1715Preconstruction Load Tests146
1716Material and Test Standards147
CHAPTER 17A STRUCTURAL TESTS AND SPECIAL INSPECTIONS151
Section
1701AGeneral151
1702ADefinitions151
1703AApprovals152
1704ASpecial Inspections153
1705AStatement of Special Inspections165
1706ASpecial Inspections for Wind Requirements167
1707ASpecial Inspections for Seismic Resistance167
1708AStructural Testing for Seismic Resistance168
1709AContractor Responsibility169
1710AStructural Observations169
1711ADesign Strengths of Materials169
1712AAlternative Test Procedure170
1713ATest Safe Load170
1714AIn-situ Load Tests170
1715APreconstruction Load Tests170
1716AMaterial and Test Standards171
CHAPTER 18 SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS175
Section
1801General175
1802Definitions175
1803Geotechnical Investigations175
1804Excavation, Grading and Fill178
1805Dampproofing and Waterproofing179
1806Presumptive Load-Bearing Values of Soils180
1807Foundation Walls, Retaining Walls and Embedded Posts and Poles181
1808Foundations187
1809Shallow Foundations189
1810Deep Foundations192
CHAPTER 18A SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS207
Section
1801AGeneral207
1802ADefinitions207
1803AGeotechnical Investigations208
1804AExcavation, Grading and Fill211
1805ADampproofing and Waterproofing211
1806APresumptive Load-Bearing Values of Soils213
1807AFoundation Walls, Retaining Walls and Embedded Posts and Poles213
1808AFoundations215
1809AShallow Foundations218
1810ADeep Foundations219
1811APrestressed Rock and Soil Foundation Anchors231
CHAPTER 19 CONCRETE235
Section
1901General235
1902Definitions235
1903Specifications for Tests and Materials235
1904Durability Requirements236
1905Concrete Quality, Mixing and Placing236
1906Formwork, Embedded Pipes and Construction Joints238
1907Details of Reinforcement238
1908Modifications to ACI 318239
1909Structural Plain Concrete Not Permitted by OSHPD and DSA-SS241
1910Minimum Slab Provisions242
1911Anchorage to Concrete—Allowable Stress Design242
1912Anchorage to Concrete—Strength Design243
1913Shotcrete244
1914Reinforced Gypsum Concrete245
1915Concrete-Filled Pipe Columns245
1916Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC]246
CHAPTER 19A CONCRETE253
Section
1902AGeneral253
1902ADefinitions253
1903ASpecifications for Tests and Materials255
1904ADurability Requirements255
1905AConcrete Quality, Mixing and Placing256
1906AFormwork, Embedded Pipes and Construction Joints257
1907ADetails of Reinforcement257
1908AModifications to ACI 318258
1909AStructural Plain Concrete Not Permitted by OSHPD and DSA-SS262
1910AMinimum Slab Provisions262
1911AAnchorage to Concrete—Allowable Stress Design263
1912AAnchorage to Concrete—Strength Design263
1913AShotcrete264
1914AReinforced Gypsum Concrete265
1915AConcrete-Filled Pipe Columns265
1916AConcrete, Reinforcement and Anchor Testing266
1917AExisting Concrete Structures267
CHAPTER 20 ALUMINUM271
Section
2001General271
2002Materials271
2003Inspection271
CHAPTER 21 MASONRY275
Section
2101General275
2102Definitions and Notations275
2103Masonry Construction Materials278
2104Construction280
2105Quality Assurance280
2106Seismic Design281
2107Allowable Stress Design282
2108Strength Design of Masonry282
2109Empirical Design of Masonry282
2110Glass Unit Masonry284
2111Masonry Fireplaces284
2112Masonry Heaters287
2113Masonry Chimneys287
2114Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC]291
CHAPTER 21A MASONRY297
Section
2101AGeneral297
2102ADefinitions and Notations298
2103AMasonry Construction Materials301
2104AConstruction302
2105AQuality Assurance305
2106ASeismic Design306
2107AAllowable Stress Design307
2108AStrength Design of Masonry308
2109AEmpirical Design of Masonry Not Permitted by OSHPD and DSA-SS309
2110AGlass Unit Masonry309
2111AMasonry Fireplaces309
2112AMasonry Heaters311
2113AMasonry Chimneys312
2114ANonbearing Walls316
2115AMasonry Screen Walls316
CHAPTER 22 STEEL319
Section
2201General319
2202Definitions319
2203Identification and Protection of Steel for Structural Purposes319
2204Connections319
2205Structural Steel320
2206Steel Joists320
2207Steel Cable Structures321
2208Steel Storage Racks321
2209Cold-Formed Steel321
2210Cold-Formed Steel Light-Frame Construction321
2211Additional Requirements [DSA-SS/CC]322
CHAPTER 22A STEEL327
Section
2201AGeneral327
2202ADefinitions327
2203AIdentification and Protection of Steel for Structural Purposes327
2204AConnections327
2205AStructural Steel328
2206ASteel Joists330
2207ASteel Cable Structures331
2208ASteel Storage Racks331
2209ACold-Formed Steel331
2210ACold-Formed Steel Light-Framed Construction331
2211ALight Modular Steel Moment Frames for Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, and Community Colleges331
2212ATesting333
CHAPTER 23 WOOD337
Section
2301General337
2302Definitions337
2303Minimum Standards and Quality339
2304General Construction Requirements343
2305General Design Requirements for Lateral-Force-Resisting Systems354
2306Allowable Stress Design357
2307Load and Resistance Factor Design358
2308Conventional Light-Frame Construction358
CHAPTER 24 GLASS AND GLAZING411
Section
2401General411
2402Definitions411
2403General Requirements for Glass411
2404Wind, Snow, Seismic and Dead Loads on Glass411
2405Sloped Glazing and Skylights413
2406Safety Glazing415
2407Glass in Handrails and Guards417
2408Glazing in Athletic Facilities417
2409Glass in Elevator Hoistways and Elevator Cars417
CHAPTER 25 GYPSUM BOARD AND PLASTER421
Section
2501General421
2502Definitions421
2503Inspection421
2504Vertical and Horizontal Assemblies421
2505Shear Wall Construction422
2506Gypsum Board Materials422
2507Lathing and Plastering422
2508Gypsum Construction423
2509Gypsum Board in Showers and Water Closets424
2510Lathing and Furring for Cement Plaster (Stucco)424
2511Interior Plaster425
2512Exterior Plaster425
2513Exposed Aggregate Plaster426
CHAPTER 26 PLASTIC431
Section
2601General431
2602Definitions431
2603Foam Plastic Insulation431
2604Interior Finish and Trim434
2605Plastic Veneer435
2606Light-transmitting Plastics435
2607Light-transmitting Plastic Wall Panels436
2608Light-transmitting Plastic Glazing437
2609Light-transmitting Plastic Roof Panels437
2610Light-transmitting Plastic Skylight Glazing438
2611Light-transmitting Plastic Interior Signs439
2612Fiber Reinforced Polymer and Fiberglass-reinforced Polymer439
2613Reflective Plastic Core Insulation440
CHAPTER 27 ELECTRICAL443
Section
2701General443
2702Emergency and Standby Power Systems443
CHAPTER 28 MECHANICAL SYSTEMS447
Section
2801General447
CHAPTER 29 PLUMBING SYSTEMS449
Section
2901General449
CHAPTER 30 ELEVATORS AND CONVEYING SYSTEMS30
Section
3001General30
3002Hoistway Enclosures30
3003Emergency Operations456
3004Hoistway Venting457
3005Conveying Systems457
3006Machine Rooms458
3007Fire Service Access Elevator458
3008Occupant Evacuation Elevators459
3009Special Requirements for Elevators in Hospitals460
CHAPTER 31 SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION465
Section
3101General465
3102Membrane Structures465
3103Temporary Structures466
3104Pedestrian Walkways and Tunnels466
3105Awnings and Canopies467
3106Marquees468
3107Signs468
3108Telecommunication and Broadcast Towers468
3109Swimming Pool Enclosures and Safety Devices468
3110Automatic Vehicular Gates472
CHAPTER 31A RESERVED473
CHAPTER 31B PUBLIC SWIMMING POOLS477
Section
3101BScope477
3102BDefinitions477
3103BSpecial Pool Classifications478
3104BAccessibility to the Physically Handicapped Person478
3105BAlternate Equipment, Materials and Methods of Construction478
3106BPool Construction478
3107BAdditional Requirements for a Temporary Training Pool479
3108BPool Geometry479
3109BPermanent Markings479
3110BSteps, Recessed Steps, Ladders and Recessed Stairs (Treads)482
3111BHandholds483
3112BDiving Boards483
3113BPool Decks483
3114BPool Lighting483
3115BBathhouse Dressing, Shower and Toilet Facilities484
3116BDrinking Fountains484
3117BHose Bibbs484
3118BEnclosure of Pool Area484
3119BSigns485
3120BIndoor Pool Ventilation487
3121BFoundations For Pool Equipment487
3122BGas Chlorination Equipment Room487
3123BGeneral Requirements487
3124BTurnover Time487
3125BRecirculation Piping System and Components487
3126BRecirculation Pump Capacity488
3127BWater Supply Inlets488
3128BFilters (All Types)488
3129BRapid Sand Pressure Filters488
3130BDiatomaccous Earth Filters489
3131BHigh-rate Sand Filters489
3132BChemical Feeders489
3133BDisinfectant Feeders489
3134BPool Fittings490
3135BSpa Pool Special Requirements491
3136BCleaning Systems491
3137BWaste Water Disposal491
3138BReserved491
3139BReserved491
3140BReserved491
3141BReserved491
3142BReserved491
3143BReserved491
3144BReserved491
3145BReserved491
3146BReserved492
3147BReserved492
3148BReserved492
3149BReserved492
3150BReserved492
3151BReserved492
3152BReserved492
3153BReserved492
3154BReserved492
3155BReserved492
3156BReserved492
3157BReserved492
3158BReserved492
3159BReserved492
3160B492
3161B492
3162BAnti-Entrapment Devices and Systems493
CHAPTER 31C RADIATION499
Section
3101CScope499
3102CRadiation Shielding Barriers499
3103CMedical Radiographic and Photofluorographic Installations499
3104CMedical Therapeutic X-ray Installations499
CHAPTER 31D FOOD ESTABLISHMENTS503
Section
3101DScope503
3102DDefinitions503
3103BBuilding and Structures503
CHAPTER 31E RESERVED505
CHAPTER 31F MARINE OIL TERMINALS509
Section
3101FIntroduction509
3102FAudit and Inspection510
3103FStructural Loading Criteria521
3104FSeismic Analysis and Structural Performance536
3105FMooring and Berthing Analysis and Design543
3106FGeotechnical Hazards and Foundations548
3107FStructural Analysis and Design of Components552
3108FFire Prevention, Detection and Suppression566
3109FPiping and Pipelines570
3110FMechanical and Electrical Equipment573
3111FElectrical Systems576
CHAPTER 32 ENCROACHMENTS INTO THE PUBLIC RIGHT-OF-WAY581
Section
3201General581
3202Encroachments581
CHAPTER 33 SAFEGUARDS DURING CONSTRUCTION585
Section
3301General585
3302Construction Safeguards585
3303Demolition585
3304Site Work585
3305Sanitary585
3306Protection of Pedestrians586
3307Protection of Adjoining Property587
3308Temporary Use of Streets, Alleys and Public Property587
3309Fire Extinguishers587
3310Means of Egress588
3311Standpipes588
3312Automatic Sprinkler System588
CHAPTER 34 EXISTING STRUCTURES591
Section
3401General591
3402Definitions592
3403Additions593
3404Alterations593
3405Repairs594
3406Fire Escapes596
3407Glass Replacement596
3408Change of Occupancy596
3409Historic Buildings597
3410Moved Structures597
3411Accessibility for Existing Buildings597
3412Compliance Alternatives599
3413Existing Group R-1 and Group R-2 Occupancies [SFM]608
3414Existing High-Rise Buildings [SFM]611
3415Existing Group I Occupancies [SFM]613
3416Existing Group L Occupancies [SFM]614
3417Earthquake Evaluation and Design for Retrofit of Existing Buildings614
3418Definitions617
3419Seismic Criteria Selectionfor Existing Buildings618
3420Method A621
3421Method B621
3422Peer Review Requirements622
3423Additional Requirements for Public Schools and Community Colleges623
CHAPTER 34A EXISTING STRUCTURES627
Section
3401AGeneral627
3402ADefinitions627
3403AAdditions628
3404AAlterations629
3405ARepairs630
3406AFire Escapes631
3407AGlass Replacement631
3408AChange of Occupancy631
3409AHistoric Buildings632
3410AMoved Structures632
3411AAdditions, Alterations, Repairs and Seismic Retrofit to Existing Buildings or Structures Designed in Accordance with Pre-1973 Building Code632
3412ACompliance Alternatives for Additions, Alterations, Repairs and Seismic Retrofit to Existing Structures632
3413AModifications to ASCE 41634
3414APeer Review Requirements636
3415AEarthquake Monitoring Instruments for Existing Buildings637
CHAPTER 35 REFERENCED STANDARDS641
APPENDIX A EMPLOYEE QUALIFICATIONS671
Section
A101Building Official Qualifications671
A102Referenced Standards671
APPENDIX B BOARD OF APPEALS675
Section
B101General675
APPENDIX C GROUP U—AGRICULTURAL BUILDINGS679
Section
C101General679
C102Allowable Height and Area679
C103Mixed Occupancies679
C104Exits679
APPENDIX D FIRE DISTRICTS683
Section
D101General683
D102Building Restrictions683
D103Changes to Buildings684
D104Buildings Located Partially in the Fire District684
D105Exceptions to Restrictions in Fire District684
D106Referenced Standards685
APPENDIX E RESERVED689
APPENDIX F RODENTPROOFING693
Section
F101General693
APPENDIX G FLOOD-RESISTANT CONSTRUCTION697
Section
G101Administration697
G102Applicability697
G103Powers and Duties697
G104Permits698
G105Variances698
G201Definitions699
G301Subdivisions700
G401Site Improvement700
G501Manufactured Homes700
G601Recreational Vehicles700
G701Tanks701
G801Other Building Work701
G901Temporary Structures and Temporary Storage701
G1001Utility and Miscellaneous Group U701
G1101Referenced Standards702
APPENDIX H SIGNS705
Section
H101General705
H102Definitions705
H103Location705
H104Identification705
H105Design and Construction706
H106Electrical706
H107Combustible Materials706
H108Animated Devices706
H109Ground Signs706
H110Roof Signs707
H111Wall Signs707
H112Projecting Signs707
H113Marquee Signs708
H114Portable Signs708
H115Referenced Standards708
APPENDIX I PATIO COVERS711
Section
I101General711
I102Definitions711
I103Exterior Openings711
I104Structural Provisions711
APPENDIX J GRADING715
Section
J101General715
J102Definitions715
J103Permits Required715
J104Permit Application and Submittals715
J105Inspections716
J106Excavations716
J107Fills719
J108Setbacks721
J109Drainage and Terracing721
J110Erosion Control721
J111Referenced Standards721
APPENDIX K ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS723
Section
K101Scope723
K102Definitions723
K103Structural Stability724
K104Evacuation Locations724
K105Space within the Building724
K106Decks and Balconies That are Evacuation Locations724
K107Rooftop Evacuation Locations727
K108Attics That are Evacuation Locations727
K109Alternate Means of Protection727
INDEX691
HISTORY NOTE731
xxxiv
CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 1 – SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION
Adopting agencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCSADPHAGRDWRCASLSLC
121-ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopt entire chapter                   
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)                   
Adopt only those sections that are listed belowXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXX
Chapter/Section                   
Division 1                   
1.1XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXX
1.2X                  
1.3            X      
1.4                X  
1.5 (Reserved)                   
1.6              X    
1.7             X     
1.8  XXX              
1.9.1     X             
1.9.2.1      X            
1.9.2.2       X           
1.10.1        X          
1.10.2         X         
1.10.3          X        
1.10.4           X       
1.11 X                 
1.12                 X 
1.13 (Reserved)                   
1.14                  X
Division II-Administration                   
101.1 – 101.4.5     XXXXXXX       
101.4.6, Exception       XX X        
102.1       XXXX        
102.1.1      XXXXXX       
102.2 – 102.4        XXXX       
102.4.1      XXXXXX       
102.4.2        XXXX       
102.5 – 104.1        XXXX       
104.2 – 104.4X      XXXX        
104.5 – 104.8        XXXX       
104.9 X      XXXX       
104.10 – 104.11.2        XXXX       
104.11.3 – 104.11.4        X  X       
105.1 X      XXXX       
105.1.1 – 105.2        XXXX       1
Adopt entire chapter                   
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below)                   
Adopt only those sections that are listed belowXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX XXX
Chapter/Section                   
Division II-cont'd                   
105.2 Building: 1 – 13  XX               
105.2.1 – 105.2.2 X      XXXX       
105.2.3        XXXX       
105.3 – 105.3.1 X      XXXX       
105.3.2        XX X       
105.4 X      XXXX       
105.5        XXXX       
105.6 – 105.7 X      XXXX       
106.1 X      XXXX       
106.1.1      XXXXXX       
106.1.2        XX X       
106.2 – 106.3 X      XXXX       
107.1 – 107.3 X      XXXX       
107.3.4.2        XX X       
107.4 X      XX X       
107.5 X      XXXX       
108.1 – 108.4 X      XXXX       
109        XXXX       
110.1 – 110.3 X      XXXX       
110.3.1 – 110.3.3  XX    XXXX       
110.3.4 – 110.3.6 XXX    XXXX       
110.3.8 – 110.3.10 XXX    XXXX       
110.4 – 110.6 X      XXXX       
111.1 X      XXXX       
111.2 X   X  XXXX       
111.3 – 111.4 X      XXXX       
112 X      XXXX       
113        XXXX       
114.1 – 114.2 X      XXXX       
114.2 – 114.3        XXXX       
115 – 116 X      XXXX       
2

CHAPTER 1
SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION

DIVISION I
CALIFORNIA ADMINISTRATION

SECTION 1.1
GENERAL

1.1.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the California Building Code, may be cited as such and will be referred to herein as “this code.” The California Building Code is Part 2 of twelve parts of the official compilation and publication of the adoption amendment and repeal of building regulations to the California Code of Regulations, Title 24, also referred to as the California Building Standards Code. This part incorporates by adoption the 2009 International Building Code of the International Code Council with necessary California amendments.

1.1.2 Purpose. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare through structural strength, means of egress facilities, stability, access to persons with disabilities, sanitation, adequate lighting and ventilation and energy conservation; safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment; and to provide safety to fire fighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

1.1.3 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, use and occupancy, location, maintenance, removal and demolition of every building or structure or any appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or structures throughout the State of California.

1.1.3.1 Nonstate-regulated buildings, structures and applications. Except as modified by local ordinance pursuant to Section 1.1.8, the following standards in the California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Parts 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10 and 11 shall apply to all occupancies and applications not regulated by a state agency.

1.1.3.2 State-regulated buildings, structures and applications. The model code, state amendments to the model code, and/or state amendments where there are no relevant model code provisions shall apply to the following buildings, structures, and applications regulated by state agencies as referenced in the Matrix Adoption Tables and as specified in Sections 1.2 through 1.14, except where modified by local ordinance pursuant to Section 1.1.8. When adopted by a state agency, the provisions of this code shall be enforced by the appropriate enforcing agency, but only to the extent of authority granted to such agency by the state legislature.

Note: See Preface to distinguish the model code provisions from the California provisions.

  1. State-owned buildings, including buildings constructed by the Trustees of the California State University, and to the extent permitted by California laws, buildings designed and constructed by the Regents of the University of California, and regulated by the Building Standards Commission. See Section 1.2 for additional scope provisions.
  2. Local detention facilities regulated by the Corrections Standards Authority. See Section 1.3 for additional scope provisions.
  3. Barbering, cosmetology or electrolysis establishments, acupuncture offices, pharmacies, veterinary facilities and structural pest control locations regulated by the Department of Consumer Affairs. See Section 1.4 for additional scope provisions.
  4. Energy efficiency standards regulated by the California Energy Commission. See Section 1.5 for additional scope provisions.
  5. Dairies and places of meat inspection regulated by the Department of Food and Agriculture. See Section 1.6 for additional scope provisions.
  6. Organized camps, laboratory animal quarters, public swimming pools, radiation protection, commissaries serving mobile food preparation vehicles and wild animal quarantine facilities regulated by the Department of Public Health. See Section 1.7 for additional scope provisions.
  7. Hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment houses, dwellings, dormitories, condominiums, shelters for homeless persons, congregate residences, employee housing, factory-built housing and other types of dwellings containing sleeping accommodations with or without common toilets or cooking facilities. See Section 1.8.2.1.1 for additional scope provisions.
  8. Accommodations for persons with disabilities in buildings containing newly constructed covered multifamily dwellings, new common use spaces serving existing covered multifamily dwellings, additions to existing buildings where the addition alone meets the definition of “COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLING,” and common-use spaces serving covered multifamily dwellings, which are regulated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. See Section 1.8.2.1.2 for additional scope provisions.
  9. Permanent buildings and permanent accessory buildings or structures constructed within mobilehome parks and special occupancy parks regulated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. See Section 1.8.2.1.3 for additional scope provisions.3
  10. Accommodations for persons with disabilities regulated by the Division of the State Architect. See Section 1.9.1 for additional scope provisions.
  11. Public elementary and secondary schools, community college buildings and state-owned or state-leased essential service buildings regulated by the Division of the State Architect. See Section 1.9.2 for additional scope provisions.
  12. Qualified historical buildings and structures and their associated sites regulated by the State Historical Building Safety Board with the Division of the State Architect. See Section 1.9.3 for additional scope provisions.
  13. General acute care hospitals, acute psychiatric hospitals, skilled nursing and/or intermediate care facilities, clinics licensed by the Department of Public Health and correctional treatment centers regulated by the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development. See Section 1.10 for additional scope provisions.
  14. Applications regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal include, but are not limited to the following in accordance with Section 1.11:
    1. Buildings or structures used or intended for use as an:
      1. Asylum, jail, prison
      2. Mental hospital, hospital, home for the elderly, children's nursery, children's home or institution, school or any similar occupancy of any capacity
      3. Theater, dancehall, skating rink, auditorium, assembly hall, meeting hall, nightclub, fair building or similar place of assemblage where 50 or more persons may gather together in a building, room or structure for the purpose of amusement, entertainment, instruction, deliberation, worship, drinking or dining, awaiting transportation, or education
      4. Small family day-care homes, large family day-care homes, residential facilities and residential facilities for the elderly, residential care facilities
      5. State institutions or other state-owned or state-occupied buildings
      6. High rise structures
      7. Motion picture production studios
      8. Organized camps
      9. Residential structures
    2. Tents, awnings or other fabric enclosures used in connection with any occupancy
    3. Fire alarm devices, equipment and systems in connection with any occupancy
    4. Hazardous materials, flammable and combustible liquids
    5. Public school automatic fire detection, alarm and sprinkler systems
    6. Wildland-urban interface fire areas
  15. Public libraries constructed and renovated using funds from the California Library Construction and Renovation Bond Act of 1988 and regulated by the State Librarian. See Section 1.12 for additional scope provisions.
  16. Graywater systems regulated by the Department of Water Resources. See Section 1.13 for additional scope provisions.
  17. For applications listed in Section 1.9.1 regulated by the Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance, outdoor environments and uses shall be classified according to accessibility uses described in Chapters 11A, 11B and 11C.
  18. Marine Oil Terminals regulated by the California State Lands Commission. See Section 1.14 for additional scope provisions.

1.1.4 Appendices. Provisions contained in the appendices of this code shall not apply unless specifically adopted by a state agency or adopted by a local enforcing agency in compliance with Health and Safety Code Section 18901 et. seq. for Building Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Section 17950 for State Housing Law and Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7 for Fire Protection Districts. See Section 1.1.8 of this code.

1.1.5 Referenced codes. The codes, standards and publications adopted and set forth in this code, including other codes, standards and publications referred to therein are, by title and date of publication, hereby adopted as standard reference documents of this code. When this code does not specifically cover any subject related to building design and construction, recognized architectural or engineering practices shall be employed. The National Fire Codes, standards, and the Fire Protection Handbook of the National Fire Protection Association are permitted to be used as authoritative guides in determining recognized fire prevention engineering practices.

1.1.6 Nonbuilding standards, orders and regulations. Requirements contained in the International Building Code, or in any other referenced standard, code or document, which are not building standards as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18909, shall not be constructed as part of the provisions of this code. For nonbuilding standards, orders and regulations, see other titles of the California Code of Regulations.

1.1.7 Order of precedence and use.

1.1.7.1 Differences. In the event of any differences between these building standards and the standard reference documents, the text of these building standards shall govern.

4

1.1.7.2 Specific provisions. Where a specific provision varies from a general provision, the specific provision shall apply.

1.1.7.3 Conflicts. When the requirements of this code conflict with the requirements of any other part of the California Building Standards Code, Title 24, the most restrictive requirements shall prevail.

1.1.8 City, county or city and county amendments, additions or deletions. The provisions of this code do not limit the authority of city, county, or city and county governments to establish more restrictive and reasonably necessary differences to the provisions contained in this code pursuant to complying with Section 1.1.8.1. The effective date of amendments, additions or deletions to this code by a city, country, or a city and county filed pursuant to Section 1.1.8.1 shall be the date filed. However, in no case shall the amendments, additions or deletions to this code be effective any sooner than the effective date of this code.

Local modifications shall comply with Health and Safety Code Section 18941.5 for Building Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Section 17958 for State Housing Law or Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7 for Fire Protection Districts.

1.1.8.1 Findings and filings

  1. The city, county, or city and county shall make express findings for each amendment, addition or deletion based upon climatic, topographical or geological conditions.

    Exception: Hazardous building ordinances and programs mitigating unreinforced masonry buildings.

  2. The city, county, or city and county shall file the amendments, additions or deletions expressly marked and identified as to the applicable findings. Cities, counties, cities and counties, and fire departments shall file the amendments, additions or deletions, and the findings with the California Building Standards Commission at 2525 Natomas Park Drive, Suite 130, Sacramento, CA 95833.
  3. Findings prepared by fire protection districts shall be ratified by the local city, county or city and county and filed with the California Department of Housing and Community Development, Division of Codes and Standards, P.O. Box 1407, Sacramento, CA 95812-1407 or 1800 3rd Street, Room 260, Sacramento, CA 95811.

1.1.9 Effective date of this code. Only those standards approved by the California Building Standards Commission that are effective at the time an application for building permit is submitted shall apply to the plans and specifications for, and to the construction performed under, that permit. For the effective dates of the provisions contained in this code, see the History Note page of this code.

1.1.10 Availability of codes. At least one complete copy each of Titles 8, 19, 20, 24 and 25 with all revisions shall be maintained in the office of the building official responsible for the administration and enforcement of this code. Each state department concerned and each city, county, or city and county shall have an up-to-date copy of the code available for public inspection. See Health and Safety Code Section 18942(d)(1) and (2).

1.1.11 Format. This part fundamentally adopts the International Buildings Code by reference on a chapter-by-chapter basis. Such adoption is reflected in the Matrix Adoption Table of each chapter of this part. When the Matrix Adoption Tables make no reference to a specific chapter of the International Building Code such chapter of the International Building Code is not adopted as a portion of this code.

1.1.12 Validity. If any chapter, section, subsection, sentence, clause or phrase of this code is for any reason held to be unconstitutional, contrary to statute, exceeding the authority of the state as stipulated by statutes or otherwise inoperative, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remaining portion of this code.

SECTION 1.2
BUILDING STANDARDS COMMISSION

1.2.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

  1. State buildings for all occupancies.

    Application—State buildings (all occupancies), including buildings constructed by the Trustees of the California State University and the Regents of the University of California where no state agency has the authority to adopt building standards applicable to such buildings.

    Enforcing agency—State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.

    Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 18934.6.

    Reference—Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.5, commencing with Section 18901.

  2. University of California, California State Universities and California Community Colleges.

    Application—Standards for lighting for parking lots and primary campus walkways at the University of California, California State Universities and California Community Colleges.

    Enforcing agency—State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.

    Authority cited—Government Code Section 14617.

    Reference—Government Code Section 14617.

  3. Existing state-owned buildings, including those owned by the University of California and by the California State University.

    Application—Building seismic retrofit standards including abating falling hazards of structural and nonstructural components and strengthening of building structures. See also Division of the State Architect.

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    Enforcing agency—State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.

    Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 16600.

    Reference—Health and Safety Code Sections 16600 through 16604.

  4. Unreinforced masonry-bearing wall buildings.

    Application—Minimum seismic strengthening standards for buildings specified in Appendix Chapter A1 of the California Existing Building Code, except for buildings subject to building standards adopted pursuant to Health and Safety Code (commencing) with Section 17910.

    Enforcing agency—State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.

    Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Section 18934.6.

    Reference—Health and Safety Code Sections 18901 through 18949.

1.2.1.1 State building. For purposes of this code, a “state building” is a structure for which a state agency or state entity has authority to construct, alter, enlarge, replace, repair or demolish.

1.2.1.2 Enforcement. [CSU, UC, Judicial Council and CDCR] State agencies or state entities authorized to construct state buildings may appoint a building official who is responsible to the agency for enforcement of the provisions of the California Building Standards Code.

Exception: State buildings regulated by other sections of this code remain the enforcement responsibility of the designated entities.

1.2.1.3 Enforcement. Reserved for DGS.

1.2.2 Alternative materials, design and methods of construction and equipment. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material, design or method of construction shall be approved where the building official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety.

1.2.2.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources.

1.2.2.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative materials or methods, the building official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the building official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building official for the period required for retention of public records.

SECTION 1.3
CORRECTIONS STANDARDS AUTHORITY

1.3.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Application—Local detention facilities.

Enforcing agency—Corrections Standards Authority.

Authority cited—Penal Code Section 6030; Welfare and Institutions Code Sections 207.1, 210 and 885.

Reference—Penal Code Section 6030; Welfare and Institutions Code Sections 207.1, 210 and 885.

SECTION 1.4
DEPARTMENT OF CONSUMER AFFAIRS

1.4.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

  1. Board of Barbering and Cosmetology.

    Application—Any establishment or mobile unit where barbering, cosmetology or electrolysis is being performed.

    Enforcing agency—State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.

    Authority cited—Business and Professions Code Section 7312.

    Reference—Business and Professions Code Sections 7303, 7303.1, 7312 and 7313.

  2. Acupuncture Board.

    Application—Acupuncture offices.

    Enforcing agency—State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.

    Authority cited—Business and Professions Code Section 4933.

    Reference—Business and Professions Code Sections 4928, 4928.1 and 4933.

  3. Board of Pharmacy.

    Application—Pharmacies.

    Enforcing agency—State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.

    Authority cited—Business and Professions Code Section 4005.

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    Reference—Business and Professions Code Sections 4005, 4127.7 and 4201.

  4. Veterinary Medical Board.

    Application—Veterinary facilities.

    Enforcing agency—State or local agency specified by the applicable provisions of law.

    Authority cited—Business and Professions Code Section 4808.

    Reference—Business and Professions Code Sections 4800, 4800.1, 4808 and 4809.5.

  5. Structural Pest Control Board.

    Application—structural pest control locations.

    Enforcing agency—Structural Pest Control Board.

    Authority cited—Business and Professions Code Section 8525.

    Reference—Business and Professions Code Sections 8520, 8520.1 and 8525.

SECTION 1.5

Reserved

SECTION 1.6
DEPARTMENT OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE

1.6.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Application—Dairies and places of meat and poultry inspection.

Enforcing agency—Department of Food and Agriculture.

Authority cited—Food and Agricultural Code Sections 18735, 18960, 19384, 33481 and 33731.

Reference—Food and Agricultural Code Sections 18735, 18960, 19384, 33481 and 33731.

SECTION 1.7
CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH

1.7.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

California Department of Public Health

ApplicationOrganized camps, laboratory animal quarters, public swimming pools, radiations protection and producing facilities, commissaries serving mobile food preparation vehicles, wild animal quarantine facilities, shellfish facilities and food establishments.

Enforcing agency—The California Department of Public Health and the local health agencies.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Sections 1660, 18897.2, 110065, 112165, 113710, 114304, 115061, 116050, 121795 and 131200.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Sections 1650, 1660, 18897.2, 18897.4, 18897.7, 100150, 110065, 113705, 113710, 114825, 114965, 115061, 116050, 116503, 112165, 121795 and 131200.

SECTION 1.8
DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT

1.8.1 Purpose. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements necessary to protect the health, safety and general welfare of the occupants and the public by governing accessibility, erection, construction, reconstruction, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, moving, removal, demolition, occupancy, use, height, court, area, sanitation, ventilation, maintenance and safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment.

SECTION 1.8.2
AUTHORITY AND ABBREVIATIONS

1.8.2.1 General. The Department of Housing and Community Development is authorized by law to promulgate and adopt building standards and regulations for several types of building applications. These applications are grouped and identified by abbreviation in the Matrix Adoption Tables to show which model code sections and amendments are applicable to each application. The applications under the authority of the Department of Housing and Community Development are listed in Sections 1.8.2.1.1 through 1.8.2.1.3.

Note: See the California Residential Code for detached one- and two- family dwellings and townhouses.

1.8.2.1.1 Housing construction. Application-Hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment houses, dwellings, dormitories, condominiums, shelters for homeless persons, congregate residences, employee housing, factory-built housing and other types of dwellings containing sleeping accommodations with or without common toilet or cooking facilities including accessory buildings, facilities, and uses thereto. Sections of this code which pertain to applications listed in this section are identified in the Matrix Adoption Table using the abbreviation “HCD 1.”

Enforcing agency—Local building department or the Department of Housing and Community Development.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Sections 17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921.6, 17921.10, 17922, 17922.6, 17922.12, 17927, 17928, 17959.6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871.3, 18871.4, 18873, 18873.1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 18873.4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11 and 19990; and Government Code Section 12955.1.

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Reference—Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 through 17062.5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 through 18700, 18860 through 18874, and Sections 19960 through 19997; and Government Code Sections 12955.1 and 12955.1.1.

1.8.2.1.2. Housing accessibility. Application - Covered multifamily dwellings as defined in Chapter 11A including, but not limited to, lodging houses, dormitories, timeshares, condominiums, shelters for homeless persons, congregate residences, apartment houses, dwellings, employee housing, factory-built housing and other types of dwellings containing sleeping accommodations with or without common toilet or cooking facilities.

Sections of this code identified in the Matrix Adoption Table by the abbreviation “HCD 1-AC” require specific accommodations for “Persons with disabilities” as defined in Chapter 11A. The application of such provisions shall be in conjunction with other requirements of this code and apply only to newly constructed “Covered multifamily dwellings” as defined in Chapter 11A of the California Building Code. “HCD 1-AC” applications include, but are not limited to, the following:

  1. All newly constructed “Covered multifamily dwellings” as defined in Chapter 11A.
  2. New “Common use areas” as defined in Chapter 11A serving existing covered multifamily dwellings.
  3. Additions to existing buildings, where the addition alone meets the definition of “Covered multifamily dwellings” as defined in Chapter 11A.
  4. Common use areas serving covered multifamily dwellings.
  5. Where any portion of a building's exterior is preserved, but the interior of the building is removed, including all structural portions of floors and ceilings, the building is considered a new building for determining the application of Chapter 11A.

“HCD 1-AC” building standards generally do not apply to public use areas or public accommodations such as hotels and motels. Public use areas, public accommodations and housing which is publicly funded as defined in Chapter 2 of this code are subject to the Division of the State Architect (DSA-AC) and are referenced in Section 1.9.1.

Enforcing agency—Local building department or the Department of Housing and Community Development.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Sections 17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921.6, 17921.10, 17922, 17922.6, 17922.12, 17927, 17928, 17959.6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871.3, 18871.4, 18873, 18873.1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 18873.4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11 and 19990; and Government Code Section 12955.1.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 through 17062.5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 through 18700, 18860 through 18874, and 19960 through 19997; and Government Code Sections 12955.1 and 12955.1.1.

1.8.2.1.3 Permanent buildings in mobilehome parks and special occupancy parks. Application-Permanent buildings, and permanent accessory buildings or structures, constructed within mobilehome parks and special occupancy parks that are under the control and ownership of the park operator. Sections of this code which pertain to applications listed in this section are identified in the Matrix Adoption Table using the abbreviation “HCD 2.”

Enforcing agency—Local building department or other local agency responsible for the enforcement of Health and Safety Code Division 13, Part 2.1 commencing with Section 18200 for mobilehome parks and Health and Safety Code Division 13, Part 2.3 commencing with Section 18860 for special occupancy parks or the Department of Housing and Community Development.

Authority cited—Health and Safety Code Sections 17040, 17050, 17920.9, 17921, 17921.3, 17921.6, 17821.10, 17922, 17922.6, 17922.12, 17927, 17928, 17959.6, 18300, 18552, 18554, 18620, 18630, 18640, 18670, 18690, 18691, 18865, 18871.3, 18871.4, 18873, 18873.1, 18873.2, 18873.3, 18873.4, 18873.5, 18938.3, 18944.11 and 19990; and Government Code Section 12955.1.

Reference—Health and Safety Code Sections 17000 through 17062.5, 17910 through 17995.5, 18200 through 18700, 18860 through 18874, and 19960 through 19997; and Government Code Sections 12955.1 and 12955.1.1.

SECTION 1.8.3
LOCAL ENFORCING AGENCY

1.8.3.1 Duties and powers. The building department of every city, county or city and county shall enforce all the provisions of law, this code, and the other rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development pertaining to the installation, erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal, demolition or arrangement of apartment houses, hotels, motels, lodging houses and dwellings, including accessory buildings, facilities and uses thereto.

The provisions regulating the erection and construction of dwellings and appurtenant structures shall not apply to existing structures as to which construction is commenced or approved prior to the effective date of these regulations. Requirements relating to use, maintenance and occupancy shall apply to all dwellings and appurtenant structures approved for construction or constructed before or after the effective date of this code.

For additional information regarding the use and occupancy of existing buildings and appurtenant structures, see

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California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Article 1, Section 1.

1.8.3.2 Laws, rules and regulations. Other than the building standards contained in this code, and notwithstanding other provisions of law, the statutory authority and location of the laws, rules and regulations to be enforced by local enforcing agencies are listed by statute in Sections 1.8.3.2.1 through 1.8.3.2.5 below:

1.8.3.2.1 State Housing Law. Refer to the State Housing Law, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5 commencing with Section 17910 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1, for the erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal, demolition or arrangement of apartment houses, hotels, motels, lodging houses and dwellings, including accessory buildings, facilities and uses thereto.

1.8.3.2.2 Mobilehome Parks Act. Refer to the Mobilehome Parks Act, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000 for mobilehome park administrative and enforcement authority, permits, plans, fees, violations, inspections and penalties both within and outside mobilehome parks.

Exception: Mobilehome parks where the Department of Housing and Community Development is the enforcing agency.

1.8.3.2.3 Special Occupancy Parks Act. Refer to the Special Occupancy Parks Act, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000 for special occupancy park administrative and enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, inspections and penalties both within and outside of special occupancy parks.

Exception: Special occupancy parks where the Department of Housing and Community Development is the enforcing agency.

1.8.3.2.4 Employee Housing Act. Refer to the Employee Housing Act, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600 for employee housing administrative and enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, inspections and penalties.

1.8.3.2.5 Factory-Built Housing Law. Refer to the Factory-Built Housing Law, California Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 6 commencing with Section 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000 for factory-built housing administrative and enforcement authority, permits, fees, violations, inspections and penalties.

SECTION 1.8.4
PERMITS, FEES, APPLICATIONS AND INSPECTIONS

1.8.4.1 Permits. A written construction permit shall be obtained from the enforcing agency prior to the erection, construction, reconstruction, installation, moving or alteration of any building or structure.

Exceptions:

  1. Work exempt from permits as specified in Chapter 1, Administration, Division 11, Section 105.2.
  2. Changes, alterations or repairs of a minor nature not affecting structural features, egress, sanitation, safety or accessibility as determined by the enforcing agency.

Exemptions from permit requirements shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in any manner in violation of other provisions of law or this code.

1.8.4.2 Fees. Subject to other provisions of law, the governing body of any city, county or city and county may prescribe fees to defray the cost of enforcement of rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. The amount of the fees shall not exceed the amount reasonably necessary to administer or process permits, certificates, forms or other documents, or to defray the costs of enforcement. For additional information, see the State Housing Law, Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, Section 17951 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, Article 3, commencing with Section 6.

1.8.4.3 Plan review and time limitations. Subject to other provisions of law, provisions related to plan checking, prohibition of excessive delays and contracting with or employment of private parties to perform plan checking are set forth in the State Housing Law, Health and Safety Code Section 17960.1, and for employee housing, in Health and Safety Code Section 17021.

1.8.4.3.1 Retention of plans. The building department of every city, county or city and county shall maintain an official copy, microfilm, electronic or other type of photographic copy of the plans of every building, during the life of the building, for which the department issued a building permit.

Exceptions:

  1. Single or multiple dwellings not more than two stories and basement in height.
  2. Garages and other structures appurtenant to buildings listed in Exception 1.
  3. Farm or ranch buildings appurtenant to buildings listed in Exception 1.
  4. Any one-story building where the span between bearing walls does not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm), except a steel frame or concrete building.

All plans for common interest developments as defined in Section 1351 of the California Civil Code shall be retained. For additional information regarding plan

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retention and reproduction of plans by an enforcing agency, see Health and Safety Code Sections 19850 through 19852.

1.8.4.4 Inspections. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building official and such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be constructed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or other regulations of the Department of Housing and Community Development. Required inspections are listed in Chapter 1, Administration, Division II, Sections 110.3.1 through 110.3.6, 110.3.8, 110.3.9 and 110.3.10.

SECTION 1.8.5
RIGHT-OF-ENTRY FOR ENFORCEMENT

1.8.5.1 General. Subject to other provisions of law, officers and agents of the enforcing agency may enter and inspect public and private properties to secure compliance with the rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development. For limitations and additional information regarding enforcement, see the following:

  1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.1 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, commencing with Section 17910 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1.
  2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.2 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000.
  3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.3 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000.
  4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.4 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600.
  5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.5 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000.

SECTION 1.8.6
LOCAL MODIFICATION BY ORDINANCE OR REGULATION

1.8.6.1 General. Subject to other provisions of law, a city, county or city and county may make changes to the provisions adopted by the Department of Housing and Community Development. If any city, county or city and county does not amend, add or repeal by local ordinances or regulations the provisions published in this code or other regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development, those provisions shall be applicable and shall become effective 180 days after publication by the California Building Standards Commission. Amendments, additions and deletions to this code adopted by a city, county or city and county pursuant to California Health and Safety Code Sections 17958.5, 17958.7 and 18941.5, together with all applicable portions of this code, shall also become effective 180 days after publication of the California Building Standards Code by the California Building Standards Commission.

1.8.6.2 Findings, filings and rejections of local modifications. Prior to making any modifications or establishing more restrictive building standards, the governing body shall make express findings and filings, as required by California Health and Safety Code Section 17958.7, showing that such modifications are reasonably necessary due to local climatic, geological or topographical conditions. No modification shall become effective or operative unless the following requirements are met:

  1. The express findings shall be made available as a public record.
  2. A copy of the modification and express finding, each document marked to cross-reference the other, shall be filed with the California Building Standards Commission for a city, county, or city and county and with the Department of Housing and Community Development for fire protection districts.
  3. The California Building Standards Commission has not rejected the modification or change.

Nothing in this section shall limit the authority of fire protection districts pursuant to California Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7(a).

SECTION 1.8.7
ALTERNATE MATERIALS, DESIGNS, TESTS AND METHODS OF CONSTRUCTION

1.8.7.1 General. The provisions of this code, as adopted by the Department of Housing and Community Development are not intended to prevent the use of any alternate material, appliance, installation, device, arrangement, design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code. Consideration and approval of alternates shall comply with Section 1.8.7.2 for local building departments and Section 1.8.7.3 for the Department of Housing and Community Development.

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1.8.7.2 Local building departments. The building department of any city, county or city and county may approve alternates for use in the erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal, demolition or arrangement of an apartment house, hotel, motel, lodging house, dwelling or an accessory structure, except for the following:

  1. Structures located in mobilehome parks as defined in California Health and Safety Code Section 18214.
  2. Structures located in special occupancy parks as defined in California Health and Safety Code Section 18862.43.
  3. Factory-built housing as defined in California Health and Safety Code Section 19971.

1.8.7.2.1 Approval of alternates. The consideration and approval of alternates by a local building department shall comply with the following procedures and limitations:

  1. The approval shall be granted on a case-by-case basis.
  2. Evidence shall be submitted to substantiate claims that the proposed alternate, in performance, safety and protection of life and health, conforms to, or is at least equivalent to, the standards contained in this code and other rules and regulations promulgated by the Department of Housing and Community Development.
  3. The local building department may require tests performed by an approved testing agency at the expense of the owner or owner's agent as proof of compliance.
  4. If the proposed alternate is related to accessibility in covered multifamily dwellings or in facilities serving “Covered multifamily dwellings” as defined in Chapter 11A, the proposed alternate must also meet the threshold set for “Equivalent facilitation” as defined in Chapter 11A.

For additional information regarding approval of alternates by a building department pursuant to the State Housing Law, see California Health and Safety Code Section 17951(e) and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1.

1.8.7.3 Department of Housing and Community Development. The Department of Housing and Community Development may approve alternates for use in the erection, construction, reconstruction, movement, enlargement, conversion, alteration, repair, removal or demolition of an apartment house, hotel, motel, lodging house, dwelling or an accessory thereto. The consideration and approval of alternates shall comply with the following:

  1. The department may require tests at the expense of the owner or owner's agent to substantiate compliance with the California Building Standards Code.
  2. The approved alternate shall, for its intended purpose, be at least equivalent in performance and safety to the materials, designs, tests or methods of construction prescribed by this code.

SECTION 1.8.8
APPEALS BOARD

1.8.8.1 General. Every city, county or city and county shall establish a local appeals board and a housing appeals board. The local appeals board and housing appeals board shall each be comprised of at least five voting members that shall serve at the pleasure of the city, county or city and county. Appointees shall not be employees of the jurisdiction and shall be qualified and specifically knowledgeable in the California Building Standards Codes and applicable local ordinances.

1.8.8.2 Definitions. The following terms shall for the purposes of this section have the meaning shown.

HOUSING APPEALS BOARD. The board or agency of a city, county or city and county which is authorized by the governing body of the city, county or city and county to hear appeals regarding the requirements of the city, county or city and county relating to the use, maintenance and change of occupancy of buildings and structures, including requirements governing alteration, additions, repair, demolition and moving. In any area in which there is no such board or agency, “Housing appeals board” means the local appeals board having jurisdiction over the area.

LOCAL APPEALS BOARD. The board or agency of a city, county or city and county which is authorized by the governing body of the city, county or city and county to hear appeals regarding the building requirements of the city, county or city and county. In any area in which there is no such board or agency, “Local appeals board” means the governing body of the city, county or city and county having jurisdiction over the area.

1.8.8.3 Appeals. Except as otherwise provided in law, any person, firm or corporation adversely affected by a decision, order or determination by a city, county or city and county relating to the application of building standards published in the California Building Standards Code, or any other applicable rule or regulation adopted by the Department of Housing and Community Development, or any lawfully enacted ordinance by a city, county or city and county, may appeal the issue for resolution to the local appeals board or housing appeals board as appropriate.

The local appeals board shall hear appeals relating to new building construction and the housing appeals board shall hear appeals relating to existing buildings.

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SECTION 1.8.9
UNSAFE BUILDINGS OR STRUCTURES

1.8.9.1 Authority to enforce. Subject to other provisions of law, the administration, enforcement, actions, proceedings, abatement, violations and penalties for unsafe buildings and structures are contained in the following statutes and regulations:

  1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.1 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, commencing with Section 17910 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1.
  2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.2 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000.
  3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.3 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000.
  4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.4 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600.
  5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.5 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000.

1.8.9.2 Actions and proceedings. Subject to other provisions of law, punishments, penalties and fines for violations of building standards are contained in the following statutes and regulations:

  1. For applications subject to the State Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.1 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1.5, commencing with Section 17910 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 1.
  2. For applications subject to the Mobilehome Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.2 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.1, commencing with Section 18200 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2, commencing with Section 1000.
  3. For applications subject to the Special Occupancy Parks Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.3 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 2.3, commencing with Section 18860 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 2.2, commencing with Section 2000.
  4. For applications subject to the Employee Housing Act as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.4 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 1, commencing with Section 17000 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 3, commencing with Section 600.
  5. For applications subject to the Factory-Built Housing Law as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.5 of this code, refer to Health and Safety Code, Division 13, Part 6, commencing with Section 19960 and California Code of Regulations, Title 25, Division 1, Chapter 3, Subchapter 1, commencing with Section 3000.

SECTION 1.8.10
OTHER BUILDING REGULATIONS

1.8.10.1 Existing structures. Subject to the requirements of California Health and Safety Code Sections 17912, 17920.3, 17922, 17922.3, 17958.8 and 17958.9, the provisions contained in Chapter 34 relating to existing structures shall only apply as identified in the Matrix Adoption Table under the authority of the Department of Housing and Community Development as listed in Sections 1.8.2.1.1 through 1.8.2.1.3 of this code.

1.8.10.2 Moved structures. Subject to the requirements of California Health and Safety Code Sections 17922.3 and 17958.9, the provisions contained in Chapter 34 relating to a moved residential structure shall only apply as identified in the Matrix Adoption Table under the authority of the Department of Housing and Community Development as listed in Sections 1.8.2.1.1 through 1.8.2.1.3 of this code.

SECTION 1.9
DIVISION OF THE STATE ARCHITECT

1.9.1 Division of the State Architect—Access Compliance.

General. The purpose of this code is to ensure that barrier-free design is incorporated in all buildings, facilities, site work and other improvements to which this code applies in compliance with state law to ensure that these improvements are accessible to and usable by persons with disabilities. Additions, alterations and structural repairs in all buildings and facilities shall comply with these provisions for new buildings, except as otherwise provided and specified herein.

The provisions of these regulations shall apply to any portable buildings leased or owned by a school district, and shall also apply to temporary and emergency buildings and facilities. Temporary buildings and facilities are not of permanent construction but are extensively used or are essential for public use for a period of time. Examples of temporary buildings or facilities covered include, but are not limited to: reviewing stands, temporary classrooms, bleacher areas, exhibit areas, temporary banking facilities, temporary health screening services or temporary safe pedestrian passageways around a construction site.

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In addition, to incorporate standards at least as restrictive as those required by the federal government for barrier-free design under (1) Title III (Public Accommodations and Commercial Facilities), Subpart D (New Construction and Alteration) and Appendix A (Americans with Disabilities Act Standards for Accessible Design) (see 28 C.F.R., Part 36), and (2) Title II (Public Entities), Section 35.151 (New Construction and Alterations) (see 28 C.F.R., Part 35) both from the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and (3) under the Fair Housing Amendments Act of 1988. Some of these regulations may be more stringent than state law in order to meet the federal requirement.

1.9.1.1 Application. See Government Code commencing with Section 4450.

Publicly funded buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs and related facilities shall be accessible to and usable by persons with disabilities as follows:

1.9.1.1.1 All buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs and related facilities constructed in the state by the use of state, county or municipal funds, or the funds of any political subdivision of the state.

1.9.1.1.2 All buildings, structures and facilities that are leased, rented, contracted, sublet or hired by any municipal, county or state division of government, or by a special district.

1.9.1.1.3 All publicly funded buildings used for congregate residences or for one- or two-family dwelling unit purposes shall conform to the provisions applicable to living accommodations.

1.9.1.1.4 All existing publicly funded buildings and facilities when alterations, structural repairs or additions are made to such buildings or facilities. For detailed requirements on existing buildings, see Chapter 11B, Division IV.

1.9.1.1.5 With respect to buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs and related facilities not requiring a building permit, building standards published in the California Building Standards Code relating to access for persons with disabilities and other regulations adopted pursuant to Government Code Section 4450, and in effect at the time construction is commenced, shall be applicable.

1.9.1.2 Application. See Health and Safety Code commencing with Section 19952.

All privately funded public accommodations, as defined and commercial facilities, as defined, shall be accessible to persons with disabilities as follows:

Exception: Certain types of privately funded multistory buildings do not require installation of an elevator to provide access above and below the first floor. See Chapter 11B.

1.9.1.2.1 Any building, structure, facility, complex or improved area, or portions thereof, which are used by the general public.

1.9.1.2.2 Any sanitary facilities which are made available for the public, clients or employees in such accommodations or facilities.

1.9.1.2.3 Any curb or sidewalk intended for public use that is constructed in this state with private funds.

1.9.1.2.4 All existing privately funded public accommodations when alterations, structural repairs or additions are made to such public accommodations as set forth under Chapter 11B.

1.9.1.3 Application—Public housing and private housing available for public use. See Government Code Sections 4450 and 12955.1(d).

1.9.1.4 Enforcing agency.

1.9.1.4.1 The director of the Department of General Services where state funds are utilized for any project or where funds of counties, municipalities or other political subdivisions are utilized for the construction of elementary, secondary or community college projects.

1.9.1.4.2 The governing bodies where funds of counties, municipalities or other political subdivisions are utilized except as otherwise provided above.

1.9.1.4.3 The building department of every city, county or city and county within the territorial area of its city, county or city and county, where private funds are utilized. “Building department” means the department, bureau or officer charged with the enforcement of laws or ordinances regulating the erection or construction, or both the erection and construction, of buildings.

1.9.1.5 Special conditions for persons with disabilities requiring appeals action ratification. Whenever reference is made in these regulations to this section, the findings and determinations required to be rendered by the local enforcing agency shall be subject to ratification through an appeals process.

1.9.1.6 Authority cited—Government Code Section 4450.

1.9.1.7 Reference cited—Government Code Sections 4450 through 4461 and 12955.1(d) and Health and Safety Code Sections 18949.1, 19952 through 19959.

1.9.2 Division of the State Architect—Structural Safety.

1.9.2.1 DSA-SS Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety.

Application—Public elementary and secondary schools, community colleges and state-owned or state-leased essential services buildings.

Enforcing agency—The Division of the State Architect—Structural Safety (DSA-SS) has been delegated the responsibility and authority by the Department of General Services to review and approve the design and observe the construction of public elementary and secondary schools, community colleges and state-owned or state-leased essential services buildings.

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Authority cited—Education Code Sections 17310 and 81142 and Health and Safety Code Section 16022.

Reference—Education Code Sections 17280 through 17317, and 81130 through 81147 and Health and Safety Code Sections 16000 through 16023.

1.9.2.1.1 Applicable administrative standards.

  1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations:
    1. Sections 4-301 through 4-355, Group 1, Chapter 4, for public elementary and secondary schools and community colleges.
    2. Sections 4-201 through 4-249, Chapter 4, for state-owned or state-leased essential services buildings.
  2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: [applies to public elementary and secondary schools, community colleges and state-owned or state-leased essential services building(s)]:
    1. Sections 1.1 and 1.9.2 of Chapter 1, Division 1.
    2. Sections 102.1, 102.2, 102.3, 102.4, 102.5, 104.9, 104.10 and 104.11 of Chapter 1, Division II.

1.9.2.1.2 Applicable building standards. California Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11 and 12, California Code of Regulations, for school buildings, community colleges and state-owned or state-leased essential service buildings.

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and amended by the Division of the State Architect—Structural Safety, shall apply to the applications listed in Section 1.9.2.1.

The Division of the State Architect—Structural Safety adopts the following building standards in Title 24, Part 2:

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16A, 17A, 18A, 19A, 20, 21A, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and Appendix J.

1.9.2.1.3 Amendments. Division of the State Architect—Structural Safety amendments in this code appear preceded with the acronym [DSA-SS].

Exceptions:

  1. Chapters 16A, 17A, 18A, 19A, 21A, and 22A—Amendments appearing in these chapters without an acronym have been co-adopted by DSA-SS and OSHPD.
  2. Chapter 34, Sections 3115-3421—DSA-SS adopts these sections without the use of the DSA-SS acronym.

1.9.2.1.4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference is made within this code to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 21 and 22, the respective sections in Chapters 16A, 17A, 18A, 19A, 21A and 22A shall apply instead.

1.9.2.2 DSA-SS/CC Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Colleges

Application—Community Colleges. The Division of the State Architect has been delegated the authority by the Department of General Services to promulgate alternate building standards for application to community colleges, which a community college may elect to use in lieu of standards promulgated by DSA-SS in accordance with Section 1.9.2.1

Enforcing agency— Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Colleges (DSA-SS/CC)

The Division of the State Architect has been delegated the authority by the Department of General Services to review and approve the design and oversee construction of community colleges electing to use the alternative building standards as provided in this section.

Authority cited— Education Code Section 81053.

Reference—Education Code Sections 81052, 81053, and 81130 through 81147.

1.9.2.2.1 Applicable administrative standards.

  1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations:
    1. Sections 4-301 through 4-355, Group 1, Chapter 4.
  2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations:
    1. Sections 1.1 and 1.9.2 of Chapter 1, Division 1.
    2. Sections 102.1, 102.2, 102.3, 102.4, 102.5, 104.9, 104.10 and 104.11 of Chapter 1, Division II.

1.9.2.2.2 Applicable building standards. California Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 11 and 12, California Code of Regulations.

The Division of the State Architect-Structural Safety/Community Colleges [DSA-SS/CC] adopts the following building standards in Title 24, Part 2:

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17A, 18A, 19, 20, 21, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and Appendix J.

1.9.2.2.3 Amendments. Division of the State Architect—Structural Safety/Community Colleges amendments in this code appear preceded with the acronym [DSA-SS/CC].

Exceptions:

  1. Chapters 17A, and 18A— Amendments appearing in these chapters without an acronym have been co-adopted by DSA-SS, DSA-SS/CC, and OSHPD.
  2. Chapter 34, Sections 3115-3421—DSA-SS/CC adopts these sections without the use of the DSA-SS/CC acronym.
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1.9.2.2.4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference is made within this code to sections in Chapters 17 and 18, the respective sections in Chapters 17A and 18A shall apply instead.

SECTION 1.10
OFFICE OF STATEWIDE HEALTH PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT

1.10.1 OSHPD 1. Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Application—General acute care hospitals and acute psychiatric hospitals, excluding distinct part units or distinct part freestanding buildings providing skilled nursing or intermediate care services. For structural regulations: Skilled nursing facilities and/or intermediate care facilities except those skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care facilities of single-story, Type V, wood or light steel-frame construction.

Enforcing agency—Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). The office shall enforce the Division of the State Architect-Access Compliance regulations and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for the above stated facility types.

1.10.1.1 Applicable administrative standards.

  1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: Chapters 6 and 7.
  2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sections 1.1 and 1.10, Chapter 1, Division 1, and Sections 101–116, Chapter 1, Division 11.

1.10.1.2 Applicable building standards. California Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 11.

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed in Section 1.10.1.

OSHPD 1 adopts the following building standards in Title 24, Part 2:

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16A, 17A, 18A, 19A, 20, 21A, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34A, 35 and Appendix J.

1.10.1.3 Identification of amendments. For applications listed in Section 1.10.1, amendments appear in this code preceded with the acronym [OSHPD 1], unless the entire chapter is applicable.

1.10.1.4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference is made within this code to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22 and 34, the respective sections in Chapters 16A, 17A, 18A, 19A, 21A, 22A and 34A shall apply instead.

Authority—Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, 1275 and 129850.

References—Health and Safety Code Sections 19958, 127010, 127015, 129680, 1275 and 129675 through 130070.

1.10.2 OSHPD 2. Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Application—Skilled nursing facilities and intermediate care facilities, including distinct part skilled nursing and intermediate care services on a general acute care or acute psychiatric hospital license, provided either are in a separate unit or a freestanding building. For structural regulations: Single-story, Type V skilled nursing facility and/or intermediate care facilities utilizing wood or light steel-frame construction.

Enforcing agency—Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). The office shall also enforce the Division of the State Architect—Access Compliance regulations and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for the above-stated facility type.

1.10.2.1 Applicable administrative standards.

  1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: Chapter 7.
  2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sections 1.1 and 1.10, Chapter 1, Division 1, and Sections 101-116, Chapter 1, Division II.

1.10.2.2 Applicable building standards. California Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and II.

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed in Section 1.10.2.

OSHPD 2 adopts the following building standards in Title 24, Part 2:

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and Appendix J.

1.10.2.3 Identification of amendments. For applications listed in Section 1.10.2, amendments appear in this code preceded with the acronym [OSHPD 2].

Authority—Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, 1275 and 129850.

References—Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, 1275 and 129680.

1.10.3 OSHPD 3. Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Application—Licensed clinics and any freestanding building under a hospital license where outpatient clinical services are provided.

Enforcing agency—Local building department.

1.10.3.1 Applicable administrative standards.

  1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: Chapter 7.
  2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sections 1.1 and 1.10, Chapter 1, Division 1, and Sections 101–116, Chapter 1, Division II.
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1.10.3.2 Applicable building standards. California Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 11.

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed in Section 1.10.3.

OSHPD 3 adopts the following building standards in Title 24, Part 2:

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35 and Appendix J.

1.10.3.3 Identification of amendments. For applications listed in Section 1.10.3, amendments appear in this code without the acronym [OSHPD 3]. Adoptions are shown in the adoption matrix.

Authority— Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015 and 1226.

References— Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, 129885 and 1226, Government Code Section 54350 and State Constitution Article 11, Section 7.

1.10.4 OSHPD 4. Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Application— Correctional treatment centers.

Enforcing agency— Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development (OSHPD). The office shall also enforce the Division of the State Architect—Access Compliance regulations and the regulations of the Office of the State Fire Marshal for the above-stated facility types.

1.10.4.1 Applicable administrative standards.

  1. Title 24, Part 1, California Code of Regulations: Chapter 7.
  2. Title 24, Part 2, California Code of Regulations: Sections 1.1 and 1.10, Chapter 1, Division I, and Sections 101–116, Chapter 1, Division II.

1.10.4.2 Applicable building standards. California Building Standards Code, Title 24, Parts 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10 and 11.

The provisions of Title 24, Part 2, as adopted and amended by OSHPD, shall apply to the applications listed in Section 1.10.4.

OSHPD 4 adopts the following building standards in Title 24, Part 2:

Chapters 2 through 10, 12, 14, 15, 16A, 17A, 18A, 19A, 20, 21A, 22A, 23, 24, 25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34A, 35 and Appendix J.

1.10.4.3 Identification of amendments. For applications listed in Section 1.10.4, amendments appear in this code preceded with the acronym [OSHPD 4], unless the entire chapter is applicable.

1.10.4.4 Reference to other chapters. Where reference is made within this code to sections in Chapters 16, 17, 18, 19, 21, 22 and 34, the respective sections in Chapters 16A, 17A, 18A, 19A, 21A, 22A and 34A shall apply instead.

Authority— Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015 and 129790.

References— Health and Safety Code Sections 127010, 127015, 1275 and 129675 through 130070.

SECTION 1.11
OFFICE OF THE STATE FIRE MARSHAL

1.11.1 SFM—Office of the State Fire Marshal. Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Application:

Institutional, educational or any similar occupancy. Any building or structure used or intended for use as an asylum, jail, mental hospital, sanitarium, home for the aged, children's nursery, children's home, school or any similar occupancy of any capacity.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Assembly or similar place of assemblage. Any theater, dancehall, skating rink, auditorium, assembly hall, meeting hall, nightclub, fair building or similar place of assemblage where 50 or more persons may gather together in a building, room or structure for the purpose of amusement, entertainment, instruction, deliberation, worship, drinking or dining, awaiting transportation, or education.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Small family day-care homes.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Sections 1597.45, 1597.54, 13143 and 17921.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Large family day-care homes.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Sections 1597.46, 1597.54 and 17921.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Sections 13143.

Residential facilities and residential facilities for the elderly.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13133.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Any state institution or other state-owned or state-occupied building.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13108.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

High-Rise structures.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13211.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Motion picture production studios.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.1.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

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Organized camps.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 18897.3.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Residential. All hotels, motels, lodging houses, apartment houses and dwellings, including congregate residences and buildings and structures accessory thereto.

Multiple-story structures existing on January 1, 1975, let for human habitation, including and limited to, hotels, motels and apartment houses, less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest floor level having building access, wherein rooms used for sleeping are let above the ground floor.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Sections 13143.2 and 17921.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Residential care facilities. Certified family care homes, out-of-home placement facilities, halfway houses, drug and/or alcohol rehabilitation facilities and any building or structure used or intended for use as a home or institution for the housing of any person of any age when such person is referred to or placed within such home or institution for protective social care and supervision services by any governmental agency.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Tents, awnings or other fabric enclosures used in connection with any occupancy.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13116.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Fire alarm devices, equipment and systems in connection with any occupancy.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13114.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Hazardous materials.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.9.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Flammable and combustible liquids.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.6.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Section 13143.

Public School Automatic Fire Detection, Alarm and Sprinkler Systems.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Section 13143 and California Education Code Article 7.5, Sections 17074.50, 17074.52 and 17074.54.

Reference— Government Code Section 11152.5, Health and Safety Code Section 13143 and California Education Code Chapter 12.5, Leroy F. Greene School Facilities Act of 1998, Article 1.

Wildland-Urban Interface Fire Area.

Authority cited— Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, 13108.5(a) and 18949.2(b) and (c) and Government Code Section 51189.

Reference— Health and Safety Code Sections 13143, Government Code Sections 51176, 51177, 51178 and 51179 and Public Resources Code Sections 4201 through 4204.

1.11.2 Duties and powers of the enforcing agency.

1.11.2.1 Enforcement.

1.11.2.1.1 The responsibility for enforcement of building standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal and published in the California Building Standards Code relating to fire and panic safety and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal shall, except as provided in Section 1.11.2.1.2, be as follows:

  1. The city, county or city and county with jurisdiction in the area affected by the standard or regulation shall delegate the enforcement of the building standards relating to fire and panic safety and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal as they relate to Group R-3 occupancies, as described in Section 310.1 of Part 2 of the California Building Standards Code, to either of the following:
    1. The chief of the fire authority of the city, county or city and county, or an authorized representative.
    2. The chief building official of the city, county or city and county, or an authorized representative.
  2. The chief of any city or county fire department or of any fire protection district, and authorized representatives, shall enforce within the jurisdiction the building standards and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal, except those described in Item 1 or 4.
  3. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to enforce the building standards and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal in areas outside of corporate cities and districts providing fire protection services.
  4. The State Fire Marshal shall have authority to enforce the building standards and other regulations of the State Fire Marshal in corporate cities and districts providing fire protection services on request of the chief fire official or the governing body.
  5. Any fee charged pursuant to the enforcement authority of this section shall not exceed the estimated reasonable cost of providing the service for which the fee is charged pursuant to Section 66014 of the Government Code.

1.11.2.1.2 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13108, and except as otherwise provided in this section, building standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal published in the California Building Standards Code relating to fire and panic safety shall be enforced by the State Fire Marshal in all state-owned buildings, state-occupied buildings, and state institutions through-out the state. Upon the written request of the chief fire official of any city, county or fire protection district, the

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State Fire Marshal may authorize such chief fire official and his or her authorized representatives, in their geographical area of responsibility, to make fire prevention inspections of state-owned or state-occupied buildings, other than state institutions, for the purpose of enforcing the regulations relating to fire and panic safety adopted by the State Fire Marshal pursuant to this section and building standards relating to fire and panic safety published in the California Building Standards Code. Authorization from the State Fire Marshal shall be limited to those fire departments or fire districts which maintain a fire prevention bureau staffed by paid personnel.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13108, any requirement or order made by any chief fire official who is authorized by the State Fire Marshal to make fire prevention inspections of state-owned or state-occupied buildings, other than state institutions, may be appealed to the State Fire Marshal. The State Fire Marshal shall, upon receiving an appeal and subject to the provisions of Chapter 5 (commencing with Section 18945) of Part 2.5 of Division 13 of the Health and Safety Code, determine if the requirement or order made is reasonably consistent with the fire and panic safety regulations adopted by the State Fire Marshal and building standards relating to fire and panic safety published in the California Building Code.

Any person may request a code interpretation from the State Fire Marshal relative to the intent of any regulation or provision adopted by the State Fire Marshal. When the request relates to a specific project, occupancy or building, the State Fire Marshal shall review the issue with the appropriate local enforcing agency prior to rendering such code interpretation.

1.11.2.1.3 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13112, any person who violates any order, rule or regulation of the State Fire Marshal is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by a fine of not less than $100.00 or more than $500.00, or by imprisonment for not less than six months, or by both. A person is guilty of a separate offense each day during which he or she commits, continues or permits a violation of any provision of, or any order, rule or regulation of, the State Fire Marshal as contained in this code.

Any inspection authority who, in the exercise of his or her authority as a deputy State Fire Marshal, causes any legal complaints to be filed or any arrest to be made shall notify the State Fire Marshal immediately following such action.

1.11.2.2 Right of entry. The fire chief of any city, county or fire protection district, or such person's authorized representative, may enter any state institution or any other state-owned or state-occupied building for the purpose of preparing a fire suppression preplanning program or for the purpose of investigating any fire in a state-occupied building.

The State Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried assistants, the chief of any city or county fire department or fire protection district and his or her authorized representatives may enter any building or permises not used for dwelling purpose at any reasonable hour for the purpose of enforcing this chapter. The owner, lessee, manager or operator of any such building or permises shall permit the State Fire Marshal, his or her deputies or salaried assistants and the chief of any city or county fire department or fire protection district and his or her authorized representatives to enter and inspect them at the time and for the purpose stated in this section.

1.11.2.3 More restrictive fire and panic safety building standards.

1.11.2.3.1 Any fire protection district organized pursuant to Health and Safety Code Part 2.7 (commencing with Section 13800) of Division 12 may adopt building standards relating to fire and panic safety that are more stringent than those building standards adopted by the State Fire Marshal and contained in the California Building Standards Code. For these purposes, the district board shall be deemed a legislative body and the district shall be deemed a local agency. Any changes or modifications that are more stringent than the requirements published in the California Building Standards Code relating to fire and panic safety shall be subject to Section 1.1.8.1.

1.11.2.3.2 Any fire protection district that proposes to adopt an ordinance pursuant to this section shall, not less than 30 days prior to noticing a proposed ordinance for public hearing, provide a copy of that ordinance, together with the adopted findings made pursuant to Section 1.11.2.3.1, to the city, county, or city and county where the ordinance will apply. The city, county, or city and county may provide the district with written comments, which shall become part of the fire protection district's public hearing record.

1.11.2.3.3 The fire protection district shall transmit the adopted ordinance to the city, county, or city and county where the ordinance will apply. The legislative body of the city, county, or city and county may ratify, modify or deny an adopted ordinance and transmit its determination to the district within 15 days of the determination. Any modification or denial of an adopted ordinance shall include a written statement describing the reasons for any modifications or denial. No ordinance adopted by the district shall be effective until ratification by the city, county, or city and county where the ordinance will apply. Upon ratification of an adopted ordinance, the city, county or city and county shall file a copy of the findings of the district, and any findings of the county, or city and county, together with the adopted ordinance expressly marked and identified to which each finding refers, in accordance with Section 1.1.8.1(3).

1.11.2.4 Request for alternate means of protection. Requests for approval to use an alternative material, assembly or materials, equipment, method of construction, method of installation of equipment or means of protection shall be made in writing to the enforcing agency by the owner or the owner's authorized representative and shall be accompanied by a full statement of the conditions. Sufficient

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evidence or proof shall be submitted to substantiate any claim that may be made regarding its conformance. The enforcing agency may require tests and the submission of a test report from an approved testing organization as set forth in Title 19, California Code of Regulation, to substantiate the equivalency of the proposed alternative means of protection.

When a request for alternate means of protection involves hazardous materials, the authority having jurisdiction may consider implementation of the findings and recommendations identified in a Risk Management Plan (RMP) developed in accordance with Title 19, Division 2, Chapter 4.5, Article 3.

Approved of a request for use of an alternative material, assembly of materials, equipment, method of construction, method of installation of equipment or means of protection made pursuant to these provisions shall be limited to the particular case covered by request and shall not be construed as establishing any precedent for any future request.

1.11.2.5 Appeals. When a request for an alternate means of protection has been denied by the enforcing agency, the applicant may file a written appeal to the State Fire Marshal for consideration of the applicant's proposal. In considering such appeal, the State Fire Marshal may seek the advice of the State Board of Fire Services. The State Fire Marshal shall, after considering all of the facts presented, including any recommendations of the State Board of Fire Services, determine if the proposal is for the purposes intended, at least equivalent to the specified in these regulations in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety, and shall transmit such findings and any recommendations to the applicant and to the enforcing agency.

1.11.3 Construction documents.

1.11.3.1 Public schools. Plans and specifications for the construction, alteration or addition to any building owned, leased or rented by any public school district shall be submitted to the Division of the State Architect.

1.11.3.2 Movable walls and partitions. Plans or diagrams shall be submitted to the enforcing agency for approval before the installation of, or rearrangement of, any movable wall or partition in any occupancy. Approval shall be granted only if there is no increase in the fire hazard.

1.11.3.3 New construction high-rise buildings.

  1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be prepared covering all work required to comply with new construction high-rise buildings. Such plans and specifications shall be submitted to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction.
  2. All plans and specifications shall be prepared under the responsible charge of an architect or a civil or structural engineer authorized by law to develop construction plans and specifications, or by both such architect and engineer. Plans and specifications shall be prepared by an engineer duty qualified in that branch of engineering necessary to perform such services. Administration of the work of construction shall be under the charge of the responsible architect or engineer except that where plans and specifications involve alterations or repairs, such work of construction may be adminstered by an engineer duly qualified to perform such services and holding a valid certificate under Chapter 7 (commencing with Section 65700) of Division 3 of the Business and Professions Code for performance of services in that branch of engineering in which said plans, specifications and estimates and work of construction are applicable.

This section shall not be construed as preventing the design of fire-extinguishing systems by persons holding a C-16 license issued pursuant to Division 3, Chapter 9, Business and Professions Code. In such instances, however, the responsibility charge of this section shall prevail.

1.11.3.4 Existing high-rise buildings.

  1. Complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be prepared covering all work required by Section 3412 for existing high-rise buildings. Such plans or specifications shall be submitted to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction.
  2. When new construction is required to conform with the provisions of these regulations, complete plans or specifications, or both, shall be prepared in accordance with the provisions of this subsection. As used in this section, “new construction” is not intended to include repairs, replacements or minor alterations which do not disrupt or appreciably add to or affect the structural aspects of the building.

1.11.3.5 Retention of plans. Refer to Building Standards Law, Health and Safety Code Sections 19850 and 19851 for permanent retention of plans.

1.11.4 Fees.

1.11.4.1 Other fees. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13146.2, a city, county or district which inspects a hotel, motel, lodging house or apartment house may charge and collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of the structure in an amount, as determined by the city, county or district, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection.

1.11.4.2 Large family day-care. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 1597.46, Large Family Day-Care Homes, the local government shall process any required permit as economically as possible, and fees charged for review shall not exceed the costs of the review and permit process.

1.11.4.3 High-Rise. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13217, High-Rise Structure Inspection: Fees and costs, a local agency which inspects a high-rise structure pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13217 may charge and collect a fee for the inspection from the owner of the high-rise structure in an amount, as determined by the local agency, sufficient to pay its costs of that inspection.

1.11.4.4 Fire clearance preinspection. Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13235, Fire Clearance Preinspection, fee, upon receipt of a request from a prospective licensee of a community care facility, as defined in Section 1502, of a residential care facility for the elderly, as

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defined in Section 1569.2, or of a child day care facility, as defined in Section 1596.750, the local fire enforcing agency, as defined in Section 13244, or State Fire Marshal, whichever has primary jurisdiction, shall conduct a preinspection of the facility prior to the final fire clearance approval. At the time of the preinspection, the primary fire enforcing agency shall price consultation and interpretation of the fire safety regulations and shall notify the prospective licensee of the facility in writing of the specific fire safety regulations which shall be enforced in order to obtain fire clearance approval. A fee equal to, but not exceeding, the actual cost of the preinspection may be charged for the preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 25 or fewer persons. A fee equal to, but not exceeding, the actual cost of the preinspection may be charged for a preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 26 or more persons.

1.11.4.5 Care facilities. The primary fire enforcing agency shall complete the final fire clearance inspection for a community care facility, residential care facility for the elderly, or child day care facility within 30 days of receipt of the request for the final inspection, or as of the date the prospective facility requests the final prelicensure inspection by the State Department of Social Services, whichever is later.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13235, a preinspection fee equal to, but not exceeding, the actual cost of the preinspection may be charged for a facility with a capacity to serve 25 or less clients. A fee equal to, but not exceeding, the actual cost of the preinspection may be charged for a preinspection of a facility with a capacity to serve 26 or more clients.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13131.5, a reasonable final inspection fee, not to exceed the actual cost of inspection services necessary to complete a final inspection may be charged for occupancies classified as residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFE).

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 1569.84, neither the State Fire Marshal nor any local public entity shall charge any fee for enforcing fire inspection regulations pursuant to state law or regulation or local ordinance, with respect to residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) which service six or fewer persons.

1.11.4.6 Requests of the Office of the State Fire Marshal. Whenever a local authority having jurisdiction requests that the State Fire Marshal perform plan review and/or inspection services related to a building permit, the applicable fees for such shall be payable to the Office of the State Fire Marshal.

1.11.5 Inspections. Work performed subject to the provisions of this code shall comply with the inspection requirements of Sections 109.1, 109.3, 109.3.4, 109.3.5, 109.3.6, 109.3.8, 109.3.9, 109.3.10 109.5 and 109.6 as adopted by the Office of the State Fire Marshal.

1.11.5.1 Existing Group I-I or R occupancies. Licensed 24-hour care in a Group I-I or R occupancy in existence and originally classified under previously adopted state codes shall be reinspected under the appropriate previous code, provided there is no change in the use or character which would place the facility in a different occupancy group.

1.11.6 Certificate of Occupancy. A Certificate of Occupancy shall be issued as specified in Section 111.

Exception: Group R, Division 3 and Group U occupancies.

1.11.7 Temporary structures and uses. See Section 107.

1.11.8 Service utilities. See Section 112.

1.11.9 Stop work order. See Section 115.

1.11.10 Unsafe buildings, structures and equipment. See Section 116.

SECTION 1.12
STATE LIBRARIAN

1.12.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Application— Public library construction and renovation using funds from the California Library Construction and Renovation Bond Act of 1988.

Enforcing agency— State librarian.

Authority cited— Education Code Sections 19950 through 19981.

Reference— Education Code Sections 19950 through 19981.

SECTION 1.13

Reserved

SECTION 1.14
CALIFORNIA STATE LANDS COMMISSION

1.14.1 Specific scope of application of the agency responsible for enforcement, the enforcement agency and the specific authority to adopt and enforce such provisions of this code, unless otherwise stated.

Application— Marine oil terminals.

Enforcing agency— California State Lands Commission.

Authority cited— Public Resources Code Section 8755.

Reference— Public Resources Code Section 8755.

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DIVISION II
SCOPE AND ADMINISTRATION

Sections adopted or amended by state agencies are specifically indicated by an agency banner or identified in the Matrix Adoption Table.

SECTION 101
GENERAL

101.1 Title. These regulations shall be known as the California Building Code of the State of California, hereinafter referred to as “this code.”

101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the construction, alteration, movement, enlargement, replacement, repair, equipment, used and occupancy, location, maintenance, removal and demolition of every building or structure or any appurtenances connected or attached to such buildings or structures.

Exception: Detached one- and two-family dwellings and multiple single-family dwellings (townhouses) not more than three stories above grade plane in height with a separate means of egress and their accessory structures shall comply with the California Building Code.

101.2.1 Appendices. Provisions in the appendices shall not apply unless specifically adopted.

101.3 Intent. The purpose of this code is to establish the minimum requirements to safeguard the public health, safety and general welfare through structural strength, means of egress facilities, stability, sanitation, adequate light and ventilation, energy conservation, and safety to life and property from fire and other hazards attributed to the built environment and to provide safety to firefighters and emergency responders during emergency operations.

101.4 Referenced codes. The other codes listed in Sections 101.4.1 through 101.4.6 and referenced elsewhere in this code shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference.

101.4.1 Gas. The provisions of the International Fuel Gas Code shall apply to the installation of gas piping from the point of delivery, gas appliances and related accessories as covered in this code. These requirements apply to gas piping systems extending from the point of delivery to the inlet connections of appliances and the installation and operation of residential and commercial gas appliances and related accessories.

101.4.2 Mechanical. The provisions of the International Mechanical Code shall apply to the installation, alterations, repairs and replacement of mechanical systems, including equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and/or appurtenances, including ventilating, heating, cooling, air-conditioning and refrigeration systems, incinerators and other energy-related systems.

101.4.3 Plumbing. The provisions of the International Plumbing Code shall apply to the installation, alteration, repair and replacement of plumbing systems, including equipment, appliances, fixtures, fittings and appurtenances, and where connected to a water or sewage system and all aspects of a medical gas system. The provisions of the International Private Sewage Disposal Code shall apply to private sewage disposal systems.

101.4.4 Property maintenance. The provisions of the International Property Maintenance Code shall apply to existing structures and premises; equipment and facilities; light, ventilation, space heating, sanitation, life and fire safety hazards; responsibilities of owners, operators and occupants; and occupancy of existing premises and structures.

101.4.5 Fire prevention. The provisions of the International Fire Code shall apply to matters affecting or relating to structures, processes and premises from the hazard of fire and explosion arising from the storage, handling or use of structures, materials or devices; from conditions hazardous to life, property or public welfare in the occupancy of structures or premises; and from the construction, extension, repair, alteration or removal of fire suppression and alarm systems or fire hazards in the structure or on the premises from occupancy or operation.

101.4.6 Energy. The provisions of the California Energy Code, Title 24, Part 6 shall apply to all matters governing the design and construction of buildings for energy efficiency.

Exception: [OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Not required by OSHPD.

SECTION 102
APPLICABILITY

102.1 General. Where there is a conflict between a general requirement and a specific requirement, the specific requirement shall be applicable. Where, in any specific case, different sections of this code specify different materials, methods of construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall govern.

102.1.1 Additional requirements. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3, & 4, DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] See Chapter 1, Division I, Section 1.1.7.

102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code shall not be deemed to nullify any provisions of local, state or federal law.

102.3 Application of references. References to chapter or section numbers, or to provisions not specifically identified by number, shall be construed to refer to such chapter, section or provision of this code.

102.4 Referenced codes and standards. The codes and standards referenced in this code shall be considered part of the requirements of this code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where differences occur between provisions of this code and referenced codes and standards, the provisions of this code shall apply.

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102.4.1 Code References. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4, DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] All reference to International Codes or other similar codes in referenced standards shall be replaced by equivalent provisions in the California Building Standard Codes.

102.4.2 Reference in Standards. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4, DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] All references listed in reference standards shall be replaced by referenced standards listed in Chapter 35 of this code, where applicable, and shall include all amendments to the reference standards in this code.

102.5 Partial invalidity. In the event that any part or provision of this code is held to be illegal or void, this shall not have the effect of making void or illegal any of the other parts or provisions.

102.6 Existing structures. The legal occupancy of any structure existing on the date of adoption of this code shall be permitted to continue without change, except as is specifically covered in this code, the California Building Code or the California Fire Code, or as is deemed necessary by the building official for the general safety and welfare of the occupants and the public.

SECTION 103
DEPARTMENT OF BUILDING SAFETY

103.1 Creation of enforcement agency. The Department of Building Safety is hereby created and the official in charge thereof shall be known as the building official.

103.2 Appointment. The building official shall be appointed by the chief appointing authority of the jurisdiction.

103.3 Deputies. In accordance with the prescribed procedures of this jurisdiction and with the concurrence of the appointing authority, the building official shall have the authority to appoint a deputy building official, the related technical officers, inspectors, plan examiners and other employees. Such employees shall have powers as delegated by the building official. For the maintenance of existing properties, see the California Building Code.

SECTION 104
DUTIES AND POWERS OF BUILDING OFFICIAL

104.1 General. The building official is hereby authorized and directed to enforce the provisions of this code. The building official shall have the authority to render interpretations of this code and to adopt policies and procedures in order to clarify the application of its provisions. Such interpretations, policies and procedures shall be in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code. Such policies and procedures shall not have the effect of waiving requirements specifically provided for in this code.

104.2 Applications and permits. The building official shall receive applications, review construction documents and issue permits for the erection, and alteration, demolition and moving of buildings and structures, inspect the premises for which such permits have been issued and enforce compliance with the provisions of this code.

104.3 Notices and orders. The building official shall issue all necessary notices or orders to ensure compliance with this code.

104.4 Inspections. The building official shall make all of the required inspections, or the building official shall have the authority to accept reports of inspection by approved agencies or individuals. Reports of such inspections shall be in writing and be certified by a responsible officer of such approved agency or by the responsible individual. The building official is authorized to engage such expert opinion as deemed necessary to report upon unusual technical issues that arise, subject to the approval of the appointing authority.

104.5 Identification. The building official shall carry proper identification when inspecting structures or premises in the performance of duties under this code.

104.6 Right of entry. Where it is necessary to make an inspection to enforce the provisions of this code, or where the building official has reasonable cause to believe that there exists in a structure or upon a premises a condition which is contrary to or in violation of this code which makes the structure or premises unsafe, dangerous or hazardous, the building official is authorized to enter the structure or premises at reasonable times to inspect or to perform the duties imposed by this code, provided that if such structure or premises be occupied that credentials be presented to the occupant and entry requested. If such structure or premises is unoccupied, the building official shall first make a reasonable effort to locate the owner or other person having charge or control of the structure or premises and request entry. If entry is refused, the building official shall have recourse to the remedies provided by law to secure entry.

104.7 Department records. The building official shall keep official records of applications received, permits and certificates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official records for the period required for retention of public records.

104.8 Liability. The building official, member of the board of appeals or employee charged with the enforcement of this code, while acting for the jurisdiction in good faith and without malice in the discharge of the duties required by this code or other pertinent law or ordinance, shall not thereby be rendered liable personally and is hereby relieved from personal liability for any damage accruing to persons or property as a result of any act or by reason of an act or omission in the discharge of official duties. Any suit instituted against an officer or employee because of an act performed by that officer or employee in the lawful discharge of duties and under the provisions of this code shall be defended by legal representative of the jurisdiction until the final termination of the proceedings. The building official or any subordinate shall not be liable for cost in any action, suit or proceeding that is instituted in pursuance of the provisions of this code.

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104.9 Approved materials and equipment. Materials, equipment and devices approved by the building official shall be constructed and installed in accordance with such approval.

104.9.1 Used materials and equipment. The use of used materials which meet the requirements of this code for new materials is permitted. Used equipment and devices shall not be reused unless approved by the building official.

104.10 Modifications. Wherever there are practical difficulties involved in carrying out the provisions of this code, the building official shall have the authority to grant modifications for individual cases, upon application of the owner or owner’s representative, provided the building official shall first find that special individual reason makes the strict letter of this code impractical and the modification is in compliance with the intent and purpose of this code and that such modification does not lessen health, accessibility, life and fire safety, or structural requirements. The details of action granting modifications shall be recorded and entered in the files of the department of building safety.

104.11 Alternative materials, design and methods of construction and equipment. The provisions of this code are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or to prohibit any design or method of construction not specifically prescribed by this code, provided that any such alternative has been approved. An alternative material, design or method of construction shall be approved where the building official finds that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the material, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety.

104.11.1 Research reports. Supporting data, where necessary to assist in the approval of materials or assemblies not specifically provided for in this code, shall consist of valid research reports from approved sources.

104.11.2 Tests. Whenever there is insufficient evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evidence that a material or method does not conform to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate claims for alternative materials or methods, the building official shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compliance to be made at no expense to the jurisdiction. Test methods shall be as specified in this code or by other recognized test standards. In the absence of recognized and accepted test methods, the building official shall approve the testing procedures. Tests shall be performed by an approved agency. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the building official for the period required for retention of public records.

104.11.3 Peer review. [OSHPD 1 & 4] When peer review is required, it shall be performed pursuant to Section 3414A.

104.11.4 Earthquake monitoring instruments. [OSHPD 1 & 4] The enforcement agency may require earthquake monitoring instruments for any building that receives approval of an alternative system for the Lateral Force Resisting System (LFRS). There shall be a sufficient number of instruments to characterize the response of the building during an earthquake and shall include at least one tri-axial free field instrument or equivalent. A proposal for instrumentation and equipment specifications shall be forwarded to the enforcement agency for review and approval. The Owner of the building shall be responsible for the implementation of the instrumentation program. Maintenance of the instrumentation and removal/processing of the records shall be the responsibility of the enforcement agency or its designated agent.

SECTION 105
PERMITS

105.1 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends to construct, enlarge, alter, repair, move, demolish, or change the occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, enlarge, alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system, the installation of which is regulated by this code, or to cause any such work to be done, shall first make application to the building official and obtain the required permit.

105.1.1 Annual permit. In lieu of an individual permit for each alteration to an already approved electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing installation, the building official is authorized to issue an annual permit upon application therefor to any person, firm or corporation regularly employing one or more qualified tradepersons in the building, structure or on the premises owned or operated by the applicant for the permit.

105.1.2 Annual permit records. The person to whom an annual permit is issued shall keep a detailed record of alterations made under such annual permit. The building official shall have access to such records at all times or such records shall be filed with the building official as designated.

105.2 Work exempt from permit. Exemptions from permit requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be done in any manner in violation of the provisions of this code or any other laws or ordinances of this jurisdiction. permits shall not be required for the following:

Building:

  1. One-story detached accessory structures used as tool and storage sheds, playhouses and similar uses, provided the floor area does not exceed 120 square feet (11 m2).
  2. Fences not over 6 feet (1829 mm) high.
  3. Oil derricks.
  4. Retaining walls that are not over 4 feet (1219 mm) in height measured from the bottom of the footing to the top of the wall, unless supporting a surcharge or impounding Class I, II or IIIA liquids.
  5. Water tanks supported directly on grade if the capacity does not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 925 L) and the ratio of height to diameter or width does not exceed 2:1.
  6. Sidewalks and driveways not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above adjacent grade, and not over any 23 basement or story below and are not part of an accessible route.
  7. Painting, papering, tiling, carpeting, cabinets, counter tops and similar finish work.
  8. Temporary motion picture, television and theater stage sets and scenery.
  9. Prefabricated swimming pools accessory to a Group R-3 occupancy that are less than 24 inches (610 mm) deep, do not exceed 5,000 gallons (18 925 L) and are installed entirely above ground.
  10. Shade cloth structures constructed for nursery or agricultural purposes, not including service systems.
  11. Swings and other playground equipment accessory to detached one- and two-family dwellings.
  12. Window awnings supported by an exterior wall that do not project more than 54 inches (1372 mm) from the exterior wall and do not require additional support of Groups R-3 and U occupancies.
  13. Nonfixed and movable fixtures, cases, racks, counters and partitions not over 5 feet 9 inches (1753 mm) in height.

Electrical:

Repairs and maintenance: Minor repair work, including the replacement of lamps or the connection of approved portable electrical equipment to approved permanently installed receptacles.

Radio and television transmitting stations: The provisions of this code shall not apply to electrical equipment used for radio and television transmissions, but do apply to equipment and wiring for a power supply and the installations of towers and antennas.

Temporary testing systems: A permit shall not be required for the installation of any temporary system required for the testing or servicing of electrical equipment or apparatus.

Gas:

  1. Portable heating appliance.
  2. Replacement of any minor part that does not alter approval of equipment or make such equipment unsafe.

Mechanical:

  1. Portable heating appliance.
  2. Portable ventilation equipment.
  3. Portable cooling unit.
  4. Steam, hot or chilled water piping within any heating or cooling equipment regulated by this code.
  5. Replacement of any part that does not alter its approval or make it unsafe.
  6. Portable evaporative cooler.
  7. Self-contained refrigeration system containing 10 pounds (5 kg) or less of refrigerant and actuated by motors of 1 horsepower (746 W) or less.

Plumbing:

  1. The stopping of leaks in drains, water, soil, waste or vent pipe, provided, however, that if any concealed trap, drain pipe, water, soil, waste or vent pipe becomes defective and it becomes necessary to remove and replace the same with the new material, such work shall be considered as new work and a permit shall be obtained and inspection made as provided in this code.
  2. The clearing of stoppages or the repairing of leaks in pipes, valves or fixtures and the removal and reinstallation of water closets, provided such repairs do not involve or require the replacement or rearrangement of valves, pipes or fixtures.

105.2.1 Emergency repairs. Where equipment replacements and repairs must be performed in an emergency situation, the permit application shall be submitted within the next working business day to the building official.

105.2.2 Repairs. Application or notice to the building official is not required for ordinary repairs to structures, replacement of lamps or the connection of approved portable electrical equipment to approved permanently installed receptacles. Such repairs shall not include the cutting away of any wall, partition or portion thereof, the removal or cutting of any structural beam or load-bearing support, or the removal or change of any required means of egress, or rearrangement of parts of a structure affecting the egress requirements; nor shall ordinary repairs include addition to, alteration of, replacement or relocation of any standpipe, water supply, sewer, drainage, drain leader, gas, soil, waste, vent or similar piping, electric wiring or mechanical or other work affecting public health or general safety.

105.2.3 Public service agencies. A permit shall not be required for the installation, alteration or repair of generation, transmission, distribution or metering or other related equipment that is under the ownership and control of public service agencies by established right.

105.3 Application for permit. To obtain a permit, the applicant shall first file an application therefor in writing on a form furnished by the department of building safety for that purpose. Such application shall:

  1. Identify and describe the work to be covered by the permit for which application is made.
  2. Describe the land on which the proposed work is to be done by legal description, street address or similar description that will readily identify and definitely locate the proposed building or work.
  3. Indicate the use and occupancy for which the proposed work is intended.
  4. Be accompanied by construction documents and other information as required in Section 107.
  5. State the valuation of the proposed work.24
  6. Be signed by the applicant, or the applicant's authorized agent.
  7. Give such other data and information as required by the building official.

105.3.1 Action on application. The building official shall examine or cause to be examined applications for permits and amendments thereto within a reasonable time after filing. If the application or the construction documents do not conform to the requirements of pertinent laws, the building official shall reject such application in writing, stating the reasons therefor. If the building official is satisfied that the proposed work conforms to the requirements of this code and laws and ordinances applicable thereto, the building official shall issue a permit therefor as soon as practicable.

105.3.2 Time limitation of application. An application for a permit for any proposed work shall be deemed to have been abandoned 180 days after the date of filing, unless such application has been pursued in good faith or a permit has been issued; except that the building official is authorized to grant one or more extensions of time for additional periods not exceeding 90 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated. [OSHPD 1, 2, & 4] Time limitation shall be in accordance with Title 24, Part 1, Chapter 7, Section 7-129.

105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other ordinance of the jurisdiction. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction documents and other data shall not prevent the building official from requiring the correction of errors in the construction documents and other data. The building official is also authorized to prevent occupancy or use of a structure where in violation of this code or of any other ordinances of this jurisdiction.

105.5 Expiration. Every permit issued shall become invalid unless the work on the site authorized by such permit is commenced within 180 days after its issuance, or if the work authorized on the site by such permit is suspended or abandoned for a period of 180 days after the time the work is commenced. The building official is authorized to grant, in writing, one or more extensions of time, for periods not more than 180 days each. The extension shall be requested in writing and justifiable cause demonstrated.

105.6 Suspension or revocation. The building official is authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued under the provisions of this code wherever the permit is issued in error or on the basis of incorrect, inaccurate or incomplete information, or in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

105.7 Placement of permit. The building permit or copy shall be kept on the site of the work until the completion of the project.

SECTION 106
FLOOR AND ROOF DESIGN LOADS

106.1 Live loads posted. Where the live loads for which each floor or portion thereof of a commercial or industrial building is or has been designed to exceed 50 psf (2.40 kN/m2), such design live loads shall be conspicuously posted by the owner in that part of each story in which they apply, using durable signs. It shall be unlawful to remove or deface such notices

106.1.1 Snow Load Posting. [OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4, DSA-SS & DSA-SS/CC] Snow loads used in design shall be posted as for live loads.

106.1.2 Load Posting Responsibility. [OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] The owner or governing board shall be responsible for keeping the actual load below the allowable limits.

106.2 Issuance of certificate of occupancy. A certificate of occupancy required by Section 111 shall not be issued until the floor load signs, required by Section 106.1, have been installed.

106.3 Restrictions on loading. It shall be unlawful to place, or cause or permit to be placed, on any floor or roof of a building, structure or portion thereof, a load greater than is permitted by this code.

SECTION 107
SUBMITTAL DOCUMENTS

107.1 General. Submittal documents consisting of construction documents, statement of special inspections, geotechnical report and other data shall be submitted in two or more sets with each permit application. The construction documents shall be prepared by a registered design professional where required by the statutes of the jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed. Where special conditions exist, the building official is authorized to require additional construction documents to be prepared by a registered design professional.

Exception: The building official is authorized to waive the submission of construction documents and other data not required to be prepared by a registered design professional if it is found that the nature of the work applied for is such that review of construction documents is not necessary to obtain compliance with this code.

107.2 Construction documents. Construction documents shall be in accordance with Sections 107.2.1 through 107.2.5.

107.2.1 Information on construction documents. Construction documents shall be dimensioned and drawn upon suitable material. Electronic media documents are permitted to be submitted when approved by the building official. Construction documents shall be of sufficient clarity to indicate the location, nature and extent of the work proposed and show in detail that it will conform to the provisions of this code and relevant laws, ordinances, rules and regulations, as determined by the building official.

107.2.2 Fire protection system shop drawings. Shop drawings for the fire protection system(s) shall be submitted to indicate conformance to this code and the construction documents and shall be approved prior to the start of system installation. Shop drawings shall contain all information as required by the referenced installation standards in Chapter 9.

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107.2.3 Means of egress. The construction documents shall show in sufficient detail the location, construction, size and character of all portions of the means of egress in compliance with the provisions of this code. In other than occupancies in Groups R–2, R–3, and I–1, the construction documents shall designate the number of occupants to be accommodated on every floor, and in all rooms and spaces.

107.2.4 Exterior wall envelope. Construction documents for all buildings shall describe the exterior wall envelope in sufficient detail to determine compliance with this code. The construction documents shall provide details of the exterior wall envelope as required, including flashing, intersections with dissimilar materials, corners, end details, control joints, intersections at roof, eaves or parapets, means of drainage, water-resistive membrane and details around openings.

The construction documents shall include manufacturer's installation instructions that provide supporting documentation that the proposed penetration and opening details described in the construction documents maintain the weather resistance of the exterior wall envelope. The supporting documentation shall fully describe the exterior wall system which was tested, where applicable, as well as the test procedure used.

107.2.5 Site plan. The construction documents submitted with the application for permit shall be accompanied by a site plan showing to scale the size and location of new construction and existing structures on the site, distances from lot lines, the established street grades and the proposed finished grades and, as applicable, flood hazard areas, floodways, and design flood elevations; and it shall be drawn in accordance with an accurate boundary line survey. In the case of demolition, the site plan shall show construction to be demolished and the location and size of existing structures and construction that are to remain on the site or plot. The building official is authorized to waive or modify the requirement for a site plan when the application for permit is for alteration or repair or when otherwise warranted.

107.2.5.1 Design flood elevations. Where design flood elevations are not specified, they shall be established in accordance with Section 1612.3.1.

107.3 Examination of documents. The building official shall examine or cause to be examined the accompanying submittal documents and shall ascertain by such examinations whether the construction indicated and described is in accordance with the requirements of this code and other pertinent laws or ordinances.

107.3.1 Approval of construction documents. When the building official issues a permit, the construction documents shall be approved, in writing or by stamp, as “Reviewed for Code Compliance.” One set of construction documents so reviewed shall be retained by the building official. The other set shall be returned to the applicant, shall be kept at the site of work and shall be open to inspection by the building official or a duly authorized representative.

107.3.2 Previous approvals. This code shall not require changes in the construction documents, construction or designated occupancy of a structure for which a lawful permit has been heretofore issued or otherwise lawfully authorized, and the construction of which has been pursued in good faith within 180 days after the effective date of this code and has not been abandoned.

107.3.3 Phased approval. The building official is authorized to issue a permit for the construction of foundations or any other part of a building or structure before the construction documents for the whole building or structure has been submitted, provided that adequate information and detailed statements have been filed complying with pertinent requirements of this code. The holder of such permit for the foundation or other parts of a building or structure shall proceed at the holder's own risk with the building operation and without assurance that a permit for the entire structure will be granted.

107.3.4 Design professional in responsible charge.

107.3.4.1 General. When it is required that documents be prepared by a registered design professional, the building official shall be authorized to require the owner to engage and designate on the building permit application a registered design professional who shall act as the registered design professional in responsible charge. If the circumstances require, the owner shall designate a substitute registered design professional in responsible charge who shall perform the duties required of the original registered design professional in responsible charge. The building official shall be notified in writing by the owner if the registered design professional in responsible charge is changed or is unable to continue to perform the duties.

The registered design professional in responsible charge shall be responsible for reviewing and coordinating submittal documents prepared by others, including phased and deferred submittal items, for compatibility with the design of the building.

107.3.4.2 Deferred submittals. For the purposes of this section, deferred submittals are defined as those portions of the design that are not submitted at the time of the application and that are to be submitted to the building official within a specified period.

Deferral of any submittal items shall have the prior approval of the building official. The registered design professional in responsible charge shall list the deferred submittals on the construction documents for review by the building official. Documents for deferred submittal items shall be submitted to the registered design professional in responsible charge who shall review them and forward them to the building official with a notation indicating that the deferred submittal documents have been reviewed and been found to be in general conformance to the design of the building. The deferred submittal items shall not be installed until the deferred submittal documents have been approved by the building official. [OSHPD 1, 2, & 4] Deferred submittals shall be in accordance with Title 24, Part 1, Chapter 7, Section 7–126.

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107.4 Amended construction documents. Work shall be installed in accordance with the approved construction documents, and any changes made during construction that are not in compliance with the approved construction documents shall be resubmitted for approval as an amended set of construction documents. [OSHPD 1, 2 & 4] Change in the work shall be in accordance with Title 24, Part 1, Chapter 7, Section 7–153.

107.5 Retention of construction documents. One set of approved construction documents shall be retained by the building official for a period of not less than 180 days from date of completion of the permitted work, or as required by state or local laws.

SECTION 108
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES

108.1 General. The building official is authorized to issue a permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such permits shall be limited as to time of service, but shall not be permitted for more than 180 days. The building official is authorized to grant extensions for demonstrated cause.

108.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of this code as necessary to ensure public health, safety and general welfare.

108.3 Temporary power. The building official is authorized to give permission to temporarily supply and use power in part of an electric installation before such installation has been fully completed and the final certificate of completion has been issued. The part covered by the temporary certificate shall comply with the requirements specified for temporary lighting, heat or power in NFPA 70.

108.4 Termination of approval. The building official is authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be discontinued.

SECTION 109
FEES

109.1 Payment of fees. A permit shall not be valid until the fees prescribed by law have been paid, nor shall an amendment to a permit be released until the additional fee, if any, has been paid.

109.2 Schedule of permit fees. On buildings, structures, electrical, gas, mechanical, and plumbing systems or alterations requiring a permit, a fee for each permit shall be paid as required, in accordance with the schedule as established by the applicable governing authority.

109.3 Building permit valuations. The applicant for a permit shall provide an estimated permit value at time of application. Permit valuations shall include total value of work, including materials and labor, for which the permit is being issued, such as electrical, gas, mechanical, plumbing equipment and permanent systems. If, in the opinion of the building official, the valuation is underestimated on the application, the permit shall be denied, unless the applicant can show detailed estimates to meet the approval of the building official. Final building permit valuation shall be set by the building official.

109.4 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any person who commences any work on a building, structure, electrical, gas, mechanical or plumbing system before obtaining the necessary permits shall be subject to a fee established by the building official that shall be in addition to the required permit fees.

109.5 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the construction, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in connection to or concurrently with the work authorized by a building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by law.

109.6 Refunds. The building official is authorized to establish a refund policy.

SECTION 110
INSPECTIONS

110.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is required shall be subject to inspection by the building official and such construction or work shall remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes until approved. Approval as a result of an inspection shall not be construed to be an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction. Inspections presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction shall not be valid. It shall be the duty of the permit applicant to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. Neither the building official nor the jurisdiction shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or replacement of any material required to allow inspection.

110.2 Preliminary inspection. Before issuing a permit, the building official is authorized to examine or cause to be examined buildings, structures and sites for which an application has been filed.

110.3 Required inspections. The building official, upon notification, shall make the inspections set forth in Sections 110.3.1 through 110.3.10.

110.3.1 Footing and foundation inspection. Footing and foundation inspections shall be made after excavations for footings are complete and any required reinforcing steel is in place. For concrete foundations, any required forms shall be in place prior to inspection. Materials for the foundation shall be on the job, except where concrete is ready mixed in accordance with ASTM C 94, the concrete need not be on the job.

110.3.2 Concrete slab and under-floor inspection. Concrete slab and under-floor inspections shall be made after in-slab or under-floor reinforcing steel and building service equipment, conduit, piping accessories and other ancillary equipment items are in place, but before any concrete is placed or floor sheathing installed, including the subfloor.

110.3.3 Lowest floor elevation. In flood hazard areas, upon placement of the lowest floor, including the basement, and prior to further vertical construction, the elevation certification

27

required in Section 1612.5 shall be submitted to the building official.

110.3.4 Frame inspection. Framing inspections shall be made after the roof deck or sheathing, all framing, fireblocking and bracing are in place and pipes, chimneys and vents to be concealed are complete and the rough electrical, plumbing, heating wires, pipes and ducts are approved.

110.3.5 Lath and gypsum board inspection. Lath and gypsum board inspections shall be made after lathing and gypsum board, interior and exterior, is in place, but before any plastering is applied or gypsum board joints and fasteners are taped and finished.

Exception: Gypsum board that is not part of a fire-resistance-rated assembly or a shear assembly.

110.3.6 Fire- and smoke-resistant penetrations. Protection of joints and penetrations in fire-resistance-rated assemblies, smoke barriers and smoke partitions shall not be concealed from view until inspected and approved.

110.3.7 Energy efficiency inspections. Inspections shall be made to determine compliance with Chapter 13 and shall include, but not be limited to, inspections for: envelope insulation R– and U–values, fenestration U–value, duct system R–value, and HVAC and water-heating equipment efficiency.

110.3.8 Other inspections. In addition to the inspections specified above, the building official is authorized to make or require other inspections of any construction work to ascertain compliance with the provisions of this code and other laws that are enforced by the department of building safety.

110.3.9 Special inspections. For special inspections, see Section 1704.

110.3.10 Final inspection. The final inspection shall be made after all work required by the building permit is completed.

110.4 Inspection agencies. The building official is authorized to accept reports of approved inspection agencies, provided such agencies satisfy the requirements as to qualifications and reliability.

110.5 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the holder of the building permit or their duly authorized agent to notify the building official when work is ready for inspection. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to provide access to and means for inspections of such work that are required by this code.

110.6 Approval required. Work shall not be done beyond the point indicated in each successive inspection without first obtaining the approval of the building official. The building official, upon notification, shall make the requested inspections and shall either indicate the portion of the construction that is satisfactory as completed, or notify the permit holder or his or her agent wherein the same fails to comply with this code. Any portions that do not comply shall be corrected and such portion shall not be covered or concealed until authorized by the building official.

SECTION 111
CERTIFICATE OF OCCUPANCY

111.1 Use and occupancy. No building or structure shall be used or occupied, and no change in the existing occupancy classification of a building or structure or portion thereof shall be made, until the building official has issued a certificate of occupancy therefore as provided herein. Issuance of a certificate of occupancy shall not be construed as an approval of a violation of the provisions of this code or of other ordinances of the jurisdiction.

Exception: Certificates of occupancy are not required for work exempt from permits under Section 105.2.

111.2 Certificate issued. After the building official inspects the building or structure and finds no violations of the provisions of this code or other laws that are enforced by the department of building safety, the building official shall issue a certificate of occupancy that contains the following:

  1. The building permit number.
  2. The address of the structure.
  3. The name and address of the owner.
  4. A description of that portion of the structure for which the certificate is issued.
  5. A statement that the described portion of the structure has been inspected for compliance with the requirements of this code for the occupancy and division of occupancy and the use for which the proposed occupancy is classified.
  6. The name of the building official.
  7. The edition of the code under which the permit was issued.
  8. The use and occupancy, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 3.
  9. The type of construction as defined in Chapter 6.
  10. The design occupant load.
  11. If an automatic sprinkler system is provided, whether the sprinkler system is required.
  12. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building permit.

111.3 Temporary occupancy. The building official is authorized to issue a temporary certificate of occupancy before the completion of the entire work covered by the permit, provided that such portion or portions shall be occupied safely. The building official shall set a time period during which the temporary certificate of occupancy is valid.

111.4 Revocation. The building official is authorized to, in writing, suspend or revoke a certificate of occupancy or completion issued under the provisions of this code wherever the certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect information supplied, or where it is determined that the building or structure or portion thereof is in violation of any ordinance or regulation or any of the provisions of this code.

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SECTION 112
SERVICE UTILITIES

112.1 Connection of service utilities. No person shall make connections from a utility, source of energy, fuel or power to any building or system that is regulated by this code for which a permit is required, until released by the building official.

112.2 Temporary connection. The building official shall have the authority to authorize the temporary connection of the building or system to the utility source of energy, fuel or power.

112.3 Authority to disconnect service utilities. The building official shall have the authority to authorize disconnection of utility service to the building, structure or system regulated by this code and the referenced codes and standards set forth in Section 101.4 in case of emergency where necessary to eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property or when such utility connection has been made without the approval required by Section 112.1 or 112.2. The building official shall notify the serving utility, and wherever possible the owner and occupant of the building, structure or service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking such action. If not notified prior to disconnecting, the owner or occupant of the building, structure or service system shall be notified in writing, as soon as practical thereafter.

SECTION 113
BOARD OF APPEALS

113.1 General. In order to hear and decide appeals of orders, decisions or determinations made by the building official relative to the application and interpretation of this code, there shall be and is hereby created a board of appeals. The board of appeals shall be appointed by the applicable governing authority and shall hold office at its pleasure. The board shall adopt rules of procedure for conducting its business.

113.2 Limitations on authority. An application for appeal shall be based on a claim that the true intent of this code or the rules legally adopted thereunder have been incorrectly interpreted, the provisions of this code do not fully apply or an equally good or better form of construction is proposed. The board shall have no authority to waive requirements of this code.

113.3 Qualifications. The board of appeals shall consist of members who are qualified by experience and training to pass on matters pertaining to building construction and are not employees of the jurisdiction.

SECTION 114
VIOLATIONS

114.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful for any person, firm or corporation to erect, construct, alter, extend, repair, move, remove, demolish or occupy any building, structure or equipment regulated by this code, or cause same to be done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of this code.

114.2 Notice of violation. The building official is authorized to serve a notice of violation or order on the person responsible for the erection, construction, alteration, extension, repair, moving, removal, demolition or occupancy of a building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code, or in violation of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code. Such order shall direct the discontinuance of the illegal action or condition and the abatement of the violation.

114.3 Prosecution of violation. If the notice of violation is not complied with promptly, the building official is authorized to request the legal counsel of the jurisdiction to institute the appropriate proceeding at law or in equity to restrain, correct or abate such violation, or to require the removal or termination of the unlawful occupancy of the building or structure in violation of the provisions of this code or of the order or direction made pursuant thereto.

114.4 Violation penalties. Any person who violates a provision of this code or fails to comply with any of the requirements thereof or who erects, constructs, alters or repairs a building or structure in violation of the approved construction documents or directive of the building official, or of a permit or certificate issued under the provisions of this code, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law.

SECTION 115
STOP WORK ORDER

115.1 Authority. Whenever the building official finds any work regulated by this code being performed in a manner either contrary to the provisions of this code or dangerous or unsafe, the building official is authorized to issue a stop work order.

115.2 Issuance. The stop work order shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner of the property involved, or to the owner's agent, or to the person doing the work. Upon issuance of a stop work order, the cited work shall immediately cease. The stop work order shall state the reason for the order, and the conditions under which the cited work will be permitted to resume.

115.3 Unlawful continuance. Any person who shall continue any work after having been served with a stop work order, except such work as that person is directed to perform to remove a violation or unsafe condition, shall be subject to penalties as prescribed by law.

SECTION 116
UNSAFE STRUCTURES AND EQUIPMENT

116.1 Conditions. Structures or existing equipment that are or hereafter become unsafe, insanitary or deficient because of inadequate means of egress facilities, inadequate light and ventilation, or which constitute a fire hazard, or are otherwise dangerous to human life or the public welfare, or that involve illegal or improper occupancy or inadequate maintenance, shall be deemed an unsafe condition. Unsafe structures shall be taken down and removed or made safe, as the building official deems necessary and as provided for in this section. A vacant structure that is not secured against entry shall be deemed unsafe.

116.2 Record. The building official shall cause a report to be filed on an unsafe condition. The report shall state the occupancy of the structure and the nature of the unsafe condition.

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116.3 Notice. If an unsafe condition is found, the building official shall serve on the owner, agent or person in control of the structure, a written notice that describes the condition deemed unsafe and specifies the required repairs or improvements to be made to abate the unsafe condition, or that requires the unsafe structure to be demolished within a stipulated time. Such notice shall require the person thus notified to declare immediately to the building official acceptance or rejection of the terms of the order.

116.4 Method of service. Such notice shall be deemed properly served if a copy thereof is (a) delivered to the owner personally: (b) sent by certified or registered mail addressed to the owner at the last known address with the return receipt requested; or (c) delivered in any other manner as prescribed by local law. If the certified or registered letter is returned showing that the letter was not delivered, a copy thereof shall be posted in a conspicuous place in or about the structure affected by such notice. Service of such notice in the foregoing manner upon the owner's agent or upon the person responsible for the structure shall constitute service of notice upon the owner.

116.5 Restoration. The structure or equipment determined to be unsafe by the building official is permitted to be restored to a safe condition. To the extent that repairs, alterations or additions are made or a change of occupancy occurs during the restoration of the structure, such repairs, alterations, additions or change of occupancy shall comply with the requirements of Section 105.2.2 and Chapter 34.

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CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 2 – DEFINITIONS
Adopting agencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCSADPHAGRDWRCASLSLC
121-ACACSSSS⁄CC1234
Adopt entire chapterX     XX           
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXXX   XXXX       
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     X             
Chapter⁄Section                   
201.3 X                 
201.4 X                 
202 X                 
Access Aisle     X             
Accessibility     X             
Accessible     X             
Accessible Element     X             
Accessible Means of Egress     X             
Accessible Route     X             
Accessible Route of Travel     X             
Accessible Space     X             
Adaptability     X             
Adaptable Dwelling Unit     X             
Addition     X             
Administrative Authority     X             
Aged Home or Institution X                 
Aisle     X             
Aisle, Employee Areas     X             
Alteration (or Alter)     X             
Alternate Card Reader     X             
ANSI     X             
Approved (with notes)                   
Approved (w⁄o notes)     X             
Approved Listing Agency                   
Approved Testing Agency     X             
Area of Refuge     X             
Assembly Area     X             
Assistive Device     X             
Automatic Door     X             
Bathroom     X             
Bedridden Person X                 
Building X                 
Building (with exception)                   
Building (w⁄o exceptions and notes)     X             
Building Entrance on an Accessible Route     X             
Building, Existing     X             
Building Official     X             
Care and Supervision X                  31
Adopt entire chapterX     XX           
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXXX   XXXX       
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     X             
Chapter⁄Section                   
Catastrophically Injured X                 
CCR     X             
Cellular Concrete                   
Child-Care Center X                 
Child or Children X                 
Chronically III X                 
Circulation Path     X             
Clear     X             
Clear Floor Space     X             
Closed-Circuit Telephone     X             
Commercial Facilities     X             
Common Use Areas     X             
Comply With     X             
Concrete, Cellular                   
Congregate Living Health Facility (CLHF) X                 
Congregate Residence X                 
Covered Multifamily Dwellings     X             
Cross Slope     X             
Curb Cut     X             
Curb Ramp     X             
Day-Care X                 
Day-Care Home, Large Family X                 
Day-Care Home, Small Family X                 
Department                   
Detached Single-Family Dwelling                   
Detectable Warning    XX             
Directional Sign  XXXX             
Disability     X             
Disabled     X             
Dormitory X   X             
Dwelling Unit     X             
Efficiency Dwelling Unit  X                
Electric Vehicle X                 
Element     X              32
Adopt entire chapterX     XX           
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXXX   XXXX       
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     X             
Chapter⁄Section                   
Elevator, Passenger     X             
Enforcement  XX               
Enforcing Agency XXXXX  XXXX       
Entrance     X             
Equivalent Facilitation    XX             
Existing Buildings     X             
Exit     X             
Facility (or Facilities)    XX             
Family  X                
Fire-Retardant Treated Wood X                 
Free-Standing Pedestal     X             
Full-Time Care X                 
Grab Bar    XX             
Grade (Adjacent Ground Elevation)    XX             
Ground Floor    XX             
Guard (or Guardrail)  XX X             
Handrail  XXXX             
Hazardous Substance X                 
Health Care Provider     X             
High-Rise Building X                 
Historical Buildings     X             
Hotel or Motel  XX               
If, If...Then     X             
Impact Insulation Class (IIC)  XXX              
Independent Entity     X             
Infant X                 
International Symbol of Accessibility    XX             
Kick Plate    XX             
Laboratory X                 
Laboratory Suite X                 
Level Accessible Area     X             
Level Area    XX             
Lift, Platform (Wheelchair)    XX             
Listed XXXX               33
Adopt entire chapterX     XX           
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXXX   XXXX       
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     X             
Chapter⁄Section                   
Listing Agency                   
Lobby X                 
Lodging House                   
Marked Crossing    XX             
May     X             
Mentally Retarded Persons, Profoundly or Severely X                 
Modernization Project X                 
Motel  XX               
Motion Picture and Television Production Studio Sound Stage, Approved Production Facilities and Production Locations X                 
Multistory Dwelling Unit     X             
Multiple-Accommodation Toilet Facility     X             
New Public School Campus X                 
Newly Constructed     X             
NFPA     X             
Nonambulatory Persons X                 
Noncombustible X                 
Normal                   
Nosing (or Nose)     X             
Occupiable Space     X             
Open Riser     X             
Operable Part     X             
Organized Camps X                 
Passage Door     X             
Passenger Elevator     X             
Passive Solar Energy Collector                   
Path of Travel     X             
Pedestrian     X             
Pedestrian Grade Separation     X             
Pedestrian Ramp     X             
Pedestrian Way     X             
Permanent     X              34
Adopt entire chapterX     XX           
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXXX   XXXX       
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     X             
Chapter⁄Section                   
Permanent Portable Building X                 
Permit     X             
Person with Disabilities     X             
Platform     X             
Platform (Wheelchair) Lift     X             
Portable Building X                 
Portable Building, Exempted X                 
Powder Room     X             
Power-Assisted Door     X             
Primary Entry                   
Primary-Entry Level                   
Professional Office of a Health Care Provider     X             
Protective Social Care Facility X                 
Public Accommodation     X             
Public Entrance                   
Public-Use Areas     X             
Public Way     X             
Publicly Funded                   
Qualified Historical Building (or Property)     X             
Ramp     X             
Reasonable Portion     X             
Recommended     X             
Remodeling     X             
Repair     X             
Residential Care Facility for the Chronically III (RCF⁄CI) X                 
Residential Care Facility for the Elderly (RCFE) X                 
Residential Facility (RF) X                 
Restraint X                 
Restricted Entrance                   
Riser     X             
Running Slope     X             
Sanitary Facility     X             
Service Entrance     X              35
Adopt entire chapterX     XX           
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXXX   XXXX       
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     X             
Chapter/Section                   
Shall     X             
Shopping Center or Shopping Mall     X             
Should     X             
Sidewalk     X             
Signage     X             
Single-Accommodation Sanitary Facility     X             
Site     X             
Site Development     X             
Sleeping Accommodations     X             
Slope     X             
Sound Transmission Class (STC)                   
Space     X             
Special Access/Lift     X             
Specified Public Transportation     X             
Stage     X             
Stair     X             
Stairway     X             
State-Owned/Leased Building X                 
Story     X             
Story, First     X             
Structural Frame     X             
Structure     X             
Tactile     X             
Technically Infeasible     X             
Temporary     X             
Terminally III X                 
Testing Agency                   
Text Telephone     X             
Transient Lodging     X             
Transit Boarding Platform     X             
Tread     X             
Type of Motor Fuel     X              36
Adopt entire chapterX     XX           
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXXX   XXXX       
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     X             
Chapter/Section                   
Unreasonable Hardship     X             
Vehicular or Pedestrian Arrival Points     X             
Vehicular Way     X             
Waiting Room X                 
Walk     X             
Wheelchair     X             
Wheelchair Occupant (or Wheelchair User)     X             
Wheelchair Space                   
Winery Caves X                 
Work Station     X             
The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.
37 38

CHAPTER 2
DEFINITIONS

SECTION 201
GENERAL

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the meanings shown in this chapter.

201.2 Interchangeability. Words used in the present tense include the future; words stated in the masculine gender include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes the plural and the plural, the singular.

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not defined in this code and are defined in the California Fuel Gas Code, California Fire Code, California Mechanical Code or California Plumbing Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed to them as in those codes.

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies.

For applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, where terms are not defined through the methods authorized by this section, such terms shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context implies. Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged, shall be considered as providing ordinarily accepted meanings.

SECTION 202
DEFINITIONS

AAC MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

ACCESSIBLE. [DSA-AC, HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A. 1-A, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ACCESS AISLE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ACCESSIBILITY. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A. 1-A, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ACCESSIBLE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.1-A, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ACCESSIBLE ELEMENT. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ACCESSIBLE MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1.

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE.[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.1-A.

ACCESSIBLE ROUTE OF TRAVEL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ACCESSIBLE SPACE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ACCREDITATION BODY. See Section 2302.1.

ADAPTABILITY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ADAPTABLE DWELLING UNIT. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.1-A.

ADDITION. An extension or increase in floor area or height of a building or structure.

[DSA-AC] “Addition” is an extension, expansion or increase in floor area or height of a building, facility or structure.

ADHERED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1.

ADMINISTRATIVE AUTHORITY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ADOBE CONSTRUCTION. See Section 2102.1.

Adobe, stabilized. See Section 2102.1.

Adobe, unstabilized. See Section 2102.1.

[F] AEROSOL. See Section 307.2.

Level 1 aerosol products. See Section 307.2.

Level 2 aerosol products. See Section 307.2.

Level 3 aerosol products. See Section 307.2.

[F] AEROSOL CONTAINER. See Section 307.2.

AGED HOME OR INSTITUTION. See Section 310.2.

AGGREGATE. See Section 1502.1.

AGRICULTURAL, BUILDING. A structure designed and constructed to house farm implements, hay, grain, poultry, livestock or other horticultural products. This structure shall not be a place of human habitation or a place of employment where agricultural products are processed, treated or packaged, nor shall it be a place used by the public.

AIR-INFLATED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

Double skin. See Section 3102.2.

Single skin. See Section 3102.2.

AISLE. See Section 1002.1.

[DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

AISLE ACCESSWAY. See Section 1002.1.

AISLE, EMPLOYEE AREAS. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

[F] ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

[F] ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

[F] ALARM VERIFICATION FEATURE. See Section 902.1.

ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN. See Section 1602.1.

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ALTERATION OR ALTER. Any construction or renovation to an existing structure other than repair or addition.

[DSA-AC] “Alteration or alter” is any change, addition or modification in construction or occupancy or structural repair or change in primary function to an existing structure made by, on behalf of or for the use of a public accommodation or commercial facility. Alterations include, but are not limited to, remodeling, renovation, rehabilitation, reconstruction, historic restoration, changes or rearrangement of the structural parts of elements, and changes or rearrangement in the plan configuration of walls and full-height partitions.

ALTERNATE CARD READER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11C, Section 1101C.1

ALTERNATING TREAD DEVICE. See Section 1002.1.

AMBULATORY HEALTH CAREFACILITY. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or similar care on a less than 24-hour basis to individuals who are rendered incapable of self-preservation.

ANCHOR. See Section 2102.1.

ANCHOR BUILDING. See Section 402.2.

ANCHORED MASONRY VENEER. See Section 1402.1.

ANNULAR SPACE. See Section 702.1.

[F] ANNUNCIATOR. See Section 902.1.

ANSI [DSA-AC] means the American National Standards Institute.

APPROVED. Acceptable to the code official or authority having jurisdiction.

[DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] “Approved” means meeting the approval of the enforcing agency, except as otherwise provided by law, when used in connection with any system, material, type of construction, fixture or appliance as the result of investigations and tests conducted by the agency, or by reason of accepted principles or tests by national authorities or technical, health or scientific organizations or agencies.

Notes: [HCD 1 & HCD 2]

  1. See Health and Safety Code Section 17920 for “Approved” as applied to residential construction and buildings or structures accessory thereto, as referenced in Section 1.8.2.1.1.
  2. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.1 for “Approved” as applied to the use of hotplates in residential construction referenced in Section 1.8.2.1.1.
  3. See Health and Safety Code Section 17921.3 for “Approved” as applied to low-flush water closets in residential construction, as referenced in Section 1.8.2.1.1.
  4. See Health and Safety Code Section 19966 for “Approved” as applied to factory-built housing as referenced in Section 1.8.3.2.5.
  5. See Health and Safety Code Section 18201 for “Approved” as applied to mobilehome parks as referenced in Section 1.8.2.1.3.
  6. See Health and Safety Code Section 18862.1 for “Approved” as applied to special occupancy parks as referenced in Section 1.8.2.1.3.

APPROVED AGENCY. See Section 1702.1.

APPROVED LISTING AGENCY. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Any agency approved by the enforcing agency, unless otherwise provided by law, which is in the business of listing and labeling and which makes available at least an annual published report of such listings in which specific information is included that the product has been tested to recognized standards and found to comply.

APPROVED TESTING AGENCY. [HCD 1, HCD 2 & DSA-AC] Any agency, which is determined by the enforcing agency, except as otherwise provided by law, to have adequate personnel and expertise to carry out the testing of systems, materials, types of construction, fixtures or appliances.

APPROVED FABRICATOR. See Section 1702.1.

APPROVED SOURCE. An independent person, firm or corporation, approved by the building official, who is competent and experienced in the application of engineering principles to materials, methods or systems analyses.

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA COTTA. See Section 2102.1.

AREA (for masonry). See Section 2102.1.

Bedded. See Section 2102.1.

Gross cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1.

Net cross-sectional. See Section 2102.1.

AREA, BUILDING. See Section 502.1.

AREA OF REFUGE. See Section 1002.1.

AREAWAY. A subsurface space adjacent to a building open at the top or protected at the top by a grating or guard.

ASSEMBLY AREA. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ASSISTED LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 310.2, “Residential Care/Assisted living facilities.”

ASSISTIVE DEVICE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.1-A.

ATRIUM. See Section 404.1.1.

ATTIC. The space between the ceiling beams of the top story and the roof rafters.

[F] AUDIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

AUTOCLAVED AERATED CONCRETE (AAC). See Section 2102.1.

[F] AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1.

AUTOMATIC DOOR. [DSA-AC, HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.1-A, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

[F] AUTOMATIC FIRE-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

[F] AUTOMATIC SMOKE DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

40

[F] AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

[F] AVERAGE AMBIENT SOUND LEVEL. See Section 902.1.

AWNING. An architectural projection that provides weather protection, identify or decoration and is wholly supported by the building to which it is attached. An awning is comprised of a lightweight frame structure over which a covering is attached.

BACKING. See Section 1402.1.

[F] BALED COTTON. See Section 307.2.

[F] BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. See Section 307.2.

BALLAST. See Section 1502.1.

[F] BARRICADE. See Section 307.2.

Artificial barricade. See Section 307.2.

Natural barricade. See Section 307.2.

BASE FLOOD. See Section 1612.2.

BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2.

BASEMENT (for other than flood loads). See Section 502.1.

BASEMENT (for flood loads). See Section 1612.2.

BATHROOM. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.2-B.

BEARING WALL STRUCTURE. See Section 1614.2.

BED JOINT. See Section 2102.1.

BEDRIDDEN PERSON. See Section 310.2.

BLEACHERS. See Section 1002.1.

BOARDING HOUSE. See Section 310.2.

[F] BOILING POINT. See Section 307.2.

BOND BEAM. See Section 2102.1.

BRACED WALL LINE. See Section 2302.1.

BRACED WALL PANEL. See Section 2302.1.

BRICK. See Section 2102.1.

Calcium silicate (sand lime brick). See Section 2102.1.

Clay or shale. See Section 2102.1.

Concrete. See Section 2102.1.

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.

Exception: [HCD 1, HCD 2 & HCD 1-AC] For applications listed in Section 1.8.2 regulated by the Department of Housing and Community Development, "Building" shall not include the following:

  1. Any mobilehome as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18008.
  2. Any manufactured home as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18007.
  3. Any commercial modular as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18001.8 or any special purpose commercial modular as defined in Section 18012.5.
  4. Any recreational vehicle as defined in Section Health and Safety Code 18010.
  5. Any multifamily manufactured home as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 18008.7.

For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 18908.

Note: Building shall have the same meaning as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 17920 and 18908 for the applications specified in Section 1.11.

BUILDING ENTRANCE ON AN ACCESSIBLE ROUTE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.2-B.

BUILDING, EXISTING. [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] A building erected prior to the adoption of this code, or one for which a legal building permit has been issued.

BUILDING ELEMENT. See Section 702.1.

BUILDING LINE. The line established by law, beyond which a building shall not extend, except as specifically provided by law.

BUILDING OFFICIAL. The officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of this code, or a duly authorized representative.

BUILT-UP ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1.

CABLE-RESTRAINED, AIR-SUPPORTED STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

CANOPY. A permanent structure or architectural projection of rigid construction over which a covering is attached that provides weather protection, identify or decoration, and shall be structurally independent or supported by attachment to a building on one end and by not less than one stanchion on the outer end.

[F] CARBON DIOXIDE EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 902.1.

CARE AND SUPERVISION. See Section 310.2.

CAST STONE. See Section 2102.1.

CATASTROPHICALLY INJURED. See Section 310.2.

CCR [DSA-AC] means the California Code of Regulations.

[F] CEILING LIMIT. See Section 902.1.

CEILING RADIATION DAMPER. See Section 702.1.

CELL. See Section 408.1.1.

CELL (masonry). See Section 2102.1.

CELL COMPLEX. See Section 408.1.1.

CELL TIER. See Section 408.1.1.

CELLULAR CONCRETE. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] A lightweight product consisting of portland cement and selected gas-forming chemicals or foaming agents which create homogeneous voids in the hardened concrete.

CEMENT PLASTER. See Section 2502.1.

CENTRAL CONTROL BUILDING. See Section 408.1.1.

CERAMIC FIBER BLANKET. See Section 721.1.1.

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. See Section 1702.1.

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CHILD CARE FACILITIES. See Section 308.3.1.

CHILD OR CHILDREN. See Section 310.2.

CHILD CARE CENTER. See Section 310.2.

CHIMNEY. See Section 2102.1.

CHIMNEY TYPES. See Section 2102.1.

High-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1.

Low-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1.

Masonry type. See Section 2102.1.

Medium-heat appliance type. See Section 2102.1.

CHRONICALLY ILL. See Section 310.2.

CIRCULATION PATH [DSA-AC, HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

[F] CLEAN AGENT. See Section 902.1.

CLEANOUT. See Section 2102.1.

CLEAR. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

CLEAR FLOOR SPACE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

CLOSED-CIRCUIT TELEPHONE.[DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. See Section 304.1.1.

[F] CLOSED SYSTEM. See Section 307.2.

COLLAR JOINT. See Section 2102.1.

COLLECTOR. See Section 2302.1.

COMBINATION FIRE/SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 702.1.

[F] COMBUSTIBLE DUST. See Section 307.2.

[F] COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. See Section 307.2.

[F] COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2.

Class II. See Section 307.2.

Class IIIA. See Section 307.2.

Class IIIB. See Section 307.2.

COMMERCIAL FACILITIES [DSA-AC] are facilities that are intended for nonresidential use and whose operations will affect commerce, including factories, warehouses, office buildings and other buildings in which employment may occur. Commercial facilities shall not include railroad locomotives, railroad freight cars, railroad cabooses, railroad cars covered under Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 or facilities that are covered or expressly exempted from coverage under the Fair Housing Amendment Act of 1988 (42 USC 3601-3631, et seq).

COMMON PATH OF EGRESS TRAVEL. See Section 1002.1.

COMMON USE AREAS.[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.3-C, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

COMPLY WITH. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

[F] COMPRESSED GAS. See Section 307.2.

COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

CONCRETE, CARBONATE AGGREGATE. See Section 721.1.1.

CONCRETE, CELLULAR. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See Section 721.1.1. See "Cellular concrete."

CONCRETE, LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE. See Section 721.1.1.

CONCRETE, PERLITE. See Section 721.1.1.

CONCRETE, SAND-LIGHTWEIGHT. See Section 721.1.1.

CONCRETE, SILICEOUS AGGREGATE. See Section 721.1.1.

CONCRETE, VERMICULITE. See Section 721.1.1.

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. See Section 310.2.

CONGREGATE LIVING HEALTH FACILITY (CLHF). See Section 310.2.

CONGREGATE RESIDENCE. See Section 310.2.

CONNECTOR. See Section 2102.1.

[F] CONSTANTLY ATTENDED LOCATION. See Section 902.1.

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Written, graphic and pictorial documents prepared or assembled for describing the design, location and physical characteristics of the elements of a project necessary for obtaining a building permit.

CONSTRUCTION TYPES. See Section 602.

Type I. See Section 602.2.

Type II. See Section 602.2.

Type III. See Section 602.3.

Type IV. See Section 602.4.

Type V. See Section 602.5.

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. See Section 415.2.

[F] CONTROL AREA. See Section 307.2.

CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL. A self-compacted, cementitious material used primarily as a backfill in place of compacted fill.

CONVENTIONAL LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. See Section 2302.1.

CORRIDOR. See Section 1002.1.

CORROSION RESISTANCE. The ability of a material to withstand deterioration of its surface or its properties when exposed to its environment.

[F] CORROSIVE. See Section 307.2.

COURT. An open, uncovered space, unobstructed to the sky, bounded on three or more sides by exterior building walls or other enclosing devices.

COVER. See Section 2102.1.

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COVERED MALL BUILDING. See Section 402.2.

Mall. See Section 402.2.

Open mall. See Section 402.2.

Open mall building. See Section 402.2.

COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.3-C.

CRIPPLE WALL. See Section 2302.1.

CROSS SLOPE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.3-C, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

[F] CRYOGENIC FLUID. See Section 307.2.

CURB CUT. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.3-C, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

CURB RAMP. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.3-C, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

DALLE GLASS. See Section 2402.1.

DAMPER. See Section 702.1.

DANGEROUS. See Section 3402.1.

[F] DAY BOX. See Section 307.2.

DAY-CARE. See Section 310.2.

DAY-CARE HOME, LARGE FAMILY. See Section 310.2.

DAY-CARE HOME, SMALL FAMILY. See Section 310.2.

DAY ROOM. See Section 408.1.1.

DEAD LOADS. See Section 1602.1.

DECORATIVE GLASS. See Section 2402.1.

[F] DECORATIVE MATERIALS. All materials applied over the building interior finish for decorative, acoustical or other effect (such as curtains, draperies, fabrics, streamers and surface coverings), and all other materials utilized for decorative effect (such as batting, cloth, cotton, hay, stalks, straw, vines, leaves, trees, moss and similar items), including foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics. Decorative materials do not include floor coverings, ordinary window shades, interior finish and materials 0.025 inch (0.64 mm) or less in thickness applied directly to and adhering tightly to a substrate.

DEEP FOUNDATION. See Section 1802.1.

[F] DEFLAGRATION. See Section 307.2.

[F] DELUGE SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

DEPARTMENT. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] The Department of Housing and Community Development.

DESIGN DISPLACEMENT. See Section 1908.1.1.

DESIGN EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. See Section 1613.2.

DESIGN FLOOD. See Section 1612.2.

DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. See Section 1612.2.

DESIGN STRENGTH. See Section 1602.1.

DESIGNATED SEISMIC SYSTEM. See Section 1702.1.

[F] DETACHED BUILDING. See Section 415.2.

DETACHED SINGLE-FAMILY DWELLING. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Any single-family dwelling which is separated from adjacent property lines by 3 feet (914 mm) or more or is separated from adjacent buildings by 6 feet (1829 mm) or more.

DETAILED PLAIN CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1.

DETECTABLE WARNING. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.4-D, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

[F] DETECTOR, HEAT. See Section 902.1.

[F] DETONATION. See Section 307.2.

DETOXIFICATION FACILITY. See Section 308.3.1.

DIAPHRAGM. See Sections 1602.1 and 2302.1.

Diaphragm, blocked. See Section 1602.1.

Diaphragm, boundary. See Section 1602.1.

Diaphragm, chord. See Section 1602.1.

Diaphragm, flexible. See Section 1602.1.

Diaphragm, rigid. See Section 1602.1.

Diaphragm, unblocked. See Section 2302.1.

DIMENSIONS. See Section 2102.1.

Actual. See Section 2102.1.

Nominal. See Section 2102.1.

Specified. See Section 2102.1.

DIRECTIONAL SIGN. [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] A publicly displayed notice which indicates by use of words or symbols a recommended direction or route of travel.

DISABILITY. [DSA-AC] is (1) a physical or mental impairment that limits one or more of the major life activities of an individual, (2) a record of such an impairment, or (3) being regarded as having such an impairment.

DISABLED. [DSA-AC] See "Disability."

[F] DISPENSING. See Section 307.2.

DOOR, BALANCED. See Section 1002.1.

DORMITORY. See Sections 310.2 and 408.1.1.

DRAFTSTOP. See Section 702.1.

DRAG STRUT. See Section 2302.1.

DRILLED SHAFT. See Section 1802.1.

Socketed drilled shaft. See Section 1802.1.

[F] DRY-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING AGENT. See Section 902.1.

DRY FLOODPROOFING. See Section 1612.2.

DURATION OF LOAD. See Section 1602.1.

DWELLING. A building that contains one or two dwelling units used, intended or designed to be used, rented, leased, let or hired out to be occupied for living purposes.

DWELLING UNIT. A single unit providing complete, independent living facilities for one or more persons, including per-

43

manent provisions for living, sleeping, eating, cooking and sanitation.

[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.4-D, and Chapter 1B, Section 1102B.

EFFICIENCY DWELLING UNIT. [HCD 1] A dwelling unit containing only one habitable room nd includes an efficiency unit as defined by Health and Safety Code Section 17958.1. See Section 1208.4.

EGRESS COURT. See Section 1002.1.

ELECTRIC VEHICLE. See Section 406.7.

ELEMENT. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ELEVATOR, PASSENGER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See "PASSENGER ELEVATOR."

ELEVATOR GROUP. See Section 902.1.

[F] EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. See Section 415.2.

EMERGENCY ESCAPE AND RESCUE OPENING. See Section 1002.1.

[F] EMERGENCY VOICE/ALARM COMMUNICATIONS. See Section 902.1.

ENFORCEMENT. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] The applicable section of the Health and Safety Code is repeated here for clarity and reads as follows:

Section 17920. "Enforcement" means diligent effort to secure compliance, including review of plans and permit applications, response to complaints, citation of violations, and other legal process. Except as otherwise provided in this part, "enforcement" may, but need not, include inspections of existing buildings on which no complaint or permit application has been filed, and effort to secure compliance as to these existing buildings.

ENFORCING AGENCY [DSA-AC, HCD 1, HCD 2, SFM & OSHPD 1, 2, 3 & 4]. The designated department or agency as specified by statute or regulation.

ENTRANCE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

EQUIPMENT PLATFORM. See Section 502.1.

EQUIVALENT FACILITATION. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.5-E, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ESSENTIAL FACILITIES. See Section 1602.1.

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. See Section 415.2.

EXISTING BUILDINGS. [DSA-AC] See "Building, existing."

EXISTING CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2.

EXISTING STRUCTURE. See Sections 1612.2 and 3402.1.

EXIT. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT ACCESS. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT ACCESS DOORWAY. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT DISCHARGE. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT DISCHARGE, LEVEL OF. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT ENCLOSURE. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT, HORIZONTAL. See Section 1002.1.

EXIT PASSAGEWAY. See Section 1002.1.

EXPANDED VINYL WALL COVERING. See Section 802.1.

[F] EXPLOSION. See Section 307.2.

[F] EXPLOSIVE. See Section 307.2.

High explosive. See Section 307.2.

Low explosive. See Section 307.2.

Mass detonating explosives. See Section 307.2.

UN⁄DOTn Class 1 Explosives. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.1. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.2. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.3. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.4. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.5. See Section 307.2.

Division 1.6. See Section 307.2.

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEM (EIFS). See Section 1402.1.

EXTERIOR INSULATION AND FINISH SYSTEM (EIFS) WITH DRAINAGE. See Section 1402.1.

EXTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1.

EXTERIOR WALL. See Section 1402.1.

EXTERIOR WALL COVERING. See Section 1402.1.

EXTERIOR WALL ENVELOPE. See Section 1402.1.

F RATING. See Section 702.1.

FABRIC PARTITION. See Section 1602.1.

FABRICATED ITEM. See Section 1702.1.

[F] FABRICATION AREA. See Section 415.2.

FACILITY (OR FACILITIES). [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.6-F, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

FACTORED LOAD. See Section 1602.1.

FAMILY [HCD 1] is an individual or two or more persons who are related by blood or marriage; or otherwise live together in a dwelling unit.

FIBER CEMENT SIDING. See Section 1402.1.

FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER. See Section 2602.1.

Fiberglass Reinforced Polymer. See Section 2602.1.

FIBERBOARD. See Section 2302.1.

FIRE ALARM BOX, MANUAL. See Section 902.1.

[F] FIRE ALARM CONTROL UNIT. See Section 902.1.

[F] FIRE ALARM SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

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[F] FIRE ALARM SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

FIRE AREA. See Section 902.1.

FIRE BARRIER. See Section 702.1.

[F] FIRE COMMAND CENTER. See Section 902.1.

FIRE DAMPER. See Section 702.1.

[F] FIRE DETECTOR, AUTOMATIC. See Section 902.1.

FIRE DOOR. See Section 702.1.

FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1.

FIRE EXIT HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1.

[F] FIRE LANE. A road or other passageway developed to allow the passage of fire apparatus. A fire lane is not necessarily intended for vehicular traffic other than fire apparatus.

FIRE PARTITION. See Section 702.1.

FIRE PROTECTION RATING. See Section 702.1.

[F] FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

FIRE RESISTANCE. See Section 702.1.

FIRE-RESISTANCE RATING. See Section 702.1.

FIRE-RESISTANT JOINT SYSTEM. See Section 702.1.

FIRE-RETARDANT TREATED WOOD. [SFM] See Section 2303.2.

[F] FIRE SAFETY FUNCTIONS. See Section 902.1.

FIRE SEPARATION DISTANCE. See Section 702.1.

FIRE WALL. See Section 702.1.

FIRE WINDOW ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1.

FIREBLOCKING. See Section 702.1.

FIREPLACE. See Section 2102.1.

FIREPLACE THROAT. See Section 2102.1.

[F] FIREWORKS. See Section 307.2.

Fireworks, 1.3G. See Section 307.2.

Fireworks, 1.4G. See Section 307.2.

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). See Section 412.2.

FLAME SPREAD. See Section 802.1.

FLAME SPREAD INDEX. See Section 802.1.

[F] FLAMMABLE GAS. See Section 307.2.

[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. See Section 307.2.

[F] FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 307.2.

Class IA. See Section 307.2.

Class IB. See Section 307.2.

Class IC. See Section 307.2.

[F] FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2.

[F] FLAMMABLE SOLID. See Section 307.2.

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. See Section 415.2.

[F] FLASH POINT. See Section 307.2.

FLIGHT. See Section 1002.1.

FLOOD OR FLOODING. See Section 1612.2.

FLOOD DAMAGE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Section 1612.2.

FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2.

FLOOD HAZARD AREA SUBJECT TO HIGH-VELOCITY WAVE ACTION. See Section 1612.2.

FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP (FIRM). See Section 1612.2.

FLOOD INSURANCE STUDY. See Section 1612.2.

FLOODWAY. See Section 1612.2.

FLOOR AREA, GROSS. See Section 1002.1.

FLOOR AREA, NET. See Section 1002.1.

FLOOR FIRE DOOR ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1.

FLY GALLERY. See Section 410.2.

[F] FOAM-EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 902.1.

FOAM PLASTIC INSULATION. See Section 2602.1.

FOLDING AND TELESCOPIC SEATING. See Section 1002.1.

FOOD COURT. See Section 402.2.

FOUNDATION PIER. See Section 2102.1.

FRAME STRUCTURE. See Section 1614.2.

FREE-STANDING PEDESTAL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11C, Section 1101C.1.

FULL-TIME CARE. See Section 310.

[F] GAS CABINET. See Section 415.2.

[F] GAS ROOM. See Section 415.2.

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. See Section 421.2.

GLASS FIBERBOARD. See Section 721.1.1.

GLUED BUILT-UP MEMBER. See Section 2302.1.

GRAB BAR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.7-G, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

GRADE (Adjacent Ground Elevation) [DSA-AC] [HCD 1-AC] is the lowest point of elevation of the finished surface of the ground, paving or sidewalk within the area between the building and the property line or, when the property line is more than 5 feet (1524 mm) from the building, between the building and a line 5 feet (1524 mm) from the building. See Health and Safety Code Section 19955.3(d).

GRADE FLOOR OPENING. A window or other opening located such that the sill height of the opening is not more than 44 inches (1118 mm) above or below the finished ground level adjacent to the opening.

GRADE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1.

GRADE PLANE. See Section 502.1.

GRANDSTAND. See Section 1002.1.

GRIDIRON. See Section 410.2.

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. See Section 402.2.

45

GROUND FLOOR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.7-G.

GROUTED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

Grouted hollow-unit masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Grouted multiwythe masonry. See Section 2102.1.

GUARD [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] OR GUARDRAIL. See Section 1002.1.

GYPSUM BOARD. See Section 2502.1.

GYPSUM PLASTER. See Section 2502.1.

GYPSUM VENEER PLASTER. See Section 2502.1.

HABITABLE SPACE. A space in a building for living, sleeping, eating or cooking. Bathrooms, toilet rooms, closets, halls, storage or utility spaces and similar areas are not considered habitable spaces.

[F] HALOGENATED EXTINGUISHING SYSTEMS. See Section 902.1.

[F] HANDLING. See Section 307.2.

HANDRAIL. See Section 1002.1.

HARDBOARD. See Section 2302.1.

[F] HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 307.2.

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). See Section 415.2.

HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE. [SFM] Hazardous Substance is a substance which, by reason of being explosive, flammable, toxic, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritant or otherwise harmful, is likely to cause injury.

HEAD JOINT. See Section 2102.1.

HEALTH CARE PROVIDER. [DSA-AC] See “Professional Office of a Health Care Provider” in Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

[F] HEALTH HAZARD. See Section 307.2.

HEIGHT, BUILDING. See Section 502.1.

HEIGHT, WALLS. See Section 2102.1.

HELICAL PILE. See Section 1802.1.

HELIPORT. See Section 412.2.

HELISTOP. See Section 412.2.

HIGH-RISE BUILDING. [SFM] See Section 403.1.1.

[F] HIGHLY TOXIC. See Section 307.2.

HISTORIC BUILDINGS. Buildings that are listed in or eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places, or designated as historic under an appropriate state or local law (see Sections 3409 and 3411.9).

HISTORICAL BUILDINGS. [DSA-AC] See “Qualified historical building or property,” C.C.R., Title 24, Part 8.

HOLDING FACILITY. See Section 408.1.1.

HORIZONTAL ASSEMBLY. See Section 702.1.

HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. See Section 308.3.1.

HOTEL OR MOTEL [HCD 1 & HCD 2] is any building containing six or more guest rooms intended or designed to be used, or which are used, rented or hired out to be occupied, or which are occupied for sleeping purposes by guests.

HOUSING UNIT. See Section 408.1.1.

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. See Section 415.2.

[F] HPM ROOM. See Section 415.2.

HURRICANE-PRONE REGIONS. See Section 1609.2.

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. See Section 421.2.

IF.IF … THEN. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). See Section 415.2.

IMPACT INSULATION CLASS (IIC). See Chapter 12, Section 1207.2.

IMPACT LOAD. See Section 1602.1.

[F] INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. See Section 307.2.

INDEPENDENT ENTITY [DSA-AC] is a not-for-profit product safety testing and certification organization, dedicated to testing for public safety. An independent entity would operate for the testing, certification and quality assessment of products, systems and services.

[F] INERT GAS. See Section 307.2.

INFANT. See Section 310.2.

[F] INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. See Section 1702.1.

INTERIOR FINISH. See Section 802.1.

INTERIOR FLOOR FINISH. See Section 802.1.

[F] INTERIOR FLOOR-WALL BASE. See Section 802.1.

INTERIOR SURFACES. See Section 2502.1.

INTERIOR WALL AND CEILING FINISH. See Section 802.1.

INTERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1.

INTERNATIONAL SYMBOL OF ACCESSIBILITY. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.9-I, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

INTUMESCENT FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. See Section 1702.1.

JOINT. See Section 702.1.

JURISDICTION. The governmental unit that has adopted this code under due legislative authority.

KICK PLATE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.11-K, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

LABEL. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer that contains the name of the manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics of the product or material,

46

and the name and identification of an approved agency and that indicates that the representative sample of the product or material has been tested and evaluated by an approved agency (see Section 1703.5 and “Inspection certificate,” “Manufacturer’s designation” and “Mark”).

LABELED. Equipment, materials or products to which has been affixed a label, seal, symbol or other identifying mark of a nationally recognized testing laboratory, inspection agency or other organization concerned with product evaluation that maintains periodic inspection of the production of the above-labeled items and whose labeling indicates either that the equipment, material or product meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

[HCD 1 & HCD 2] “Labeled” means equipment or materials to which has been attached a label, symbol or other identifying mark of an organization, approved by the Department, that maintains a periodic inspection program of production of labeled products, installations, equipment, or materials and by whose labeling the manufacturer indicates compliance with appropriate standards or performance in a specified manner.

LABORTORY. [SFM] A room, building or area where the use and storage of hazardous materials are utilized for testing, analysis, instruction, research or developmental activities.

LABORATORY SUITE. [SFM] See Section 443.2

LEVEL ACCESSIBLE AREA. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11c, Section 1101C.1.

LEVEL AREA. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.12-L, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

LIFT, PLATFORM (WHEELCHAIR). [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See “Platform (Wheelchair) Lift” Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

LIGHT-DIFFUSING SYSTEM. See Section 2602.1.

LIGHT-FRAME CONSTRUCTION. A type of construction whose vertical and horizontal structural elements are primarily formed by a system of repetitive wood or cold-formed steel framing members.

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC ROOF PANELS. See Section 2602.1.

LIGHT-TRANSMITTING PLASTIC WALL PANELS. See Section 2602.1.

LIMIT STATE. See Section 1602.1.

[F] LIQUID. See Section 415.2.

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. See Section 415.2.

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. See Section 415.2.

LISTED. Equipment, materials, products or services included in a list published by an organization acceptable to the code official and concerned with evaluation of products or services that maintains periodic inspection of production of listed equipment or materials or periodic evaluation of services and whose listing states either that the equipment, material, product or service meets identified standards or has been tested and found suitable for a specified purpose.

[HCD 1 & HCD 2] listed”means all products that appear in a list published by an approved testing or listing agency. For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920(h).

For applications listed in Section 1.11 regulated by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, “listed” shall also mean equipment or materials accepted by the state fire marshal as conforming to the provisions of the State Fire Marshal's regulations and which are included in a list published by the State Fire Marshal.

LISTING AGENCY. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] An agency approved by the department that is in the business of listing and labeling products, materials, equipment and installations tested by an approved testing agency, and that maintains a periodic inspection program on current production of listed products, equipment and installations, and that, at least annually, makes available a published report of these listings. For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920(i).

LIVE LOADS. See Section 1602.1.

LIVE LOADS (ROOF). See Section 1602.1.

LOAD AND RESISTANCE FACTOR DESIGN (LRFD). See Section 1602.1.

LOAD EFFECTS. See Section 1602.1.

LOAD FACTOR. See Section 1602.1.

LOADS. See Section 1602.1.

LOBBY. [HCD 1, HCD 2 & SFM] An area not defined as a waiting room at the entrance of a building through which persons must pass.

LODGING HOUSE. [HCD 1] Any building or portion thereof containing not more than five guest rooms where rent is paid in money, goods, labor or otherwise.

LOT. A portion or parcel of land considered as a unit.

LOT LINE. A line dividing one lot from another, or from a street or any public place.

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). See Section 415.2.

LOWEST FLOOR. See Section 1612.2.

MAIN WINDFORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 1702.1.

[F] MANUAL FIRE ALARM BOX. See Section 902.1.

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating that a product or material complies with a specified standard or set of rules (see also “Inspection certificate,” “Label” and “Mark”).

MARK. An identification applied on a product by the manufacturer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the function of a product or material (see also “Inspection certificate,” “Label” and ”Manufacturer's designation”).

MARKED CROSSING. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.13-M, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

47

MARQUEE. A permanent roofed structure attached to and supported by the building and that projects into the public right-of-way.

MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

Ashlar masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Coursed ashlar. See Section 2102.1.

Glass unit masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Plain masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Random ashlar. See Section 2102.1.

Reinforced masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Solid masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Unreinforced (plain) masonry. See Section 2102.1.

MASONRY UNIT. See Section 2102.1.

Clay. See Section 2102.1.

Concrete. See Section 2102.1.

Hollow. See Section 2102.1.

Solid. See Section 2102.1.

MASTIC FIRE-RESISTANT COATINGS. See Section 1702.1.

MAXIMUM CONSIDERED EARTHQUAKE GROUND MOTION. See Section 1613.2.

MAY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

MEANS OF EGRESS. See Section 1002.1.

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. See Section 406.3.2.

MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT SCREEN. See Section 1502.1.

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS. See Section 1613.2.

MEMBRANE-COVERED CABLE STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

MEMBRANE-COVERED FRAME STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

MEMBRANE PENETRATION. See Section 702.1.

MEMBRANE-PENETRATION FIRESTOP. See Section 702.1.

MENTAL HOSPITALS. See Section 308.3.1.

MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS, PROFOUNDLY OR SEVERELY. See Section 310.2.

MERCHANDISE PAD. See Section 1002.1.

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM). See Section 1402.1.

METAL COMPOSITE MATERIAL (MCM) SYSTEM. See Section 1402.1.

METAL ROOF PANEL. See Section 1502.1.

METAL ROOF SHINGLE. See Section 1502.1.

MEZZANINE. See Section 502.1.

MICROPILE. See Section 1802.1.

MINERAL BOARD. See Section 721.1.1.

MINERAL FIBER. See Section 702.1.

MINERAL WOOL. See Section 702.1.

MODERNIZATION PROJECT. [SFM] Modernization Project is any construction effort that has an estimated total cost in excess of $200,000.00 that is in- tended to modify a permanent school building or structure and or the addition of a new school building or structure used to serve or house students from kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12). Modernization efforts shall apply strictly to a public school that was established prior to July 1, 2002, and is funded pursuant to the Education Code, Section 17074.56, and Education Code commencing with Section 17070.10. Modernization projects that are to be completed in more than one phase may defer the installation of the automatic fire detection and alarm systems until the final phase of the modernization project. Solely for the purposes of Education Code Section 17074.20, routine maintenance and repair work shall not be considered a modernization project.

MODIFIED BITUMEN ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1.

MORTAR. See Section 2102.1.

MORTAR, SURFACE-BONDING. See Section 2102.1.

MOTEL. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See “Hotel or Motel.”

MOTION PICTURE AND TELEVISION PRODUCTION STUDIO SOUND STAGES, APPROVED PRODUCTION FACILITIES AND PRODUCTION LOCATIONS. See Chapter 46, California Fire Code.

MULTIPLE-ACCOMMODATION TOILET FACILITY [DSA-AC] is a room that has more than one sanitary fixture, is intended for the use of more than one person at a time and which usually is provided with privacy compartments or screens shielding some fixtures from view. A bathroom serving a hotel guest room and a privacy toilet in small offices, stores and similar locations are not included in this category.

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION ALARM DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

[F] MULTIPLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

MULTISTORY DWELLING UNIT. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.13-M.

NAILING, BOUNDARY. See Section 2302.1.

NAILING, EDGE. See Section 2302.1.

NAILING, FIELD. See Section 2302.1.

NATURALLY DURABLE WOOD. See Section 2302.1.

Decay resistant. See Section 2302.1.

Termit resistant. See Section 2302.1.

NEWLY CONSTRUCTED. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.14-N.

NEW PUBLIC SCHOOL CAMPUS. [SFM] New public school campus is an educational institution established on or after July 1, 2002 that houses and or serves students from kin-

48

dergarten through twelfth grade (K-12) and is funded pursuant to the Education Code, commencing with Section 17070.10.

NFPA [DSA-AC] is the National Fire Protection Association.

NOMINAL LOADS. See Section 1602.1.

NOMINAL SIZE (LUMBER). See Section 2302.1.

NONAMBULATORY PERSONS. See Section 310.2.

NONCOMBUSTIBLE. [SFM] Noncombustible as applied to building construction material means a material which, in the form in which it is used, is either one of the following:

  1. Material of which no part will ignite and burn when subjected to fire. Any material passing ASTM E 136 shall be considered noncombustible.
  2. Material having a structural base of noncombustible material as defined in Item 1 above, with a surfacing material not over 1/8 inch (3.2 mm) thick which has a flame-spread index of 50 or less.

“Noncombustible” does not apply to surface finish materials. Material required to be noncombustible for reduced clearances to flues, heating appliances or other sources of high temperature shall refer to material conforming to Item 1.No material shall be classed as noncombustible which is subject to increase in combustibility or flame-spread index, beyond the limits herein established, through the effects of age, moisture or other atmospheric condition.

NONCOMBUSTIBLE MEMBRANE STRUCTURE. See Section 3102.2.

NORMAL [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Conforming to a pattern or standard regarded as usual or typical.

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). See Section 415.2.

NOSING (OR NOSE). See Section 1002.1 [DSA-AC, HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.14-N, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

NOTIFICATION ZONE. See Section 902.1.

[F] NUISANCE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

NURSING HOMES. See Section 308.3.1.

OCCUPANCY CATEGORY. See Section 1602.1.

OCCUPANT LOAD. See Section 1002.1.

OCCUPIABLE SPACE. A room or enclosed space designed for human occupancy in which individuals congregate for amusement, educational or similar purposes or in which occupants are engaged at labor, and which is equipped with means of egress and light and ventilation facilities meeting the requirements of this code.

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. See Section 406.3.2.

OPEN RISER. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.15-O, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

[F] OPEN SYSTEM. See Section 307.2.

OPERABLE PART. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

[F] OPERATING BUILDING. See Section 307.2.

ORDINARY PRECAST STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1.

ORDINARY REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1.

ORDINARY STRUCTURAL PLAIN CONCRETE WALL. See Section 1908.1.1.

[F] ORGANIC PEROXIDE. See Section 307.2.

Class I. See Section 307.2.

Class II. See Section 307.2.

Class III. See Section 307.2.

Class IV. See Section 307.2.

Class V. See Section 307.2.

Unclassified detonable. See Section 307.2.

ORGANIZED CAMPS. See Section 440.

ORTHOGONAL. See Section 1613.2.

OTHER STRUCTURES. See Section 1602.1.

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm or corporation having a legal or equitable interest in the property.

[F] OXIDIZER. See Section 307.2.

Class 4. See Section 307.2.

Class 3. See Section 307.2.

Class 2. See Section 307.2.

Class 1. See Section 307.2.

[F] OXIDIZING GAS. See Section 307.2.

PANEL (PART OF A STRUCTURE). See Section 1602.1.

PANIC HARDWARE. See Section 1002.1.

PARTICLEBOARD. See Section 2302.1.

PASSAGE DOOR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

PASSENGER ELEVATOR. [DSA-AC] See “Elevator, passenger in Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

[HCD 1 & HCD 2] “Passenger Elevator” is an elevator used primarily to carry persons. For additional information, see California Code of Regulations, Title 8, Division 1, Chapter 4.

PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY COLLECTOR. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] Uses architectural components, rather than mechanical components, to provide heating or cooling for a building interior.

PATH OF TRAVEL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

PEDESTRIAN. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

PEDESTRIAN GRADE SEPARATION. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

PEDESTRIAN RAMP. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A. 16-P, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

49

PEDESTRIAN WAY. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A, 16-P, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

PENETRATION FIRESTOP. See Section 702.1.

PENTHOUSE. See Section 1502.1.

PERMANENT [DSA-AC] shall mean facilities which, are intended to be used for periods longer than those designated in this code under the definition of “Temporary.”

PERMANENT PORTABLE BUILDING. [SFM] A portable building that is used to serve or house students and is certified as a permanent building on a new public school campus by the public school administration shall comply with the requirements of new campus buildings.

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the authority having jurisdiction which authorizes performance of a specified activity.

PERSON. An individual, heirs, executors, administrators or assigns, and also includes a firm, partnership or corporation, its or their successors or assigns, or the agent of any of the aforesaid.

PERSONS WITH DISABLITIES. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.16-P.

PHOTOLUMINESCENT. See Section 1002.1.

[F] PHYSICAL HAZARD. See Section 307.2.

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD LEVEL. See Section 415.2.

PINRAIL. See Section 410.2.

PLASTIC, APPROVED. See Section 2602.1.

PLASTIC GLAZING. See Section 2602.1.

PLATFORM. See Section 410.2.

PLATFORM (WHEELCHAIR) LIFT. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.16-P, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

PORTABLE BUILDING. [SFM] Portable Building is a classroom building or structure of modular design and construction that houses and or serves student, regardless of occupancy classification, from kindergarten through twelfth grade (K-12) and is funded pursuant to the Education Code, commencing with Section 17070.10 and meets all of the following criteria:

  • The portable building or structure is designed and constructed to be relocatable and transportable over public streets.
  • The portable building or structure is designed and constructed for relocation without detaching the roof or the floor from the building or structure.
  • The portable building or structure is sited upon a temporary foundation in a manner that is designed to permit easy removal.
  • The portable building or structure has a floor area of 2,000 square feet or less when measured from the extent of the exterior walls.
  • The portable building shall be removed within three years of installation or the school administration may request a three year extension pursuant to Education Code Section 17074.54 (a) and (b).

PORTABLE BUILDING, EXEMPTED. [SFM] A portable building as defined in Section 202 as referenced by California Education Code Section 17074.54, that is certified by the public school administration as being sited on campus for less than three years.

POSITIVE ROOF DRAINAGE. See Section 1502.1.

POWDER ROOM. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A. 16-P.

POWDER-ASSISTED DOOR [DSA-AC] is a door used for human passage with a mechanism that helps to open the door, or relieves the opening resistance of a door, upon the activation of a switch or a continued force applied to the door itself.

PREFABRICATED WOOD I-JOIST. See Section 2302.1.

PRESTRESSED MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

PRIMARY ENTRY. [HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A. 16-P.

PRIMARY ENTRY LEVEL. [HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.16-P.

PRIMARY FUNCTION. See Section 3402.1.

PRIMARY STRUCTURAL FRAME. The primary structural frame shall include all of the following structural members:

  1. The columns;
  2. Structural members having direct connections to the columns, including girders, beams, trusses and spandrels;
  3. Members of the floor construction and roof construction having direct connections to the columns; and
  4. Bracing members that are essential to the vertical stability of the primary structural frame under gravity loading shall be considered part of the primary structural frame whether or not the bracing member carries gravity loads.

PRISM. See Section 2102.1.

PROFESSIONAL OFFICE OF A HEALTH CARE PROVIDER. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

PROSCENIUM WALL. See Section 410.2.

PROTECTIVE SOCIAL CARE FACILITY. [SFM] A facility housing persons, who are referred, placed or caused to be placed in the facility, by any governmental agency and for whom the services, or a portion thereof, are paid for by any governmental agency. These occupancies shall include, but are not limited to those commonly referred to as “assisted living facilities,” “social rehabilitation facilities,” “certified family care homes,” “out-of home placement facilities,” and “half-way houses.”

PUBLIC ACCOMMODATION [DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] includes, but is not limited to, any public use building or facility that may be classified into one or more of the following categories:

  1. Places of public lodging.
  2. Establishments serving food or drink open to public use.
  3. Places of exhibition or entertainment open to public use. 50
  4. Places of public gathering.
  5. Sales or rental establishments open to public use.
  6. Service establishments open to public use.
  7. Stations used for public transportation.
  8. Places of public display or collection.
  9. Places of public recreation.
  10. Places of public education.
  11. Social service center establishments open to public use.
  12. Places of exercise or recreation open to public use.

Examples of public accommodations for purposes of this code shall include, but not be limited to, the following private entities:

  1. An inn, hotel, motel or other place of public lodging, except for a lodging house located within a building that contains not more than five rooms for rent or hire and that is actually occupied by the proprietor of such establishment as the residence of such proprietor.
  2. A restaurant, bar or other establishment serving food or drink.
  3. A motion picture house, theater, concert hall, stadium or other place of exhibition or entertainment.
  4. An auditorium, convention center, lecture hall or other place of public gathering.
  5. A bakery, grocery store, clothing store, hardware store, shopping center, or other sales or rental establishment.
  6. A laundromat, dry cleaner, bank, barber shop, beauty shop, travel service, shoe repair service, funeral parlor, gas station, office of an accountant or lawyer, pharmacy, insurance office, professional office of a health care provider, hospital or other service establishment.
  7. A terminal, depot or other station used for specified public transportation.
  8. A museum, library, gallery or other place of public display or collection.
  9. A park, zoo, amusement park or other place of recreation.
  10. A nursery, elementary, secondary, undergraduate or postgraduate private school, or other place of education.
  11. A day care center, senior citizen center, homeless shelter, food bank, adoption agency or other social service center establishment.
  12. A gymnasium, health spa, bowling alley, golf course or other place of exercise.
  13. A church.
  14. An office building.
  15. A public curb or sidewalk.

PUBLIC ENTRANCE [DSA-AC, HCD 1-AC] An entrance that is not a service entrance or a restricted entrance.

PUBLIC-USE AREAS. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A. 16-P, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

PUBLIC WAY. See Section 1002.1.

PUBLICLY FUNDED. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] For the purposes of housing, all buildings, structures, sidewalks, curbs and related facilities constructed in the state and used or intended to be used as a public use area, as defined in Section 1107A.16-P, shall comply with the accessibility standards of Chapter 11B of this code when state, county or municipal funds, or funds of any political subdivision of the state are used.

[F] PYROPHORIC. See Section 307.2.

[F] PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. See Section 307.2.

QUALIFIED HISTORICAL BUILDING (or PROPERTY). [DSA-AC] See C.C.R. Title 24, Part 8.

RAMP. See Section 1002.1.

[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.18-R and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. See Section 406.3.2.

REASONABLE PORTION [DSA-AC] shall mean that segment of a building, facility, area, space or condition, which would normally be necessary if the activity therein is to be accessible by persons with disabilities.

RECOMMEND.[DSA-AC, HCD1 & HCD2] Does not require mandatory acceptance, but identifies a suggested action that shall be considered for the purpose of providing a greater degree of accessibility to persons with disabilities.

[F] RECORD DRAWINGS. See Section 902.1.

REFLECTIVE PLASTIC CORE FOIL INSULATION. An insulation material packaged in rolls, that is less than 0.5 inches thick, with at least one exterior low emittance surface (0.1 or less) and a core material containing voids or cells.

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An individual who is registered or licensed to practice their respective design profession as defined by the statutory requirements of the professional registration laws of the state or jurisdiction in which the project is to be constructed.

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL IN RESPONSIBLE CHARGE. A registered design professional engaged by the owner to review and coordinate certain aspects of the project, as determined by the building official, for compatibility with the design of the building or structure, including submittal documents prepared by others, deferred submittal documents and phased submittal documents.

RELIGIOUS WORSHIP, PLACE OF. A building or portion thereof intended for the performance of religious services.

REMODELING. [DSA-AC] See “Alteration or Alter.’

REPAIR. The reconstruction or renewal of any part of an existing building for the purpose of its maintenance.

REROOFING. See Section 1502.1.

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. See Section 412.2.

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE CHRONICALLY ILL (RCF/CI). See Section 310.2.

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE ELDERLY (RCFE). See Section 310.2.

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RESIDENTIAL FACILITY (RF). See Section 310.2.

RESISTANCE FACTOR. See Section 1602.1.

RESTRAINT. [SFM] Restraint shall mean the physical retention of a person within a room, cell or cell block by any means, or within the exterior walls of a building by means of locked doors inoperable by the person restrained. Restraint shall also mean the physical binding, strapping or similar restriction of any person in a chair, walker, bed or other contrivance for the purpose of deliberately restricting the free movement of ambulatory persons.

Restraint shall not be construed to include nonambulatory persons nor shall it include the use of bandage material, strip sheeting or other fabrics or materials (soft ties) used to restrain persons in hospital-type beds or wheelchairs to prevent injury, provided an approved method of quick release is maintained. Facilities employing the use of soft ties, however, shall be classified as a building used to house nonambulatory persons.

Restraint shall not be practiced in licensed facilities classified as Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies unless constructed as a Group 1-3 occupancy. For Group 1-3 Occupancies see Section 408.1.1.

RESTRICTED ENTRANCE [HCD 1, HCD 2 & HCD 1-AC] is an entrance that is made available for common use on a controlled basis, but is not public use, and that is not a service entrance.

RETRACTABLE AWNING. See Section 3105.2.

RISER. [DSA-AC, HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.18-R, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

ROOF ASSEMBLY. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF COVERING. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF COVERING SYSTEM. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF DECK. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF RECOVER. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF REPAIR. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF REPLACEMENT. See Section 1502.1.

ROOF VENTILATION. See Section 1502.1.

ROOFTOP STRUCTURE. See Section 1502.1.

RUBBLE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

Coursed rubble. See Section 2102.1.

Random rubble. See Section 2102.1.

Rough or ordinary rubble. See Section 2102.1.

RUNNING SLOPE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

SALLYPORT. See Section 408.1.1.

SANITARY FACILITY.[DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] Any single water closet, urinal, lavatory, bathtub or shower, or a combination thereof, together with the room or space in which they are housed.

SCISSOR STAIR. See Section 1002.1.

SCUPPER. See Section 1502.1.

SECONDARY MEMBERS. The following structural members shall be considered secondary members and not part of the primary structural frame:

  1. Structural members not having direct connections to the columns;
  2. Members of the floor construction not having direct connections to the columns; and
  3. Bracing members other than those that are part of the primary structural frame.

SEISMIC DESIGN CATEGORY. See Section 1613.2.

SEISMIC-FORCE-RESISTING SYSTEM. See Section 1613.2.

SELF-CLOSING. See Section 702.1.

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. See Section 415.2.

SERVICE ENTRANCE [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] An entrance intended primarily for the delivery of goods or services.

SHAFT. See Section 702.1.

SHAFT ENCLOSURE. See Section 702.1.

SHALL [DSA-AC]. See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

SHALLOW FOUNDATION. See Section 1802.1.

SHEAR WALL. See Sections 2102.1 and 2302.1.

Detailed plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Intermediate prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Intermediate reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Ordinary plain masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Ordinary plain prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Ordinary reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Perforated shear wall. See Section 2302.1.

Perforated shear wall segment. See Section 2302.1.

Special prestressed masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

Special reinforced masonry shear wall. See Section 2102.1.

SHELL. See Section 2102.1.

SHOPPING CENTER (OR SHOPPING MALL). [DSA-AC, HCD 2] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

SHOULD. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See “Recommend.” [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

SIDEWALK.[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] A surfaced pedestrian way contiguous to a street used by the public. (As differentiated from the definition of “Walk’ in Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.23-W, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.)

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SIGNAGE [DSA-AC] is displayed verbal, symbolic, tactile, and/or pictorial information.

SINGLE-ACCOMMODATION SANITARY FACILITY [DSA-AC, HCD 1-AC] A room that has not more than one of each type of sanitary fixture, is intended for use by only one person at a time, has no partition around the toilet and has a door that can be locked on the inside by the room occupant.

SINGLE-PLY MEMBRANE. See Section 1502.1.

[F] SINGLE-STATION SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

SITE.[DSA-AC, HCD 1 & HCD 2] A parcel of land bounded by a property line or a designated portion of a public right-of-way.

SITE CLASS. See Section 1613.2.

SITE COEFFICIENTS. See Section 1613.2.

SITE DEVELOPMENT. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] “On-site’ and “off-site” work, including, but not limited to, walks, side-walks, ramps, curbs, curb ramps, parking facilities, stairs, planting areas, pools, promenades, exterior gathering or assembly areas and raised or depressed paved areas.

SITE-FABRICATED STRETCH SYSTEM. See Section 802.1.

SKYLIGHT, UNIT. A factory-assembled, glazed fenestration unit, containing one panel of glazing material that allows for natural lighting through an opening in the roof assembly while preserving the weather-resistant barrier of the roof.

SKYLIGHTS AND SLOPED GLAZING. Glass or other transparent or translucent glazing material installed at a slope of 15 degrees (0.26 rad) or more from vertical. Glazing material in skylights, including unit skylights, solariums, sunrooms, roofs and sloped walls, are included in this definition.

SLEEPING ACCOMMODATIONS. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.19-S, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

SLEEPING UNIT. A room or space in which people sleep, which can also include permanent provisions for living, eating, and either sanitation or kitchen facilities but not both. Such rooms and spaces that are also part of a dwelling unit are not sleeping units.

SLOPE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.19-S.

SMALL MANAGEMENT YARD. See Section 408.1.1.

[F] SMOKE ALARM. See Section 902.1.

SMOKE BARRIER. See Section 702.1.

SMOKE COMPARTMENT. See Section 702.1.

SMOKE DAMPER. See Section 702.1.

[F] SMOKE DETECTOR. See Section 902.1.

SMOKE-DEVELOPED INDEX. See Section 802.1.

SMOKE-PROTECTED ASSEMBLY SEATING. See Section 1002.1.

SMOKEPROOF ENCLOSURE. See Section 902.1.

[F] SOLID. See Section 415.2.

SOUND TRANSMISSION CLASS (STC). [HCD 1 & HCD 2] See Chapter 12, Section 1207.2.

SPACE. [DSA-AC & HCD 2] A definable area, e.g., a room, toilet room, hall, assembly area, entrance, storage room, alcove, courtyard, or lobby.

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. See Section 411.2.

SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARD AREA. See Section 1612.2.

SPECIAL INSPECTION. See Section 1702.1.

SPECIAL INSPECTION, CONTINUOUS. See Section 1702.1.

SPECIAL INSPECTION, PERIODIC. See Section 1702.1.

SPECIAL STRUCTURAL WALL. See Section 1908.1.1.

SPECIFIED. See Section 2102.1.

SPECIFIED COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF MASONRY (f′m). See Section 2102.1.

SPECIFIED PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

SPLICE. See Section 702.1.

SPRAYED FIRE-RESISTANT MATERIALS. See Section 1702.1.

STACK BOND. See Section 2102.1.

STAGE. See Section 410.2.

STAIR. See Section 1002.1.

STAIRWAY. See Section 1002.1.

STAIRWAY, EXTERIOR. See Section 1002.1.

STAIRWAY, INTERIOR. See Section 1002.1.

STAIRWAY, SPIRAL. See Section 1002.1.

[F] STANDPIPE SYSTEM, CLASSES OF. See Section 902.1.

Class I system. See Section 902.1.

Class II system. See Section 902.1.

Class III system. See Section 902.1.

[F] STANDPIPE, TYPES OF. See Section 902.1.

Automatic dry. See Section 902.1.

Automatic wet. See Section 902.1.

Manual dry. See Section 902.1.

Manual wet. See Section 902.1.

Semiautomatic dry. See Section 902.1.

START OF CONSTRUCTION. See Section 1612.2.

STATE-OWNED/LEASED BUILDING. [SFM] State_Owned/Leased Building is a building or portion of a building that is owned, leased or rented by the state. State-leased buildings shall include all required exits to a public way serving such leased area or space. Portions of state- leased buildings that are not leased or rented by the state shall not be included

53

within the scope of this section unless such portions present an exposure hazard to the state-leased area or space.

STEEL CONSTRUCTION, COLD-FORMED. See Section 2202.1.

STEEL JOIST. See Section 2202.1.

STEEL MEMBER, STRUCTURAL. See Section 2202.1.

STEEP SLOPE. A roof slope greater than two units vertical in 12 units horizontal (17-percent slope).

STONE MASONRY. See Section 2102.1.

Ashlar stone masonry. See Section 2102.1.

Rubble stone masonry. See Section 2102.1.

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. See Section 415.2.

STORM SHELTER. See Section 423.2.

Community storm shelter. See Section 423.2.

Residential storm shelter. See Section 423.2.

STORY. That portion of a building included between the upper surface of a floor and the upper surface of the floor or roof next above (also see “Basement,” “Mezzanine” and Section 502.1). It is measured as the vertical distance from top to top of two successive tiers of beams or finished floor surfaces and, for the topmost story, from the top of the floor finish to the top of the ceiling joists or, where there is not a ceiling, to the top of the roof rafters.

[DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

STORY ABOVE GRADE PLANE. Any story having its finished floor surface entirely above grade plane, or in which the finished surface of the floor next above is:

  1. More than 6 feet (1829 mm) above grade plane; or
  2. More than 12 feet (3658 mm) above the finished ground level at any point.

STORY, FIRST.[DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

STRENGTH. See Section 2102.1.

Design strength. See Section 2102.1.

Nominal strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1.

Required strength. See Sections 1602.1 and 2102.1.

STRENGTH DESIGN. See Section 1602.1.

STRUCTURAL COMPOSITE LUMBER. See Section 2302.1.

Laminated veneer lumber (LVL). See Section 2302.1.

Parallel strand lumber (PSL). See Section 2302.1.

STRUCTURAL FRAME. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

STRUCTURAL GLUED-LAMINATED TIMBER. See Section 2302.1.

STRUCTURAL OBSERVATION. See Section 1702.1.

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed.

SUBDIAPHRAGM. See Section 2302.1.

SUBSTANTIAL DAMAGE. See Section 1612.2.

SUBSTANTIAL IMPROVEMENT. See Section 1612.2.

SUBSTANTIAL STRUCTURAL DAMAGE. See Section 3402.1.

SUITE. See Section 1002.1.

SUNROOM. See Section 1202.1.

[F] SUPERVISING STATION. See Section 902.1.

[F] SUPERVISORY SERVICE. See Section 902.1.

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

[F] SUPERVISORY SIGNAL-INITIATING DEVICE. See Section 902.1.

SWIMMING POOLS. See Section 3109.2.

T RATING. See Section 702.1.

TACTILE. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] Describes an object that can be perceived using the sense of touch.

TECHNICALLY INFEASIBLE. See Section 3402.1.

[DSA-AC] “Technically infeasible” means, with respect to an alteration of a building or a facility, that it has little likelihood of being accomplished because existing structural conditions would require removing or altering a load-bearing member which is an essential part of the structural frame; or because other existing physical or site constraints prohibit modification or addition of elements, spaces or features which are in full and strict compliance with the minimum requirements for new construction and which are necessary to provide accessibility.

TEMPORARY [DSA-AC] shall mean buildings and facilities intended for use at one location for not more than one year and seats intended for use at one location for not more than 90 days.

TENT. A structure, enclosure or shelter, with or without sidewalls or drops, constructed of fabric or pliable material supported in any manner except by air or the contents it protects.

TERMINALLY ILL. See Section 310.2.

TESTING AGENCY. [HCD 1 & HCD 2] An agency approved by the department as qualified and equipped for testing of products, materials, equipment and installations in accordance with nationally recognized standards. For additional information, see Health and Safety Code Section 17920(m).

TEXT TELEPHONE. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

THERMAL ISOLATION. See Section 1202.1.

THERMOPLASTIC MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1.

THERMOSETTING MATERIAL. See Section 2602.1.

THIN-BED MORTAR. See Section 2102.1.

THROUGH PENETRATION. See Section 702.1.

THROUGH-PENETRATION FIRESTOP SYSTEM. See Section 702.1.

TIE-DOWN (HOLD-DOWN). See Section 2302.1.

TIE, LATERAL. See Section 2102.1.

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TIE, WALL. See Section 2102.1.

TILE. See Section 2102.1.

TILE, STRUCTURAL CLAY. See Section 2102.1.

[F] TIRES, BULK STORAGE OF. See Section 902.1.

TOWNHOUSE. A single-family dwelling unit constructed in a group of three or more attached units in which each unit extends from the foundation to roof and with open space on at least two sides.

[F] TOXIC. See Section 307.2.

TRANSIENT. See Section 310.2.

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. See Section 412.2.

TRANSIENT LODGING [DSA-AC, HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.20-T, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

TRANSIT BOARDING PLATFORM. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

TREAD. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.20-T, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

TREAD DEPTH. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

TREAD RUN. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

TREATED WOOD. See Section 2302.1.

Fire-retardant-treated wood. See Section 2302.1.

Preservative-treated wood. See Section 2302.1.

TRIM. See Section 802.1.

[F] TROUBLE SIGNAL. See Section 902.1.

TYPE OF MOTOR FUEL. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11C, Section 1101C.1.

UNDERLAYMENT. See Section 1502.1.

UNREASONABLE HARDSHIP [DSA-AC] exists when the enforcing agency finds that compliance with the building standard would make the specific work of the project affected by the building standard unfeasible, based on an overall evaluation of the following factors:

  1. The cost of providing access.
  2. The cost of all construction contemplated.
  3. The impact of proposed improvements on financial feasibility of the project.
  4. The nature of the accessibility which would be gained or lost.
  5. The nature of the use of the facility under construction and its availability to persons with diasbilities.

The details of any finding of unreasonable hardship shall be recorded and entered in the files of the enforcing agency.

[F] UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. See Section 307.2.

Class 4. See Section 307.2.

Class 3. See Section 307.2.

Class 2. See Section 307.2.

Class 1. See Section 307.2.

[F] USE (MATERIAL). See Section 415.2.

VAPOR-PERMEABLE MEMBRANE. A material or covering having a permeance rating of 5 perms (52.9 *10-10kg/Pa.s.m2) or greater, when tested in accordance with the dessicant method using Procedure A of ASTM E 96. A vapor-permeable material permits the passage of moisture vapor.

VAPOR RETARDER CLASS. A measure of a material or assembly’s ability to limit the amount of moisture that passes through that material or assembly. Vapor retarder class shall be defined using the desiccant method of ASTM E 96 as follows:

Class I: 0.1 perm or less.

Class II: 0.1 < perm≤1.0 perm.

Class III: 1.0 <perm≤ 10 perm.

VEHICLE BARRIER SYSTEM. See Section 1602.1.

VEHICULAR GATE. See Section 3110.2.

VEHICULAR OR PEDESTRIAN ARRIVAL POINTS.[DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.22-V.

VEHICULAR WAY. [DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

VENEER. See Section 1402.1.

VENTILATION. The natural or mechanical process of supplying or conditioned or unconditioned air to, or removing such air from, any space.

VINYL SIDING. See Section 1402.1.

[F] VISIBLE ALARM NOTIFICATION APPLIANCE. See Section 902.1.

WAITING ROOM. [SFM] Waiting Room is a room or area normally provided with seating and used for persons waiting.

WALK. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] See Chapter 11A, Section 1107A.23-W, and Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

WALKWAY, PEDESTRIAN. A walkway used exclusively as a pedestrian trafficway.

WALL. See Section 2102.1.

Cavity wall. See Section 2102.1.

Composite wall. See Section 2102.1.

Dry-stacked, surface-bonded wall. See Section 2102.1.

Masonry-bonded hollow wall. See Section 2102.1.

Parapet wall. See Section 2102.1.

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WALL, LOAD-BEARING. Any wall meeting either of the following classifications:

  1. Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 100 pounds per linear foot (1459 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.
  2. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 200 pounds per linear foot (2919 N/m) of vertical load in addition to its own weight.

WALL, NONLOAD-BEARING. Any wall that is not a loadbearing wall.

WALL PIER. See Section 1908.1.1.

[F] WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. See Section 307.2.

Class 3. See Section 307.2.

Class 2. See Section 307.2.

Class 1. See Section 307.2.

WATER-RESISTIVE BARRIER. See Section 1402.1.

WEATHER-EXPOSED SURFACES. See Section 2502.1.

WEB. See Section 2102.1.

[F] WET-CHEMICAL EXTINGUISHING SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

WHEELCHAIR. [DSA-AC & HCD 1-AC] A chair mounted on wheels to be propelled by its occupant manually or with the aid of electric power, of a size and configuration conforming to the recognized standard models of the trade.

WHEELCHAIR OCCUPANT (or WHEELCHAIR USER) [DSA-AC] is an individual who, due to a physical impairment or disability, utilizes a wheelchair for mobility.

WHEELCHAIR SPACE [HCD 1-AC] Space for a single wheelchair and its occupant.

WIND-BORNE DEBRIS REGION. See Section 1609.2.

WINDER. See Section 1002.1.

WINERY CAVES. See Section 436.

WIRE BACKING. See Section 2502.1.

[F] WIRELESS PROTECTION SYSTEM. See Section 902.1.

WOOD SHEAR PANEL. See Section 2302.1.

WOOD STRUCTURAL PANEL. See Section 2302.1.

Composite panels. See Section 2302.1.

Oriented strand board (OSB). See Section 2302.1.

Plywood. See Section 2302.1.

[F] WORKSTATION. See Section 415.2.

[DSA-AC] See Chapter 11B, Section 1102B.

WYTHE. See Section 2102.1.

YARD. An open space, other than a court, unobstructed from the ground to the sky, except where specifically provided by this code, on the lot on which a building is situated.

[F] ZONE. See Section 902.1.

ZONE, NOTIFICATION. See Section 902.1.

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CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 3 – USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION
Adopting agencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCSADPHAGRDWRCASLSLC
121-ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopt entire chapterX     XXXX X       
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXX     vX        
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     X        X X  
Chapter/Section              c     
302.1 XXX X             
302.1.3                X  
303.1 X                 
303.2 X                 
303.3 X                 
304.1 X                 
304.1.1 Clinic, Outpatient X                 
305.1 X                 
305.2 w/Exception X                 
306.2 X                 
306.4 – 306.4.4              X    
307.1 X                 
Table 307.1(1) Footnote d X                 
Table 307.1(2) Footnote e X                 
307.1.1                   
308.1 X                 
308.2 XXX               
308.3 X                 
308.3.1 Child-care facilities X                 
308.3.1 Detoxification facilities X                 
308.3.1 Hospitals and Mental hospitals X                 
308.3.1 Nursing Homes X                 
308.3.2 Exception X        X        
308.4 X                 
308.5 XXX               
308.5.1 X                 
308.5.2 X                 
308.5.2.1 X                 
310.1 XXX               57
Adopt entire chapterX     XXXX X       
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXX      X        
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     XX       X X  
Chapter/Section                   
310.2 X                 
Aged Home or Institution X                 
Bedridden Person X                 
Care and Supervision X                 
Catastrophically Injured X                 
Child-Care Center X                 
Child or Children X                 
Chronically III X                 
Congregate Living Health Facility (CLHF) X                 
Congregate Residence X                 
Day-Care X                 
Day-Care Home, Family X                 
Day-Care Home, Large Family X                 
Day-Care Home, Small Family X                 
310.2 Dormitory     X             
Full-Time Care X                 
Infant X                 
Mentally Retarded Persons, Profoundly or Severely X                 
Nonambulatory Persons X                 
Residential Care Facility for the Chronically III(RCF/CI) X                 
Residential Care Facility for the Elderly (RCFE) X                 
Residential Facility (RF) X                 
Terminally III X                 
310.3 X                 
313 X                 
313.1 X                 
The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter or individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.
58

CHAPTER 3
USE AND OCCUPANCY CLASSIFICATION

SECTION 301
GENERAL

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall control the classification of all buildings and structures as to use and occupancy.

SECTION 302
CLASSIFICATION

302.1 General. Structures or portions of structures shall be classified with respect to occupancy in one or more of the groups listed below. A room or space that is intended to be occupied at different times for different purposes shall comply with all of the requirements that are applicable to each of the purposes for which the room or space will be occupied. Structures with multiple occupancies or uses shall comply with Section 508. Where a structure is proposed for a purpose that is not specifically provided for in this code, such structure shall be classified in the group that the occupancy most nearly resembles, according to the fire safety and relative hazard involved.

  1. Assembly (see Section 303): Groups A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5
  2. Business (see Section 304): Group B
  3. Educational (see Section 305): Group E
  4. Factory and Industrial (see Section 306): Groups F-1 and F-2
  5. High Hazard (see Section 307): Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5
  6. Institutional (see Section 308): Groups I-1, I-2, I-3 and I-4
  7. Laboratory (see Section 202): Group B, unless classified as Group L (see Section 443) or Group H (see Section 307).
  8. Mercantile (see Section 309): Group M
  9. [SFM] Organized Camps (see Section 440): Group C10.
  10. [SFM] Research Laboratories (see Section 443): Group L
  11. Residential (see Section 310): Groups R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3, R-3.1 and R-4
  12. Storage (see Section 311): Groups S-1 and S-2
  13. Utility and Miscellaneous (see Section 312): Group U

[SFM] Existing buildings housing existing protective social care homes or facilities established prior to 1972 (see Section 3413).

302.1.1 Reserved

302.1.2 Reserved

302.1.3 Pharmacies; veterinary facilities; barbering, cosmetology or electrolysis establishments; and acupuncture offices. See Chapter 12.

SECTION 303
ASSEMBLY GROUP A

303.1 Assembly Group A. Assembly Group A occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for the gathering of persons for purposes such as civic, social or religious functions; recreation, food or drink consumption or awaiting transportation or motion picture and television production studio sound stages, approved production facilities and production locations.

Exceptions:

  1. A building or tenant space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons shall be classified as a Group B occupancy.
  2. A room or space used for assembly purposes with an occupant load of less than 50 persons and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.
  3. A room or space used for assembly purposes that is less than 750 square feet (70 m2) in area and accessory to another occupancy shall be classified as a Group B occupancy or as part of that occupancy.
  4. Assembly areas that are accessory to Group E occupancies are not considered separate occupancies except when applying the assembly occupancy requirements of Chapter 11B.
  5. Accessory religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums with occupant loads of less than 100 are not considered separate occupancies.

Assembly occupancies shall include the following:

A-1 Assembly uses, usually with fixed seating, intended for the production and viewing of the performing arts or motion pictures including, but not limited to:

Motion picture and television production studio sound stages, approved production facilities and production locations. (with live audiences).
Motion picture theaters
Symphony and concert halls
Television and radio studios admitting an audience
Theaters

A-2 Assembly uses intended for food and/or drink consumption including, but not limited to:

Banquet halls
Night clubs

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Restaurants
Taverns and bars

A-3 Assembly uses intended for worship, recreation or amusement and other assembly uses not classified else-where in Group A including, but not limited to:

Amusement arcades
Art galleries
Bowling alleys
Community halls
Courtrooms
Dance halls (not including food or drink consumption)
Exhibition halls
Funeral parlors
Gymnasiums (without spectator seating)
Indoor swimming pools (without spectator seating)
Indoor tennis courts (without spectator seating)
Lecture halls
Libraries
Museums
Places of religious worship
Pool and billiard parlors
Waiting areas in transportation terminals

A-4 Assembly uses intended for viewing of indoor sporting events and activities with spectator seating including, but not limited to:

Arenas
Skating rinks
Swimming pools
Tennis courts

A-5 Assembly uses intended for participation in or viewing outdoor activities including, but not limited to:

Amusement park structures
Bleachers
Grandstands
Stadiums

303.2 Fixed guideway transit systems. [SFM] Fixed guideway transit system buildings shall conform to the requirements of this code for their occupancy classification in addition to the provisions set forth in Section 433.

303.3 Subterranean spaces for winery facilities in natural or manmade caves. [SFM] For fire and life safety requirements, see Section 436.

SECTION 304
BUSINESS GROUP B

304.1 Business Group B. Business Group B occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for office, professional or service-type transactions, including storage of records and accounts. Business occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Airport traffic control towers
Ambulatory health care facilities serving five or fewer patients (see Section 308.3.2 for facilities serving more than five patients)
Animal hospitals, kennels and pounds
Banks
Barber and beauty shops
Car wash
Civic administration
Clinic—outpatient [SFM] (not classified as Group I-2.1)
Dry cleaning and laundries: pick-up and delivery stations and self-service
Educational occupancies for students above the 12th grade
Electronic data processing
Laboratories: testing, research and [SFM] instruction
Motor vehicle showrooms
Post offices
Print shops
Professional services (architects, attorneys, dentists, physicians, engineers, etc.)
Radio and television stations
Telephone exchanges
Training and skill development not within a school or academic program

304.1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

CLINIC, OUTPATIENT. Buildings or portions thereof used to provide medical care on less than a 24-hour basis to individuals who are not classified as nonambulatory or bedridden or rendered incapable of self-preservation by the services provided.

SECTION 305
EDUCATIONAL GROUP E

305.1 Educational Group E. Educational Group E occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, by more than six persons at any one time for educational purposes through the 12th grade. Religious educational rooms and religious auditoriums, which are accessory to places of religious worship in accordance with Section 303.1 and have occupant loads of less than 100, shall be classified as A-3 occupancies.

Exception: [SFM] A residence used as a home school for the children who normally reside at the residence. Such residences shall remain classified as Group R-2, or Group R-3 occupancies.

305.2 Day care. The use of a building or structure, or portion thereof, for educational, supervision or personal care services for more than six children 2 years of age and older, shall be classified as a Group E occupancy.

Exception: [SFM] A Day-care facility not otherwise classified as an R-3 occupancy, where occupants are not capable of responding to an emergency situation without physical assistance from the staff shall be classified as Group I-4.

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SECTION 306
FACTORY GROUP F

306.1 Factory Industrial Group F. Factory Industrial Group F occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for assembling, disassembling, fabricating, finishing, manufacturing, packaging, repair or processing operations that are not classified as a Group H hazardous or Group S storage occupancy.

306.2 Factory Industrial F-1 Moderate-hazard Occupancy. Factory industrial uses which are not classified as Factory Industrial F-2 Low Hazard shall be classified as F-1 Moderate Hazard and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Aircraft (manufacturing, not to include repair)

Appliances
Athletic equipment
Automobiles and other motor vehicles
Bakeries
Beverages: over 16-percent alcohol content
Bicycles
Boats
Brooms or brushes
Business machines
Cameras and photo equipment
Canvas or similar fabric
Carpets and rugs (includes cleaning)
Clothing
Construction and agricultural machinery
Disinfectants
Dry cleaning and dyeing
Electric generation plants
Electronics
Engines (including rebuilding)
Food processing
Furniture
Hemp products
Jute products
Laundries
Leather products
Machinery
Metals
Millwork (sash and door)
[SFM] Motion picture and television production studio Sound Stages, Approved Production Facilities and production locations (without live audiences)
Musical instruments
Optical goods
Paper mills or products
Photographic film
Plastic products
Printing or publishing
Recreational vehicles
Refuse incineration
Shoes
Soaps and detergents
Textiles
Tobacco
Trailers
Upholstering
Wood; distillation
Woodworking (cabinet)

306.3 Factory Industrial F-2 Low-hazard Occupancy. Factory industrial uses that involve the fabrication or manufacturing of noncombustible materials which during finishing, packing or processing do not involve a significant fire hazard shall be classified as F-2 occupancies and shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Beverages: up to and including 16-percent alcohol content

Brick and masonry
Ceramic products
Foundries
Glass products
Gypsum
Ice
Metal products (fabrication and assembly)

306.4 Places of meat and poultry inspection. [AGR]

306.4.1 Meat and poultry processing plants. [AGR] See Section 1240

306.4.2 Collection centers and facilities. [AGR] See Section 1241.

306.4.3 Renderers. [AGR] See Section 1242

306.4.4 Horsemeat and pet food establishments. [AGR] See Section 1243.

SECTION 307
HIGH-HAZARD GROUP H

[F] 307.1 High-hazard Group H. High-hazard Group H occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, that involves the manufacturing, processing, generation or storage of materials that constitute a physical or health hazard in quantities in excess of those allowed in control areas complying with Section 414, based on the maximum allowable quantity limits for control areas set forth in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). Hazardous occupancies are classified in Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 and H-5 and shall be in accordance with this section, the requirements of Section 415 and the California Fire Code. Hazardous materials stored, or used on top of roofs or canopies shall be classified as outdoor storage or use and shall comply with the California Fire Code.

Exceptions: The following shall not be classified as Group H, but shall be classified as the occupancy that they most nearly resemble.

  1. Buildings and structures occupied for the application of flammable finishes, provided that such buildings or areas conform to the requirements of Section 416 and the California Fire Code. 61
  2. Wholesale and retail sales and storage of flammable and combustible liquids in mercantile occupancies conforming to the California Fire Code.
  3. Closed piping system containing flammable or combustible liquids or gases utilized for the operation of machinery or equipment.
  4. Cleaning establishments that utilize combustible liquid solvents having a flash point of 140°F (60°C) or higher in closed systems employing equipment listed by an approved testing agency, provided that this occupancy is separated from all other areas of the building by 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or 1-hour horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
  5. Cleaning establishments that utilize a liquid solvent having a flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).
  6. Liquor stores and distributors without bulk storage.
  7. Refrigeration systems.
  8. The storage or utilization of materials for agricultural purposes on the premises.
  9. Stationary batteries utilized for facility emergency power, uninterrupted power supply or telecommunication facilities, provided that the batteries are provided with safety venting caps and ventilation is provided in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.
  10. Corrosives shall not include personal or household products in their original packaging used in retail display or commonly used building materials.
  11. Buildings and structures occupied for aerosol storage shall be classified as Group S-1, provided that such buildings conform to the requirements of the California Fire Code.
  12. Display and storage of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials in quantities not exceeding the maximum allowable quantity per control area in Group M or S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5.
  13. The storage of black powder, smokeless propellant and small arms primers in Groups M and R-3 and special industrial explosive devices in Groups B, F, M and S, provided such storage conforms to the quantity limits and requirements prescribed in the California Fire Code.
  14. [SFM] Group L occupancies as defined in section 443.1.

307.1.1 Hazardous materials. Hazardous materials in any quantity shall conform to the requirements of this code, including Section 414, and the California Fire Code.

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[F] TABLE 307.1(1)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa,j,m,n,p
MATERIALCLASSGROUP WHEN THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY IS EXCEEDEDSTORAGEbUSE-CLOSED SYSTEMSbUSE-OPEN SYSTEMSb
Solid pounds (cubic feet)Liquid gallons (pounds)Gas (cubic feet at NTP)Solid pounds (cubic feet)Liquid gallons (pounds)Gas (cubic feet at NTP)Solid pounds (cubic feet)Liquid gallons (pounds)
Combustible liquidc,iIIH -2 or H -3N/A120d,eN/AN/A120dN/AN/A30d
IIIAH -2 or H -3330d,e330d80d
IIIBN/A13,200e,f13,200f3,300f
Combustible fiberLooseH -3(100)N/AN/A(100)N/AN/A(20)N/A
Baledo(1000)(1000)(200)
Consumer fireworks (Class C, Common)1.4GH -3125d,e,lN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Cryogenics, flammableN/AH-2N/A45dN/AN/A45dN/AN/A10d
Cryogenics, inertN/AN/AN/AN/ANLN/AN/ANLN/AN/A
Cryogenics, oxidizingN/AH -3N/A45dN/AN/A45dN/AN/A10d
ExplosivesDivision 1.1H-11e, g(1)e, gN/A0.25g(0.25)gN/A0.25g(0.25)g
Division 1.2H-11e, g(1)e, gN/A0.25g(0.25)gN/A0.25g(0.25)g
Division 1.3H-1 or H-25e, g(5)e, gN/A1g(1)gN/A1g(1)g
Division 1.4H-350e, g(50)e, gN/A50g(50)gN/AN/AN/A
Division 1.4GH-3125d, e, 1N/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Division 1.5H-11e, g(1)e, gN/A0.25g(0.25)gN/A0.25g(0.25)g
Division 1.6H-11d, e, gN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/A
Flammable gasGaseousH-2N/AN/A1,000d,eN/AN/A1,000d,eN/AN/A
Liquefied(150)d, eN/A(150)d, eN/A
Flammable liquide1AH-2N/A30d, eN/AN/A30dN/AN/A10d
1B and 1Cor H-3120d, e120d30d
Flammable liquid, combination (1A, 1B, 1C)N/AH - 2
or H - 3
N/A120d, e, hN/AN/A120d, hN/AN/A30d, h
Flammable solidN/AH-3125d, eN/AN/A125dN/AN/A25dN/A
Inert gasGaseousN/AN/AN/ANLN/AN/ANLN/AN/A
LiquefiedN/AN/AN/ANLN/AN/ANLN/AN/A
Organic peroxideUDH-11e, g(1)e, gN/A0.25g(0.25)gN/A0.25g(0.25)g
IH-25d, e(5)e, gN/A1d(1)N/A1d(1)d
IIH-350d, e(50)dN/A50d(50)dN/A10d(10)d
IIIH-3125d, e(125)d, eN/A125d(125)dN/A25d(25)d
IVN/ANLNLN/ANLNLN/ANLNL
VN/ANLNLN/ANLNLN/ANLNL
Oxidizer4H-11e,g(1)e,gN/A0.25g(0.25)gN/A0.25g(0.25)g
3kH-2 or H-310d,e(10)e, gN/A2d(2)dN/A2d(2)d
2H-3250d, e(250)d, eN/A250d(250)dN/A50d(50)d
1N/A4,000e, f(4,000)fN/A4,000f(4,000)fN/A1,000f(1,000)f63
Oxidizing gasGaseousH-3N/AN/A1,500d,eN/AN/A1,500d, eN/AN/A
LiquefiedN/A(150)d, eN/AN/A(150)d, eN/AN/AN/A
Pyrophoric materialN/AH-24e, g(4)e, g50e, g1g(1)g10g00
Unstable (reactive)4H-11e, g(1)e, g10g0.25g(0.25)g2e, g0.25g(0.25)g
3H-1 or H-25d,e(5)d,e50d,e1d(1)d10d,e1d(1)d
2H-350d, e(50)d, e250d, e50d(50)d, e250d, e10d(10)d
1N/ANLNLNLNLNLNLNLNL
Water reactive3H-25d, e(5)d, eN/A5d(5)dN/A1d(1)d
2H-350d, e(50)d, eN/A50d(50)dN/A10d(10)d
1N/ANLNLN/ANLNLN/ANLNL
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
NL = Not Limited; N/A = Not Applicable; UD = Unclassified Detonable
a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2.
b. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
c. The quantities of alcoholic beverages in retail and wholesale occupancies shall not be limited providing the liquids are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
d. [SFM] In other than Group Loccupancies, maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
e. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, day boxes, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures or in listed safety cans in accordance with Section 2703.9.10 of the California Fire Code. Where Note d also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
f. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
g. Permitted only in buildings equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
h. Containing not more than the maximum allowable quantity per control area of Class IA, IB or IC flammable liquids.
i. The maximum allowable quantity shall not apply to fuel oil storage complying with Section 603.3.2 of the California Fire Code.
j. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column.
k. A maximum quantity of 200 pounds of solid or 20 gallons of liquid Class 3 oxidizers is allowed when such materials are necessary for maintenance purposes, operation or sanitation of equipment. Storage containers and the manner of storage shall be approved.
l. Net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks. Where the net weight of the pyrotechnic composition of the fireworks is not known, 25 percent of the gross weight of the fireworks, including packaging, shall be used.
m. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of the California Fire Code.
n. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5, (1) and 414.2.5(2).
o. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.
p. The following shall not be included in determining the maximum allowable quantities:
1. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on vehicles.
2. Liquid or gaseous fuel in fuel tanks on motorized equipment operated in accordance with this code.
3. Gaseous fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the California Fuel Gas Code.
4. Liquid fuels in piping systems and fixed appliances regulated by the California Mechanical Code.
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[F] TABLE 307.1(2)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA OF HAZARDOUS MATERIALS POSING A PHYSICAL HAZARDa,j,m,n,p
MATERIALSTORAGEdUSE-CLOSED SYSTENSdUSE-CLOSED SYSTENSd
Solid pounds (cubic feet)e,fLiquid gallons (pounds)e,fGas (cubic feet at NTP)eSolid poundseLiquid gallons (pounds)eGas (cubic feet at NTP)eSolid poundseLiquid gallons (pounds)e
Corrosive5,000500810f,g5,000500810f,g1,000100
Highly toxic10(10)i20h10(10)i20h3(3)i
Toxic500(500)i810f500(500)i810f125(125)
For SI: 1 cubic foot = 0.028 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. For use of control areas, see Section 414.2.
b. In retail and wholesale sales occupancies, the quantities of medicines, foodstuffs, consumer or industrial products, and cosmetics, containing not more than 50 percent by volume of water-miscible liquids and with the remainder of the solutions not being flammable, shall not be limited, provided that such materials are packaged in individual containers not exceeding 1.3 gallons.
c. For storage and display quantities in Group M and storage quantities in Group S occupancies complying with Section 414.2.5, see Tables 414.2.5( 1) and 414.2.5(2).
d. The aggregate quantity in use and storage shall not exceed the quantity listed for storage.
e. [SFM] In other than Group L occupancies, maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where Note f also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatvely.
f. Quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the California Fire Code. Where Note e also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
g. A single sylinder containing 150 pounds or less or anhydrous ammonia in a single control area in a nonspriklered building shall be considered a maximum allowable quantity. Two cylinders, each containing 150 pounds or less in a single control area, shall be considered a maximum allowable quantity provided the building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
h. Allowed only when stored in approved exhausted gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures as specified in the California Fire Code.
i. Quantities in parenthesis indicate quantity units in parenthesis at the head of each column.
j. For gallons of liquids, divide the amount in pounds by 10 in accordance with Section 2703.1.2 of the Caiifornia Fire Code.

[F] 307.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purpose of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

AEROSOL. A product that is dispensed from an aerosol container by a propellant.

Aerosol products shall be classified by means of the calculation of their chemical heats of combustion and shall be designated Level 1, 2 or 3.

Level 1 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is less than or equal to 8,600 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb) (20 kJ/g).

Level 2 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat of combustion that is greater than 8,600 Btu/lb (20 kJ/g), but less than or equal to 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).

Level 3 aerosol products. Those with a total chemical heat combustion that is greater than 13,000 Btu/lb (30 kJ/g).

AEROSOL CONTAINER. A metal can or a glass or plastic bottle designed to dispense an aerosol. Metal cans shall be limited to a maximum size of 33.8 fluid ounces (1000 ml). Glass or plastic bottles shall be limited to a maximum size of 4 fluid ounces (118 ml).

BALED COTTON. A natural seed fiber wrapped in and secured with industry accepted materials, usually consisting of burlap, woven polypropylene, polyethylene or cotton or sheet polyethylene, and secured with steel, synthetic or wire bands or wire; also includes linters (lint removed from the cottonseed) and motes (residual materials from the ginning process).

BALED COTTON, DENSELY PACKED. Cotton made into banded bales with a packing density of at least 22 pounds per cubic foot (360 kg/m3), and dimensions complying with the following: a length of 55 inches (1397 ± 20 mm), a width of 21 inches (533.4 ± 20 mm) and a height of 27.6 to 35.4 inches (701 to 899 mm).

BARRICADE. A structure that consists of a combination of walls, floor and roof, which is designed to withstand the rapid release of energy in an explosion and which is fully confined, partially vented or fully vented; or other effective method of shielding from explosive materials by a natural or artificial barrier.

Artificial barricade. An artificial mound or revetment a minimum thickness of 3 feet (914 mm).

Natural barricade. Natural features of the ground, such as hills, or timber of sufficient density that the surrounding exposures that require protection cannot be seen from the magazine or building containing explosives when the trees are bare of leaves.

BOILING POINT. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals the atmospheric pressure of 14.7 pounds per square inch (psi) (101 kPa) gage or 760 mm of mercury. Where an accurate boiling point is unavailable for the material in question, or for mixtures which do not have a constant boiling point, for the purposes of this classification, the 20-percent evaporated point of a distillation performed in accordance with ASTM D 86 shall be used as the boiling point of the liquid.

CLOSED SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a closed vessel or system that remains closed during normal operations where vapors emitted by the product is not liberated outside of the vessel or system and the product is not exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations; and all uses of compressed gases. Examples of closed systems for solids and liquids include product conveyed through a piping system into a closed vessel, system or piece of equipment.

COMBUSTIBLE DUST. Finely divided solid material that is 420 microns or less in diameter and which, when dispersed in air in the proper proportions, could be ignited by a flame, spark

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or other source of ignition. Combustible dust will pass through a U.S. No. 40 standard sieve.

COMBUSTIBLE FIBERS. Readily ignitable and free-burning materials in a fibrous or shredded form, such as cocoa fiber, cloth, cotton, excelsior, hay, hemp, henequen, istle, jute, kapok, oakum, rags, sisal, Spanish moss, straw, tow, wastepaper, certain synthetic fibers or other like materials. This definition does not include densely packed baled cotton.

COMBUSTIBLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C). Combustible liquids shall be subdivided as follows:

Class II. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 100°F (38°C) and below 140°F (60°C).

Class IIIA. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 140°F (60°C) and below 200°F (93°C).

Class IIIB. Liquids having a closed cup flash point at or above 200°F (93°C).

The category of combustible liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids.

COMPRESSED GAS. A material, or mixture of materials, that:

  1. Is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure; and
  2. Has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) which is either liquefied, nonliquefied or in solution, except those gases which have no other health no physical-hazard properties are not considered to be compressed until the pressure in the packaging exceeds 41 psia (282 kPa) at 68°F (20°C).

The states of a compressed gas are categorized as follows:

  1. Nonliquefied compressed gases are gases, other than those in solution, which are in a packaging under the charged pressure and are entirely gaseous at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
  2. Liquefied compressed gases are gases that, in a packaging under the charged pressure, are partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C).
  3. Compressed gases in solution are nonliquefied gases that are dissolved in a solvent.
  4. Compressed gas mixtures consist of a mixture of two or more compressed gases contained in a packaging, the hazard properties of which are represented by the properties of the mixture as a whole.

CONTROL AREA. Spaces within a building where quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area are stored, dispensed, used or handled. See also the definition of “Outdoor control area” in the California Fire Code.

CORROSIVE. A chemical that causes visible destruction of, or irreversible alterations in, living tissue by chemical action at the point of contact. A chemical shall be considered corrosive if, when tested on the intact skin of albino rabbits by the method described in DOTn 49 CFR, Part 173.137, such a chemical destroys or changes irreversibly the structure of the tissue at the point of contact following an exposure period of 4 hours. This term does not refer to action on inanimate surfaces.

CRYOGENIC FLUID. A liquid having a boiling point lower than −150°F (−101°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (an absolute pressure of 101 kPa).

DAY BOX. A portable magazine designed to hold explosive materials constructed in accordance with the requirements for a Type 3 magazine as defined and classified in Chapter 33 of the California Fire Code.

DEFLAGRATION. An exothermic reaction, such as the extremely rapid oxidation of a flammable dust or vapor in air, in which the reaction progresses through the unburned material at a rate less than the velocity of sound. A deflagration can have an explosive effect.

DETONATION. An exothermic reaction characterized by the presence of a shock wave in the material which establishes and maintains the reaction. The reaction zone progresses through the material at a rate greater than the velocity of sound. The principal heating mechanism is one of shock compression. Detonations have an explosive effect.

DISPENSING. The pouring or transferring of any material from a container, tank or similar vessel, whereby vapors, dusts, fumes, mists or gases are liberated to the atmosphere.

EXPLOSION. An effect produced by the sudden violent expansion of gases, which may be accompanied by a shock wave or disruption, or both, of enclosing materials or structures. An explosion could result from any of the following:

  1. Chemical changes such as rapid oxidation, deflagration or detonation, decomposition of molecules and runaway polymerization (usually detonations).
  2. Physical changes such as pressure tank ruptures.
  3. Atomic changes (nuclear fission or fusion).

EXPLOSIVE. A chemical compound, mixture or device, the primary or common purpose of which is to function by explosion. The term includes, but is not limited to, dynamite, black powder, pellet powder, initiating explosives, detonators, safety fuses, squibs, detonating cord, igniter cord, igniters and display fireworks, 1.3G (Class B, Special).

The term “explosive” includes any material determined to be within the scope of USC Title 18: Chapter 40 and also includes any material classified as an explosive other than consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common) by the hazardous materials regulations of DOTn 49 CFR Parts 100–185.

High explosive. Explosive material, such as dynamite, which can be caused to detonate by means of a No. 8 test blasting cap when unconfined.

Low explosive. Explosive material that will burn or deflagrate when ignited. It is characterized by a rate of reaction that is less than the speed of sound. Examples of low explosives include, but are not limited to, black powder; safety fuse; igniters; igniter cord; fuse lighters; fireworks, 1.3G (Class B, Special) and propellants, 1.3C.

Mass-detonating explosives. Division 1.1, 1.2 and 1.5 explosives alone or in combination, or loaded into various types of ammunition or containers, most of which can be

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expected to explode virtually instantaneously when a small portion is subjected to fire, severe concussion, impact, the impulse of an initiating agent or the effect of a considerable discharge of energy from without. Materials that react in this manner represent a mass explosion hazard. Such an explosive will normally cause severe structural damage to adjacent objects. Explosive propagation could occur immediately to other items of ammunition and explosives stored sufficiently close to and not adequately protected from the initially exploding pile with a time interval short enough so that two or more quantities must be considered as one for quantity-distance purposes.

UN⁄DOTn Class 1 explosives. The former classification system used by DOTn included the terms “high” and “low” explosives as defined herein. The following terms further define explosives under the current system applied by DOTn for all explosive materials defined as hazard Class 1 materials. Compatibility group letters are used in concert with the division to specify further limitations on each division noted (i.e., the letter G identifies the material as a pyrotechnic substance or article containing a pyrotechnic substance and similar materials).

Division 1.1. Explosives that have a mass explosion hazard. A mass explosion is one which affects almost the entire load instantaneously.

Division 1.2. Explosives that have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard.

Division 1.3. Explosives that have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor projection hazard or both, but not a mass explosion hazard.

Division 1.4. Explosives that pose a minor explosion hazard. The explosive effects are largely confined to the package and no projection of fragments of appreciable size or range is to be expected. An external fire must not cause virtually instantaneous explosion of almost the entire contents of the package.

Division 1.5. Very insensitive explosives. This division is comprised of substances that have a mass explosion hazard, but that are so insensitive there is very little probability of initiation or of transition from burning to detonation under normal conditions of transport.

Division 1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do no have a mass explosion hazard. This division is comprised of articles that contain only extremely insensitive detonating substances and which demonstrate a negligible probability of accidental initiation or propagation.

FIREWORKS. Any composition or device for the purpose of producing a visible or audible effect for entertainment purposes by combustion, deflagration or detonation that meets the definition of 1.4G fireworks or 1.3G fireworks as set forth herein.

Fireworks, 1.3G. (Formerly Class B, Special Fireworks.) Large fireworks devices, which are explosive materials, intended for use in fireworks displays and designed to produce audible or visible effects by combustion, deflagration or detonation. Such 1.3G fireworks include, but are not limited to, firecrackers containing more than 130 milligrams (2 grains) of explosive composition, aerial shells containing more than 40 grams of pyrotechnic composition, and other display pieces which exceed the limits for classification as 1.4G fireworks. Such 1.3G fireworks are also described as fireworks, UN0335 by the DOTn.

Fireworks, 1.4G. (Formerly Class C, Common Fireworks.) Small fireworks devices containing restricted amounts of pyrotechnic composition designed primarily to produce visible or audible effects by combustion. Such 1.4G fireworks which comply with the construction, chemical composition and labeling regulations of the DOTn for fireworks, UN0336, and the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) as set forth in CPSC 16 CFR: Parts 1500 and 1507, are not explosive materials for the purpose of this code.

FLAMMABLE GAS. A material that is a gas at 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 pounds per square inch atmosphere (psia) (101 kPa) of pressure [a material that has a boiling point of 68°F (20°C) or less at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)] which:

  1. Is ignitable at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) when in a mixture of 13 percent or less by volume with air; or
  2. Has a flammable range at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) with air of at least 12 percent, regardless of the lower limit.

The limits specified shall be determined at 14.7 psi (101 kPa) of pressure and a temperature of 68°F (20°C) in accordance with ASTM E 681.

FLAMMABLE LIQUEFIED GAS. A liquefied compressed gas which, under a charged pressure, is partially liquid at a temperature of 68°F (20°C) and which is flammable.

FLAMMABLE LIQUID. A liquid having a closed cup flash point below 100°F (38°C). Flammable liquids are further categorized into a group known as Class I liquids. The Class I category is subdivided as follows:

Class IA. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and a boiling point below 100°F (38°C).

Class IB. Liquids having a flash point below 73°F (23°C) and a boiling point at or above 100°F (38°C).

Class IC. Liquids having a flash point at or above 73°F (23°C) and below 100°F (38°C).

The category of flammable liquids does not include compressed gases or cryogenic fluids.

FLAMMABLE MATERIAL. A material capable of being readily ignited from common sources of heat or at a temperature of 600°F (316°C) or less.

FLAMMABLE SOLID. A solid, other than a blasting agent or explosive, that is capable of causing fire through friction, absorption or moisture, spontaneous chemical change, or retained heat from manufacturing or processing, or which has an ignition temperature below 212°F (100°C) or which burns so vigorously and persistently when ignited as to create a serious hazard. A chemical shall be considered a flammable solid as determined in accordance with the test method of CPSC 16 CFR; Part 1500.44, if it ignites and burns with a self-sustained flame at a rate greater than 0.1 inch (2.5 mm) per second along its major axis.

FLASH POINT. The minimum temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a liquid will give off sufficient vapors to form an

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ignitable mixture with air near the surface or in the container, but will not sustain combustion. The flash point of a liquid shall be determined by appropriate test procedure and apparatus as specified in ASTM D 56, ASTM D 93 or ASTM D 3278.

HANDLING. The deliberate transport by any means to a point of storage or use.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS. Those chemicals or substances that are physical hazards or health hazards as defined and classified in this section and the California Fire Code, whether the materials are in usable or waste condition.

HEALTH HAZARD. A classification of a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence that acute or chronic health effects are capable of occurring in exposed persons. The term “health hazard” includes chemicals that are toxic or highly toxic, and corrosive.

HIGHLY TOXIC. A material which produces a lethal dose or lethal concentration that falls within any of the following categories:

  1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 50 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
  2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of 200 milligrams or less per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each.
  3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of 200 parts per million by volume or less of gas or vapor, or 2 milligrams per liter or less of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.

Mixtures of these materials with ordinary materials, such as water, might not warrant classification as highly toxic. While this system is basically simple in application, any hazard evaluation that is required for the precise categorization of this type of material shall be performed by experienced, technically competent persons.

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS. Materials that, when mixed, have the potential to react in a manner that generates heat, fumes, gases or byproducts which are hazardous to life or property.

INERT GAS. A gas that is capable of reacting with other materials only under abnormal conditions such as high temperatures, pressures and similar extrinsic physical forces. Within the context of the code, inert gases do not exhibit either physical or health properties as defined (other than acting as a simple asphyxiant) or hazard properties other than those of a compressed gas. Some of the more common inert gases include argon, helium, krypton, neon, nitrogen and xenon.

OPEN SYSTEM. The use of a solid or liquid hazardous material involving a vessel or system that is continuously open to the atmosphere during normal operations and where vapors are liberated, or the product is exposed to the atmosphere during normal operations. Examples of open systems for solids and liquids include dispensing from or into open beakers or containers, dip tank and plating tank operations.

OPERATING BUILDING. A building occupied in conjunction with the manufacture, transportation or use of explosive materials. Operating buildings are separated from one another with the use of intraplant or intraline distances.

ORGANIC PEROXIDE. An organic compound that contains the bivalent –O–O– structure and which may be considered to be a structural derivative of hydrogen peroxide where one or both of the hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an organic radical. Organic peroxides can pose an explosion hazard (detonation or deflagration) or they can be shock sensitive. They can also decompose into various unstable compounds over an extended period of time.

Class I. Those formulations that are capable of deflagration but not detonation.

Class II. Those formulations that burn very rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.

Class III. Those formulations that burn rapidly and that pose a moderate reactivity hazard.

Class IV. Those formulations that burn in the same manner as ordinary combustibles and that pose a minimal reactivity hazard.

Class V. Those formulations that burn with less intensity than ordinary combustibles or do not sustain combustion and that pose no reactivity hazard.

Unclassified detonable. Organic peroxides that are capable of detonation. These peroxides pose an extremely high explosion hazard through rapid explosive decomposition.

OXIDIZER. A material that readily yields oxygen or other oxidizing gas, or that readily reacts to promote or initiate combustion of combustible materials and, if heated or contaminated, can result in vigorous self-sustained decomposition.

Class 4. An oxidizer that can undergo an explosive reaction due tox contamination or exposure to thermal or physical shock and that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes into contact. Additionally, the oxidizer causes a severe increase in the burning rate and can cause spontaneous ignition of combustibles.

Class 3. An oxidizer that causes a severe increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.

Class 2. An oxidizer that will cause a moderate increase in the burning rate of combustible materials with which it comes in contact.

Class 1. An oxidizer that does not moderately increase the burning rate of combustible materials.

OXIDIZING GAS. A gas that can support and accelerate combustion of other materials.

PHYSICAL HAZARD. A chemical for which there is evidence that it is a combustible liquid, cryogenic fluid, explosive, flammable (solid, liquid or gas), organic peroxide (solid or liquid), oxidizer (solid or liquid), oxidizing gas, pyrophoric

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(solid, liquid or gas), unstable (reactive) material (solid, liquid or gas) or water-reactive material (solid or liquid).

PYROPHORIC. A chemical with an autoignition temperature in air, at or below a temperature of 130°F (54.4°C).

PYROTECHNIC COMPOSITION. A chemical mixture that produces visible light displays or sounds through a self-propagating, heat-releasing chemical reaction which is initiated by ignition.

TOXIC. A chemical falling within any of the following categories:

  1. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 50 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 500 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered orally to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.
  2. A chemical that has a median lethal dose (LD50) of more than 200 milligrams per kilogram, but not more than 1,000 milligrams per kilogram of body weight when administered by continuous contact for 24 hours (or less if death occurs within 24 hours) with the bare skin of albino rabbits weighing between 2 and 3 kilograms each.
  3. A chemical that has a median lethal concentration (LC50) in air of more than 200 parts per million, but not more than 2,000 parts per million by volume of gas or vapor, or more than 2 milligrams per liter but not more than 20 milligrams per liter of mist, fume or dust, when administered by continuous inhalation for 1 hour (or less if death occurs within 1 hour) to albino rats weighing between 200 and 300 grams each.

UNSTABLE (REACTIVE) MATERIAL. A material, other than an explosive, which in the pure state or as commercially produced, will vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense or become self-reactive and undergo other violent chemical changes, including explosion, when exposed to heat, friction or shock, or in the absence of an inhibitor, or in the presence of contaminants, or in contact with incompatible materials. Unstable (reactive) materials are subdivided as follows:

Class 4. Materials that in themselves are readily capable of detonation or explosive decomposition or explosive reaction at normal temperatures and pressures. This class includes materials that are sensitive to mechanical or localized thermal shock at normal temperatures and pressures.

Class 3. Materials that in themselves are capable of detonation or of explosive decomposition or explosive reaction but which require a strong initiating source or which must be heated under confinement before initiation. This class includes materials that are sensitive to thermal or mechanical shock at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Class 2. Materials that in themselves are normally unstable and readily undergo violent chemical change but do not detonate. This class includes materials that can undergo chemical change with rapid release of energy at normal temperatures and pressures, and that can undergo violent chemical change at elevated temperatures and pressures.

Class 1. Materials that in themselves are normally stable but which can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressure.

WATER-REACTIVE MATERIAL. A material that explodes; violently reacts; produces flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases; or evolves enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture. Water-reactive materials are subdivided as follows:

Class 3. Materials that react explosively with water without requiring heat or confinement.

Class 2. Materials that react violently with water or have the ability to boil water. Materials that produce flammable, toxic or other hazardous gases or evolve enough heat to cause autoignition or ignition of combustibles upon exposure to water or moisture.

Class 1. Materials that react with water with some release of energy, but not violently.

[F] 307.3 High-hazard Group H-1. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a detonation hazard shall be classified as Group H-1. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Detonable pyrophoric materials

Explosives:

Division 1.1

Division 1.2

Division 1.3

Exception: Materials that are used and maintained in a form where either confinement or configuration will not elevate the hazard from a mass fire to mass explosion hazard shall be allowed in H-2 occupancies.

Division 1.4

Exception: Articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms regulations, or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or deflagration between articles shall be allowed in H-3 occupancies.

Division 1.5

Division 1.6

Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable

Oxidizers, Class 4

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3 detonable and Class 4

[F] 307.4 High-hazard Group H-2. Buildings and structures containing materials that pose a deflagration hazard or a hazard from accelerated burning shall be classified as Group H-2. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids which are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 psi (103.4 kPa) gage.

Combustible dusts

Cryogenic fluids, flammable

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Flammable gases

Organic peroxides, Class I

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally open containers or systems, or in closed containers or systems pressurized at more than 15 psi (103 kPa) gage

Pyrophoric liquids, solids and gases, nondetonable Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 3, nondetonable Water-reactive materials, Class 3

[F] 307.5 High-hazard Group H-3. Buildings and structures containing materials that readily support combustion or that pose a physical hazard shall be classified as Group H-3. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Class I, II or IIIA flammable or combustible liquids that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103.4 kPa) or less

Combustible fibers, other than densely packed baled cotton

Consumer fireworks, 1.4G (Class C, Common)

Cryogenic fluids, oxidizing

Flammable solids

Organic peroxides, Class II and III

Oxidizers, Class 2

Oxidizers, Class 3, that are used or stored in normally closed containers or systems pressurized at 15 pounds per square inch gauge (103 kPa) or less

Oxidizing gases

Unstable (reactive) materials, Class 2

Water-reactive materials, Class 2

[F] 307.6 High-hazard Group H-4. Buildings and structures which contain materials that are health hazards shall be classified as Group H-4. Such materials shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Corrosives

Highly toxic materials

Toxic materials

[F] 307.7 High-hazard Group H-5 structures. Semiconductor fabrication facilities and comparable research and development areas in which hazardous production materials (HPM) are used and the aggregate quantity of materials is in excess of those listed in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be classified as Group H-5. Such facilities and areas shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Section 415.8.

[F] 307.8 Multiple hazards. Buildings and structures containing a material or materials representing hazards that are classified in one or more of Groups H-1, H-2, H-3 and H-4 shall conform to the code requirements for each of the occupancies so classified.

SECTION 308
INSTITUTIONAL GROUP I

308.1 Institutional Group I. Institutional Group I occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, in which people are cared for or live in a supervised environment, having physical limitations because of health or age are harbored for medical treatment or other care or treatment, or in which people are detained for penal or correctional purposes or in which the liberty of the occupants is restricted. Institutional occupancies shall be classified as Group I-1, I-2, I-3 or I-4. Restraint shall not be permitted in any building except in Group I-3 occupancies constructed for such use, see Section 408.1.1.

Where occupancies house both ambulatory and nonambulatory persons, the more restrictive requirements shall apply.

308.2 Group I-1. Not used. (See Group R-2.1 Section 310.1)

308.3 Group 1-2. This occupancy shall include buildings and structures used for medical, surgical, psychiatric, nursing or custodial care for persons who are not capable of self-preservation or classified as nonambulatory or bedridden. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Child care facilities

Detoxification facilities

Hospitals

Mental hospitals

Nursing homes

308.3.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

CHILD CARE FACILITIES. Facilities that provide care on a 24-hour basis to more than six children under 2 years of age.

DETOXIFICATION FACILITIES. Facilities that serve patients who are provided treatment for substance abuse on a 24-hour basis and who are incapable of self-preservation or classified as nonambulatory or bedridden or who are harmful to themselves or others.

HOSPITALS AND MENTAL HOSPITALS. Buildings or portions thereof used on a 24-hour basis for the medical, psychiatric, obstetrical or surgical treatment of inpatients who are incapable of self-preservation or classified as nonambulatory or bedridden.

NURSING HOMES. Nursing homes are long-term care facilities on a 24-hour basis, including both intermediate care facilities and skilled nursing facilities, serving more than five persons and any of the persons are incapable of self-preservation or classified as nonambulatory or bedridden.

308.3.2 Group I-2.1 Ambulatory health care facility. A healthcare facility that receives persons for outpatient medical care that may render the patient incapable of unassisted self-preservation and where each tenant space accommodates more than five such patients.

[OSHPD 3] Exception: For structural regulations, these buildings shall be considered as Business Group B occupancy.

308.4 Group I-3. This occupancy shall include buildings or portions or buildings and structures that are inhabited by one or more persons who are under restraint. An I-3 facility is occu-

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pied by persons who are restrained. This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Correctional centers

Detention centers

Jails

Prisons

Reformatories

Juvenile halls

Buildings of Group I-3 shall be classified as one of the occupancy conditions indicated in Sections 308.4.1 through 308.4.5 (see Section 408.1).

308.4.1 Condition 1. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas, and other spaces where access or occupancy is permitted, to the exterior via means of egress without restraint. A Condition 1 facility is permitted to be constructed as Group R.

308.4.2 Condition 2. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed from sleeping areas and any other occupied smoke compartment to one or more other smoke compartments. Egress to the exterior is impeded by locked exits.

308.4.3 Condition 3. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is allowed within individual smoke compartments, such as within a residential unit comprised of individual sleeping units and group activity spaces, where egress is impeded by remote-controlled release of means of egress from such a smoke compartment to another smoke compartment.

308.4.4 Condition 4. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Remote-controlled release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

308.4.5 Condition 5. This occupancy condition shall include buildings in which free movement is restricted from an occupied space. Staff-controlled manual release is provided to permit movement from sleeping units, activity spaces and other occupied areas within the smoke compartment to other smoke compartments.

308.5 Group I-4, day care facilities. This group shall include buildings and structures occupied by persons of any age who receive custodial care for less than 24 hours by individuals other than parents or guardians, relatives by blood, marriage or adoption, and in a place other than the home of the client cared for. A facility such as the above with six or fewer clients shall be classified as a Group R-3 or shall comply with the California Residential Code. Places of worship during religious functions are not included.

308.5.1 Adult day-care facility. A facility that provides accommodations for less than 24 hours for more than five unrelated adults and provides supervision and personal care services shall be classified as Group I-4.

308.5.2 Child day-care facility. A facility that provides supervision and personal care on less than a 24-hour basis for more than six children under 2 years of age shall be classified as Group I-4.

Exception: A child day care facility that provides care for more than six but no more than 100 children under 2 years of age, where the rooms in which the children are cared for are located on a level of exit discharge serving such rooms and each of these child care rooms has an exit door directly to the exterior, shall be classified as Group E.

308.5.2.1 Special provisions. See Section 442.4 for daycares located above or below the first story.

SECTION 309
MERCANTILE GROUP M

309.1 Mercantile Group M. Mercantile Group M occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure or a portion thereof, for the display and sale of merchandise and involves stocks of goods, wares or merchandise incidental to such purposes and accessible to the public. Mercantile occupancies shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Department stores

Drug stores

Markets

Motor fuel-dispensing facilities

Retail or wholesale stores

Sales rooms

309.2 Quantity of hazardous materials. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials stored or displayed in a single control area of a Group M occupancy shall not exceed the quantities in Table 414.2.5(1).

SECTION 310
RESIDENTIAL GROUP R

310.1 Residential Group R. Residential Group R includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for sleeping purposes when not classified as an Institutional Group I or when not regulated by the California Residential Code. Residential occupancies shall include the following:

R-1 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units where the occupants are primarily transient in nature, including:

Boarding houses (transient)

Hotels (transient)

Motels (transient)

[HCD 1] Efficiency dwelling units (transient)

Congregate living facilities (transient) or congregate residences (transient) with 10 or fewer occupants are permitted to comply with the construction requirements for Group R-3.

R-2 Residential occupancies containing sleeping units or more than two dwelling units where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature, including:

Apartment houses

Boarding houses (nontransient)

Convents

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Dormitories

Fraternities and sororities

Hotels (nontransient)

Live/work units

Monasteries

Motels (nontransient)

Vacation timeshare properties

[HCD 1] Efficiency dwelling units (nontransient)

Congregate living facilities or congrgate residences with 16 or fewer occupants are permitted to comply with the construction requirements for Group R-3.

R-2.1 This occupancy shall include buildings, structures or parts thereof housing clients, on a 24-hour basis, who because of age, mental disability or other reasons, live in a supervised residential environment that provides personal care services.

This occupancy may contain more than six nonambulatory and/or bedridden clients. (See Section 425 Special Provisions for Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities in a Group R-2.1, R-3.1 or R-4 Occupancy). This group shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Assisted living facilities such as:

Residential care facilities,

Residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFEs),

Adult residential facilities,

Congregate living health facilities,

Group homes,

Residential care facilities for the chronically ill,

Congregate living health facilities for the terminally ill.

Social rehabilitation facilities such as:

Halfway houses,

Community correctional centers,

Community correction reentry centers,

Community treatment programs,

Work furlough programs,

Alcoholism or drug abuse recovery or treatment facilities.

R-3 Residential occupancies where the occupants are primarily permanent in nature and not classified as Group R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3.1, R-4 or I, including:

Buildings that do not contain more than two dwelling units.

Adult care facilities that provide accommodations for six or fewer clients of any age for less than 24 hours. Licensing categories that may use this classification include, but are not limited to: Adult Day Programs.

Child care facilities that provide accommodations for six or fewer clients of any age for less than 24 hours. Licensingcategories that may use this classification include, but are not limited to:

Day-Care Center for Mildly Ill Children,

Infant Care Center and School Age Child Day-Care Center.

Family Day-Care Homes that provide accommodations for 14 or fewer children, in the provider's own home for less than 24-hours.

Congregate living facilities or congregate residences with 16 or fewer persons.

Adult care and child care facilities that are within a single-family home are permitted to comply with the California Residential Code.

R-3.1 [HCD 1] This occupancy group may include facilities licensed by a governmental agency for a residentially based 24-hour care facility providing accommodations for six or fewer clients of any age. Clients may be classified as ambulatory, nonambulatory or bedridden. A Group R-3.1 occupancy shall meet the requirements for construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in Section 425 Special Provisions For Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities in a Group R-2.1, R-3.1 or R-4 Occupancy. This group may include:

Adult residential facilities

Congregate living health facilities

Foster family homes

Group homes

Intermediate care facilities for the developmentally disabled habilitative

Intermediate care facilities for the developmentally disabled nursing

Nurseries for the full-time care of children under the age of six, but not including “infants” as defined in Section 310

Residential care facilities for the elderly

Small family homes and residential care facilities for the chronically ill

Exception: Group Homes licensed by the Department of Social Services which provide nonmedical board, room and care for six or fewer ambulatory children or children two years of age or younger, and which do not have any nonambulatory clients shall not be subject to regulations found in Section 425.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143 with respect to these exempted facilities, no city, county or public district shall adopt or enforce any requirement for the prevention of fire or for the protection of life and property against fire and panic unless the requirement would be applicable to a structure regardless of the special occupancy. Nothing shall restrict the application of state or local housing standards to such facilities if the standards are applicable to residential occupancies and are not based on the use of the structure as a facility for ambulatory children. For the purpose of this exception, ambulatory children does not include relatives of the licensee or the licensee's spouse.

R-4 Residential occupancies shall include buildings arranged for occupancy as residential care/assisted living facilities including more than six ambulatory clients, excluding staff.

Group R-4 occupancies shall meet the requirements for construction as defined for Group R-3, except as otherwise provided for in this code or shall comply with the California Residential Code provided the building is protected by an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.2.8.

This occupancy classification may include a maximum six nonambulatory or bedridden clients (see Section 425 Special Provisions for Licensed 24-Hour Care Facilities in a Group

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R-2.1, R-3.1 or R-4 Occupancy). Group R-4 occupancies shall include the following:

Assisted living facilities such as:

Residential care facilities,

Residential care facilities for the elderly (RCFEs),

Adult residential facilities,

Congregate living health facilities,

Group homes.

Social rehabilitation facilities such as:

Halfway houses,

Community correctional centers,

Community correction reentry centers,

Community treatment programs,

Work furlough programs,

Alcoholism or drug abuse recovery or treatment facilities.

310.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

AGED HOME OR INSTITUTION. A facility used for the housing of persons 65 years of age or older in need of care and supervision. (See definition of ”care and supervision”)

BEDRIDDEN PERSON. A person, requiring assistance in turning and repositioning in bed, or being unable to independently transfer to and from bed, except in facilities with appropriate and sufficient care staff, mechanical devices if necessary, and safety precautions as determined in Title 22 regulations, by the Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative.

The Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative shall make the determination of the bedridden status of persons with developmental disabilities, in consultation with the Director of Developmental Services or his or her designated representative.

The Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative shall make the determination of the bedridden status of all other persons with disabilities who are not developmentally disabled.

BOARDING HOUSE. A building arranged or used for lodging for compensation, with or without meals, and not occupied as a single-family unit.

CARE AND SUPERVISION. Any one or more of the following activities provided by a person or facility to meet the needs of the clients:

Assistance in dressing, grooming, bathing and other personal hygiene.

Assistance with taking medication.

Central storing and/or distribution of medications.

Arrangement of and assistance with medical and dental care.

Maintenance of house rules for the protection of clients.

Supervision of client schedules and activities.

Maintenance and/or supervision of client cash resources or property.

Monitoring food intake or special diets.

Providing basic services required by applicable law and regulation to be provided by the licensee in order to obtain and maintain a community-care facility license.

CATASTROPHICALLY INJURED. As termed, means a person whose origin of disability was acquired through trauma or nondegenerative neurologic illness, for whom it has been determined by the Department of Health Services Certification and Licensing that active rehabilitation would be beneficial.

CHILD-CARE CENTER. Any facility of any capacity other than a large or small family day-care home as defined in these regulations in which less than 24-hour-per-day nonmedical supervision is provided for children in a group setting.

CHILD OR CHILDREN. A person or persons under the age of 18 years.

CHRONICALLY ILL. See “Terminally ill.”

CONGREGATE LIVING HEALTH FACILITY (CLHF). As termed, is a residential home with a capacity of no more than six beds, which provides inpatient care, including the following basic services: medical supervision, 24-hour skilled nursing and supportive care, pharmacy, dietary, social recreational, and at least provides services for persons who are diagnosed with a terminal illness or who are catastrophically and severely disabled.

CONGREGATE LIVING FACILITIES. A building or part there of that contains sleeping units where residents share bathroom and/or kitchen facilities.

CONGREGATE RESIDENCE. Any building or portion thereof that contains facilities for living, sleeping and sanitation, as required by this code, and may include facilities for eating and cooking, for occupancy by other than a family. A congregate residence may be a shelter, convent, monastery, dormitory, fraternity or sorority house, but does not include jails, hospitals, nursing homes, hotels or lodging houses.

DAY CARE. For the purposes of these regulations, mean the care of persons during any period of a 24-hour day where permanent sleeping accommodations are not provided.

Note: “Daycare” shall not be construed to preclude the use of cots or mats for napping purposes, provided all employees, attendants and staff personnel are awake and on duty in the area where napping occurs.

DAY-CARE HOME, FAMILY. A home that regularly provides care, protection and supervision for 14 or fewer children, in the provider's own home, for periods of less than 24 hours per day, while the parents or guardians are away, and is either a large family day-care home or a small family day-care home.

DAY-CARE HOME, LARGE FAMILY. A provider’s own home which is licensed to provide day care for periods less than 24 hours per day for nine to 14 persons, including children under the age of 10 years who reside at the home.

DAY-CARE HOME, SMALL FAMILY. A home which provides family day-care to eight or fewer children, including children under the age of 10 years who reside at the home, in the provider’s own home, for periods of less than 24 hours per day. Small family day-care homes are exempted from state fire and life safety regulations other than those state and local standards applicable to Group R-3 occupancies. (See Health and Safety Code, Section 13143 (b).)

DORMITORY. A space in a building where group sleeping accommodations are provided in one room, or in a series of

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closely associated rooms, for persons not members of the same family group, under joint occupancy and single management, as in college dormitories or fraternity houses.

FULL-TIME CARE. Shall mean the establishment and routine care of persons on an hourly, daily, weekly, monthly, yearly or permanent basis, whether for 24-hours per day or less, and where sleeping accommodations are provided.

INFANT. For the purpose of these regulations, shall mean any child who because of age only, is unable to walk and requires the aid of another person to evacuate the building. In no case shall the term “infant” mean a child 2 years of age or older.

MENTALLY RETARDED PERSONS, PROFOUNDLY OR SEVERELY. Shall mean any retarded person who is unable to evacuate a building unassisted during emergency conditions.

Note: The determination as to such incapacity shall be made by the Director of the State Department of Public Health or his or her designated representative pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13131.3.

NONAMBULATORY PERSONS. Persons unable to leave a building unassisted under emergency conditions. It includes, but is not limited to, persons who depend on mechanical aids such as crutches, walkers and wheelchairs and any person who is unable to physically and mentally respond to a sensory signal approved by the state fire marshal or an oral instruction relating to fire danger.

The determination of ambulatory or nonambulatory status of persons with developmental disabilities shall be made by the Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative, in consultation with the director of Developmental Services or his or her designated representative. The determination of ambulatory or nonambulatory status of all other disabled persons placed after January 1, 1984, who are not developmentally disabled shall be made by the Director of Social Services or his or her designated representative.

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE CHRONICALLY ILL (RCF/CI). As termed, means a housing arrangement with a maximum capacity of 25 residents that provides a range of services to residents who have chronic, life-threatening illnesses.

RESIDENTIAL CARE FACILITY FOR THE ELDERLY (RCFE). As defined in Health and Safety Code Section 1569.2, shall mean a facility with a housing arrangement chosen voluntarily by persons 60 years of age or over, or their authorized representative, where varying levels and intensities of care and supervision, protective supervision or personal care are provided, based on their varying needs, as determined in order to be admitted and to remain in the facility. Persons under 60 years of age with compatible needs, as determined by the Department of Social Services in regulations, may be allowed to be admitted or retained in a residential-care facility for the elderly.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regulations of the state fire marshal pertaining to Group R, Division 2 Occupancies classified as residential facilities (RF) and residential-care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) shall apply uniformly throughout the state and no city, county, city and county, including a charter city or charter county, or fire protection district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local rule or regulation relating to fire and panic safety which is in consistent with these regulations. A city, county, city and county, including a charter city or charter county may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.5, or a fire protection district may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7, adopt standards more stringent than those adopted by the state fire marshal that are reasonably necessary to accommodate local climate, geological, or topographical conditions relating to roof coverings for residential-care facilities for the elderly.

RESIDENTIAL FACILITY (RF). As defined in Section 1502 of the Health and Safety Code, shall mean any family home, group care facility or similar facility determined by the director of Social Services, for 24-hour nonmedical care of persons in need of personal services, supervision, or assistance essential for sustaining the activities of daily living or for the protection of the individual. Such facilities include small family homes and social rehabilitation facilities.

Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regulations of the state fire marshal pertaining to Group R Occupancies classified as residential facilities (RF) and residential-care facilities for the elderly (RCFE) shall apply uniformly throughout the state and no city, county, city and county, including a charter city or charter county, or fire protection district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local rule or regulation relating to fire and panic safety which is in consistent with these regulations. A city, county, city and county, including a charter city or charter county may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.5, or a fire protection district may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7, adopt standards more stringent than those adopted by the state fire marshal that are reasonably necessary to accommodate local climate, geological, or topographical conditions relating to roof coverings for residential-care facilities for the elderly.

TERMINALLY ILL. As termed for an individual, means the individual has a life expectancy of six months or less as stated in writing by his or her attending physician and surgeon.

TRANSIENT. Occupancy of a dwelling unit or sleeping unit for not more than 30 days.

310.3 Large Family Day-Care Homes. See Section 445.

SECTION 311
STORAGE GROUP S

311.1 Storage Group S. Storage Group S occupancy includes, among others, the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, for storage that is not classified as a hazardous occupancy.

311.2 Moderate-hazard storage, Group S-1. Buildings occupied for storage uses that are not classified as Group S-2, including, but not limited to, storage of the following:

Aerosols, Levels 2 and 3

Aircraft hangar (storage and repair)

Bags: cloth, burlap and paper

Bamboos and rattan

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Baskets

Belting: canvas and leather

Books and paper in rolls or packs

Books and shoes

Buttons, including cloth covered, pearl or bone

Cardboard and cardboard boxes

Clothing, woolen wearing apparel

Cordage

Dry boat storage (indoor)

Furniture

Furs

Glues, mucilage, pastes and size

Grains

Horns and combs, other than celluloid

Leather

Linoleum

Lumber

Motor vehicle repair garages complying with the maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials listed in Table 307.1(1) (see Section 406.6)

Photo engravings

Resilient flooring

Silks

Soaps

Sugar

Tires, bulk storage of

Tobacco, cigars, cigarettes and snuff

Upholstery and mattresses

Wax candles

311.3 Low-hazard storage, Group S-2. Includes, among others, buildings used for the storage of noncombustible materials such as products on wood pallets or in paper cartons with or without single thickness divisions; or in paper wrappings. Such products are permitted to have a negligible amount of plastic trim, such as knobs, handles or film wrapping. Group S-2 storage uses shall include, but not be limited to, storage of the following:

Asbestos

Beverages up to and including 16-percent alcohol in metal, glass or ceramic containers

Cement in bags

Chalk and crayons

Dairy products in nonwaxed coated paper containers

Dry cell batteries

Electrical coils

Electrical motors

Empty cans

Food products

Foods in noncombustible containers

Fresh fruits and vegetables in nonplastic trays or containers

Frozen foods

Glass

Glass bottles, empty or filled with noncombustible liquids

Gypsum board

Inert pigments

Ivory

Meats

Metal cabinets

Metal desks with plastic tops and trim

Metal parts

Metals

Mirrors

Oil-filled and other types of distribution transformers

Parking garages, open or enclosed

Porcelain and pottery

Stoves

Talc and soapstones

Washers and dryers

SECTION 312
UTILITY AND MISCELLANEOUS GROUP U

312.1 General. Buildings and structures of an accessory character and miscellaneous structures not classified in any specific occupancy shall be constructed, equipped and maintained to conform to the requirements of this code commensurate with the fire and life hazard incidental to their occupancy. Group U shall include, but not be limited to, the following:

Agricultural buildings

Aircraft hangars, accessory to a one- or two-family residence (see Section 412.5)

Barns

Carports

Fences more than 6 feet (1829 mm) high

Grain silos, accessory to a residential occupancy

Greenhouses

Livestock shelters

Private garages

Retaining walls

Sheds

Stables

Tanks

Towers

SECTION 313
LABORATORIES GROUP L [SFM]

313.1 Laboratories Group L. [SFM] Group L occupancy includes the use of a building or structure, or a portion thereof, containing one or more laboratory suites as defined in Section 443.

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CALIFORNIA BUILDING CODE-MATRIX ADOPTION TABLE
CHAPTER 4 – SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS ON USE AND OCCUPANCY
Adopting agencyBSCSFMHCDDSAOSHPDCSADPHAGRDWRCECCASLSLC
121-ACACSSSS/CC1234
Adopt entire chapterX     XXXXXX        
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXX                
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     X       X    X 
Chapter/Section                    
403 X                  
403.1 X                  
403.1.1 X                  
403.2 X                  
403.2.1 X                  
403.2.1.1 X                  
403.3 X                  
403.4.6 X                  
403.4.6.1 X                  
403.4.8.1 X                  
403.5.4 X                  
403.6 X                  
403.7 X                  
404.6 X                  
404.10 X                  
406.1.5  XX                
406.2.2  XXXX              
406.7 X                  
406.7.1 X                  
406.7.2 X                  
406.7.3 X                  
406.7.4 X                  
407.2.2 X                  
407.10 X                  
407.10.4 X                  
408.1.1 X                  
Cell X                  
Cell Complex X                  
Cell Tiers X                  
Central Control Building X                  
Day Room X                  
Dormitory X                  
Holding Facility X                  
Housing Unit X                  
Restraint X                  
Small Management yard X                  77
Adopt entire chapterX     XXXXXX        
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXX                
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     X       X    X 
Chapter/Section                    
408.1.2 X                  
408.1.2.2 X                  
408.3.6 – 408.3.6.5 X                  
408.3.8 X                  
408.3.8.2 X                  
408.5.1 X                  
408.8.1 X                  
408.11 X                  
408.12 X                  
408.13 X                  
408.14 - 408.14.5 X                  
410.2 Platform and Stage     X              
412.3.6     X              
414.5 X                  
414.5.6 X                  
415.9 – 415.10.3 X                  
419.7    X               
420 X                  
420.1 X                  
420.4  XXX               
420.4.1  XXX               
420.4.1.1  XXX               
420.4.1.2  XXX               
420.4.2  XXX               
420.4.3  XXX               
420.4.3.1  XXX               
420.4.4  XXXX              
420.5 X                  
420.6 X                  
424.1  X X               
425 X                  
426 X                  
430 X                  
431 X                  
432 X                  
433 X                  78
Adopt entire chapterX     XXXXXX        
Adopt entire chapter as amended (amended sections listed below) XXX                
Adopt only those sections that are listed below     X       X    X 
Chapter/Section                    
434 X                  
436 X                  
439 X               X  
440 X           X      
442 X                  
443 X                  
445 X                  
                     
The Office of the State Fire Marshal's adoption of this chapter of individual sections is applicable to structures regulated by other state agencies pursuant to Section 1.11.
79 80

CHAPTER 4
SPECIAL DETAILED REQUIREMENTS BASED
ON USE AND OCCUPANCY

SECTION 401
SCOPE

401.1 Detailed use and occupancy requirements. In addition to the occupancy and construction requirements in this code, the provisions of this chapter apply to the special uses and occupancies described herein.

SECTION 402
COVERED MALL AND OPEN MALL BUILDINGS

402.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined herein as covered mall buildings not exceeding three floor levels at any point nor more than three stories above grade plane. Except as specifically required by this section, covered mall buildings shall meet applicable provisions of this code.

Exceptions :

  1. Foyers and lobbies of Groups B, R-1 and R-2 are not required to comply with this section.
  2. Buildings need not comply with the provisions of this section when they totally comply with other applicable provisions of this code.

402.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

ANCHOR BUILDING. An exterior perimeter building of a group other than H having direct access to a covered mall building but having required means of egress independent of the mall.

COVERED MALL BUILDING. A single building enclosing a number of tenants and occupants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, passenger transportation terminals, offices and other similar uses wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more malls. For the purpose of this chapter, anchor buildings shall not be considered as a part of the covered mall building. The term “covered mall building” shall include open mall buildings as defined below.

Mall. A roofed or covered common pedestrian area within a covered mall building that serves as access for two or more tenants and not to exceed three levels that are open to each other. The term “mall” shall include open malls as defined below.

Open mall. An unroofed common pedestrian way serving a number of tenants not exceeding three levels. Circulation at levels above grade shall be permitted to include open exterior balconies leading to exits discharging at grade.

Open mall building. Several structures housing a number of tenants, such as retail stores, drinking and dining establishments, entertainment and amusement facilities, offices, and other similar uses, wherein two or more tenants have a main entrance into one or more open malls. For the purpose of Chapter 4 of the International Building Code, anchor buildings are not considered as a part of the open mall building.

FOOD COURT. A public seating area located in the mall that serves adjacent food preparation tenant spaces.

GROSS LEASABLE AREA. The total floor area designed for tenant occupancy and exclusive use. The area of tenant occupancy is measured from the centerlines of joint partitions to the outside of the tenant walls. All tenant areas, including areas used for storage, shall be included in calculating gross leasable area.

402.3 Lease plan. Each covered mall building owner shall provide both the building and fire departments with a lease plan showing the location of each occupancy and its exits after the certificate of occupancy has been issued. No modifications or changes in occupancy or use shall be made from that shown on the lease plan without prior approval of the building official.

402.4 Means of egress. Each tenant space and the covered mall building shall be provided with means of egress as required by this section and this code. Where there is a conflict between the requirements of this code and the requirements of this section, the requirements of this section shall apply.

402.4.1 Determination of occupant load. The occupant load permitted in any individual tenant space in a covered mall building shall be determined as required by this code. Means of egress requirements for individual tenant spaces shall be based on the occupant load thus determined.

402.4.1.1 Occupant formula. In determining required means of egress of the mall, the number of occupants for whom means of egress are to be provided shall be based on gross leasable area of the covered mall building (excluding anchor buildings) and the occupant load factor as determined by the following equation.

Image

where:

OLF = The occupant load factor (square feet per person).

GLA = The gross leasable area (square feet).

Exception: Tenant spaces attached to a covered mall building but with a means of egress system that is totally independent of the covered mall building shall not be considered as gross leasable area for determining the required means of egress for the covered mall building.

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402.4.1.2 OLF range. The occupant load factor (OLF) is not required to be less than 30 and shall not exceed 50.

402.4.1.3 Anchor buildings. The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in computing the total number of occupants for the mall.

402.4.1.4 Food courts. The occupant load of a food court shall be determined in accordance with Section 1004. For the purposes of determining the means of egress requirements for the mall, the food court occupant load shall be added to the occupant load of the covered mall building as calculated above.

402.4.2 Number of means of egress. Wherever the distance of travel to the mall from any location within a tenant space used by persons other than employees exceeds 75 feet ( 22 860 mm) or the tenant space has an occupant load of 50 or more, not less than two means of egress shall be provided.

402.4.3 Arrangements of means of egress. Assembly occupancies with an occupant load of 500 or more shall be so located in the covered mall building that their entrance will be immediately adjacent to a principal entrance to the mall and shall have not less than one-half of their required means of egress opening directly to the exterior of the covered mall building.

402.4.3.1 Anchor building means of egress. Required means of egress for anchor buildings shall be provided independently from the mall means of egress system. The occupant load of anchor buildings opening into the mall shall not be included in determining means of egress requirements for the mall. The path of egress travel of malls shall not exit through anchor buildings. Malls terminating at an anchor building where no other means of egress has been provided shall be considered as a dead-end mall.

402.4.4 Distance to exits. Within each individual tenant space in a covered mall building, the maximum distance of travel from any point to an exit or entrance to the mall shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

The maximum distance of travel from any point within a mall to an exit shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

402.4.5 Access to exits. Where more than one exit is required, they shall be so arranged that it is possible to travel in either direction from any point in a mall to separate exits. The minimum width of an exit passageway or corridor from a mall shall be 66 inches (1676 mm).

Exception: Dead ends not exceeding a length equal to twice the width of the mall measured at the narrowest location within the dead-end portion of the mall.

402.4.5.1 Exit passageways. Where exit passageways provide a secondary means of egress from a tenant space, doorways to the exit passageway shall be protected by 1-hour fire door assemblies that are self- or automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3.

402.4.6 Service areas fronting on exit passageways. Mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, building service areas and service elevators are permitted to open directly into exit passageways, provided the exit passageway is separated from such rooms with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire protection rating of openings in the fire barriers shall be 1 hour.

402.5 Mall width. For the purpose of providing required egress, malls are permitted to be considered as corridors but need not comply with the requirements of Section 1005.1 of this code where the width of the mall is as specified in this section.

402.5.1 Minimum width. The minimum width of the mall shall be 20 feet (6096 mm). The mall width shall be sufficient to accommodate the occupant load served. There shall be a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) clear exit width to a height of 8 feet (2438 mm) between any projection of a tenant space bordering the mall and the nearest kiosk, vending machine, bench, display opening, food court or other obstruction to means of egress travel.

402.5.2 Minimum width open mall. The minimum floor and roof opening width above grade shall be 20 feet (9096 mm) in open malls.

402.6 Types of construction. The area of any covered mall building, including anchor buildings, of Types I, II, III and IV construction, shall not be limited provided the covered mall building and attached anchor buildings and parking garages are surrounded on all sides by a permanent open space of not less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) and the anchor buildings do not exceed three stories above grade plane. The allowable height and area of anchor buildings greater than three stories above grade plane shall comply with Section 503, as modified by Sections 504 and 506. The construction type of open parking garages and enclosed parking garages shall comply with Sections 406.3 and 406.4, respectively.

402.6.1 Reduced open space. The permanent open space of 60 feet (18 288 mm) shall be permitted to be reduced to not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm), provided the following requirements are met:

  1. The reduced open space shall not be allowed for more than 75 percent of the perimeter of the covered mall building and anchor buildings.
  2. The exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have a minimum fire-resistance rating of 3 hours.
  3. Openings in the exterior wall facing the reduced open space shall have opening protectives with a minimum fire protection rating of 3 hours.
  4. Group E, H, I or R occupancies are not within the covered mall building or anchor stores.

402.7 Fire-resistance-rated separation. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between tenant spaces and the mall. Fire-resistance-rated separation is not required between a food court and adjacent tenant spaces or the mall.

402.7.1 Attached garage. An attached garage for the storage of passenger vehicles having a capacity of not more than nine

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persons and open parking garages shall be considered as a separate building where it is separated from the covered mall building by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exception: Where an open parking garage or enclosed parking garage is separated from the covered mall building or anchor building a distance greater than 10 feet (3048 mm), the provisions of Table 602 shall apply. Pedestrian walkways and tunnels that attach the open parking garage or enclosed parking garage to the covered mall building or anchor building shall be constructed in accordance with Section 3104.

402.7.2 Tenant separations. Each tenant space shall be separated from other tenant spaces by a fire partition complying with Section 709. A tenant separation wall is not required between any tenant space and the mall.

402.7.3 Anchor building separation. An anchor building shall be separated from the covered mall building by fire walls complying with Section 706.

Exception: Anchor buildings of not more than three stories above grade plane that have an occupancy classification the same as that permitted for tenants of the covered mall building shall be separated by 2-hour fire-resistive fire barriers complying with Section 707.

402.7.3.1 Openings between anchor building and mall. Except for the separation between Group R-1 sleeping units and the mall, openings between anchor buildings of Type IA, IB, IIA and IIB construction and the mall need not be protected.

402.8 Interior finish. Interior wall and ceiling finishes within the mall and exits shall have a minimum flame spread index and smoke-developed index of Class B in accordance with Chapter 8. Interior floor finishes shall meet the requirements of Section 804.

[F] 402.9 Automatic sprinkler system. The covered mall building and buildings connected shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1, which shall comply with the following:

  1. The automatic sprinkler system shall be complete and operative throughout occupied space in the covered mall building prior to occupancy of any of the tenant spaces. Unoccupied tenant spaces shall be similarly protected unless provided with approved alternative protection.
  2. Sprinkler protection for the mall shall be independent from that provided for tenant spaces or anchors. Where tenant spaces are supplied by the same system, they shall be independently controlled.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in spaces or areas of open parking garages constructed in accordance with Section 406.3.

[F] 402.9.1 Standpipe system. The covered mall building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system as required by Section 905.3.3.

402.10 Smoke control. Where a covered mall building contains an atrium, a smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Section 404.5.

Exception: A smoke control system is not required in covered mall buildings when an atrium connects only two stories.

402.11 Kiosks. Kiosks and similar structures (temporary or permanent) shall meet the following requirements:

  1. Combustible kiosks or other structures shall not be located within the mall unless constructed of any of the following materials:
    1. Fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Section 2303.2.
    2. Foam plastics having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts (105 Btu/h) when tested in accordance with the exhibit booth protocol in UL 1975.
    3. Aluminum composite material (ACM) having a flame spread index of not more than 25 and a smoke-developed index of not more than 450 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723.
  2. Kiosks or similar structures located within the mall shall be provided with approved fire suppression detection devices.
  3. The minimum horizontal separation between kiosks or groupings thereof and other structures within the mall shall be 20 feet (6096 mm).
  4. Each kiosk or similar structure or groupings thereof shall have a maximum area of 300 square feet (28 m2).

402.12 Children‒s playground structures. Structures intended as children‘s playgrounds that exceed 10 feet (3048 mm) in height and 150 square feet (14 m2) in area shall comply with Sections 402.12.1 through 402.12.4.

402.12.1 Materials. Children‘s playground structures shall be constructed of noncombustible materials or of combustible materials that comply with the following:

  1. Fire-retardant-treated wood.
  2. Light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.
  3. Foam plastics (including the pipe foam used in soft-contained play equipment structures) having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975.
  4. Aluminum composite material (ACM) meeting the requirements of Class A interior finish in accordance with Chapter 8 when tested as an assembly in the maximum thickness intended for use.
  5. Textiles and films complying with the flame propagation performance criteria contained in NFPA 701.
  6. Plastic materials used to construct rigid components of soft-contained play equipment structures (such as tubes, windows, panels, junction boxes, pipes, slides 83 and decks) exhibiting a peak rate of heat release not exceeding 400 kW/m2 when tested in accordance with ASTM E 1354 at an incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 in the horizontal orientation at a thickness of 6 mm.
  7. Ball pool balls, used in soft-contained play equipment structures, having a maximum heat-release rate not greater than 100 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975. The minimum specimen test size shall be 36 inches by 36 inches (914 mm by 914 mm) by an average of 21 inches (533 mm) deep, and the balls shall be held in a box constructed of galvanized steel poultry netting wire mesh.
  8. Foam plastics shall be covered by a fabric, coating or film meeting the flame propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701.
  9. The floor covering placed under the children's playground structure shall exhibit a Class I interior floor finish classification, as described in Section 804, when tested in accordance with NFPA 253.

402.12.2 Fire protection. Children's playground structures located within the small shall be provided with the same level of approved fire suppression and detection devices required for kiosks and similar structures.

402.12.3 Separation. Children's playground structures shall have a minimum horizontal separation from other structures within the mall of 20 feet (6090 mm).

402.12.4 Area limits. Children's playground structures shall not exceed 300 square feet (28 m2) in area, unless a special investigation has demonstrated adequate fire safety.

402.13 Security grilles and doors. Horizontal sliding or vertical security grilles or doors that are a part of a required means of egress shall conform to the following:

  1. They shall remain in the full open position during the period of occupancy by the general public.
  2. Doors or grilles shall not be brought to the closed position when there are 10 or more persons occupying spaces served by a single exit or 50 or more persons occupying spaces served by more than one exit.
  3. The doors or grilles shall be openable from within with out the use of any special knowledge or effort where the space is occupied.
  4. Where two or more exits are required, not more than one-half of the exits shall be permitted to include either a horizontal sliding or vertical rolling grille or door.

[F] 402.14 Standby power. Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) shall be provided with standby power systems that are capable of operating the emergency voice/alarm communication system.

[F] 402.15 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. Covered mall buildings exceeding 50,000 square feet (4645 m2) in total floor area shall be provided with an emergency voice/alarm communication system. Emergency voice/alarm communication systems serving a mall, required or otherwise, shall be accessible to the fire department. The system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

402.16 Plastic signs. Plastic signs affixed to the storefront of any tenant space facing the mall shall be limited as specified in Sections 402.16.1 through 402.16.5.2.

402.16.1 Area. Plastic signs shall not exceed 20 percent of the wall area facing the mall.

402.16.2 Height and width. Plastic signs shall not exceed a height of 36 inches (914 mm), except that if the sign is vertical, the height shall not exceed 96 inches (2438 mm) and the width shall not exceed 36 inches (914 mm).

402.16.3 Location. Plastic signs shall be located a minimum distance of 18 inches (457 mm) from adjacent tenants.

402.16.4 Plastics other than foam plastics. Plastics other than foam plastics used in signs shall be light-transmitting plastics complying with Section 2606.4 or shall have a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929, and a flame spread index not greater than 75 and smoke-developed index not greater than 450 when tested in the manner intended for use in accordance with ASTM E 84 or UL 723 or meet the acceptance criteria of Section 803.1.2.1 when tested in accordance with NFPA 286.

402.16.4.1 Encasement. Edges and backs of plastic signs in the mall shall be fully encased in metal.

402.16.5 Foam plastics. Foam plastics used in signs shall have flame-retardant characteristics such that the sign has a maximum heat-release rate of 150 kilowatts when tested in accordance with UL 1975 and the foam plastics shall have the physical characteristics specified in this section. Foam plastics used in signs installed in accordance with Section 402.16 shall not be required to comply with the flame spread and smoke-developed indexes specified in Section 2603.3.

402.16.5.1 Density. The minimum density of foam plastics used in signs shall not be less than 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf) (320 kg/m3).

402.16.5.2 Thickness. The thickness of foam plastic signs shall not be greater than ½ inch (12.7 mm).

[F] 402.17 Fire department access to equipment. Rooms or areas containing controls for air-conditioning systems, automatic fire-extinguishing systems or other detection, suppression or control elements shall be identified for use by the fire department.

SECTION 403
HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS AND GROUP 1-2
OCCUPANCIES HAVING OCCUPIED FLOORS
LOCATED MORE THAN 75 FEET ABOVE THE
LOWEST LEVEL OF FIRE DEPARTMENT
VEHICLE ACCESS

403.1 Applicability. New high-rise buildings and new Group 1-2 occupancies having occupied floors located more than 75

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feet above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall comply with Sections 403.2 through 403.6.

Exception: The provisions of Sections 403.2 through 403.6 shall not apply to the following buildings and structures:

  1. Airport traffic control towers in accordance with Section 412.3.
  2. Open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3.
  3. Buildings with a Group A-5 occupancy in accordance with Section 303.1.
  4. Special industrial occupancies in accordance with Section 503.1.1.
  5. Buildings such as power plants, lookout towers, steeples, grain houses and similar structures with non continuous human occupancy, when so determined by the enforcing agency.

For existing high-rise buildings, see Section 3414 and for existing Group R occupancies, see Section 3413.13.

For the purpose of this section, in determining the level from which the highest occupied floor is to be measured, the enforcing agency should exercise reasonable judgment, including consideration of overall accessibility to the building by fire department personnel and vehicular equipment. When a building is located on sloping terrain and there is building access on more than one level, the enforcing agency may select the level that provides the most logical and adequate fire department access.

403.1.1 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

HIGH-RISE BUILDING. In other than Group 1-2 occupancies “high-rise buildings” as used in this code:

  1. “Existing high-rise structure” means a high-rise structure, the construction of which is commenced or completed prior to July 1, 1974.
  2. “High-rise structure” means every building of any type of construction or occupancy having floors used for human occupancy located more than 75 feet above the lowest floor level having building access (see Section 403.1.2), except buildings used as hospitals as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 1250.
  3. “New high-rise structure” means a high-rise structure, the construction of which is commenced on or after July 1, 1974,

HIGH-RISE BUILDING ACCESS. An exterior door opening conforming to all of the following:

  1. Suitable and available for fire department use.
  2. Located not more than 2 feet (610 mm) above the adjacent ground level.
  3. Leading to a space, room or area having foot traffic communication capabilities with the remainder of the building.
  4. Designed to permit penetration through the use of fire department forcible-entry tools and equipment unless other approved arrangements have been made with the fire authority having jurisdiction.

NEW HIGH-RISE BUILDING. A high-rise structure, the construction of which is commenced on or after July 1, 1974. For the purpose of this section, construction shall be deemed to have commenced when plans and specifications are more than 50 percent complete and have been presented to the local jurisdiction prior to July 1, 1974. Unless all provisions of this section have been met, the construction of such buildings shall commence on or before January 1, 1976.

403.2 Construction. The construction of high-rise buildings shall comply with the provisions of Sections 403.2.1 through 403.2.4.

403.2.1 Reduction in fire-resistance rating. The fire- resistance-rating reductions listed in Sections 403.2.1.1 and 403.2.1.2 shall be allowed in buildings that have sprinkler control valves equipped with supervisory initiating devices and water-flow initiating devices for each floor.

Exception: Buildings, or portions of buildings, classified as a Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 occupancy.

403.2.1.1 Type of construction. The following reductions in the minimum fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Table 601 shall be permitted as follows:

  1. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IA construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the minimum fire-resistance ratings for the building elements in Type IB.

    Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of the Structural Frame shall not be permitted to be reduced.

  2. In other than Group F-1, M and S-1 occupancies, the fire-resistance rating of the building elements in Type IB construction shall be permitted to be reduced to the fire-resistance ratings in Type II A.

    Exception: The required fire-resistance rating of the structural frame shall not be permitted to be reduced.

  3. The building height and building area limitations of a building containing building elements with reduced fire-resistance ratings shall be permitted to be the same as the building without such reductions.

403.2.1.2 Shaft enclosures. For buildings not greater than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, the required fire-resistance rating of the fire barriers enclosing vertical shafts, other than exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures, is permitted to be reduced to 1 hour where automatic sprinklers are installed within the shafts at the top and at alternate floor levels.

403.2.2 Seismic considerations. For seismic considerations, see Chapter 16.

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403.2.3 Structural integrity of exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures. For high-rise buildings of occupancy category III or IV in accordance with Section 1604.5, and for all buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures shall comply with Sections 403.2.3.1 through 403.2.3.4.

403.2.3.1 Wall assembly. The wall assemblies making up the exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures shall meet or exceed Soft Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

403.2.3.2 Wall assembly materials. The face of the wall assemblies making up the exit enclosures and elevator hoistway enclosures that are not exposed to the interior of the exit enclosures or elevator hoistway enclosures shall be constructed in accordance with one of the following methods:

  1. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than two layers of impact-resistant construction board each of which meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 2 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.
  2. The wall assembly shall incorporate not less than one layer of impact-resistant construction material that meets or exceeds Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.
  3. The wall assembly incorporates multiple layers of any material, tested in tandem, that meet or exceed Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3 as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M.

403.2.3.3 Concrete and masonry walls. Concrete or masonry walls shall be deemed to satisfy the requirements of Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2.

403.2.3.4 Other wall assemblies. Any other wall assembly that provides impact resistance equivalent to that required by Sections 403.2.3.1 and 403.2.3.2 for Hard Body Impact Classification Level 3, as measured by the test method described in ASTM C 1629/C 1629M, shall be permitted.

403.2.4 Sprayed fire-resistant materials (SFRM). The bond strength of the SFRM installed throughout the building shall be in accordance with Table 403.2.4.

TABLE 403.2.4
MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH
HEIGHT OF BUILDINGaSFRM MINIMUM BOND STRENGTH
Up to 420 feet430 psf
Greater than 420 feet1,000 psf
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 pound per square foot (psf) = 0.04|79 kW/m2.
a. Above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access.

[F] 403.3 Automatic sprinkler system. Buildings and structures shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1 and a secondary water supply where required by Section 903.3.5.2. A sprinkler water-flow alarm-initiating device and a control valve with a supervisory signal-initiating device shall be provided at the lateral connection to the riser for each floor.

Exception: An automatic sprinkler system shall not be required in open parking garages in accordance with Section 406.3.

[F] 403.3.1 Number of sprinkler risers and system design. Each sprinkler system zone in buildings that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height shall be supplied by a minimum of two risers. Each riser shall supply sprinklers on alternate floors. If more than two risers are provided for a zone, sprinklers on adjacent floors shall not be supplied from the same riser.

[F] 403.3.1.1 Riser location. Sprinkler risers shall be placed in exit enclosures that are remotely located in accordance with Section 1015.2.

[F] 403.3.2 Water supply to required fire pumps. Required fire pumps shall be supplied by connections to a minimum of two water mains located in different streets. Separate supply piping shall be provided between each connection to the water main and the pumps. Each connection and the supply piping between the connection and the pumps shall be sized to supply the flow and pressure required for the pumps to operate.

Exception: Two connections to the same main shall be permitted provided the main is valved such that an interruption can be isolated so that the water supply will continue without interruption through at least one of the connections.

403.4 Emergency systems. The detection, alarm and emergency systems of high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.4.1 through 403.4.8.

[F] 403.4.1 Smoke detection. Smoke detection shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.1.

[F] 403.4.2 Fire alarms systems. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.13.

[F] 403.4.3 Emergency voice/alarm communication system. An emergency voice/alarm communication system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.5.2.2.

[F] 403.4.4 Emergency responder radio coverage. Emergency responder radio coverage shall be provided in accordance with Section 510 of the International Fire Code.

[F] 403.4.5 Fire command. A fire command center complying with Section 911 shall be provided in a location approved by the fire department.

403.4.6 Smoke control.

403.4.6.1 Smoke control system. High-rise buildings shall be provided with a passive or active smoke control system or combination thereof in accordance with Section 909.

[F] 403.4.7 Standby power. A standby power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for standby power loads specified in Section 403.4.7.2.

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[F] 403.4.7.1 Special requirements for standby power systems. If the standby system is a generator set inside a building, the system shall be located in a separate room enclosed with 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. System supervision with manual start and transfer features shall be provided at the fire command center.

[F] 403.4.7.2 Standby power loads. The following are classified as standby power loads:

  1. Power and lighting for the fire command center required by Section 403.4.5;
  2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures; and
  3. Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accordance with Sections 1007.4, 3003, 3007 and 3008.

[F] 403.4.8 Emergency power systems. An emergency power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for emergency power loads specified in Section 403.4.8.1.

[F] 403.4.8.1 Emergency power loads. The following are classified as emergency power loads:

  1. Exit signs and means of egress illumination required by Chapter 10;
  2. Elevator car lighting;
  3. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems;
  4. Automatic fire detection systems;
  5. Fire alarm systems; and

  6. Electrically powered fire pumps.

403.5 Means of egress and evacuation. The means of egress in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 403.5.1 through 403.5.6.

403.5.1 Remoteness of exit stairway enclosures. The required exit stairway enclosures shall be separated by a distance not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) or not less than one-fourth of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the building or area to be served, whichever is less. The distance shall be measured in a straight line between the nearest points of the exit stairway enclosures. In building with three or more exit stairway enclosures, at least two of the exit stairway enclosures shall comply with this section. Interlocking or scissor stairs shall be counted as one exit stairway.

403.5.2 Additional exit stairway. For buildings other than Group R-2 that are more than 420 feet (128 m) in building height, one additional exit stairway meeting the requirements of Sections 1009 and 1022 shall be provided in addition to the minimum number of exits required by Section 1021.1. The total width of any combination of remaining exit stairways with one exit stairway removed shall not be less than the total width required by Section 1005.1. Scissor stairs shall not be considered the additional exit stairway required by this section.

Exception: An additional exit stairway shall not be required to be installed in buildings having elevators used for occupant self-evacuation in accordance with Section 3008.

403.5.3 Stairway door operation. Stairway doors other than the exit discharge doors shall be permitted to be locked from the stairway side. Stairway doors that are locked from the stairway side shall be capable of being unlocked simultaneously without unlatching upon a signal from the fire command center. Upon failure of electrical power to the locking mechanism the door shall unlock.

403.5.3.1 Stairway communication system. A telephone or other two-way communications system connected to an approved constantly attended station shall be provided at not less than every fifth floor in each stairway where the doors to the stairway are locked.

403.5.4 Smokeproof exit enclosures. Every exit enclosure in high-rise buildings shall comply with Sections 909.20 and 1022.9. Every required level exit stairway in Group I-2 occupancies serving floors more than 75 feet (22 860 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access shall comply with Sections 909.20 and 1022.9.

403.5.5 Luminous egress path markings. Luminousegress path markings shall be provided in accordance with Section 1024.

403.5.6 Emergency escape and rescue. Emergency escape and rescue openings required by Section 1029 are not required.

403.6 Elevators. Elevator installation and operation in high-rise buildings shall comply with Chapter 30 and Sections 403.6.1 and 403.6.2.

Enclosed elevator lobbies shall be provided in accordance with Section 708.14.1. Exceptions 3, 5, 6 and 8 shall only be permitted where approved by the Fire Chief in accordance with Section 1.11.2.1.2 for all state-owned buildings, state-occupied buildings, and state institutions throughout the state.

403.6.1 Fire service access elevator. In buildings with an occupied floor more than 120 feet (36 576 mm) above the lowest level of fire department vehicle access, a minimum of one fire service access elevator shall be provided in accordance with Section 3007.

403.6.2 Occupant evacuation elevators. Where installed in accordance with Section 3008, passenger elevators for general public use shall be permitted to be used for occupant self-evacuation.

403.7 Existing high-rise buildings. For existing high-rise buildings, see Section 3414.

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SECTION 404
ATRIUMS

404.1 General. In other than Group H occupancies, and where permitted by Exception 5 in Section 708.2, the provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures containing vertical openings defined herein as “Atriums.”

404.1.1 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.

ATRIUM. An opening connecting two or more stories other than enclosed stairways, elevators, hoistways, escalators, plumbing, electrical, air-conditioning or other equipment, which is closed at the top and not defined as a mall. Stories, as used in this definition, do not include balconies within assembly groups or mezzanines that comply with Section 505.

404.2 Use. The floor of the atrium shall not be used for other than low fire hazard uses and only approved materials and decorations in accordance with the International Fire Code shall be used in the atrium space.

Exception: The atrium floor area is permitted to be used for any approved use where the individual space is provided with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

[F] 404.3 Automatic sprinkler protection. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be installed throughout the entire building.

Exceptions:

  1. That area of a building adjacent to or above the atrium need not be sprinklered provided that portion of the building is separated from the atrium portion by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.
  2. Where the ceiling of the atrium is more than 55 feet (16 764 mm) above the floor, sprinkler protection at the ceiling of the atrium is not required.

[F] 404.4 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.14.

404.5 Smoke control. A smoke control system shall be installed in accordance with Section 909.

Exception: Smoke control is not required for atriums that connect only two stories.

404.6 Enclosure of atriums. Atrium spaces shall be separated from adjacent spaces by a 1-hour fire barrier constructed in accordance with Section 707 or a horizontal assembly constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exceptions:

  1. A glass wall forming a smoke partition where automatic sprinklers are spaced 6 feet (1829 mm) or less along both sides of the separation wall, or on the room side only if there is not a walkway on the atrium side, and between 4 inches and 12 inches (102 mm and 305 mm) away from the glass and designed so that the entire surface of the glass is wet upon activation of the sprinkler system without obstruction. The glass shall be installed in a gasketed frame so that the framing system deflects without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
  2. A glass-block wall assembly in accordance with Section 2110 and having a ¾-hour fire protection rating.
  3. In other than Group I and R-2.1 occupancies, t he adjacent spaces of any three floors of the atrium shall not be required to be separated from the atrium where such spaces are accounted for in the design of the smoke control system.

[F] 404.7 Standby power. Equipment required to provide smoke control shall be connected to a standby power system in accordance with Section 909.11.

404.8 Interior finish. The interior finish of walls and ceilings of the atrium shall not be less than Class B with no reduction in class for sprinkler protection.

404.9 Travel distance. In other than the lowest level of the atrium, where the required means of egress is through the atrium space, the portion of exit access travel distance within the atrium space shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The travel distance requirements for areas of buildings open to the atrium and where access to the exits is not through the atrium, shall comply with the requirements of Section 1016.

404.10 Group I and R-2.1 occupancy means of egress. Required means of egress from sleeping rooms in Group I and R-2.1 occupancies shall not pass through the atrium.

SECTION 405
UNDERGROUND BUILDINGS

405.1 General. The provisions of this section apply to building spaces having a floor level used for human occupancy more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge.

Exceptions:

  1. One- and two-family dwellings, sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1.3.
  2. Parking garages with automatic sprinkler systems in compliance with Section 405.3.
  3. Fixed guideway transit systems.
  4. Grandstands, bleachers, stadiums, arenas and similar facilities.
  5. Where the lowest story is the only story that would qualify the building as an underground building and has an area not exceeding 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load less than 10.
  6. Pumping stations and other similar mechanical spaces intended only for limited periodic use by service or maintenance personnel.
  7. [SFM] Winery Caves having a floor level used for human occupancy 30 feet (9144 mm) or less below the lowest level of exit discharge.
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405.2 Construction requirements. The underground portion of the building shall be of Type I construction.

[F] 405.3 Automatic sprinkler system. The highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below shall be equipped with an automatic sprinkler system installed in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Water-flow switches and control valves shall be supervised in accordance with Section 903.4.

405.4 Compartmentation. Compartmentation shall be in accordance with Sections 405.4.1 through 405.4.3.

405.4.1 Number of compartments. A building having a floor level more than 60 feet (18 288 mm) below the finished floor of the lowest level of exit discharge shall be divided into a minimum of two compartments of approximately equal size. Such compartmentation shall extend through the highest level of exit discharge serving the underground portions of the building and all levels below.

Exception: The lowest story need not be compartmented where the area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (139 m2) and has an occupant load of less than 10.

405.4.2 Smoke barrier penetration. The compartments shall be separated from each other by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 710. Penetrations between the two compartments shall be limited to plumbing and electrical piping and conduit that are firestopped in accordance with Section 713. Doorways shall be protected by fire door assemblies that are automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3 and are installed in accordance with NFPA 105 and Section 715.4.3. Where provided, each compartment shall have an air supply and an exhaust system independent of the other compartments.

405.4.3 Elevators. Where elevators are provided, each compartment shall have direct access to an elevator. Where an elevator serves more than one compartment, an elevator lobby shall be provided and shall be separated from each compartment by a smoke barrier in accordance with Section 710. Doors shall be gasketed, have a drop sill and be automatic-closing by smoke detection in accordance with Section 715.4.8.3.

[F] 405.5 Smoke control system. A smoke control system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 405.5.1 and 405.5.2.

[F] 405.5.1 Control system. A smoke control system is required to control the migration of products of combustion in accordance with Section 909 and the provisions of this section. Smoke control shall restrict movement of smoke to the general area of fire origin and maintain means of egress in a usable condition.

[F] 405.5.2 Compartment smoke control system. Where compartmentation is required, each compartment shall have an independent smoke control system. The system shall be automatically activated and capable of manual operation in accordance with Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.

[F] 405.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be provided where required by Sections 907.2.18 and 907.2.19.

405.7 Means of egress. Means of egress shall be in accordance with Sections 405.7.1 and 405.7.2.

405.7.1 Number of exits. Each floor level shall be provided with a minimum of two exits. Where compartmentation is required by Section 405.4, each compartment shall have a minimum of one exit and shall also have an exit access doorway into the adjoining compartment.

405.7.2 Smokeproof enclosure. Every required stairway serving floor levels more than 30 feet (9144 mm) below the finished floor of its level of exit discharge shall comply with the requirements for a smokeproof enclosure as provided in Section 1022.9.

[F] 405.8 Standby power. A standby power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided standby power loads specified in Section 405.8.1.

[F] 405.8.1 Standby power loads. The following loads are classified as standby power loads:

  1. Smoke control system.
  2. Ventilation and automatic fire detection equipment for smokeproof enclosures.
  3. Fire pumps.

Standby power shall be provided for elevators in accordance with Section 3003.

[F] 405.8.2 Pick-up time. The standby power system shall pick up its connected loads within 60 seconds of failure of the normal power supply.

[F] 405.9 Emergency power. An emergency power system complying with Chapter 27 shall be provided for emergency power loads specified in Section 405.9.1.

[F] 405.9.1 Emergency power loads. The following loads are classified as emergency power loads:

  1. Emergency voice/alarm communications systems.
  2. Fire alarm systems.
  3. Automatic fire detection systems.
  4. Elevator car lighting.
  5. Means of egress and exit sign illumination as required by Chapter 10.

[F] 405.10 Standpipe system. The underground building shall be equipped throughout with a standpipe system in accordance with Section 905.

SECTION 406
MOTOR-VEHICLE-RELATED OCCUPANCIES

406.1 Private garages and carports.

406.1.1 Classification. Buildings or parts of buildings classified as Group U occupancies because of the use or character of the occupancy shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in area or one story in height except as provided in Section 406.1.2. Any building or portion thereof that exceeds the limitations specified in this section shall be classified in the occupancy group other than Group U that it most nearly resembles.

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406.1.2 Area increase. Group U occupancies used for the storage of private or pleasure-type motor vehicles where no repair work is completed or fuel is dispensed are permitted to be 3,000 square feet (279 m2) when the following provisions are met:

  1. For a mixed occupancy building, the exterior wall and opening protection for the Group U portion of the building shall be as required for the major occupancy of the building. For such a mixed occupancy building, the allowable floor area of the building shall be as permitted for the major occupancy contained therein.
  2. For a building containing only a Group U occupancy, the exterior wall shall not be required to have a fire-resistance rating and the area of openings shall not be limited when the fire separation distance is 5 feet (1524 mm) or more.

More than one 3,000-square-foot (279 m2) Group U occupancy shall be permitted to be in the same building, provided each 3,000-square-foot (279 m2) area is separated by fire walls complying with Section 706.

406.1.3 Garages and carports. Carports shall be open on at least two sides. Carport floor surfaces shall be of approved noncombustible material. Carports not open on at least two sides shall be considered a garage and shall comply with the provisions of this section for garages.

Exception: Asphalt surfaces shall be permitted at ground level in carports.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

406.1.4 Separation. Separations shall comply with the following:

  1. The private garage shall be separated from the dwelling unit and its attic area by means of a minimum ½-inch (12.7 mm) gypsum board applied to the garage side. Garages beneath habitable rooms shall be separated from all habitable rooms above by not less than a 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board or equivalent. Door openings between a private garage and the dwelling unit shall be equipped with either solid wood doors or solid or honeycomb core steel doors not less than 1 3/8 inches (34.9 mm) thick, or doors in compliance with Section 715.4.3. Openings from a private garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted. Doors shall be self-closing and self-latching.
  2. Ducts in a private garage and ducts penetrating the walls or ceilings separating the dwelling unit from the garage shall be constructed of a minimum 0.019-inch (0.48 mm) sheet steel and shall have no openings into the garage.
  3. A separation is not required between a Group R-3 and U carport, provided the carport is entirely open on two or more sides and there are not enclosed areas above.

406.1.5 Automatic garage door openers. Automatic garage door openers, if provided, shall be listed in accordance with UL 325. See Health and Safety Code Sections 19890 and 19891 for additional provisions for residential garage door openers.

406.2 Parking garages.

406.2.1 Classification. Parking garages shall be classified as either open, as defined in Section 406.3, or enclosed and shall meet the appropriate criteria in Section 406.4. Also see Section 509 for special provisions for parking garages.

406.2.2 Clear height. The clear height of each floor level in vehicle and pedestrian traffic areas shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm). [HCD 1-AC, DSA-AC] The clear height of vehicle and pedestrian areas required to be accessible shall comply with Chapter 11A or Chapter 11B, as applicable.

406.2.3 Guards. Guards shall be provided in accordance with Section 1013. Guards serving as vehicle barrier systems shall comply with Sections 406.2.4 and 1013.

406.2.4 Vehicle barrier systems. Vehicle barrier systems not less than 2 feet 9 inches (835 mm) high shall be placed at the end of drive lanes, and at the end of parking spaces where the vertical distance to the ground or surface directly below is greater than 1 foot (305 mm). Vehicle barrier systems shall comply with the loading requirements of Section 1607.7.3.

Exception: Vehicle storage compartments in a mechanical access parking garage.

406.2.5 Ramps. Vehicle ramps shall not be considered as required exits unless pedestrian facilities are provided. Vehicle ramps that are utilized for vertical circulation as well as for parking shall not exceed a slope of 1:15 (6.67 percent).

406.2.6 Floor surface. Parking surfaces shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

The area of floor used for parking of automobiles or other vehicles shall be sloped to facilitate the movement of liquids to a drain or toward the main vehicle entry doorway.

Exceptions:

  1. Asphalt parking surfaces shall be permitted at ground level.
  2. Floors of Group S-2 parking garages shall not be required to have a sloped surface.

406.2.7 Mixed occupancy separation. Parking garages shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance with Section 508.1.

406.2.8 Special hazards. Connection of a parking garage with any room in which there is a fuel-fired appliance shall be by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exception: A single door shall be allowed provided the sources of ignition in the appliance are at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.

406.2.9 Attached to rooms. Openings from a parking garage directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

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406.3 Open parking garages.

406.3.1 Scope. Except where specific provisions are made in Sections 406.3.2 through 406.3.13, other requirements of this code shall apply.

406.3.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

MECHANICAL-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing parking machines, lifts, elevators or other mechanical devices for vehicles moving from and to street level and in which public occupancy is prohibited above the street level.

OPEN PARKING GARAGE. A structure or portion of a structure with the openings as described in Section 406.3.3.1 on two or more sides that is used for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles as described in Section 406.3.4.

RAMP-ACCESS OPEN PARKING GARAGES. Open parking garages employing a series of continuously rising floors or a series of interconnecting ramps between floors permitting the movement of vehicles under their own power from and to the street level.

406.3.3 Construction. Open parking garages shall be of Type I, II or IV construction. Open parking garages shall meet the design requirements of Chapter 16. For vehicle barrier systems, see Section 406.2.4.

406.3.3.1 Openings. For natural ventilation purposes, the exterior side of the structure shall have uniformly distributed openings on two or more sides. The area of such openings in exterior walls on a tier must be at least 20 percent of the total perimeter wall area of each tier. The aggregate length of the openings considered to be providing natural ventilation shall considered a minimum of 40 percent of the perimeter of the tier. Interior walls shall be at least 20 percent open with uniformly distributed openings.

Exception: Openings are not required to be distributed over 40 percent of the building perimeter where the required openings are uniformly distributed over two opposing sides of the building.

406.3.4 Uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as an open parking garage subject to the provisions of Sections 402.7.1., 406.3.13, 508.1, 509.3, 509.4 and 509.7.

406.3.5 Area and height. Area and height of open parking garages shall be limited as set forth in Chapter 5 for Group S-2 occupancies and as further provided for in Section 508.1.

406.3.5.1 Single use. When the open parking garage is used exclusively for the parking or storage of private motor vehicles, with no other uses in the building, the area and height shall be permitted to comply with Table 406.3.5, along with increases allowed by Section 406.3.6.

Exception: The grade-level tier is permitted to contain an office, waiting and toilet rooms having a total combined area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93 m2). Such area need not be separated from the open parking garage.

In open parking garages having a spiral or sloping floor, the horizontal projection of the structure at any cross section shall not exceed the allowable area per parking tier. In the case of an open parking garage having a continuous spiral floor, each 9 feet 6 inches (2896 mm) of height, or portion thereof, shall be considered a tier.

The clear height of a parking tier shall not be less than 7 feet (2134 mm), except that a lower clear height is permitted in mechanical-access open parking garages where approved by the building official.

406.3.6 Area and height increases. The allowable area and height of open parking garages shall be increased in accordance with the provisions of this section. Garages with sides open on three-fourths of the building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 25 percent in area and one tier in height. Garages with sides open around the entire building’s perimeter are permitted to be increased by 50 percent in area and one tier in height. For a side to be considered open under the above provisions, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier.

TABLE 406.3.5
OPEN PARKING GARAGES AREA AND HEIGHT
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTIONAREA PER TIER
(square feet)
HEIGHT (in tiers)
Ramp accessMechanical access
Automatic sprinkler system
  NoYes
IAUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimitedUnlimited
IBUnlimited12 tiers12 tiers18 tiers
IIA50,00010 tiers10 tiers15 tiers
IIB50,0008 tiers8 tiers12 tiers
IV50,0004 tiers4 tiers4 tiers
For SI: 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
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Allowable tier area in Table 406.3.5 shall be increased for open parking garages constructed to heights less than the table maximum. The gross tier area of the garage shall not exceed that permitted for the higher structure. At least three sides of each such larger tier shall have continuous horizontal openings not less than 30 inches (762 mm) in clear height extending for at least 80 percent of the length of the sides and no part of such larger tier shall be more than 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such an opening. In addition, each such opening shall face a street or yard accessible to a street with a width of at least 30 feet (9144 mm) for the full length of the opening, and standpipes shall be provided in each such tier.

Open parking garages of Type II construction, with all sides open, shall be unlimited in allowable area where the building height does not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). For a side to be considered open, the total area of openings along the side shall not be less than 50 percent of the interior area of the side at each tier and such openings shall be equally distributed along the length of the tier. All portions of tiers shall be within 200 feet (60 960 mm) horizontally from such openings or other natural ventilation openings as defined in Section 406.3.3.1. These openings shall be permitted to be provided in courts with a minimum dimension of 20 feet (6096 mm) for the full width of the openings.

406.3.7 Fire separation distance. Exterior walls and openings in exterior walls shall comply with Tables 601 and 602. The distance to an adjacent lot line shall be determined in accordance with Table 602 and Section 705.

406.3.8 Means of egress. Where persons other than parking attendants are permitted, open parking garages shall meet the means of egress requirements of Chapter 10. Where no persons other than parking attendants are permitted, there shall not be less than two 36-inch-wide (914 mm)exit stairways. Lifts shall be permitted to be installed for use of employees only, provided they are completely enclosed by noncombustible materials.

406.3.9 Standpipes. Standpipes shall be installed where required by the provisions of Chapter 9.

406.3.10 Sprinkler systems. Where required by other provisions of this code, automatic sprinkler systems and standpipes shall be installed in accordance with the provisions of Chapter 9.

406.3.11 Enclosure of vertical openings. Enclosure shall not be required for vertical openings except as specified in Section 406.3.8.

406.3.12 Ventilation. Ventilation, other than the percentage of openings specified in Section 406.3.3.1, shall not be required.

406.3.13 Prohibitions. The following uses and alterations are not permitted:

  1. Vehicle repair work.
  2. Parking of buses, trucks and similar vehicles.
  3. Partial or complete closing of required openings in exterior walls by tarpaulins or any other means.
  4. Dispensing of fuel.

406.4 Enclosed parking garages.

406.4.1 Heights and areas. Enclosed vehicle parking garages and portions thereof that do not meet the definition of open parking garages shall be limited to the allowable heights and areas specified in Table 503 as modified by Sections 504, 506 and 507. Roof parking is permitted.

406.4.2 Ventilation. A mechanical ventilation system shall be provided in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.

406.5 Motor fuel-dispensing facilities.

406.5.1 Construction. Motor fuel-dispensing facilities shall be constructed in accordance with the California Fire Code and Sections 406.5.1 through 406.5.3.

406.5.2 Vehicle fueling pad. The vehicle shall be fueled on noncoated concrete or other approved paving material having a resistance not exceeding 1 megohm as determined by the methodology in EN 1081.

406.5.3 Canopies. Canopies under which fuels are dispensed shall have a clear, unobstructed height of not less than 13 feet 6 inches (4115 mm) to the lowest projecting element in the vehicle drive-through area. Canopies and their supports over pumps shall be of noncombustible materials,fire-retardant-treated wood complying with Chapter 23, wood of Type IV sizes or of construction providing 1-hour fire resistance. Combustible materials used in or on a canopy shall comply with one of the following:

  1. Shielded from the pumps by a noncombustible element of the canopy, or wood of Type IV sizes;
  2. Plastics covered by aluminum facing having a minimum thickness of 0.010 inch (0.30 mm) or corrosion-resistant steel having a minimum base metal thickness of 0.016 inch (0.41 mm). The plastic shall have a flame spread index of 25 or less and a smoke-developed index of 450 or less when tested in the form intended for use in accordance with ASTME 84 or UL 723 and a self-ignition temperature of 650°F (343°C) or greater when tested in accordance with ASTM D 1929; or
  3. Panels constructed of light-transmitting plastic materials shall be permitted to be installed in canopies erected over motor vehicle fuel-dispensing station fuel dispensers, provided the panels are located at least 10 feet (3048 mm) from any building on the same lot and face yards or streets not less than 40 feet (12 192 mm) in width on the other sides. The aggregate areas of plastics shall not exceed 1,000 square feet (93 m2). The maximum area of any individual panel shall not exceed 100 square feet (9.3 m2).

406.5.3.1 Canopies used to support gaseous hydrogen systems. Canopies that are used to shelter dispensing operations where flammable compressed gases are located on the roof of the canopy shall be in accordance with the following:

  1. The canopy shall meet or exceed Type I construction requirements. 92
  2. Operations located under canopies shall be limited to refueling only.
  3. The canopy shall be constructed in a manner that prevents the accumulation of hydrogen gas.

406.6 Repair garages.

406.6.1 General. Repair garages shall be constructed in accordance with the California Fire Code and Sections 406.6.1 through 406.6.6. This occupancy shall not include motor fuel-dispensing facilities, as regulated in Section 406.5.

406.6.2 Mixed uses. Mixed uses shall be allowed in the same building as a repair garage subject to the provisions of Section 508.1.

406.6.3 Ventilation. Repair garages shall be mechanically ventilated in accordance with the California Mechanical Code. The ventilation system shall be controlled at the entrance to the garage.

406.6.4 Floor surface. Repair garage floors shall be of concrete or similar noncombustible and nonabsorbent materials.

Exception: Slip-resistant, nonabsorbent, interior floor finishes having a critical radiant flux not more than 0.45 W⁄cm2, as determined by NFPA 253, shall be permitted.

406.6.5 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be installed in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.

[F] 406.6.6 Gas detection system. Repair garages used for repair of vehicles fueled by nonodorized gases, such as hydrogen and nonodorized LNG, shall be provided with an approved flammable gas detection system.

[F]406.6.6.1 System design. The flammable gas detection system shall be calibrated to the types of fuels or gases used by vehicles to be repaired. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower explosive limit. Gas detection shall also be provided in lubrication or chassis repair pits of garages used for repairing nonodorized LNG-fueled vehicles.

[F] 406.6.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following:

  1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals in the repair garage.
  2. Deactivation of all heating systems located in the repair garage.
  3. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system, where the system is interlocked with gas detection.

[F] 406.6.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Failure of the gas detection system shall result in the deactivation of the heating system, activation of the mechanical ventilation system when the system is interlocked with the gas detection system and cause a trouble signal to sound in an approved location.

406.7 Electric Vehicle. [SFM]

406.7.1 Electric Vehicle. An automotive-type vehicle for highway use, such as passenger automobiles, buses, trucks, vans and the like, primarily powered by an electric motor that draws current from a rechargeable storage battery, fuel cell, photovoltaic array or other source of electric current. For the purpose of this chapter, electric motorcycles and similar type vehicles and off-road self-propelled electric vehicles such as industrial trucks, hoists, lifts, transports, golf carts, airline ground support equipment, tractors, boats and the like, are not included.

406.7.2 Charging. In any building or interior area used for charging electric vehicles, electrical equipment shall be installed in accordance with the California Electrical Code.

406.7.3 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation, when required by the California Electrical Code shall be provided at a rate as required by Article 625 or as required by Section 1203 of the California Building Code whichever is greater. The ventilation system shall include both the supply and exhaust equipment and shall be permanently installed and located to intake supply air from the outdoors, and vent the exhaust directly to, the outdoors without conducting the exhaust air through other spaces within the building.

Exception: Positive pressure ventilation systems shall only be allowed in buildings or areas that have been designed and approved for that application.

406.7.4 Electrical Interface. The electrical supply circuit to electrically powered mechanical ventilation equipment shall be interlocked with the recharging equipment used to supply the vehicle(s) being charged, and shall remain energized during the entire charging cycle. Electric vehicle recharging equipment shall be marked or labeled in accordance with the California Electrical Code.

Exceptions:

  1. Exhaust ventilation shall not be required in areas with an approved engineered ventilation system, which maintains a hydrogen gas concentration at less than 25 percent of the lower flammability limit.
  2. Mechanical exhaust ventilation for hydrogen shall not be required where the charging equipment utilized is installed and listed for indoor charging of electric vehicles without ventilation.

SECTION 407
GROUP I-2

407.1 General. Occupancies in Group I-2 and I-2.1 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 407.1 through 407.9 and other applicable provisions of this code.

407.2 Corridors.Corridors in occupancies in Group I-2 and I-2.1 shall be continuous to the exits and separated from other areas in accordance with Section 407.3 except spaces conforming to Sections 407.2.1 through 407.2.4.

407.2.1 Waiting and similar areas. Waiting areas and similar spaces constructed as required for corridors shall be

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permitted to be open to a corridor, only where all of the following criteria are met:

  1. The spaces are not occupied for patient sleeping units, treatment rooms, hazardous or incidental use areas listed in Table 508.2.5.
  2. The open space is protected by an automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.6.2.
  3. The corridors onto which the spaces open, in the same smoke compartment, are protected by an automatic smoke detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.6.2, and the smoke compartment in which the spaces are located in equipped throughout with quick-response sprinklers in accordance with Section 903.3.2.
  4. The space is arranged so as not to obstruct access to the required exits.
  5. Each space is located to permit direct visual supervision by the facility staff.

407.2.2 Nurses’ stations. Spaces for doctors’ and nurses’ charting, communications and related clerical areas shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, when such spaces are constructed as required for corridors. [SFM] Nurses’ stations in new and existing facilities, see the California Code of Regulations, Title 19, Division 1, Chapter 1, Subchapter 1, Article 3, Section 3.11(d) for storage and equipment requirements.

407.2.3 Mental health treatment areas. Areas wherein mental health patients who are not capable of self-preservation are housed, or group meeting or multipurpose therapeutic spaces other than incidental accessory occupancies in accordance with Section 508.2.5, under continuous supervision by facility staff, shall be permitted to be open to the corridor, where the following criteria are met:

  1. Each area does not exceed 1,500 square feet (140 m2).
  2. The area is located to permit supervision by the facility staff.
  3. The area is arranged so as not to obstruct any access to the required exits.
  4. The area is equipped with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.
  5. Not more than one such space is permitted in any one smoke compartment.
  6. The walls and ceilings of the space are constructed as required for corridors.

407.2.4 Gift shops. Gift shops less than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) in area shall be permitted to be open to the corridor provided the gift shop and storage areas are fully sprinklered and storage areas are protected in accordance with Section 508.2.5.

407.3 Corridor walls.Corridor walls shall be constructed as fire partitions in accordance with Section 709.

407.3.1 Corridor doors.Corridor doors in fully sprinklered buildings, other than those in a wall required to be rated by Section 508.2.5 or for the enclosure of a vertical opening or an exit, shall not have a required fire protection rating, but shall provide an effective barrier to limit the transfer of smoke and shall be equipped with positive latching. Roller latches are not permitted. Other doors shall conform to Section 715.4. In Group I-2 Occupancies, self-closing or automatic-closing devices are not required on corridor doors to patient sleeping rooms, treatment rooms, and offices located in areas specified in Sections 1224 and 1225, excluding offices specified in Sections 1224.21 and 1225.8.

407.3.1.1 Swing of corridor doors. Corridor doors, other than those equipped with self-closing or automatic-closing devices shall not swing into the required width of corridors.

407.3.2 Locking devices. Locking devices that restrict access to the patient room from the corridor, and that are operable only by staff from the corridor side, shall not restrict the means of egress from the patient room except for patient rooms in mental health facilities.

407.3.3 Glazing. In fully sprinklered buildings, fixed fully tempered or laminated glass in wood or metal frames may be used in corridor walls, provided the glazed area does not exceed 25 percent of the areas of the corridor wall of the room. The total area of glass in corridor walls is not limited when the glazing is fixed ¼-inch-thick (6.4 mm) wired glass in steel frames and the size of individual glazed panel does not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.836 m2).

407.4 Smoke barriers.Smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide every story used by patients for sleeping or treatment and to divide other stories with an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two smoke compartments. Such stories shall be divided into smoke compartments with an area of not more than 22,500 square feet (2092 m2) and the travel distance from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Sections 710 and 909.5.

Exceptions:

  1. This requirement shall not apply to Group I-2.1 less than 10,000 ft2 (929 m2).
  2. An area in an adjoining occupancy shall be permitted to serve as a smoke compartment for a Group I-2.1 facility if the following criteria are met:
    1. The separating wall and both compartments meet the requirements of 407.4.
    2. The Group I-2.1 is less than 22,500 ft2(2100 m2).
    3. Access from the Group I-2.1 to the other occupancy is unrestricted.

407.4.1 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m 2) per patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke barrier. On floors not housing patients confined to a bed or litter, at least 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) per occupant shall

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be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments.

407.4.2 Independent egress. At least two means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers. Means of egress may pass through adjacent compartments provided it does not return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.

407.4.3 Horizontal assemblies. Horizontal assemblies supporting smoke barriers required by this section shall be designed to resist the movement of smoke and shall comply with Section 712.9.

[F] 407.5 Automatic sprinkler system. Every facility as specified herein wherein more than six clients or patients are housed or cared for on the premises on a 24-hour-per-day-basis shall have installed and maintained in an operable condition in every building or portion thereof where clients or patients are housed, an automatic sprinkler system of a type approved by the state fire marshal. The provisions of this subsection shall apply to every person, firm or corporation establishing, maintaining or operating a hospital, children’s home, children’s nursery or institution, or a home or institution for the care of aged or persons with dementia or other cognitive impairments, or any institution for persons with mental illness or persons with developmental disabilities and any nursing or convalescent home, and to any state-owned or state-occupied building used for any of the types of facilities specified herein.

Exceptions:

  1. This section shall not apply to homes or institutions for the 24-hour-per-day care of ambulatory children if all of the following conditions are satisfied:
    1. The buildings or portions thereof in which children are housed are not more than two stories in height and are constructed and maintained in accordance with regulations adopted by the state fire marshal.
    2. The buildings or portions thereof housing more than six such children shall have installed and maintained in an operable condition therein, a fire alarm system of a type approved by the state fire marshal. Such system shall be activated by detectors responding to invisible particles of combustion other than heat, except that detectors used in closets, usable under-floor areas, storage rooms, bathrooms, attached garages, attics, plenums, laundry rooms and rooms of similar use, may be heat-responsive devices.
    3. The building or portions thereof do not house persons with mental illness or children with developmental disabilities.
  2. This section shall not apply to any one-story building or structure of an institution or home for the care of the aged providing 24-hour-per-day care if such building or structure is used or intended to be used for the housing of no more than six ambulatory aged persons. Such buildings or institutions shall have installed and maintained in an operable condition herein a fire alarm system of a type approved by the state fire marshal. Such system shall be activated by detectors responding to either visible or invisible particles of combustion other than heat, except that detectors used in closets, usable under-floor areas, storage rooms, bathrooms, attached garages, attics, plenums, laundry rooms and rooms of similar use, may be heat-responsive devices.
  3. This section shall not apply to occupancies or any alterations thereto conforming to the construction provisions of this exception which were under construction or in existence on March 4, 1972. “Under construction” as used in this exception shall mean that actual work had been performed on the construction site and shall not be construed to mean that the hospital, home, nursery, institution, sanitarium or any portion thereof, was or is in the planning stage. The provisions of this exception shall apply to those buildings or structures having bearing walls and structural flame protected in accordance with the provisions of Column Type 1A of Table 601.
  4. In detention facilities where inmates are not restrained.

The provisions of this section shall not apply to any facility used to house six or less persons on the premises.

407.5.1 When a new addition is to be made to an unsprinklered building or structure as permitted by this subsection, such new addition shall be sprinklered as required by this section and shall be separated from the existing building or structures by not less than a two-hour fire-resistive fire barrier.

When a sprinkler system is added to an existing unsprinklered building or structure, the sprinklered area(s) shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than a one-hour fire-resistive fire barrier.

The provisions of this section do not apply to any facility used to house six or less persons on the premises.

[F] 407.6 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.

[F] 407.7 Automatic fire detection. See Section 907.2.6.2.

407.8 Secured yards. Grounds are permitted to be fenced and gates therein are permitted to be equipped with locks, provided that safe dispersal areas having 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) for bed and litter patients and 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) for ambulatory patients and other occupants are located between the building and the fence. Such provided safe dispersal areas shall not be located less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building they serve. Each safe dispersal area shall have a minimum of two exits. The aggregate clear width of exits from a safe dispersal area shall be determined on the basis of not less than one exit unit of 22 inches (559 mm) for each 500 persons to be accommodated, and no exit shall be less than 44 inches (1118 mm) in width. Gates shall not be installed across corridors or passageways leading to such dispersal areas unless they comply with egress requirements. Keys to gate locks shall be provided in accordance with the California Fire Code.

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407.9 Hyperbaric facilities. Hyperbaric facilities in Group I-2 occupancies shall meet the requirements contained in Chapter 20 of NFPA 99.

407.10 Special Hazards.

407.10.1 Storage and handling of flammable, combustible liquids and hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the California Fire Code.

407.10.2 All exterior openings in a boiler room or room containing central heating equipment, if located below openings in another story, or if less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from other doors or windows of the same building, shall be protected by a fire assembly having a three-fourths-hour fire protection rating.

407.10.3 Safety padding. See Sections 308.1 and 408.14.

407.10.4 Floor Surfaces. Rooms occupied by patients whose personal liberties are restrained shall have noncombustible floor surfaces see Sections 308.1 and 804.4.2.

SECTION 408
GROUP I-3

408.1 General. Occupancies in Group I-3 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 408.1 through 408.10 and other applicable provisions of this code (See Section 308.4).

408.1.1 Definition. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

CELL. A housing unit in a detention or correctional facility for the confinement of not more than two inmates or prisoners.

CELL COMPLEX. A cluster or group of cells or dormitories in a jail, prison or other detention facility, together with rooms used for accessory purposes, all of which open into the cell complex, and are used for functions such as dining, counseling, exercise, classrooms, sick call, visiting, storage, staff offices, control rooms or similar functions, and interconnecting corridors all within the cell complex.

CELL TIERS. Cells, dormitories and accessory spaces. Cell tiers are located one level above the other, and do not exceed two levels per floor. A cell tier shall not be considered a story or mezzanine.

CENTRAL CONTROL BUILDING. A secure building within a prison where the fire and life safety systems, communication systems, security systems and exterior lighting systems are monitored and where security operations necessitate the remote locking of required means of egress or at the door with a key to maintain a high security area.

DAY ROOM. A room which is adjacent to a cell, or cell tier, or dormitory and which is used as a dining, exercise or other activity room for inmates.

DORMITORY. An area occupied by no less than three inmates.

HOLDING FACILITY. A detention or correctional facility or area where inmates, staff and public are not housed but are restrained.

HOUSING UNIT. An area intended to lodge inmates on a 24-hour basis where accommodations are provided for sleeping.

RESTRAINT. The physical retention of a person within a room, cell or holding facility by any means, or within a building by means of locked doors.

SALLYPORT. A security vestibule with two or more doors or gates where the intended purpose is to prevent continuous and unobstructed passage by allowing the release of only one door or gate at a time.

SMALL MANAGEMENT YARD. An exterior exercise yard within a Group I-3 prison used for inmate exercise for a maximum of 2 hours per day, constructed in accordance with Section 408.1.2.3.

408.1.2 Construction. Group I-3 Occupancies shall be housed in buildings of Type IA or Type IB.

Exception: Such occupancies may be housed in one-story buildings of Type IIA, Type IIIA or Type VA construction provided the floor area does not exceed 5,200 square feet (483 m2) between fire walls of two-hour fire-resistive construction with openings protected by fire assemblies having 1- and 1½-hour fire-protection rating.

408.1.2.1 Nonbearing walls and partitions interior. Nonbearing cell or dormitory walls within cell complexes shall be of noncombustible construction.

408.1.2.2 Cells with open bars. In buildings protected throughout by an automatic sprinkler system and automatic fire detection system, corridor doors or walls of cells and dormitories, may be of open bars, perforated metal, grilles, or other similar construction.

408.2 Other occupancies. Buildings or portions of buildings in Group I-3 occupancies where security operations necessitate the locking of required means of egress shall be permitted to be classified as a different occupancy. Occupancies classified as other than Group I-3 shall meet the applicable requirements of this code for that occupancy provided provisions are made for the release of occupants at all times.

Means of egress from detention and correctional occupancies that traverse other use areas shall, as a minimum, conform to requirements for detention and correctional occupancies.

Exceptions:

  1. It is permissible to exit through a horizontal exit into other contiguous occupancies that do not conform to detention and correctional occupancy egress provisions but that do comply with requirements set forth in the appropriate occupancy, as long as the occupancy is not a Group H use.
  2. Regardless of the provisions of Section 508, laundry areas and kitchens including associated dining areas, where commercial/institutional equipment is used shall be separated from the remainder of the building by construction capable of resisting the passage of smoke. 96
  3. For the purpose of occupancy separation only prisoner docks directly accessory to courtrooms need not be separated from a courtroom.

408.3 Means of egress. Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the provisions of Chapter 10 shall apply.

408.3.1. Door width. Doors to resident sleeping units shall have a clear width of not less than 28 inches (711 mm).

408.3.1.1 Cell doors shall open outwardly or slide laterally.

408.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means of egress are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N).

408.3.3 Guard tower doors. A hatch or trap door not less than 16 square feet (610 m2) in area through the floor and having minimum dimensions of not less than 2 feet (610 mm) in any direction shall be permitted to be used as a portion of the means of egress from guard towers.

408.3.4 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform to the requirements of Section 1009.9 are permitted for access to and between staff locations.

408.3.5 Ship ladders. Ship ladders shall be permitted for egress from control rooms or elevated facility observation rooms in accordance with Section 1009.11.

408.3.6 Exit discharge.

408.3.6.1 Exits are permitted to discharge into a fenced or walled courtyard. Enclosed yards or courts shall be of a size to accommodate all occupants, a minimum of 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the building with a net area of 3 square feet (1.4 m2) per person. A gate shall be provided from the safe dispersal area to allow for the necessary relocation of occupants.

408.3.6.2 Exterior fenced enclosures and fenced enclosures utilized for recreational or activity purposes, used for exit termination for more than 20 persons, and which do not provide a safe dispersal area, shall have not less than two exits.

408.3.6.3 Fenced enclosure utilized for recreational or activity purposes only, for more than 49 people, and which do not provide a safe dispersal area, shall be provided with not less than two exits.

408.3.6.4 Fenced enclosure located on roofs of buildings one or more stories in height shall be provided with not less than two exits regardless of occupant load.

408.3.6.5 Fenced enclosures utilized for Central Control Buildings not normally occupied and not accessed by inmates or the general public are permitted to have only one exit from the fenced enclosure. These fenced enclosures shall only be occupied during emergency response conditions by not more than 29 prison staff occupants. Access to the fenced area shall be controlled remotely or at the gate with a key.

408.3.7 Sallyports. A sallyport shall be permitted in a means of egress where there are provisions for continuous and unobstructed passage through the sallyport during an emergency egress condition.

408.3.8 Exit enclosures.

408.3.8.1. One of the required exit enclosures in each building shall be permitted to have glazing installed in doors and interior walls at each landing level providing access to the enclosure, provided that the following conditions are met:

  1. The exit enclosure shall not serve more than four floor levels.
  2. Exit doors shall not be less than ¾-hour fire door assemblies complying with Section 715.4
  3. The total area of glazing at each floor level shall not exceed 5,000 square inches (3 m2) and individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).
  4. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire when actuated.
  5. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
  6. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.

408.3.8.2 Where the number and arrangement of exits complies with the requirements of Chapter 10, other stairways which occur within the secure area of the detention facility and are not used for required exiting but are used primarily for the movement of inmates and security staff need not extend to the exterior.

408.3.9 Dead-end balconies. Exit balconies serving cell tiers shall not extend more than 50 feet (15 240 mm) beyond an exit stairway.

408.4 Locks. Egress doors are permitted to be locked in accordance with the applicable use condition. Doors from a refuge area to the exterior are permitted to be locked with a key in lieu of locking methods described in Section 408.4.1. The keys to unlock the exterior doors shall be available at all times and the locks shall be operable from both sides of the door. Security hardware may be used on any fire-rated door.

408.4.1 Remote release. Remote release of locks on doors in a means of egress shall be provided with reliable means of operation, remote from the resident living areas, to release locks on all required doors. In Occupancy Conditions 3 or 4, the arrangement, accessibility and security of the release mechanism(s) required for egress shall be such that with the minimum available staff at any time, the lock mechanisms are capable of being released within 2 minutes.

Exception: Provisions for remote locking and unlocking of occupied rooms in Occupancy Condition 4 are not required provided that not more than 10 locks are necessary

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to be unlocked in order to move occupants from one smoke compartment to a refuge area within 3 minutes. The opening of necessary locks shall be accomplished with not more than two separate keys.

408.4.2 Power-operated doors and locks. Power-operated sliding doors or power-operated locks for swinging doors shall be operable by a manual release mechanism at the door, and either emergency power or a remote mechanical operating release shall be provided.

Exception: Emergency power is not required in facilities with 10 locks or less complying with the exception to Section 408.4.1.

408.4.3 Redundant operation. Mechanically operated sliding doors or mechanically operated locks shall be provided with a mechanically operated release mechanism at each door and shall be provided with a remote release control.

408.4.4 Relock capability. Doors remotely unlocked under emergency conditions shall not automatically relock when closed unless specific action is taken at the remote location to enable doors to relock.

408.5 Protection of vertical openings. Any vertical opening shall be protected by a shaft enclosure in accordance with Section 708, or shall be in accordance with Section 408.5.1.

408.5.1 Floor openings. The open space in front of a cell tier and connected chases, not exceeding two tiers in height, shall not be considered a vertical shaft and need not meet the fire-resistive shaft enclosure requirements of Section 708.

408.5.2 Shaft openings in communicating floor levels. Where a floor opening is permitted between communicating floor levels of a housing unit in accordance with Section 408.5.1, plumbing chases serving vertically staked individual cells contained with the housing unit shall be permitted without a shaft enclosure.

408.6 Smoke barrier. Occupancies in Group I-3 shall have smoke barriers complying with Sections 408.8 and 710 to divide every story occupied by residents for sleeping, or any other story having an occupant load of 50 or more persons, into at least two smoke compartments.

Exception: Spaces having a direct exit to one of the following, provided that the locking arrangement of the doors involved complies with the requirements for doors at the smoke barrier for the use condition involved:

  1. A public way.
  2. A building separated from the resident housing area by a 2-hour fire-resistance-rated assembly or 50 feet (15 240 mm) of open space.
  3. A secured yard or court having a holding space 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the housing area that provides 6 square feet (0.56 m2) or more of refuge area per occupant, including residents, staff and visitors.
  4. Holding facility.

408.6.1 Smoke compartments. The maximum number of residents in any smoke compartment shall be 200. The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any room door required as exit access shall not exceed 150 feet (45 720 mm). The travel distance to a door in a smoke barrier from any point in a room shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm).

408.6.2 Refuge area. At least 6 net square feet (0.56 m2) per occupant shall be provided on each side of each smoke barrier for the total number of occupants in adjoining smoke compartments. This space shall be readily available wherever the occupants are moved across the smoke barrier in a fire emergency.

408.6.3 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originates.

408.7 Security glazing. In occupancies in Group I-3, windows and doors in 1 -hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707, fire partitions constructed in accordance with Section 709 and smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 710 shall be permitted to have security glazing installed provided that the following conditions are met.

  1. Individual panels of glazing shall not exceed 1,296 square inches (0.84 m2).
  2. The glazing shall be protected on both sides by an automatic sprinkler system. The sprinkler system shall be designed to, when actuated, wet completely the entire surface of any glazing affected by fire.
  3. The glazing shall be in a gasketed frame and installed in such a manner that the framing system will deflect without breaking (loading) the glass before the sprinkler system operates.
  4. Obstructions, such as curtain rods, drapery traverse rods, curtains, drapes or similar materials shall not be installed between the automatic sprinklers and the glazing.

408.8 Subdivision areas. Each cell complex shall be separated from other cell complexes or other spaces by a smoke-tight partition.

408.8.1 Smoke-tight doors. Doors in openings in partitions required to be smoke tight by Section 408.8 shall be substantial doors, of construction that will resist the passage of smoke. Latches and door closures are not required on cell doors.

408.9 Windowless buildings. For the purposes of this section, a windowless building or portion of a building is one with nonopenable windows, windows not readily breakable or without windows. Windowless buildings shall be provided with an engineered smoke control system to provide a tenable environment for exiting from the smoke compartment in the area of fire origin in accordance with Section 909 for each windowless smoke compartment.

[F] 408.10 Fire alarm system. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.6.3.

408.11 Emergency and standby power systems. Special electrical systems, exit illumination, power installations and alternate on-site electrical supplies shall be provided for every building or portion of a building housing 10 or more inmates in a detention

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or correctional facility in accordance with the provisions of the California Electrical Code. There shall be a source of emergency power in all detention facilities capable of providing minimal lighting in all housing units, activity areas, corridors, stairs and central control points, and to maintain fire and life safety, security, communications and alarm systems.

408.12 Windows. In security areas within cell complexes sprinklered throughout, the area of glazing in one-hour corridor walls and smoke barrier walls shall not be restricted, provided:

  1. All openings are protected by fixed glazing listed and labeled for a fire-protection of at least ¾ hour; or
  2. Fixed security glazing set in noncombustible frames. Shall comply with the minimum requirements of one of the following test standards: ASTM F 1233-98, Class III glass, or; California Department of Corrections, CDC 860-94d, or H.P. White Laboratory, Inc., HPW-TP-0500.02, Forced Entry Level III.
  3. In lieu of the sizes set forth in CBC, the size and area of glazed assemblies shall conform to the following:

Windows required to have a three-fourths-hour fire-resistive rating or windows protected by fixed security glazing, as delineated in Items 1 and 2 above, may have an area not greater than 84 square feet (7.8 m2) with neither width nor height exceeding 12 feet (3658 mm).

408.13 Safety padding. Padding material used on walls, floors and ceilings in Group 1 and R-2.1 occupancies shall be of an approved type tested in accordance with the procedures established by State Fire Marshal Standard 12-8-100, Room Fire Test for Wall and Ceiling Materials, California Code of Regulations, Title 24, Part 12.

408.14 Small management yards.

408.14.1 General. The provisions of Sections 408.14.1 through 408.14.4 shall apply to small management yards. Small management yards may be used by a maximum of two occupants at any one time for a maximum of 2 hours per day.

408.14.2 Construction. Small management yards shall be constructed in accordance with all of the following:

  1. Constructed of Type IB noncombustible materials.
  2. Fence material shall be noncombustible.
  3. Have a maximum area of 150 square feet (14 m2).
  4. Yard area covering shall not exceed 75 square feet (7 m2) or a maximum of 50 percent of the fenced enclosure.
  5. Electrical lighting or devices or any type shall not be permitted within the yard.

Exception: Low voltage devices dedicated for the operation of toilets.

408.14.3 Fire protection system provisions.

408.14.3.1 Automatic sprinkler systems. An automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in accordance with Section 903.1.1

Exception: Small management yards where a distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained from all buildings or structures and 4 feet (1220 mm) is maintained from containment fencing.

408.14.3.2 Fire alarm systems. An approved fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.

Exception: Small management yards where a distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) is maintained from all buildings or structures and 4 feet (1220 mm) is maintained from containment fencing.

408.14.4 Means of egress. Except as modified or as provided for in this section, the provisions of Section 408.3 and Chapter 10 shall apply. Small management yards shall comply with all of the following:

  1. Staff-controlled manual released locks shall be provided.
  2. Staff escorting inmates to and from small management yards shall be equipped with radios and personal alarms to notify central control in case of a fire.
  3. The safe dispersal area as defined by Section 1027.6 shall not be reduced due to placement of these yards.
  4. An exit, remote from the main entrance is required in the containment fencing.

408.14.5 Special provisions. Inmate exercise clothing and toilet paper tissue shall be the only combustibles materials permitted in small management yards.

SECTION 409
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTION ROOMS

409.1 General. The provisions of Sections 409.1 through 409.5 shall apply to rooms in which ribbon-type cellulose acetate or other safety film is utilized in conjunction with electricarc, xenon or other light-source projection equipment that develops hazardous gases, dust or radiation. Where cellulose nitrate film is utilized or stored, such rooms shall comply with NFPA 40.

409.1.1 Projection room required. Every motion picture machine projecting film as mentioned within the scope of this section shall be enclosed in a projection room. Appurtenant electrical equipment, such as rheostats, transformers and generators, shall be within the projection room or in an adjacent room of equivalent construction.

409.2 Construction of projection rooms. Every projection room shall be of permanent construction consistent with the construction requirements for the type of building in which the projection room is located. Openings are not required to be protected.

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The room shall have a floor area of not less than 80 square feet (7.44 m2) for a single machine and at least 40 square feet (3.7 m2) for each additional machine. Each motion picture projector, floodlight, spotlight or similar piece of equipment shall have a clear working space of not less than 30 inches by 30 inches (762 mm by 762 mm) on each side and at the rear thereof, but only one such space shall be required between two adjacent projectors. The projection room and the rooms appurtenant thereto shall have a ceiling height of not less than 7 feet 6 inches (2286 mm). The aggregate of openings for projection equipment shall not exceed 25 percent of the area of the wall between the projection room and the auditorium. Openings shall be provided with glass or other approved material, so as to close completely the opening.

409.3 Projection room and equipment ventilation. Ventilation shall be provided in accordance with the California Mechanical Code.

409.3.1 Supply air. Each projection room shall be provided with adequate air supply inlets so arranged as to provide well-distributed air throughout the room. Air inlet ducts shall provide an amount of air equivalent to the amount of air being exhausted by projection equipment. Air is permitted to be taken from the outside; from adjacent spaces within the building, provided the volume and infiltration rate is sufficient; or from the building air-conditioning system, provided it is so arranged as to provide sufficient air when other systems are not in operation.

409.3.2 Exhaust air. Projection rooms are permitted to be exhausted through the lamp exhaust system. The lamp exhaust system shall be positively interconnected with the lamp so that the lamp will not operate unless there is the required airflow. Exhaust air ducts shall terminate at the exterior of the building in such a location that the exhaust air cannot be readily recirculated into any air supply system. The projection room ventilation system is permitted to also serve appurtenant rooms, such as the generator and rewind rooms.

409.3.3 Projection machines. Each projection machine shall be provided with an exhaust duct that will draw air from each lamp and exhaust it directly to the outside of the building. The lamp exhaust is permitted to serve to exhaust air from the projection room to provide room air circulation. Such ducts shall be of rigid materials, except for a flexible connector approved for the purpose. The projection lamp or projection room exhaust system, or both, is permitted to be combined but shall not be interconnected with any other exhaust or return system, or both, within the building.

409.4 Lighting control. Provisions shall be made for control of the auditorium lighting and the means of egress lighting systems of theaters from inside the projection room and from at least one other convenient point in the building.

409.5 Miscellaneous equipment. Each projection room shall be provided with rewind and film storage facilities.

SECTION 410
STAGES AND PLATFORMS

410.1 Applicability. The provisions of Sections 410.1 through 410.7 shall apply to all parts of buildings and structures that contain stages or platforms and similar appurtenances as herein defined.

410.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

FLY GALLERY. A raised floor area above a stage from which the movement of scenery and operation of other stage effects are controlled.

GRIDIRON. The structural framing over a stage supporting equipment for hanging or flying scenery and other stage effects.

PINRAIL. A rail on or above a stage through which belaying pins are inserted and to which lines are fastened.

PLATFORM. A raised area within a building used for worship, the presentation of music, plays or other entertainment; the head table for special guests; the raised area for lecturers and speakers; boxing and wrestling rings; theater-in-the-round stages; and similar purposes wherein there are no overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound. A temporary platform is one installed for not more than 30 days.

PROSCENIUM WALL. The wall that separates the stage from the auditorium or assembly seating area.

STAGE. A space within a building utilized for entertainment or presentations, which includes overhead hanging curtains, drops, scenery or stage effects other than lighting and sound.

410.3 Stages. Stage construction shall comply with Sections 410.3.1 through 410.3.7.

410.3.1 Stage construction. Stages shall be constructed of materials as required for floors for the type of construction of the building in which such stages are located.

Exceptions:

  1. Stages of Type IIB or IV construction with a nominal 2-inch (51 mm) wood deck, provided that the stage is separated from the other areas in accordance with Section 410.3.4.
  2. In buildings of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construction, a fire-resistance-rated floor is not required, provided the space below the stage is equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Section 903 or 904.
  3. In all types of construction, the finished floor shall be constructed of wood or approved noncombustible materials. Openings through stage floors shall be equipped with tight-fitting, solid wood trap doors with approved safety locks.

410.3.1.1 Stage height and area. Stage areas shall be measured to include the entire performance area and adjacent backstage and support areas not separated from the performance area by fire-resistance-rated construc-

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tion. Stage height shall be measured from the lowest point on the stage floor to the highest point of the roof or floor deck above the stage.

410.3.2 Galleries, gridirons, catwalks and pinrails. Beams designed only for the attachment of portable or fixed theater equipment, gridirons, galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of approved materials consistent with the requirements for the type of construction of the building; and a fire-resistance rating shall not be required. These areas shall not be considered to be floors, stories, mezzanines or levels in applying this code.

Exception: Floors of fly galleries and catwalks shall be constructed of any approved material.

410.3.3 Exterior stage doors. Where protection of openings is required, exterior exit doors shall be protected with fire door assemblies that comply with Section 715. Exterior openings that are located on the stage for means of egress or loading and unloading purposes, and that are likely to be open during occupancy of the theater, shall be constructed with vestibules to prevent air drafts into the auditorium.

410.3.4 Proscenium wall. Where the stage height is greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm), all portions of the stage shall be completely separated from the seating area by a proscenium wall with not less than a 2-hour fire-resistance rating extending continuously from the foundation to the roof.

410.3.5 Proscenium curtain. Where a proscenium wall is required to have a fire-resistance rating, the stage opening shall be provided with a fire curtain complying with NFPA 80 or an approved water curtain complying with Section 903.3.1.1 or, in facilities not utilizing the provisions of smoke-protected assembly seating in accordance with Section 1028.6.2, a smoke control system complying with Section 909 or natural ventilation designed to maintain the smoke level at least 6 feet (1829 mm) above the floor of the means of egress.

410.3.6 Scenery. Combustible materials used in sets and scenery shall meet the fire propagation performance criteria of NFPA 701, in accordance with Section 806 and the California Fire Code. Foam plastics and materials containing foam plastics shall comply with Section 2603 and the California Fire Code.

410.3.7 Stage ventilation. Emergency ventilation shall be provided for stages larger than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) in floor area, or with a stage height greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm). Such ventilation shall comply with Section 410.3.7.1 or 410.3.7.2.

410.3.7.1 Roof vents. Two or more vents constructed to open automatically by approved heat-activated devices and with an aggregate clear opening area of not less than 5 percent of the area of the stage shall be located near the center and above the highest part of the stage area. Supplemental means shall be provided for manual operation of the ventilator. Curbs shall be provided as required for skylights in Section 2610.2. Vents shall be labeled.

[F] 410.3.7.2 Smoke control. Smoke control in accordance with Section 909 shall be provided to maintain the smoke layer interface not less than 6 feet (1829 mm) above the highest level of the assembly seating or above the top of the proscenium opening where a proscenium wall is provided in compliance with Section 410.3.4.

410.4 Platform construction. Permanent platforms shall be constructed of materials as required for the type of construction of the building in which the permanent platform is located. Permanent platforms are permitted to be constructed of fire-retardant-treated wood for Types I, II and IV construction where the platforms are not more than 30 inches (762 mm) above the main floor, and not more than one-third of the room floor area and not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) in area. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used for storage or any purpose other than equipment, wiring or plumbing, the floor assembly shall not be less than 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Where the space beneath the permanent platform is used only for equipment, wiring or plumbing, the underside of the permanent platform need not be protected.

410.4.1 Temporary platforms. Platforms installed for a period of not more than 30 days are permitted to be constructed of any materials permitted by the code. The space between the floor and the platform above shall only be used for plumbing and electrical wiring to platform equipment.

410.5 Dressing and appurtenant rooms. Dressing and appurtenant rooms shall comply with Sections 410.5.1 through 410.5.3.

410.5.1 Separation from stage. The stage shall be separated from dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage and other parts of the building by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours for stage heights greater than 50 feet (15 240 mm) and 1 hour for stage heights of 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less.

410.5.2 Separation from each other. Dressing rooms, scene docks, property rooms, workshops, storerooms and compartments appurtenant to the stage shall be separated from each other by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

410.5.3 Stage exits. At least one approved means of egress shall be provided from each side of the stage and from each side of the space under the stage. At least one means of escape shall be provided from each fly gallery and from the gridiron. A steel ladder, alternating tread device or spiral stairway is permitted to be provided from the gridiron to a scuttle in the stage roof.

[F] 410.6 Automatic sprinkler system. Stages shall be equipped with an automatic fire-extinguishing system in accordance with Chapter 9. Sprinklers shall be installed under the roof and gridiron and under all catwalks and galleries over

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the stage. Sprinklers shall be installed in dressing rooms, performer lounges, shops and storerooms accessory to such stages.

Exceptions:

  1. Sprinklers are not required under stage areas less than 4 feet (1219 mm) in clear height that are utilized exclusively for storage of tables and chairs, provided the concealed space is separated from the adjacent spaces by not less than 5/8-inch (15.9 mm) Type X gypsum board.
  2. Sprinklers are not required for stages 1,000 square feet (93 m2) or less in area and 50 feet (15 240 mm) or less in height where curtains, scenery or other combustible hangings are not retractable vertically. Combustible hangings shall be limited to a single main curtain, borders, legs and a single backdrop.
  3. Sprinklers are not required within portable orchestra enclosures on stages.

[F] 410.7 Standpipes. Standpipe systems shall be provided in accordance with Section 905.

SECTION 411
SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDINGS

411.1 General. Special amusement buildings having an occupant load of 50 or more shall comply with the requirements for the appropriate Group A occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8. Amusement buildings having an occupant load of less than 50 shall comply with the requirements for a Group B occupancy and Sections 411.1 through 411.8.

Exception: Amusement buildings or portions thereof that are without walls or a roof and constructed to prevent the accumulation of smoke.

For flammable decorative materials, see the California Fire Code.

411.2 Definition. The following word and term shall, for the purpose of this section and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meaning shown herein.

SPECIAL AMUSEMENT BUILDING. A special amusement building is any temporary or permanent building or portion thereof that is occupied for amusement, entertainment or educational purposes and that contains a device or system that conveys passengers or provides a walkway along, around or over a course in any direction so arranged that the means of egress path is not readily apparent due to visual or audio distractions or is intentionally confounded or is not readily available because of the nature of the attraction or mode of conveyance through the building or structure.

[F] 411.3 Automatic fire detection. Special amusement buildings shall be equipped with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.

[F] 411.4 Automatic sprinkler system. Special amusement buildings shall be equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1. Where the special amusement building is temporary, the sprinkler water supply shall be of an approved temporary means.

Exception: Automatic sprinklers are not required where the total floor area of a temporary special amusement building is less than 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and the travel distance from any point to an exit is less than 50 feet (15 240 mm).

[F] 411.5 Alarm. Actuation of a single smoke detector, the automatic sprinkler system or other automatic fire detection device shall immediately sound an alarm at the building at a constantly attended location from which emergency action can be initiated including the capability of manual initiation of requirements in Section 907.2.12.2.

[F] 411.6 Emergency voice/alarm communications system. An emergency voice/alarm communications system shall be provided in accordance with Sections 907.2.12 and 907.5.2.2, which is also permitted to serve as a public address system and shall be audible throughout the entire special amusement building.

411.7 Exit marking. Exit signs shall be installed at the required exit or exit access doorways of amusement buildings in accordance with this section and Section 1011. Approved directional exit markings shall also be provided. Where mirrors, mazes or other designs are utilized that disguise the path of egress travel such that they are not apparent, approved and listed low-level exit signs that comply with Section 1011.4, and directional path markings listed in accordance with UL 1994, shall be provided and located not more than 8 inches (203 mm) above the walking surface and on or near the path of egress travel. Such markings shall become visible in an emergency. The directional exit marking shall be activated by the automatic fire detection system and the automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 907.2.12.2.

411.7.1 Photo luminescent exit signs. Where photo luminescent exit signs are installed, activating light source and viewing distance shall be in accordance with the listing and markings of the signs.

411.8 Interior finish. The interior finish shall be Class A in accordance with Section 803.1.

SECTION 412
AIRCRAFT-RELATED OCCUPANCIES

412.1 General. Aircraft-related occupancies shall comply with Sections 412.1 through 412.7 and the California Fire Code.

412.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO). A commercial business granted the right by the airport sponsor to operate on an airport and provide aeronautical services, such as fueling, hangaring, tie-down and parking, aircraft rental, aircraft maintenance and flight instruction.

HELIPORT. An area of land or water or a structural surface that is used, or intended for the use, for the landing and taking off of helicopters, and any appurtenant areas that are used, or intended for use, for heliport buildings or other heliport facilities.

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HELISTOP. The same as “heliport, ” except that no fueling, defueling, maintenance, repairs or storage of helicopters is permitted.

RESIDENTIAL AIRCRAFT HANGAR. An accessory building less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height constructed on a one- or two-family property where aircraft are stored. Such use will be considered as a residential accessory use incidental to the dwelling.

TRANSIENT AIRCRAFT. Aircraft based at another location and at the transient location for not more than 90 days.

412.3 Airport traffic control towers.

412.3.1 General. The provisions of Sections 412.3.1 through 412.3.6 shall apply to airport traffic control towers not exceeding 1,500 square feet (140 m2) per floor occupied only for the following uses:

  1. Airport traffic control cab.
  2. Electrical and mechanical equipment rooms.
  3. Airport terminal radar and electronics rooms.
  4. Office spaces incidental to the tower operation.
  5. Lounges for employees, including sanitary facilities.

412.3.2 Type of construction. Airport traffic control towers shall be constructed to comply with the height and area limitations of Table 412.3.2.

TABLE 412.3.2
HEIGHT AND AREA LIMITATIONS FOR AIRPORT
TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWERS
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTIONHEIGHTa (feet)MAXIMUM AREA (square feet)
IAUnlimited1,500
IB2401,500
IIA1001,500
IIB851,500
IIIA651,500
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Height to be measured from grade plane to cab floor.

412.3.3 Egress. A minimum of one exit stairway shall be permitted for airport traffic control towers of any height provided that the occupant load per floor does not exceed 15. The stairway shall conform to the requirements of Section 1009. The stairway shall be separated from elevators by a minimum distance of one-half of the diagonal of the area served measured in a straight line. The exit stairway and elevator hoistway are permitted to be located in the same shaft enclosure, provided they are separated from each other by a 4-hour fire barrier having no openings. Such stairway shall be pressurized to a minimum of 0.15 inch of water column (43 Pa) and a maximum of 0.35 inch of water column (101 Pa) in the shaft relative to the building with stairway doors closed. Stairways need not extend to the roof as specified in Section 1009.11. The provisions of Section 403 do not apply.

Exception: Smokeproof enclosures as set forth in Section 1022.9 are not required where required stairways are pressurized.

[F] 412.3.4 Automatic fire detection systems. Airport traffic control towers shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system installed in accordance with Section 907.2.

[F] 412.3.5 Standby power. A standby power system that conforms to Chapter 27 shall be provided in airport traffic control towers more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in height. Power shall be provided to the following equipment:

  1. Pressurization equipment, mechanical equipment and lighting.
  2. Elevator operating equipment.
  3. Fire alarm and smoke detection systems.

412.3.6 Accessibility. [DSA-AC] In air traffic control towers, an accessible route shall not be required to serve the cab and the equipment areas on the floor immediately below the cab.

412.4 Aircraft hangars. Aircraft hangars shall be in accordance with Sections 412.4.1 through 412.4.6.

412.4.1 Exterior walls. Exterior walls located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lot lines or a public way shall have a fire-resistance rating not less than 2 hours.

412.4.2 Basements. Where hangars have basements, floors over basements shall be of Type IA construction and shall be made tight against seepage of water, oil or vapors. There shall be no opening or communication between basements and the hangar. Access to basements shall be from outside only.

412.4.3 Floor surface. Floors shall be graded and drained to prevent water or fuel from remaining on the floor. Floor drains shall discharge through an oil separator to the sewer or to an outside vented sump.

Exception: Aircraft hangars with individual lease spaces not exceeding 2,000 square feet (186 m2) each in which servicing, repairing or washing is not conducted and fuel is not dispensed shall have floors that are graded toward the door, but shall not require a separator.

412.4.4 Heating equipment. Heating equipment shall be placed in another room separated by 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Entrance shall be from the outside or by means of a vestibule providing a two-doorway separation.

Exceptions:

  1. Unit heaters and vented infrared radiant heating equipment suspended at least 10 feet (3048 mm) above the upper surface of wings or engine enclosures of the highest aircraft that are permitted to be housed in the hangar and at least 8 feet (2438 mm) above the floor in shops, offices and other sections of the hangar communicating with storage or service areas.
  2. A single interior door shall be allowed, provided the sources of ignition in the appliances are at least 18 inches (457 mm) above the floor.
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412.4.5 Finishing. The process of “doping,” involving use of a volatile flammable solvent, or of painting, shall be carried on in a separate detached building equipped with automatic fire-extinguishing equipment in accordance with Section 903.

412.4.6 Fire suppression. Aircraft hangars shall be provided with a fire suppression system designed in accordance with NFPA 409, based upon the classification for the hangar given in Table 412.4.6.

Exception: When a fixed base operator has separate repair facilities on site, Group II hangars operated by a fixed base operator used for storage of transient aircraft only shall have a fire suppression system, but the system is exempt from foam requirements.

412.4.6.1 Hazardous operations. Any Group III aircraft hangar according to Table 412.4.6 that contains hazardous operations including, but not limited to, the following shall be provided with a Group I or II fire suppression system in accordance with NFPA 409 as applicable:

  1. Doping.
  2. Hot work including, but not limited to, welding, torch cutting and torch soldering.
  3. Fuel transfer.
  4. Fuel tank repair or maintenance not including defueled tanks in accordance with NFPA 409, inerted tanks or tanks that have never been fueled.
  5. Spray finishing operations.
  6. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the unsprinklered single fire area in excess of 1,600 gallons (6057 L).
  7. Total fuel capacity of all aircraft within the maximum single fire area in excess of 7,500 gallons (28 390 L) for a hangar with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.

412.4.6.2 Separation of maximum single fire areas. Maximum single fire areas established in accordance with hangar classification and construction type in Table 412.4.6 shall be separated by 2-hour fire walls constructed in accordance with Section 706.

412.5 Residential aircraft hangars. Residential aircraft hangars as defined in Section 412.2 shall comply with Sections 412.5.1 through 412.5.2.

412.5.1 Fire separation. A hangar shall not be attached to a dwelling unless separated by a fire barrier having a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Such separation shall be continuous from the foundation to the underside of the roof and unpierced except for doors leading to the dwelling unit. Doors into the dwelling unit must be equipped with self-closing devices and conform to the requirements of Section 715 with at least a 4-inch (102 mm) noncombustible raised sill. Openings from a hanger directly into a room used for sleeping purposes shall not be permitted.

412.5.2 Egress. A hangar shall provide two means of egress. One of the doors into the dwelling shall be considered as meeting only one of the two means of egress.

[F] 412.5.3 Smoke alarms. Smoke alarms shall be provided within the hangar in accordance with Section 907.2.21.

412.5.4 Independent systems. Electrical, mechanical and plumbing drain, waste and vent (DWV) systems installed within the hangar shall be independent of the systems installed within the dwelling. Building sewer lines shall be permitted to be connected outside the structures.

Exception: Smoke detector wiring and feed for electrical subpanels in the hangar.

[F] TABLE 412.4.6
HANGAR FIRE SUPPRESSION REQUIREMENTSa, b, c
MAXIMUM SINGLE
FIRE AREA, SQ. FT.
TYPE OF CONSTRUCTION
IAIBIIAIIBIIIAIIIBIVVAVB
≥40,001Group IGroup IGroup IGroup IGroup IGroup IGroup IGroup IGroup I
40,000Group IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup II
30,000Group IIIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup II
20,000Group IIIGroup IIIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup IIGroup II
15,000Group IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIGroup IIIGroup IIGroup IIIGroup IIGroup II
12,000Group IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIGroup II
8,000Group IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup II
5,000Group IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup IIIGroup III
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m2.
a. Aircraft hangars with a door height greater than 28 feet shall be provided with fire suppression for a Group I hangar regardless of maximum fire area.
b. Groups shall be as classified in accordance with NFPA 409.
c. Membrane structures complying with Section 3102 shall be classified as a Group IV hangar.
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412.5.5 Height and area limits. Residential aircraft hangars shall not exceed 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area and 20 feet (6096 mm) in building height.

[F] 412.6 Aircraft paint hangars. Aircraft painting operations where flammable liquids are used in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Table 307.1(1) shall be conducted in an aircraft paint hangar that complies with the provisions of Sections 412.6.1 through 412.6.6.

[F] 412.6.1 Occupancy group. Aircraft paint hangars shall be classified as Group H-2. Aircraft paint hangars shall comply with the applicable requirements of this code and the California Fire Code for such occupancy.

[F] 412.6.2 Construction. The aircraft paint hangar shall be of Type I or II construction.

[F] 412.6.3 Operations. Only those flammable liquids necessary for painting operations shall be permitted in quantities less than the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Table 307.1(1). Spray equipment cleaning operations shall be conducted in a liquid use, dispensing and mixing room.

[F] 412.6.4 Storage. Storage of flammable liquids shall be in a liquid storage room.

[F] 412.6.5 Fire suppression. Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with fire suppression as required by NFPA 409.

[F] 412.6.6 Ventilation. Aircraft paint hangars shall be provided with ventilation as required in the California Mechanical Code.

412.7 Heliports and helistops. Heliports and helistops shall be permitted to be erected on buildings or other locations where they are constructed in accordance with Sections 412.7.1 through 412.7.4.

412.7.1 Size. The landing area for helicopters less than 3,500 pounds (1588 kg) shall be a minimum of 20 feet (6096 mm) in length and width. The landing area shall be surrounded on all sides by a clear area having a minimum average width at roof level of 15 feet (4572 mm) but with no width less than 5 feet (1524 mm).

412.7.2 Design. Helicopter landing areas and the supports thereof on the roof of a building shall be noncombustible construction. Landing areas shall be designed to confine any flammable liquid spillage to the landing area itself and provisions shall be made to drain such spillage away from any exit or stairway serving the helicopter landing area or from a structure housing such exit or stairway. For structural design requirements, see Section 1605.4.

412.7.3 Means of egress. The means of egress from heliports and helistops shall comply with the provisions of Chapter 10. Landing areas located on buildings or structures shall have two or more means of egress. For landing areas less than 60 feet (18 288 mm) in length or less than 2,000 square feet (186 m2) in area, the second means of egress is permitted to be a fire escape, alternating tread device or ladder leading to the floor below.

412.7.4 Rooftop heliports and helistops. Rooftop heliports and helistops shall comply with NFPA 418.

SECTION 413
COMBUSTIBLE STORAGE

413.1 General. High-piled stock or rack storage in any occupancy group shall comply with the California Fire Code.

413.2 Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces. Attic, under-floor and concealed spaces used for storage of combustible materials shall be protected on the storage side as required for 1-hour fire-resistance-rated construction. Openings shall be protected by assemblies that are self-closing and are of noncombustible construction or solid wood core not less than 1¾ inch (45 mm) in thickness.

Exceptions:

  1. Areas protected by approved automatic sprinkler systems.
  2. Group R-3 and U occupancies.

SECTION 414
HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

[F] 414.1 General. The provisions of Sections 414.1 through 414.7 shall apply to buildings and structures occupied for the manufacturing, processing, dispensing, use or storage of hazardous materials.

[F] 414.1.1 Other provisions. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of Section 415 and the California Fire Code. For Group L occupancies see Section 443.

[F] 414.1.2 Materials. The safe design of hazardous material occupancies is material dependent. Individual material requirements are also found in Sections 307 and 415, and in the California Mechanical Code and the California Fire Code.

[F] 414.1.2.1 Aerosols. Level 2 and 3 aerosol products shall be stored and displayed in accordance with the California Fire Code. See Section 311.2 and the California Fire Code for occupancy group requirements.

[F] 414.1.3 Information required. A report shall be submitted to the building official identifying the maximum expected quantities of hazardous materials to be stored, used in a closed system and used in an open system, and subdivided to separately address hazardous material classification categories based on Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2). The methods of protection from such hazards, including but not limited to control areas, fire protection systems and Group H occupancies shall be indicated in the report and on the construction documents. The opinion and report shall be prepared by a qualified person, firm or corporation approved by the building official and provided without charge to the enforcing agency.

For buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H, separate floor plans shall be submitted identifying the locations of anticipated contents and processes so as to reflect the nature of each occupied portion of every building and structure.

[F] 414.2 Control areas. Control areas shall comply with Sections 414.2.1 through 414.2.5 and the California Fire Code.

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414.2.1 Construction requirements. Control areas shall be separated from each other by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

[F] 414.2.2 Percentage of maximum allowable quantities. The percentage of maximum allowable quantities of hazardous materials per control area permitted at each floor level within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

[F] 414.2.3 Number. The maximum number of control areas within a building shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2.

414.2.4 Fire-resistance-rating requirements. The required fire-resistance rating for fire barriers shall be in accordance with Table 414.2.2. The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area shall have a minimum 2-hour fire-resistance rating.

Exception: The floor assembly of the control area and the construction supporting the floor of the control area are allowed to be 1-hour fire-resistance rated in buildings of Types IIA, IIIA and VA construction, provided that both of the following conditions exist:

  1. The building is equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1; and
  2. The building is three stories or less above grade plane.

[F] 414.2.5 Hazardous material in Group M display and storage areas and in Group S storage areas. The aggregate quantity of nonflammable solid and nonflammable or noncombustible liquid hazardous materials permitted within a single control area of a Group M display and storage area, a Group S storage area or an outdoor control area is permitted to exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area specified in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) without classifying the building or use as a Group H occupancy, provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the California Fire Code and quantitiesdo not exceed the maximum allowable specified in Table 414.2.5(1).

In Group M occupancy wholesale and retail sales uses, indoor storage of flammable and combustible liquids shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area as indicated in Table 414.2.5(2), provided that the materials are displayed and stored in accordance with the California Fire Code.

The maximum quantity of aerosol products in Group M occupancy retail display areas, storage areas adjacent to retail display areas and retail storage areas shall be in accordance with the California Fire Code.

[F] 414.3 Ventilation. Rooms, areas or spaces of Group H in which explosive, corrosive, combustible, flammable or highly toxic dusts, mists, fumes, vapors or gases are or may be emitted due to the processing, use, handling or storage of materials shall be mechanically ventialted as required by the California Fire Code and the California Mechanical Code.

Ducts conveying explosives or flammable vapors, fumes or dusts shall extend directly to the exterior of the building without entering other spaces. Exhaust ducts shall not extend into or through ducts and plenums.

Exception: Ducts conveying vapor or fumes having flammable constituents less than 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL) are permitted to pass through other spaces.

Emissions generated at workstations shall be confined to the area in which they are generated as specified in the California Fire Code. and the California Mechanical Code.

The location of supply and exhaust openings shall be in accordance with the California Mechanical Code. Exhaust air contaminated by highly toxic material shall be treated in accordance with the California Fire Code.

A manual shutoff control for ventilation equipment required by this section shall be provided outside the room adjacent to the principal access door to the room. The switch shall be of the break-glass type and shall be labeled: VENTILATION SYSTEM EMERGENCY SHUTOFF.

[F] TABLE 414.2.2 DESIGN AND NUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS
FLOOR LEVELPERCENTAGE OF THE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREASaNUMBER OF CONTROL AREAS PER FLOORFIRE-RESISTANCE RATING FOR FIRE BARRIERS IN HOURSb
Above grade planeHigher than 9512
7-9522
612.522
512.522
412.522
35021
27531
110041
Below grade plane17531
25021
Lower than 2Not AllowedNot AllowedNot Allowed
a. Percentages shall be of the maximum allowable quantity per control area shown in Tables 307.1 (1) and 307.1 (2), with all increases allowed in the notes to those tables.
b. Fire barriers shall include walls and floors as necessary to provide separation from other portions of the building.
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[F] TABLE 414.2.5(1) MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER INDOOR AND OUTDOOR CONTROL AREA IN GROUP M AND S OCCUPANCIES NONFLAMMABLE SOLIDS AND NONFLAMMABLE AND NONCOMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDSd, e, f
CONDITIONMAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA
MaterialclassSolids poundsLiquids pounds
A. Health-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids
1. Corrosivesb, cNot Applicable9,750975
2. Highly taxiesNot Applicable20b,c2b, c
3. Toxiesb, cNot Applicable1,000100
B. Physical-hazard materials—nonflammable and noncombustible solids and liquids
1. Oxidizersb, c4Not AllowedNot Allowed
31,150g115
22,250h225
118,000i, j18,000i, j
2. Unstable (reactives)b, c4Not AllowedNot Allowed
355055
21,150115
1Not LimitedNot Limited
3. Water (reactives)3b, c55055
2b, c1,150115
1Not LimitedNot Limited
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 gallon = 3.785 L.
a. Hazard categories are as specified in the California Fire Code.
b. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent in buildings that are sprinklered in accordance with Section 903.3.1' .1. When Note c also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
c. Maximum allowable quantities shall be increased 100 percent when stored in approved storage cabinets, in accordance with the California Fire Code. When Note b also applies, the increase for both notes shall be applied accumulatively.
d. See Table 414.2.2 for design and number of control areas.
e. Allowable quantities for other hazardous material categories shall be in accordance with Section 307.
f. Maximum quantities shall be increased 100 percent in outdoor control areas.
g. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 2,250 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
h. Maximum amounts are permitted to be increased to 4,500 pounds when individual packages are in the original sealed containers from the manufacturer or packager and do not exceed 10 pounds each.
i. The permitted quantities shall not be limited in a building equipped throughout with an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.3.1.1.
j. Quantities are unlimited in an outdoor control area.
TABLE [F] 414.2.5(2)
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY OF FLAMMABLE AND COMBUSTIBLE LIQUIDS IN WHOLESALE AND RETAIL SALES OCCUPANCIES PER CONTROL AREAa
TYPE OF LIQUIDMAXIMUM ALLOWABLE QUANTITY PER CONTROL AREA (gallons)
Sprinklered in accordance with note b
densities and arrangements
Sprinklered in accordance with Tables
3404.3.6.3(4) through 3404.3.6.3(8) and Table
3404.3.7.5.1 of the California Fire Code
Nonsprinklered
Class IA606030
Class IB,IC, II and IIIA7,500c15,000c1,600
Class IIIBUnlimitedUnlimited13,200
For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I square foot = 0.0929m2, 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute per square foot = 40.75 L/min/m2.
a. Control areas shall be separated from each other by not less than a I-hour fire barrier wall.
b. To be considered as sprinklered, a building shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system with a design providing minimum densities as follows:
1. For uncartoned commodities on shelves 6 feet or less in height where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of Ordinary Hazard Group 2.
2. For cartoned, palletized or racked commodities where storage is 4 feet 6 inches or less in height and where the ceiling height does not exceed 18 feet, quantities are those permitted with a minimum sprinkler design density of 0.21 gallon per minute per square foot over the most remote 1,500-square-foot area.
c. Where wholesale and retail sales or storage areas exceed 50,000 square feet in area, the maximum allowable quantities are allowed to be increased by 2 percent for each 1,000 square feet of area in excess of 50,000 square feet, up to a maximum of 100 percent of the table amounts. A control area separation is not required. The cumulative amounts, including amounts attained by having an additional control area, shall not exceed 30,000 gallons.
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[F]414.4 Hazardous material systems. Systems involving hazardous materials shall be suitable for the intended application. Controls shall be designed to prevent materials from entering or leaving process or reaction systems at other than the intended time, rate or path. Automatic controls, where provided, shall be designed to be fail safe.

[F] 414.5 Inside storage, dispensing, handling and use. The inside storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area of Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2) shall be in accordance with Sections 414.5.1 through 414.5.5 of this code and the California Fire Code.

[F] 414.5.1 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with the California Fire Code as required by Table 414.5.1 where quantities of hazardous materials specified in that table exceed the maximum allowable quantities in Table 307.1(1) or where a structure, room or space is occupied for purposes involving explosion hazards as required by Section 415 or the California Fire Code.

[F] 414.5.2 Monitor control equipment. Monitor control equipment shall be provided where required by the California Fire Code.

[F] 414.5.3 Automatic fire detection systems. Group H occupancies shall be provided with an automatic fire detection system in accordance with Section 907.2.

[F]414.5.4 Standby or emergency power. Where mechanical ventilation, treatment systems, temperature control, alarm, detection or other electrically operated systems are required, such systems shall be provided with an emergency or standby power system in accordance with Chapter 27.

Exceptions:

  1. Mechanical ventilation for storage of Class IB and Class IC flammable and combustible liquids in closed containers not exceeding 6.5 gallons (25 L) capacity.
  2. Storage areas for Class 1 and 2 oxidizers.
  3. Storage areas for Class II, III, IV and V organic peroxides.
  4. Storage, use and handling areas for asphyxiant, irritant and radioactive gases.
  5. For storage, use and handling areas for highly toxic or toxic materials, see Sections 3704.2.2.8 and 3704.3.4.2 of the California Fire Code.
  6. Standby power for mechanical ventilation, treatment systems and temperature control systems shall not be required where an approved fail-safe engineered system is installed.

[F] 414.5.5 Spill control, drainage and containment. Rooms, buildings or areas occupied for the storage of solid and liquid hazardous materials shall be provided with a means to control spillage and to contain or drain off spillage and fire protection water discharged in the storage area where required in the California Fire Code. The methods of spill control shall be in accordance with the California Fire Code.

414.5.6 Hazardous material handling. The handling of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with California Fire Code Section 2703.10.

[F] 414.6 Outdoor storage, dispensing and use. The outdoor storage, dispensing and use of hazardous materials shall be in accordance with the California Fire Code.

[F] 414.6.1 Weather protection is provided for sheltering outdoor hazardous material storage or use areas, such areas shall be considered outdoor storage or use when the weather protection structure complies with Section 414.6.1.1 through 414.6.1.3.

[F] 414.6.1.1 Walls. Walls shall not obstruct more than one side of the structure.

Exception: Walls shall be permitted to obstruct portions of multiple sides of the structure, provided that the obstructed area does not exceed 25 percent of the structure's perimeter.

[F] 414.6.1.2 Separation distance. The distance from the structure to buildings, lot lines, public ways or means of egress to a public way shall not be less than the distance required for an outside hazardous material storage or use area without weather protection.

[F] 414.6.1.3 Noncombustible construction. The overhead structure shall be of approved noncombustible construction with a maximum area of 1,500 square feet (140 m2).

Exception: The increases permitted by Section 506 apply.

[F] 414.7 Emergency alarms. Emergency alarms for the detection and notification of an emergency condition in Group H occupancies shall be provided as set forth herein.

[F] 414.7.1 Storage. An approved manual emergency alarm system shall be provided in buildings, rooms or areas used for storage of hazardous materials. Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit or exit access door of storage buildings, rooms or areas. Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm to alert occupants of an emergency situation involving hazardous materials.

[F] 414.7.2 Dispensing, use and handling. Where hazardous materials having a hazard ranking of 3 or 4 in accordance with NFPA 704 are transported through corridors or exit enclosures, there shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or an approved alarm-initiating device at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and exit access doorway throughout the transport route. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or constantly attended on-site location and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.

[F] 414.7.3 Supervision. Emergency alarm systems shall be supervised by an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or shall initiate an audible and visual signal at a constantly attended on-site location.

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SECTION 415
GROUPS H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4 AND H-5

[F] 415.1 Scope. The provisions of Sections 415.1 through 415.8 shall apply to the storage and use of hazardous materials in excess of the maximum allowable quantities per control area listed in Section 307.1. Buildings and structures with an occupancy in Group H shall also comply with the applicable provisions of Section 414 and the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in the code, have the meanings shown herein.

[F] CONTINUOUS GAS DETECTION SYSTEM. A gas detection system where the analytical instrument is maintained in continuous operation and sampling is performed without interruption. Analysis is allowed to be performed on a cyclical basis at intervals not to exceed 30 minutes.

[F] DETACHED BUILDING. A separate single-story building, without a basement or crawl space, used for the storage or use of hazardous materials and located an approved distance from all structures.

[F] EMERGENCY CONTROL STATION. An approved location on the premises where signals from emergency equipment are received and which is staffed by trained personnel.

[F] EXHAUSTED ENCLOSURE. An appliance or piece of equipment that consists of a top, a back and two sides providing a means of local exhaust for capturing gases, fumes, vapors and

109

mists. Such enclosures include laboratory hoods, exhaust fume hoods and similar appliances and equipment used to locally retain and exhaust the gases, fumes, vapors and mists that could be released. Rooms or areas provided with general ventilation, in themselves, are not exhausted enclosures.

[F] FABRICATION AREA. An area within a semiconductor fabrication facility and related research and development areas in which there are processes using hazardous production materials. Such areas are allowed to include ancillary rooms or areas such as dressing rooms and offices that are directly related to the fabrication area processes.

[F] FLAMMABLE VAPORS OR FUMES. The concentration of flammable constituents in air that exceed 25 percent of their lower flammable limit (LFL).

[F] GAS CABINET. A fully enclosed, noncombustible enclosure used to provide an isolated environment for compressed gas cylinders in storage or use. Doors and access ports for exchanging cylinders and accessing pressure-regulating controls are allowed to be included.

[F] GAS ROOM. A separately ventilated, fully enclosed room in which only compressed gases and associated equipment and supplies are stored or used.

[F] HAZARDOUS PRODUCTION MATERIAL (HPM). A solid, liquid or gas associated with semiconductor manufacturing that has a degree-of-hazard rating in health, flammability or instability of Class 3 or 4 as ranked by NFPA 704 and which is used directly in research, laboratory or production processes which have as their end product materials that are not hazardous.

[F] HPM FLAMMABLE LIQUID. An HPM liquid that is defined as either a Class I flammable liquid or a Class II or Class IIIA combustible liquid.

[F] HPM ROOM. A room used in conjunction with or serving a Group H-5 occupancy, where HPM is stored or used and which is classified as a Group H-2, H-3 or H-4 occupancy.

[F] IMMEDIATELY DANGEROUS TO LIFE AND HEALTH (IDLH). The concentration of air-borne contaminants which poses a threat of death, immediate or delayed permanent adverse health effects, or effects that could prevent escape from such an environment. This contaminant concentration level is established by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) based on both toxicity and flammability. It generally is expressed in parts per million by volume (ppm v/v) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3. If adequate data do not exist for precise establishment of IDLH concentrations, an independent certified industrial hygienist, industrial toxicologist, appropriate regulatory agency or other source approved by the building official shall make such determination.

[F] LIQUID. A material that has a melting point that is equal to or less than 68° F (20°C) and a boiling point that is greater than 68°F (20°C) at 14.7 pounds per square inch absolute (psia) (101 kPa). When not otherwise identified, the term "liquid" includes both flammable and combustible liquids.

[F] LIQUID STORAGE ROOM. A room classified as a Group H-3 occupancy used for the storage of flammable or combustible liquids in a closed condition.

[F] LIQUID USE, DISPENSING AND MIXING ROOM. A room in which Class I, II and IIIA flammable or combustible liquids are used, dispensed or mixed in open containers.

[F] LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT (LFL). The minimum concentration of vapor in air at which propagation of flame will occur in the presence of an ignition source. The LFL is sometimes referred to as "LEL" or "lower explosive limit"

[F] NORMAL TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE (NTP). A temperature of 70°F (21°C) and a pressure of 1 atmosphere [14.7 psia (101 kPa)].

[F] PHYSIOLOGICAL WARNING THRESHOLD LEVEL. A concentration of air-borne contaminants, normally expressed in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m3), that represents the concentration at which persons can sense the presence of the contaminant due to odor, irritation or other quick-acting physiological response. When used in conjunction with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) the physiological warning threshold levels are those consistent with the classification system used to establish the PEL. See the definition of "Permissible exposure limit(PEL)" in the California Fire Code.

[F] SERVICE CORRIDOR. A fully enclosed passage used for transporting HPM and purposes other than required means of egress.

[F] SOLID. A material that has a melting point, decomposes or sublimes at a temperature greater than 68°F (20°c).

[F] STORAGE, HAZARDOUS MATERIALS.

  1. The keeping, retention or leaving of hazardous materials in closed containers, tanks, cylinders or similar vessels, or
  2. Vessels supplying operations through closed connections to the vessel.

[F] USE (MATERIAL). Placing a material into action, including solids, liquids and gases.

[F] WORKSTATION. A defined space or an independent principal piece of equipment using HPM within a fabrication area where a specific function, laboratory procedure or research activity occurs. Approved or listed hazardous materials storage cabinets, flammable liquid storage cabinets or gas cabinets serving a workstation are included as part of the workstation. A workstation is allowed to contain ventilation equipment, fire protection devices, detection devices, electrical devices and other processing and scientific equipment.

[F] 415.3 Fire separation distance. Group H occupancies shall be located on property in accordance with the other provisions of this chapter. In Groups H-2 and H-3, not less than 25 percent of the perimeter wall of the occupancy shall be an exterior wall.

Exception:

  1. Liquid use, dispensing and mixing rooms having a floor area of not more than 500 square feet (46.5 m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter of the building where they are in accordance with the California Fire Code and NFPA 30. 110
  2. Liquid storage rooms having a floor area of not more than 1,000 square feet (93m2) need not be located on the outer perimeter where they are in accordance with the California Fire Code and NFPA 30.
  3. Spray paint booths that comply with the California Fire Code need not be located on the outer perimeter.

[F] 415.3.1 Group H occupancy minimum fire separation distance. Regardless of any other provisions, buildings containing Group H occupancies shall be set back to the minimum fire separation distance as set forth in Items 1 through 4 below. Distances shall be measured from the walls enclosing the occupancy to lot lines, including those on a public way. Distances to assumed lot lines established for the purpose of determining exterior wall and opening protection are not to be used to establish the minimum fire separation distance for buildings on sites where explosives are manufactured or used when separation is provided in accordance with the quantity distance tables specified for explosive materials in the California Fire Code.

  1. Group H-1. Not less than 75 feet (22 860 mm) and not less than required by the California Fire Code.

    Exceptions:

    1. Fireworks manufacturing buildings separated in accordance with NFPA 1124.
    2. Buildings containing the following materials when separated in accordance with Table 415.3.1:
      1. Organic peroxides, unclassified detonable.
      2. Unstable reactive materials, Class4.
      3. Unstable reactive materials, Class 3 detonable.
      4. Detonable pyrophoric materials.
  2. Group H-2. Not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) where the area of the occupancy exceeds 1,000 square feet (93 m2) and it is not required to be located in a detached building.
  3. Groups H-2 and H-3. Not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) where a detached building is required (see Table 415.3.2).
  4. Groups H-2 and H-3. Occupancies containing materials with explosive characteristics shall be separated as required by the California Fire Code. Where separations are not specified, the distances required shall not be less than the distances required by Table 415.3.1.

[F] 415.3.2 Detached buildings for Group H-1, H-2 or H-3 occupancy. The storage of hazardous materials in excess of those amounts listed in Table 415.3.2 shall be in accordance with the applicable provisions of Sections 415.4 and 415.5. Where a detached building is required by Table 415.3.2, there are no requirements for wall and opening protection based on fire separation distance.

[F] 415.4 Special provisions for Group H-1 occupancies. Group H-1 occupancies shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and be without basements, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces. Roofs shall be of lightweight construction with suitable thermal insulation to prevent sensitive material from reaching its decomposition temperature. Group H-1 occupancies containing materials that are in themselves both physical and health hazards in quantities exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area Table 307.1.(2) shall comply with requirements for both Group H-1 and H-4 occupancies.

[F] 415.4.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for organic peroxides, pyrophoric materials and unstable (reactive) materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

[F] 415.5 Special provisions for Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies. Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing quantities of hazardous materials in excess of those set forth in Table 415.3.2 shall be in buildings used for no other purpose, shall not exceed one story in height and shall be without basements, crawl spaces or other under-floor spaces.

Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies containing water-reactive materials shall be resistant to water penetration. Piping for conveying liquids shall not be over or through areas containing water reactives, unless isolated by approved liquid-tight construction.

Exception: Fire protection piping.

[F] 415.5.1 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for organic peroxides, oxidizers, pyrophoric materials, unstable (reactive) materials and water-reactive solids and liquids shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

[F] 415.5.2 Waterproof room. Rooms or areas used for the storage of water-reactive solids and liquids shall be constructed in a manner that resists the penetration of water through the use of waterproof materials. Piping carrying water for other than approved automatic fire sprinkler systems shall not be within such rooms or areas.

[F] 415.6 Group H-2. Occupancies in Group H-2 shall be constructed in accordance with Sections 415.6.1 through 415.6.4 and the California Fire Code.

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[F] TABLE 415.3.1
MINIMUM SEPARATION DISTANCES FOR BUILDINGS CONTAINING EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS
QUANTITY OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALaMINIMUM DISTANCE (feet)
Lot linesband inhabited buildingscSeparation of magazinesd,e,f
Pounds overPounds not overBarricateddUnbarricaded
257014012
5109018016
102011022020
203012525022
304014028024
405015030028
507517034030
7510019038032
10012520040036
12515021543038
15020023547042
20025025551046
25030027054048
30040029559054
40050032064058
50060034068062
60070035571064
70080037575066
80090039078070
9001,00040080072
1,0001,20042585078
1,2001,40045090082
1,4001,60047094086
1,6001,80049098088
1,8002,0005051,01090
2,0002,5005451,09098
2,5003,0005801,160104
3,0004,0006351,270116
4,0005,0006851,370122
5,0006,0007301,460130
6,0007,0007701,540136
7,0008,0008001,600144
8,0009,0008351,670150
9,00010,0008651,730156
10,00012,0008751,750164
12,00014,0008851,770174
14,00016,0009001,800180
16,00018,0009401,880188
18,00020,0009751,950196 112
20,00025,0001,0552,000210
25,00030,0001,1302,000224
30,00035,0001,2052,000238
35,00040,0001,2752,000248
40,00045,0001,3402,000258
45,00050,0001,4002,000270
50,00055,0001,4602,000280
55,00060,0001,5152,000290
60,00065,0001,5652,000300
65,00070,0001,6102,000310
70,00075,0001,6552,000320
75,00080,0001,6952,000330
80,00085,0001,7302,000340
85,00090,0001,7602,000350
90,00095,0001,7902,000360
95,000100,0001,8152,000370
100,000110,0001,8352,000390
110,000120,0001,8552,000410
120,000130,0001,8752,000430
130,000140,0001,8902,000450
140,000150,0001,9002,000470
150,000160,0001,9352,000490
160,000170,0001,9652,000510
170,000180,0001,9902,000530
180,000190,0002,0102,010550
190,000200,0002,0302,030570
200,000210,0002,0552,055590
210,000230,0002,1002,100630
230,000250,0002,1552,155670
250,000275,0002,2152,215720
275,000300,0002,2752,275770
For SI: 1 pound = 0.454 kg, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929m2.
a. The number of pounds of explosives listed is the number of pounds of trinitrotoluene (TNT) or the equivalent pounds of other explosive.
b. The distance listed is the distance to lot line, including lot lines at public ways.
c. For the purpose of this table, an inhabited building is any building on the same lot that is regularly occupied by people. Where two or more buildings containing explosives or magazines are located on the same lot, each building or magazine shall comply with the minimum distances specified from inhabited buildings and, in addition, they shall be separated from each other by not less than the distance shown for “Separation of magazines,” except that the quantity of explosive materials contained in detonator buildings or magazines shall govern in regard to the spacing of said detonator buildings or magazines from buildings or magazines containing other explosive materials. If any two or more buildings or magazines are separated from each other by less than the specified “Separation of Magazines” distances, then such two or more buildings or magazines, as a group, shall be considered as one building or magazine, and the total quantity of explosive materials stored in such group shall be treated as if the explosive were in a single building or magazine located on the site of any building or magazine of the group, and shall comply with the minimum distance specified from other magazines or inhabited buildings.
d. Barricades shall effectively screen the building containing explosives from other buildings, public ways or magazines. Where mounds or revetted walls of earth are used for barricades, they shall not be less than 3 feet in thickness. A straight line from the top of any side wall of the building containing explosive materials to the eave line of any other building, magazine or a point 12 feet above the centerline of a public way shall pass through the barricades.
e. Magazine is a building or structure, other than an operating building, approved for storage of explosive materials. Portable or mobile magazines not exceeding 120 square feet in area need not comply with the requirements of this code, ho.vever, all magazines shall comply with the International Fire Code.
f. The distance listed is permitted to be reduced by 50 percent where approved natural or artificial barriers are provided in accordance with the requirements in Note d.
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[F] TABLE 415.3.2
DETACHED BUILDING REQUIRED
A DETACHED BUILDING IS REQUIRED WHEN THE QUANTITY OF MATERIAL EXCEEDS THAT LISTED HEREIN
MaterialClassSolids and Liquids (tons)a,bGases (cubic feet)a,b
ExplosivesDivision 1.1Maximum Allowable QuantityNot Applicable
Division 1.2Maximum Allowable Quantity
Division 1.3Maximum Allowable Quantity
Division 1.4Maximum Allowable Quantity
Division 1.4c1
Division 1.5Maximum Allowable Quantity
Division 1.6Maximum Allowable Quantity
OxidizersClass 4Maximum Allowable QuantityMaximum Allowable Quantity
Unstable (reactives) detonableClass 3 or 4Maximum Allowable QuantityMaximum Allowable Quantity
Oxidizer, liquids and solidsClass 31,200Not Applicable
Class 22,000Not Applicable
Organic peroxidesDetonableMaximum Allowable QuantityNot Applicable
Class IMaximum Allowable QuantityNot Applicable
Class II25Not Applicable
Class III50Not Applicable
Unstable (reactives) non detonableClass 212,000
Class 32510,000
Water reactivesClass 31Not Applicable
Class 225Not Applicable
Pyrophoric gasesNot ApplicableNot Applicable2,000
For SI: 1 ton = 906 kg, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3, 1 pound = 0.454 kg.
a. For materials that are detonable, the distance to other buildings or lot lines shall be as specified in Table 415.3.1 based on trinitrotoluene (TNT) equivalence of the material. For materials classified as explosives, see Chapter 33 the California Fire Code. For all other materials, the distance shall be as indicated in Section 415.3.1.
b. “Maximum Allowable Quantity” means the maximum allowable quantity per control area set forth in Table 307.1(1).
c. Limited to Division 1.4 materials and articles, including articles packaged for shipment, that are not regulated as an explosive under Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (BATF) regulations or unpackaged articles used in process operations that do not propagate a detonation or defiagration between articles, providing the net explosive weight of individual articles does not exceed 1 pound.

[F] 415.6.1 Combustible dusts, grain processing and storage. The provisions of Sections 415.6.1.1 through 415.6.1.6 shall apply to buildings in which materials that produce combustible dusts are stored or handled. Buildings that store or handle combustible dusts shall comply with the applicable provisions of NFPA 61, NFPA 85, NFPA 120, NFPA 484, NFPA 654, NFPA 655 and NFPA 664, and the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.1.1 Type of construction and height exceptions. Buildings shall be constructed in compliance with the height and area limitations of Table 503 for Group H-2; except that where erected of Type I or II construction, the heights and areas of grain elevators and similar structures shall be unlimited, and where of Type IV construction, the maximum height shall be 65 feet (19 812 mm) and except further that, in isolated areas, the maximum height of Type IV structures shall be increased to 85 feet (25 908 mm).

[F] 415.6.1.2 Grinding rooms. Every room or space occupied for grinding or other operations that produce combustible dusts shall be enclosed with fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours where the area is not more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2), and 4 hours where the area is greater than 3,000 square feet (279 m2).

[F] 415.6.1.3 Conveyors. Conveyors, chutes, piping and similar equipment passing through the enclosures of rooms or spaces shall be constructed dirt tight and vapor tight, and be of approved noncombustible materials complying with Chapter 30.

[F] 415.6.1.4 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided as specified in the California Fire Code, or spaces shall be equipped with the equivalent mechanical ventilation complying with the California Mechanical Code.

[F] 415.6.1.5 Grain elevators. Grain elevators, malt houses and buildings for similar occupanies shall not be located within 30 feet (9144 mm) of interior lot lines or structures on the same lot, except where erected along a railroad right-of-way.

[F] 415.6.1.6 Coal pockets. Coal pockets located less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines or from structures on the same lot shall be constructed of not less than Type IB construction. Where more than 30 feet (9144 mm) from interior lot lines, or where erected along a railroad right-of-way, the minimum type of construction

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of such structures not more than 65 feet (19 812 mm) in building height shall be Type IV.

[F] 415.6.2 Flammable and combustible liquids. The storage, handling, processing and transporting of flammable and combustible liquids in Groups H-2 and H-3 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 415.6.2.1 through 415.6.2.10, the California Mechanical Code and the California Fire Code.

[F]415.6.2.1 Mixed occupancies. Where the storage tank area is located in a building of two or more occupancies and the quantity of liquid exceeds the maximum allowable quantity for one control area, the use shall be completely separated from adjacent occupancies in accordance with the requirements of Section 508.4.

[F] 415.6.2.1.1 Height exception. Where storage tanks are located within a building no more than one story above grade plane, the height limitation of Section 503 shall not apply for Group H.

[F] 415.6.2.2 Tank protection. Storage tanks shall be noncombustible and protected from physical damage. Fire barriers or horizontal assemblies or both around the storage tank(s) shall be permitted as the method of protection from physical damage.

[F] 415.6.2.3 Tanks. Storage tanks shall be approved tanks conforming to the requirements of the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.2.4 Suppression. Group H shall be equipped throughout with an approved automatic sprinkler system, installed in accordance with Section 903.

[F] 415.6.2.5 Leakage containment. A liquid-tight containment area compatible with the stored liquid shall be provided. The method of spill control, drainage control and secondary containment shall be in accordance with the California Fire Code.

Exception: Rooms where only double-wall storage tanks conforming to Section 415.6.2.3 are used to store Class I, II and IIIA flammable and combustible liquids shall not be required to have a leakage containment area.

[F] 415.6.2.6 Leakage alarm. An approved automatic alarm shall be provided to indicate a leak in a storage tank and room. The alarm shall sound an audible signal, 15 dBa above the ambient sound level, at every point of entry into the room in which the leaking storage tank is located. An approved sign shall be posted on every entry door to the tank storage room indicating the potential hazard of the interior room environment, or the sign shall state: WARNING, WHEN ALARM SOUNDS, THE ENVIRONMENT WITHIN THE ROOM MAY BE HAZARDOUS. The leakage alarm shall also be supervised in accordance with Chapter 9 to transmit a trouble signal.

[F] 415.6.2.7 Tank vent. Storage tank vents for Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall terminate to the outdoor air in accordance with the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.2.8 Room ventilation. Storage tank areas storing Class I, II or IIIA liquids shall be provided with mechanical ventilation. The mechanical ventilation system shall be in accordance with the California Mechanical Code and the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.2.9 Explosion venting. Where Class 1 liquids are being stored, explosion venting shall be provided in accordance with the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.6.2.10 Tank openings other than vents. Tank openings other than vents from tanks inside buildings shall be designed to ensure that liquids or vapor concentrations are not released inside the building.

[F] 415.6.3 Liquefied petroleum gas facilities. The construction and installation of liquefied petroleum gas facilities shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code, the California Fire Code, the California Mechanical Code, the California Plumbing Code and NFPA 58.

[F] 415.6.4 Dry cleaning plants. The construction and installation of dry cleaning plants shall be in accordance with the requirements of this code, the California Mechanical Code, the California Plumbing Code and NFPA 32. Dry cleaning solvents and systems shall be classified in accordance with the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.7 Groups H-3 and H-4. Groups H-3 and H-4 shall be constructed in accordance with the applicable provisions of this code and the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.7.1 Flammable and combustible liquids. The storage, handling, processing and transporting of flammable and combustible liquids in Group H-3 occupancies shall be in accordance with Section 415.6.2.

[F] 415.7.2 Gas rooms. When gas rooms are provided, such rooms shall be separated from other areas by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

[F] 415.7.3 Floors in storage rooms. Floors in storage areas for corrosive liquids and highly toxic or toxic materials shall be of liquid-tight, noncombustible construction.

[F] 415.7.4 Separation—highly toxic solids and liquids. Highly toxic solids and liquids not stored in approved hazardous materials storage cabinets shall be isolated from other hazardous materials storage by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

[F] 415.8 Group H-5.

[F] 415.8.1 General. In addition to the requirements set forth elsewhere in this code, Group H-5 shall comply with the provisions of Sections 415.8.1 through 415.8.11 and the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.8.2 Fabrication areas.

[F] 415.8.2.1 Hazardous materials in fabrication areas

[F] 415.8.2.1.1 Aggregate quantities. The aggregate quantities of hazardous materials stored and used in a

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single fabrication area shall not exceed the quantities set forth in Table 415.8.2.1.1.

Exception: The quantity limitations for any hazard category in Table 415.8.2.1.1 shall not apply where the fabrication area contains quantities of hazardous materials not exceeding the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).

[F] 415.8.2.1.2 Hazardous production materials. The maximum quantities of hazardous production materials (HPM) stored in a single fabrication area shall not exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area established by Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).

[F] 415.8.2.2 Separation. Fabrication areas, whose sizes are limited by the quantity of hazardous materials allowed by Table 415.8.2.1.1, shall be separated from each other, from corridors and from other parts of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

Exceptions:

  1. Doors within such fire barrier walls, including doors to corridors, shall be only self-closing fire door assemblies having a fire protection rating of not less than ¾ hour.
  2. Windows between fabrication areas and corridors are permitted to be fixed glazing listed and labeled for a fire protection rating of at least ¾ hour in accordance with Section 715.

[F] 415.8.2.3 Location of occupied levels. Occupied levels of fabrication areas shall be located at or above the first story above grade plane.

[F] 415.8.2.4 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors within fabrication areas shall be of noncombustible construction.

Openings through floors of fabrication areas are permitted to be unprotected where the interconnected levels are used solely for mechanical equipment directly related to such fabrication areas (see also Section 415.8.2.5).

Floors forming a part of an occupancy separation shall be liquid tight.

[F] 415.8.2.5 Shafts and openings through floors. Elevator shafts, vent shafts and other openings through floors shall be enclosed when required by Section 708. Mechanical, duct and piping penetrations within a fabrication area shall not extend through more than two floors. The annular space around penetrations for cables, cable trays, tubing, piping, conduit or ducts shall be sealed at the floor level to restrict the movement of air. The fabrication area, including the areas through which the ductwork and piping extend, shall be considered a single conditioned environment.

[F] 415.8.2.6 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot[0.0051m3/(s · m2)] of floor area shall be provided throughout the portions of the fabrication area where HPM are used or stored. The exhaust air duct system of one fabrication area shall not connect to another duct system outside that fabrication area within the building.

A ventilation system shall be provided to capture and exhaust gases, fumes and vapors at workstations.

Two or more operations at a workstation shall not be connected to the same exhaust system where either one or the combination of the substances removed could constitute a fire, explosion or hazardous chemical reaction within the exhaust duct system.

Exhaust ducts penetrating occupancy separations shall be contained in a shaft of equivalent fire-resistance-rated construction. Exhaust ducts shall not penetrate fire walls.

Fire dampers shall not be installed in exhaust ducts.

[F] 415.8.2.7 Transporting hazardous production materials to fabrication areas. HPM shall be transported to fabrication areas through enclosed piping or tubing systems that comply with Section 415.8.6.1, through service corridors complying with Section 415.8.4, or in corridors as permitted in the exception to Section 415.8.3. The handling or transporting of HPM within service corridors shall comply with the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.8.2.8 Electrical.

[F] 415.8.2.8.1 General. Electrical equipment and devices within the fabrication area shall comply with NFPA 70. The requirements for hazardous locations need not be applied where the average air change is at least four times that set forth in Section 415.8.2.6 and where the number of air changes at any location is not less than three times that required by Section 415.8.2.6. The use of recirculated air shall be permitted.

[F] 415.8.2.8.2 Workstations. Workstations shall not be energized without adequate exhaust ventilation. See Section 415.8.2.6 for workstation exhaust ventilation requirements.

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[F] TABLE 415.8.2.1.1
QUANTITY LIMITS FOR HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IN A SINGLE FABRICATION AREA IN GROUP H-5a
HAZARD CATEGORYSOLIDS
(pounds per square feet)
LIQUIDS
(gallons per square feet)
GAS
(feet3 @ NTP/square feet)
PHYSICAL-HAZARD MATERIALS
Combustible dustNote bNot ApplicableNot Applicable
Combustible fiberLooseNote b Notes b, cNot ApplicableNot Applicable
BaledII 0.01
IIIA 0.02  
IIIBNot ApplicableNot LimitedNot Applicable 
Combination Class I, II and IIIA 0.04  
Cryogenic gasFlammableNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNote d
Oxidizing  1.25 
ExplosivesNote bNote bNote b
Flammable gasGaseousNot ApplicableNot ApplicableNote d
Liquefied  Note d 
Flammable liquidIA 0.0025 
IB 0.025  
ICNot Applicable0.025Not Applicable 
Combination Class IA, IB and IC 0.025  
Combination Class I, II and IIIA 0.04  
Flammable solid0.001Not ApplicableNot Applicable 
Organic peroxide    
Unclassified detonableNote b   
Class INote b   
Class II0.025Not ApplicableNot Applicable 
Class III0.1   
Class IVNot Limited   
Class VNot limited   
Oxidizing gasGaseous  1.25
 LiquefiedNot ApplicableNot Applicable1.25
Combination of gaseous and liquefied  1.25 
OxidizerClass 4Note bNote b 
Class 30.0030.03  
Class 20.0030.03Not Applicable 
Class 10.0030.03  
CombinationClass 1, 2, 30.0030.03 
Pyrophoric materialNote b0.00125Notes d and e 
Unstable reactiveClass 4Note bNote bNote b
 Class 30.0250.0025Note b
 Class 20.10.01Note b
 Class 1Not LimitedNot LimitedNot Limited
Water reactiveClass 3Note b0.00125 
 Class 20.250.025Not Applicable
 Class 1Not LimitedNot Limited 
HEALTH-HAZARD MATERIALS
CorrosivesNot LimitedNot LimitedNot Limited 
Highly toxicNot LimitedNot LimitedNote d 
ToxicsNot LimitedNot LimitedNote d 
For SI: 1 pound per square foot = 4.882 kg/m2, 1 gallon per square foot = 40.7 L/m2, 1 cubic foot @ NTP/square foot = 0.305 m3 @ NTP/m2, 1 cubic foot = 0.02832 m3.
a. Hazardous materials within piping shall not be included in the calculated quantities.
b. Quantity of hazardous materials in a single fabrication shall exceed the maximum allowable quantities per control area in Tables 307.1(1) and 307.1(2).
c. Densely packed baled cotton that complies with the packing requirements of ISO 8115 shall not be included in this material class.
d. The aggregate quantity of flammable, pyrophoric, toxic and highly toxic gases shall not exceed 9,000 cubic feet at NTP.
e. The aggregate quantity of pyrophoric gases in the building shall not exceed the amounts set forth in Table 415.3.2.
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[F] 415.8.3 Corridors. Corridors shall comply with Chapter 10 and shall be separated from fabrication areas as specified in Section 415.8.2.2. Corridors shall not contain HPM and shall not be used for transporting such materials, except through closed piping systems as provided in Section 415.8.6.3.

Exception: Where existing fabrication areas are altered or modified, HPM is allowed to be transported in existing corridors, subject to the following conditions:

  1. Corridors. Corridors adjacent to the fabrication area where the alteration work is to be done shall comply with Section 1018 for a length determined as follows:
    1. The length of the common wall of the corridor and the fabrication area; and
    2. For the distance along the corridor to the point of entry of HPM into the corridor serving that fabrication area.
  2. Emergency alarm system. There shall be an emergency telephone system, a local manual alarm station or other approved alarm-initiating device within corridors at not more than 150-foot (45 720 mm) intervals and at each exit and doorway. The signal shall be relayed to an approved central, proprietary or remote station service or the emergency control station and shall also initiate a local audible alarm.
  3. Pass-throughs. Self-closing doors having a fire protection rating of not less than 1 hour shall separate pass-throughs from existing corridors. Pass-throughs shall be constructed as required for the corridors and protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system.

[F] 415.8.4 Service corridors.

[F] 415.8.4.1 Occupancy. Service corridors shall be classified as Group H-5.

[F] 415.8.4.2 Use conditions. Service corridors shall be separated from corridors as required by Section 415.8.2.2. Service corridors shall not be used as a required corridor.

[F] 415.8.4.3 Mechanical ventilation. Service corridors shall be mechanically ventilated as required by Section 415.8.2.6 or at not less than six air changes per hour, whichever is greater.

[F] 415.8.4.4 Means of egress. The maximum distance of travel from any point in a service corridor to an exit, exit access corridor or door into a fabrication area shall not exceed 75 feet (22 860 mm). Dead ends shall not exceed 4 feet (1219 mm) in length. There shall be not less than two exits, and not more than one-half of the required means of egress shall require travel into a fabrication area. Doors from service corridors shall swing in the direction of egress travel and shall be self-closing.

[F] 415.8.4.5 Minimum width. The minimum clear width of a service corridor shall be 5 feet (1524 mm), or 33 inches (838 mm) wider than the widest cart or truck used in the corridor, whichever is greater.

[F] 415.8.4.6 Emergency alarm system. Emergency alarm systems shall be provided in accordance with this section and Sections 414.7.1 and 414.7.2. The maximum allowable quantity per control area provisions shall not apply to emergency alarm systems required for HPM.

[F] 415.8.4.6.1 Service corridors. An emergency alarm system shall be provided in service corridors, with at least one alarm device in each service corridor.

[F] 415.8.4.6.2 Exit access corridors and exit enclosures. Emergency alarms for exit access corridors and exit enclosures shall comply with Section 414.7.2.

[F] 415.8.4.6.3 Liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms. Emergency alarms for liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms shall comply with Section 414.7.1.

[F] 415.8.4.6.4 Alarm-initiating devices. An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations, or other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initiating devices.

[F] 415.8.4.6.5 Alarm signals. Activation of the emergency alarm system shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station.

[F] 415.8.5 Storage of hazardous production materials.

[F] 415.8.5.1 General. Storage of HPM in fabrication areas shall be within approved or listed storage cabinets or gas cabinets or within a workstation. The storage of HPM in quantities greater than those listed in Section 1804.2 of the California Fire Code shall be in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms or gas rooms as appropriate for the materials stored. The storage of other hazardous materials shall be in accordance with other applicable provisions of this code and the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.8.5.2 Construction.

[F] 415.8.5.2.1 HPM rooms and gas rooms. HPM rooms and gas rooms shall be separated from other areas by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. The minimum fire-resistance rating shall be 2 hours where the area is 300 square feet (27.9 m2) or more and 1 hour where the area is less than 300 square feet (27.9 m2).

[F] 415.8.5.2.2 Liquid storage rooms. Liquid storage rooms shall be constructed in accordance with the following requirements:

  1. Rooms in excess of 500 square feet (46.5 m2) shall have at least one exterior door approved for fire department access.
  2. Rooms shall be separated from other areas by fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. 118 The fire-resistance rating shall be not less than 1 hour for rooms up to 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area and not less than 2 hours where the room is more than 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area.
  3. Shelving, racks and wainscotting in such areas shall be of noncombustible construction or wood of not less than 1-inch (25 mm) nominal thickness.
  4. Rooms used for the storage of Class I flammable liquids shall not be located in a basement.

[F] 415.8.5.2.3 Floors. Except for surfacing, floors of HPM rooms and liquid storage rooms shall be of noncombustible liquid-tight construction. Raised grating over floors shall be of noncombustible materials.

[F] 415.8.5.3 Location. Where HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms are provided, they shall have at least one exterior wall and such wall shall be not less than 30 feet (9144 mm) from lot lines, including lot lines adjacent to public ways.

[F] 415.8.5.4 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided where required by Section 414.5.1.

[F] 415.8.5.5 Exits. Where two exits are required from HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms, one shall be directly to the outside of the building.

[F] 415.8.5.6 Doors. Doors in a fire barrier wall, including doors to corridors, shall be self-closing fire door assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not less than ¾ hour.

[F] 415.8.5.7 Ventilation. Mechanical exhaust ventilation shall be provided in liquid storage rooms, HPM rooms and gas rooms at the rate of not less than 1 cubic foot per minute per square foot (0.044 L/s/m2) of floor area or six air changes per hour, whichever is greater, for categories of material.

Exhaust ventilation for gas rooms shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding areas and direct the exhaust ventilation to an exhaust system.

[F] 415.8.5.8 Emergency alarm system. An approved emergency alarm system shall be provided for HPM rooms, liquid storage rooms and gas rooms.

Emergency alarm-initiating devices shall be installed outside of each interior exit door of such rooms.

Activation of an emergency alarm-initiating device shall sound a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station.

An approved emergency telephone system, local alarm manual pull stations or other approved alarm-initiating devices are allowed to be used as emergency alarm-initiating devices.

[F] 415.8.6 Piping and tubing.

[F] 415.8.6.1 General. Hazardous production materials piping and tubing shall comply with this section and ASME B31.3.

[F] 415.8.6.2 Supply piping and tubing.

[F] 415.8.6.2.1 HPM having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4. Systems supplying HPM liquids or gases having a health-hazard ranking of 3 or 4 shall be welded throughout, except for connections, to the systems that are within a ventilated enclosure if the material is a gas, or an approved method of drainage or containment is provided for the connections if the material is a liquid.

[F] 415.8.6.2.2 Location in service corridors. Hazardous production materials supply piping or tubing in service corridors shall be exposed to view.

[F] 415.8.6.2.3 Excess flow control. Where HPM gases or liquids are carried in pressurized piping above 15 pounds per square inch gauge (psig) (103.4 kPa), excess flow control shall be provided. Where the piping originates from within a liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room, the excess flow control shall be located within the liquid storage room, HPM room or gas room. Where the piping originates from a bulk source, the excess flow control shall be located as close to the bulk source as practical.

[F] 415.8.6.3 Installations in corridors and above other occupancies. The installation of HPM piping and tubing within the space defined by the walls of corridors and the floor or roof above, or in concealed spaces above other occupancies, shall be in accordance with Section 415.8.6.2 and the following conditions:

  1. Automatic sprinklers shall be installed within the space unless the space is less than 6 inches (152 mm) in the least dimension.
  2. Ventilation not less than six air changes per hour shall be provided. The space shall not be used to convey air from any other area.
  3. Where the piping or tubing is used to transport HPM liquids, a receptor shall be installed below such piping or tubing. The receptor shall be designed to collect any discharge or leakage and drain it to an approved location. The 1-hour enclosure shall not be used as part of the receptor.
  4. HPM supply piping and tubing and nonmetallic waste lines shall be separated from the corridor and from occupancies other than Group H-5 by fire barriers that have a fire-resistance rating of not less than 1 hour. Where gypsum wallboard is used, joints on the piping side of the enclosure are not required to be taped, provided the joints occur over framing members. Access openings into the enclosure shall be protected by approved fire protection-rated assemblies.
  5. Readily accessible manual or automatic remotely activated fail-safe emergency shutoff valves shall be installed on piping and tubing other than waste lines at the following locations:
    1. At branch connections into the fabrication area. 119
    2. At entries into corridors.

      Exception: Transverse crossings of the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed within a ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor need not comply with Items 1 through 5.

[F] 415.8.6.4 Identification. Piping, tubing and HPM waste lines shall be identified in accordance with ANSI A13.1 to indicate the material being transported.

[F] 415.8.7 Continuous gas detection systems. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided for HPM gases when the physiological warning threshold level of the gas is at a higher level than the accepted PEL for the gas and for flammable gases in accordance with Sections 415.8.7.1 and 415.8.7.2.

[F] 415.8.7.1 Where required. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in the areas identified in Sections 415.8.7.1.1 through 415.8.7.1.4.

[F] 415.8.7.1.1 Fabrication areas. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in fabrication areas when gas is used in the fabrication area.

[F] 415.8.7.1.2 HPM rooms. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in HPM rooms when gas is used in the room.

[F] 415.8.7.1.3 Gas cabinets, exhausted enclosures and gas rooms. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas cabinets and exhausted enclosures. A continuous gas detection system shall be provided in gas rooms when gases are not located in gas cabinets or exhausted enclosures.

[F] 415.8.7.1.4 Corridors. When gases are transported in piping placed within the space defined by the walls of a corridor and the floor or roof above the corridor, a continuous gas detection system shall be provided where piping is located and in the corridor.

Exception: A continuous gas detection system is not required for occasional transverse crossings of the corridors by supply piping that is enclosed in a ferrous pipe or tube for the width of the corridor.

[F] 415.8.7.2 Gas detection system operation. The continuous gas detection system shall be capable of monitoring the room, area or equipment in which the gas is located at or below all the following gas concentrations:

  1. Immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) values when the monitoring point is within an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.
  2. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) levels when the monitoring point is in an area outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.
  3. For flammable gases, the monitoring detection threshold level shall be vapor concentrations in excess of 25 percent of the lower flammable limit (LFL) when the monitoring is within or outside an exhausted enclosure, ventilated enclosure or gas cabinet.
  4. Except as noted in this section, monitoring for highly toxic and toxic gases shall also comply with Chapter 37 of the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.8.7.2.1 Alarms. The gas detection system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station when a short-term hazard condition is detected. The alarm shall be both visual and audible and shall provide warning both inside and outside the area where the gas is detected. The audible alarm shall be distinct from all other alarms.

[F] 415.8.7.2.2 Shutoff of gas supply. The gas detection system shall automatically close the shutoff valve at the source on gas supply piping and tubing related to the system being monitored for which gas is detected when a short-term hazard condition is detected. Automatic closure of shutoff valves shall comply with the following:

  1. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valve in the gas cabinet or exhausted enclosure for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.
  2. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a room and compressed gas containers are not in gas cabinets or an exhausted enclosure, the shutoff valves on all gas lines for the specific gas detected shall automatically close.
  3. Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is within a piping distribution manifold enclosure, the shutoff valve supplying the manifold for the compressed gas container of the specific gas detected shall automatically close.

Exception: Where the gas detection sampling point initiating the gas detection system alarm is at the use location or within a gas valve enclosure of a branch line downstream of a piping distribution manifold, the shutoff valve for the branch line located in the piping distribution manifold enclosure shall automatically close.

[F] 415.8.8 Manual fire alarm system. An approved manual fire alarm system shall be provided throughout buildings containing Group H-5. Activation of the alarm system shall initiate a local alarm and transmit a signal to the emergency control station. The fire alarm system shall be designed and installed in accordance with Section 907.

[F] 415.8.9 Emergency control station. An emergency control station shall be provided in accordance with Sections 415.8.9.1 through 415.8.9.3.

[F] 415.8.9.1 Location. The emergency control station shall be located on the premises at an approved location outside the fabrication area.

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[F] 415.8.9.2 Staffing. Trained personnel shall continuously staff the emergency control station.

[F] 415.8.9.3 Signals. The emergency control station shall receive signals from emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems. Such emergency equipment and alarm and detection systems shall include, but not be limited to, the following where such equipment or systems are required to be provided either in this chapter or elsewhere in this code:

  1. Automatic sprinkler system alarm and monitoring systems.
  2. Manual fire alarm systems.
  3. Emergency alarm systems.
  4. Continuous gas detection systems.
  5. Smoke detection systems.
  6. Emergency power system.
  7. Automatic detection and alarm systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the California Fire Code.
  8. Exhaust ventilation flow alarm devices for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the California Fire Code.

[F] 415.8.10 Emergency power system. An emergency power system shall be provided in Group H-5 occupancies where required in Section 415.8.10.1. The emergency power system shall be designed to supply power automatically to required electrical systems when the normal electrical supply system is interrupted.

[F] 415.8.10.1 Required electrical systems. Emergency power shall be provided for electrically operated equipment and connected control circuits for the following systems:

  1. HPM exhaust ventilation systems.
  2. HPM gas cabinet ventilation systems.
  3. HPM exhausted enclosure ventilation systems.
  4. HPM gas room ventilation systems.
  5. HPM gas detection systems.
  6. Emergency alarm systems.
  7. Manual fire alarm systems.
  8. Automatic sprinkler system monitoring and alarm systems.
  9. Automatic alarm and detection systems for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the California Fire Code.
  10. Flow alarm switches for pyrophoric liquids and Class 3 water-reactive liquids cabinet exhaust ventilation systems required in Section 1805.2.3.4 of the California Fire Code.
  11. Electrically operated systems required elsewhere in this code or in the California Fire Code Applicable to the use, storage or handling of HPM.

[F] 415.8.10.2 Exhaust ventilation systems. Exhaust ventilation systems are allowed to be designed to operate at not less than one-half the normal fan speed on the emergency power system where it is demonstrated that the level of exhaust will maintain a safe atmosphere.

[F] 415.8.11 Automatic sprinkler system protection in exhaust ducts for HPM.

[F] 415.8.11.1 Exhaust ducts for HPM. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in exhaust ducts conveying gases, vapors, fumes, mists or dusts generated from HPM in accordance with this section and the California Mechanical Code.

[F] 415.8.11.2 Metalic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts. An approved automatic sprinkler system shall be provided in metallic and noncombustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts when all of the following conditions apply:

  1. Where the largest cross-sectional diameter is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).
  2. The ducts are within the building.
  3. The ducts are conveying flammable gases, vapors or fumes.

[F] 415.8.11.3 Combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts. Automatic sprinkler system protection shall be provided in combustible nonmetallic exhaust ducts where the largest cross-sectional diameter of the duct is equal to or greater than 10 inches (254 mm).

Exceptions:

  1. Ducts listed or approved for applications without automatic fire sprinkler system protection.
  2. Ducts not more than 12 feet (3658 mm) in length installed below ceiling level.

[F] 415.8.11.4 Automatic sprinkler locations. Sprinkler systems shall be installed at 12-foot (3658 mm) intervals in horizontal ducts and at changes in direction. In vertical ducts, sprinklers shall be installed at the top and at alternate floor levels.

[F] 415.9 Group H occupancies located above the 10th story.

415.9.1 Fire–smoke barrier. Any story containing a Group H occupancy above the 10th story shall be subdivided by a fire-smoke barrier constructed as a fire barrier having a fire resistance rating of not less than 2 hours and shall also comply with the smoke barrier requirements of Section 710. The 2-hour fire-smoke barrier shall be in accordance with Sections 415.9.1.1 through 415.9.1.5.

415.10 Elevators and elevator lobbies above the 10th story. Any story containing a Group H occupancy above the 10th story shall be provided with elevators and elevator lobbies in accordance with Sections 415.10.1 through 415.10.3.

415.10.1 An elevator that serves every story of the building shall be provided on each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier.

415.10.2 An elevator lobby shall be provided on each side of the 2-hour fire-smoke barrier at each floor in accordance with Section 708.14.1 Exceptions to 708.14.1 shall not apply.

415.10.3 The elevator and its associated elevator lobbies and elevator machine rooms shall be pressurized in accordance with Section 909.6.

SECTION 416
APPLICATION OF FLAMMABLE FINISHES

[F] 416.1 General. The provisions of this section shall apply to the construction, installation and use of buildings and structures, or parts thereof, for the spraying of flammable paints, varnishes and lacquers or other flammable materials or mixtures or compounds used for painting, varnishing, staining or similar purposes. Such construction and equipment shall comply with the California Fire Code.

[F] 416.2 Spray rooms. Spray rooms shall be enclosed with not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both. Floors shall be water-proofed and drained in an approved manner.

[F] 416.2.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spray rooms shall be smooth and shall be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and cleaning, and shall be so designed to confine residues within the room. Aluminum shall not be used.

[F] 416.3 Spraying spaces. Spraying spaces shall be ventilated with an exhaust system to prevent the accumulation of flammable mist or vapors in accordance with the California Mechanical Code. Where such spaces are not separately enclosed, noncombustible spray curtains shall be provided to restrict the spread of flammable vapors.

[F] 416.3.1 Surfaces. The interior surfaces of spraying spaces shall be smooth and continuous without edges; shall be so constructed to permit the free passage of exhaust air from all parts of the interior and to facilitate washing and cleaning; and shall be so designed to confine residues within the spraying space. Aluminum shall not be used.

[F] 416.4 Spray booths. Spray booths shall be designed, constructed and operated in accordance with the California Fire Code.

[F] 416.5 Fire protection. An automatic fire-extinguishing system shall be provided in all spray, dip and immersing spaces and storage rooms and shall be installed in accordance with Chapter 9.

SECTION 417
DRYING ROOMS

[F] 417.1 General. A drying room or dry kiln installed within a building shall be constructed entirely of approved noncombustible materials or assemblies of such materials regulated by the approved rules or as required in the general and specific sections of Chapter 4 for special occupancies and where applicable to the general requirements of Chapter 28.

[F] 417.2 Piping clearance. Overhead heating pipes shall have a clearance of not less than 2 inches (51 mm) from combustible contents in the dryer.

[F] 417.3 Insulation. Where the operating temperature of the dryer is 175°F (79°C) or more, metal enclosures shall be insulated from adjacent combustible materials by not less than 12 inches (305 mm) of airspace, or the metal walls shall be lined with 1¼-inch (6.35 mm) insulating mill board or other approved equivalent insulation.

[F] 417.4 Fire protection. Drying rooms designed for high-hazard materials and processes, including special occupancies as provided for in Chapter 4, shall be protected by an approved automatic fire-extinguishing system complying with the provisions of Chapter 9.

SECTION 418
ORGANIC COATINGS

[F] 418.1 Building features. Manufacturing of organic coatings shall be done only in buildings that do not have pits or basements.

[F] 418.2 Location. Organic coating manufacturing operations and operations incidental to or connected therewith shall not be located in buildings having other occupancies.

[F] 418.3 Process mills. Mills operating with close clearances and that process flammable and heat-sensitive materials, such as nitrocellulose, shall be located in a detached building or noncombustible structure.

[F] 418.4 Tank storage. Storage areas for flammable and combustible liquid tanks inside of structures shall be located at or above grade and shall be separated from the processing area by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

[F] 418.5 Nitrocellulose storage. Nitrocellulose storage shall be located on a detached pad or in a separate structure or a room enclosed with no less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

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[F] 418.6 Finished products. Storage rooms for finished products that are flammable or combustible liquids shall be separated from the processing area by not less than 2-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both.

SECTION 419
LIVE/WORK UNITS

[F] 419.1 General. A live/work unit is a dwelling unit or sleeping unit in which a significant portion of the space includes a non-residential use that is operated by the tenant and shall comply with Sections 419.1 through 419.8.

Exception: Dwelling or sleeping units that include an office that is less than 10 percent of the area of the dwelling unit shall not be classified as a live/work unit.

419.1.1 Limitations. The following shall apply to all live/work areas:

  1. The live/work unit is permitted to be a maximum of 3,000 square feet (279 m2);
  2. The nonresidential area is permitted to be a maximum 50 percent of the area of each live/work unit;
  3. The nonresidential area function shall be limited to the first or main floor only of the live/work unit; and
  4. A maximum of five nonresidential workers or employees are allowed to occupy the nonresidential area at any one time.

419.2 Occupancies. Live/work units shall be classified as a Group R-2 occupancy. Separation requirements found in Sections 420 and 508 shall not apply within the live/work unit when the live/work unit is in compliance with Section 419. High-hazard and storage occupancies shall not be permitted in a live/work unit. The aggregate area of storage in the nonresidential portion of the live/work unit shall be limited to 10 percent of the space dedicated to nonresidential activities.

419.3 Means of egress. Except as modified by this section, the provisions for Group R-2 occupancies in Chapter 10 shall apply to the entire live/work unit.

419.3.1 Egress capacity. The egress capacity for each element of the live/work unit shall be based on the occupant load for the function served in accordance with Table 1004.1.1.

419.3.2 Sliding doors. Where doors in a means of egress are of the horizontal-sliding type, the force to slide the door to its fully open position shall not exceed 50 pounds (220 N) with a perpendicular force against the door of 50 pounds (220 N).

419.3.3 Spiral stairways. Spiral stairways that conform to the requirements of Section 1009.9 shall be permitted.

419.3.4 Locks. Egress doors shall be permitted to be locked in accordance with Exception 4 of Section 1008.1.9.3.

419.4 Vertical openings. Floor openings between floor levels of a live/work unit are permitted without enclosure.

419.5 Fire protection. The live/work unit shall be provided with a monitored fire alarm system where required by Section 907.2.9 and an automatic sprinkler system in accordance with Section 903.2.8.

419.6 Structural. Floor loading for the areas within a live/work unit shall be designed to conform to Table 1607.1 based on the function within the space.

419.7 Accessibility. Accessibility shall be designed in accordance with Chapters 11A and/or 11B, when applicable.

419.8 Ventilation. The applicable requirements of the California Mechanical Code shall apply to each area within the live/work unit for the function within that space.

SECTION 420
GROUPS R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3, R-3.1 and R-4

420.1 General. Occupancies in Groups R-1, R-2, R-2.1, R-3, R-3.1 and R-4 shall comply with the provisions of this section and other applicable provisions of this code.

420.2 Separation walls. Walls separating dwelling units in the same building, walls separating sleeping units in the same building and walls separating dwelling or sleeping units from other occupancies continuous to them in the same building shall be constructed as fire partitions in accordance with Section 709.

420.3 Horizontal separation. Floor assemblies separating dwelling units in the same building, floor assemblies separating sleeping units in the same building and floor assemblies separating dwelling or sleeping units from other occupanies contiguous to them in the same building shall be constructed as horizontal assemblies in accordance with Section 712.

420.4 Carbon monoxide alarms.[HCD 1, HCD 2 & HCD 1-AC]

420.4.1 Carbon monoxide alarms. For new construction, an approved carbon monoxide alarm shall be installed in dwelling units and in sleeping units within which fuel-burning appliances are installed; and in dwelling units that have attached garages.

420.4.1.1 Power supply. For new construction, required carbon monoxide alarms shall receive their primary power from the building wiring where such wiring is served from a commercial source and shall be equipped with a battery back-up. Alarm wiring shall be directly connected to the permanent building wiring without a disconnecting switch other than as required for overcurrent protection.

Exceptions:

  1. In dwelling units where there is no commercial power supply, the carbon monoxide alarm may be solely battery operated.
  2. In existing dwelling units, a carbon monoxide alarm is permitted to be solely battery operated where repairs or alterations do not result in the removal of wall and ceiling finishes or there is no access by means of attic, basement or crawl space. 123
  3. Other power sources recognized for use by NFPA 720.

420.4.1.2 Interconnection. Where more than one carbon monoxide alarm is required to be installed within the dwelling unit or within a sleeping unit, the alarm shall be interconnected in a manner that activation of one alarm shall activate all of the alarms in the individual unit.

Exception: Interconnection is not required in existing dwelling units or within sleeping units where repairs do not result in the removal of wall and ceiling finishes, there is no access by means of attic, basement or crawl space, and no previous method for interconnection existed.

420.4.2 Where required in existing dwellings or sleeping units. Where a permit is required for alterations, repairs or additions exceeding one thousand dollars ($1,000), existing dwellings or sleeping units that have attached garages or fuel-burning appliances shall be provided with a carbon monoxide alarm in accordance with Section 420.4.1. Carbon monoxide alarms shall only be required in the specific dwelling unit or sleeping unit for which the permit was obtained.

420.4.3 Alarm requirements. Single- and multiple-station carbon monoxide alarms shall be listed as complying with the requirements of UL 2034. Carbon monoxide detectors shall be listed as complying with the requirements of UL 2075. Carbon monoxide alarms and carbon monoxide detectors shall be installed in accordance with this code, the current edition of NFPA 720 "Standard for the Installation of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Detection and Warning Equipment" and the manufacturer's installation instructions. Other carbon monoxide alarm and detection devices as recognized in NFPA 720 are also acceptable.

Carbon monoxide alarms required by Sections 420.4.1 and 420.4.2 shall be installed in the following locations:

  1. Outside of each separate dwelling unit sleeping area in the immediate vicinity of the bedroom(s).
  2. On every level of a dwelling unit including basements.
  3. For R-1 only.
    1. On the ceiling of sleeping units with permanently installed fuel-burning appliances.

420.4.3.1 Multiple-purpose alarms. Carbon monoxide alarms combined with smoke alarms shall comply with Section 420.4, all applicable standards, and requirements for listing and approval by the Office of the State Fire Marshal, for smoke alarms.

420.4.4 Visible alarms. In buildings meeting the definition of "COVERED MULTIFAMILY DWELLINGS" in accordance with Chapter 11A and with fuel-burning appliances and/or attached garages as described in Section 420.4.1, all required carbon monoxide alarms shall be provided with the capability to support visible alarm notification appliances in accordance with NFPA 720 and Chapter 11B.

420.5 Licensed 24-hour care facilities in a Group R-2.1, R-3.1, or R-4 occupancy. See Section 425 for Special Provisions for licensed 24-hour care facilities in a Group R-2.1, R-3.1, or R-4 occupancy.

420.6 Existing Group R Occupancies. See Chapter 34.

SECTION 421
HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOMS

[F] 421.1 General. When required by the California Fire Code, hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be designed and constructed in accordance with Sections 421.1 through 421.8.

[F] 421.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

[F] GASEOUS HYDROGEN SYSTEM. An assembly of piping, devices and apparatus designed to generate, store, contain, distribute or transport a nontoxic, gaseous hydrogen-containing mixture having at least 95-percent hydrogen gas by volume and not more than 1-percent oxygen by volume. Gaseous hydrogen systems consist of items such as compressed gas containers, reactors and appurtenances, including pressure regulators, pressure relief devices, manifolds, pumps, compressors and interconnecting piping and tubing and controls.

[F] HYDROGEN CUTOFF ROOM. A room or space that is intended exclusively to house a gaseous hydrogen system.

[F] 421.3 Location. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall not be located below grade.

[F] 421.4 Design and construction. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be classified with respect to occupancy in accordance with Section 302.1 and separated from other areas of the building by not less than 1-hour fire barriers constructed in accordance with Section 707 or horizontal assemblies constructed in accordance with Section 712, or both; or as required by Section 508.2, 508.3 or 508.4, as applicable.

[F] 421.4.1 Opening protectives. Doors within the fire barriers, including doors to corridors, shall be self-closing in accordance with Section 715. Interior door openings shall be electronically interlocked to prevent operation of the hydrogen system when doors are opened or ajar or the room shall be provided with a mechanical exhaust ventilation system designed in accordance with Section 421.4.1.1.

[F] 421.4.1.1 Ventilation alternative. When an exhaust system is used in lieu of the interlock system required by Section 421.4.1, exhaust ventilation systems shall operate continuously and shall be designed to operate at a negative pressure in relation to the surrounding area. The average velocity of ventilation at the face of the door opening with the door in the fully open position shall not be less than 60 feet per minute (0.3048 m/s) with a minimum of 45 feet per minute (0.2287 m/s) at any point in the door opening.

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[F] 421.4.2 Windows. Operable windows in interior walls shall not be permitted. Fixed windows shall be permitted when in accordance with Section 715.

[F] 421.5 Ventilation. Cutoff rooms shall be provided with mechanical ventilation in accordance with the applicable provisions for repair garages in Chapter 5 of the California Mechanical Code.

[F] 421.6 Gas detection system. Hydrogen cutoff rooms shall be provided with an approved flammable gas detection system in accordance with Section 421.6.1 through 421.6.3.

[F] 421.6.1 System design. The flammable gas detection system shall be listed for use with hydrogen and any other flammable gases used in the room. The gas detection system shall be designed to activate when the level of flammable gas exceeds 25 percent of the lower flammability limit (LFL) for the gas or mixtures present at their anticipated temperature and pressure.

[F] 421.6.2 Operation. Activation of the gas detection system shall result in all of the following.

  1. Initiation of distinct audible and visual alarm signals both inside and outside of the cutoff room.
  2. Activation of the mechanical ventilation system.

[F] 421.6.3 Failure of the gas detection system. Failure of the gas detection system shall result in activation of the mechanical ventilation system, cessation of hydrogen generation and the sounding of a trouble signal in an approved location.

[F] 421.7 Explosion control. Explosion control shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 9 of the California Fire Code.

[F] 421.8 Standby power. Mechanical ventilation and gas detection systems shall be connected to a standby power system in accordance with Chapter 27.

SECTION 422
AMBULATORY HEALTH CARE FACILITIES

422.1 General. Occupancies classified as Group B ambulatory health care facilities shall comply with the provisions of Sections 422.1 through 422.6 and other applicable provisions of this code.

422.2 Smoke barriers. Smoke barriers shall be provided to subdivide every ambulatory care facility greater than 10,000 square feet (929 m2) into a minimum of two smoke compartments per story. The travel distance from any point in a smoke compartment to a smoke barrier door shall not exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). The smoke barrier shall be installed in accordance with Section 710.

422.3 Refuge area. At least 30 net square feet (2.8 m2) per nonambulatory patient shall be provided within the aggregate area of corridors, patient rooms, treatment rooms, lounge or dining areas and other low-hazard areas on each side of each smoke barrier.

422.4 Independent egress. A means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers without having to return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.

422.5 Automatic sprinkler systems. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be provided for ambulatory care facilities in accordance with Section 903.2.2.

422.6 Fire alarm systems. A fire alarm system shall be provided in accordance with Section 907.2.2.1.

SECTION 423
STORM SHELTERS

423.1 General. In addition to other applicable requirements in this code, storm shelters shall be constructed in accordance with ICC-500.

423.1.1 Scope. This section applies to the construction of storm shelters constructed as separate detached buildings or constructed as safe rooms within buildings for the purpose of providing safe refuge from storms that produce high winds, such as tornados and hurricanes. Such structures shall be designated to be hurricane and tornado shelters.

423.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, for the purposes of this chapter and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings shown herein.

STORM SHELTER. A building, structure or portions(s) thereof, constructed in accordance with ICC 500 and designated for use during a severe wind storm event, such as a hurricane or tornado.

Community storm shelter. A storm shelter not defined as a "Residential Storm Shelter."

Residential storm shelter. A storm shelter serving occupants of dwelling units and having an occupant load not exceeding 16 persons.

SECTION 424
SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR RESIDENTIAL HOTELS
[HCD 1 & HCD 1-AC]

424.1 Locking mail receptacles. A locking mail receptacle for each residential unit shall be provided in all residential hotels pursuant to the requirements specified in Health and Safety Code Section 17958.3.

SECTION 425
SPECIAL PROVISIONS FOR LICENSED 24-HOURCARE FACILITIES IN A GROUP R-2.1, R-3.1, R-4
[SFM]

425.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to 24-hour care facilities in a Group R-2.1, R-3.1 or R-4 occupancy licensed by a governmental agency.

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425.2 General. The provisions in this section shall apply in addition to general requirements in this code.

425.2.1 Restraint shall not be practiced in a Group R-2.1, R-3.1 or R-4 Occupancies.

Exception: Occupancies which meet all the requirements for a Group I-3 Occupancy.

425.2.2 Pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13133, regulations of the state fire marshal pertaining to occupancies classified as Residential Facilities (RF) and Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE) shall apply uniformly throughout the state and no city, county, city and county, including a charter city or charter county, or fire protection district shall adopt or enforce any ordinance or local rule or regulation relating to fire and panic safety which is inconsistent with these regulations. A city, county, city and county, including a charter city or charter county may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13143.5, or a fire protection district may pursuant to Health and Safety Code Section 13869.7, adopt standards more stringent than those adopted by the state fire marshal that are reasonably necessary to accommodate local climate, geological or topographical conditions relating to roof coverings for Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly.

Exception: Local regulations relating to roof coverings in facilities licensed as a residential care facility for the elderly (RCFE) per Health and Safety Code Section 13133.

425.3 Building height and area provisions.

425.3.1 Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 shall be constructed in accordance with Table 503.

425.3.2 Limitations six or less clients. Group R-3.1 occupancies where clients are housed above the first story, having more than two stories in height or having more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) of floor area above the first story shall not be of less than one-hour fire-resistance-rated construction throughout.

In Group R3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden client, the client sleeping room shall not be located above or below the first story.

Exception: Clients who become bedridden as a result of a temporary illness as defined in Health and Safety Code Sections 1566.45, 1568.0832 and 1569.72. A temporary illness is an illness, which persists for 14 days or less. A bedridden client may be retained in excess of the 14 days upon approval by the Department of Social Services and may continue to be housed on any story in a Group R-3.1 occupancy classified as a licensed residential facility.

Every licensee admitting or retaining a bedridden resident shall, within 48 hours of the resident's admission or retention in the facility, notify the local fire authority with jurisdiction of the estimated length of time the resident will retain his or her bedridden status in the facility.

425.3.3 Limitations seven or more clients. Group R-4 occupancies where nonambulatory clients are housed above the first story and there is more than 3,000 square feet (279 m2) of floor area above the first story or housing more than 16 clients above the first story shall be constructed of not less than one-hour fire-resistance-rated construction throughout.

425.3.4 Nonambulatory elderly clients. Group R-4 occupancies housing nonambulatory elderly clients shall be of not less than one-hour fire-resistance-rated construction throughout.

425.4 Type of construction provisions.

425.4.1 Group R-2.1, occupancies are not permitted in nonfire-resistance-rated construction, see Health and Safety Code Section 13131.5.

425.5 Fire-resistance-rated construction provisions.

425.5.1 Smoke barriers required. Group R-2.1 and R-4 occupancies licensed as a Residential Care Facility (RCF) with individual floor areas over 6,000 square feet (557 m2) per floor, shall be provided with smoke barriers, constructed in accordance with Section 710.

Group R-2.1 occupancies housing bedridden clients shall be provided with smoke barriers constructed in accordance with Section 710 regardless of the number of clients.

When smoke barriers are required, the area within a smoke compartment shall not exceed 22,500 square feet (2090 m2) nor shall its travel distance exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm). Such smoke barriers shall divide the floor as equally as possible.

425.5.2 Smoke partitions. Group R-2.1 occupancies where smoke partitions are required, framing shall be covered with noncombustible materials having an approved thermal barrier with an index of not less than 15 in accordance with FM 4880, UL 1040, NFPA 286 or UL 1715.

425.5.3 Independent egress. At least two means of egress shall be provided from each smoke compartment created by smoke barriers. Means of egress may pass through adjacent compartments provided it does not return through the smoke compartment from which means of egress originated.

425.6 Interior finish provisions.

425.6.1 Interior wall and ceiling finish. Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden client shall comply with interior wall and ceiling finish requirements specified for Group I-2 occupancies in Table 803.9.

425.7 Fire protection system provisions.

425.7.1 Automatic sprinkler systems in Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies. An automatic sprinkler system shall be installed where required in Section 903.

425.7.2 Fire alarm systems in Group R-2.1 and R-4 occupancies. An approved fire alarm system shall be installed where required in Section 907.

425.7.3 Smoke alarms in Groups R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies. Smoke alarms shall be installed where required in Section 907.2.11.1.

425.7.4 Hearing impaired. See Section 907.5.2.3.

425.8 Means of egress provisions.

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425.8.1 General. In addition to the general means of egress requirements of Chapter 10, this section shall apply to Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies.

425.8.2 Number of exits.

425.8.2.1 Group R-2.1, R-3.1 and R-4 occupancies shall have a minimum of two exits.

Exception: Ancillary use areas or occupancies shall have egress as required by Section 1021.

425.8.3 Egress arrangements.

425.8.3.1 Egress through adjoining dwelling units shall not be permitted.

425.8.3.2 Group R-3.1 occupancies housing nonambulatory clients. In a Group R-3.1 occupancy, bedrooms used by nonambulatory clients shall have access to at least one of the required exits which shall conform to one of the following:

  1. Egress through a hallway or area into a bedroom in the immediate area which has an exit directly to the exterior and the corridor/hallway is constructed consistent with the dwelling unit interior walls. The hallway shall be separated from common areas by a solid wood door not less than 1 3/8 inch (35 mm) in thickness, maintained self-closing or shall be automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 715.4.8.
  2. Egress through a hallway which has an exit directly to the exterior. The hallway shall be separated from the rest of the house by a wall constructed consistent with the dwelling unit interior walls and opening protected by a solid wood door not less than 1 3/8 inch (35 mm) in thickness, maintained self-closing or shall be automatic closing by actuation of a smoke detector installed in accordance with Section 715.4.8.
  3. Direct exit from the bedroom to the exterior shall be of a size as to permit the installation of a door not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. When installed, doors shall be capable of opening at least 90 degrees and shall be so mounted that the clear width of the exit way is not less than 32 inches (813 mm).
  4. Egress through an adjoining bedroom which exits to the exterior.

425.8.3.3 Group R-3.1 occupancies housing only one bedridden client. In Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden client and not provided with an approved automatic sprinkler system, all of the following shall apply:

  1. In Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden client, a direct exit to the exterior of the residence shall be provided from the client sleeping room.
  2. Doors to a bedridden client's sleeping room shall be of a self-closing, positive latching 1-3/8 inch solid wood door. Such doors shall be provided with a gasket so installed as to provide a seal where the door meets the jam on both sides and across the top. Doors shall be maintained self-closing or shall be automatic closing by actuation of a smoke alarm in accordance with Section 715.4.8.
  3. Group R-3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden client, shall not have a night latch, dead bolt, security chain or any similar locking device installed on any interior door leading from a bedridden client's sleeping room to any interior area such as a corridor, hallway and or general use areas of the residence in accordance with Chapter 10.
  4. The exterior exit door to a bedridden client's sleeping room shall be operable from both the interior and exterior of the residence.
  5. Every required exit doorway from a bedridden client sleeping room shall be of a size as to permit the installation of a door not less than 3 feet (914 mm) in width and not less than 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. When installed in exit doorways, exit doors shall be capable of opening at least 90 degrees and shall be so mounted that the clear width of the exit way is not less than 32 inches (813 mm).

Note: A sliding glass door can be used as an exterior exit doorway as long as it is operable from the inside and outside and the clear width of the exit way is not less than 32 inches (813 mm).

425.8.3.4 Intervening rooms. A means of exit shall not pass through more than one intervening room. A means of egress shall not pass through kitchens, storerooms, closets, garages or spaces used for similar purposes.

Exception: Kitchens which do not form separate rooms by construction.

425.8.4 Corridors.

425.8.4.1 Unless specified by Section 425.8.4, corridors serving Group R-2.1 and Group R-4 occupancies shall comply with Section 1018.1.

425.8.4.2 The minimum clear width of a corridor shall be as follows:

  1. Group R-2.1 occupancies shall have 60 inches (1524 mm) on floors housing nonambulatory clients and 44 inches (1118 mm) on floors housing only ambulatory clients.
  2. Group R-4 occupancies shall have 44 inches (1118 mm) on floors housing clients.

Exceptions:

  1. Corridors serving an occupant load of 10 or less shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width.
  2. Corridors serving ambulatory persons only and having an occupant load of 49 127
  3. or less shall not be less than 36 inches (914 mm) in width.
  4. Group R-4 occupancies shall have 36 inches (914 mm) on floors housing clients.

In Group R-2.1 occupancies provided with fire sprinklers throughout and which are required to have rated corridors, door closers need not be installed on doors to client sleeping rooms.

425.8.4.3 In a Group R-2.1 and Group R-4 occupancies having smoke barriers, cross-corridor doors in corridors 6 feet (1829 mm) or less in width shall have, as a minimum, a door 36 inches (914 mm) in width.

425.8.5 Changes in level. In Group R-3.1 occupancies housing nonambulatory clients interior changes in level up to 0.25 inch (6 mm) may be vertical and without edge treatment. Changes in level between 0.25 inch (6 mm) and 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) shall be beveled with a slope no greater than 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50 percent slope). Changes in level greater than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) shall be accomplished by means of a ramp.

425.8.6 Stairways.

425.8.6.1 Group R-2.1 and Group R-4 occupancies housing more than six nonambulatory clients above the first floor shall be provided with two vertical exit enclosures. Stairway enclosures shall be in compliance with Section 1020. Exceptions to Section 1020 shall not apply in facilities licensed as a 24-hour care facility.

425.8.6.2 Group R-3.1 occupancies may continue to use existing stairways (except for winding and spiral stairways which are not permitted as a required means of egress) provided the stairs have a maximum rise of 8 inches (203 mm) with a minimum run of 9 inches (229 mm). The minimum stairway width may be 30 inches (762 mm).

425.8.7 Floor separation. Group R-3.1 occupancies shall be provided with a nonfire resistance constructed floor separation at stairs which will prevent smoke migration between floors. Such floor separation shall have equivalent construction of 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) gypsum wallboard on one side of wall framing.

Exceptions:

  1. Occupancies with at least one exterior exit from floors occupied by clients.
  2. Occupancies provided with automatic fire sprinkler systems complying with Chapter 9.

425.8.7.1 Doors within floor separations. Doors within such floor separations shall be tight fitting solid wood at least 13/8 inches (35 mm) in thickness. Door glazing shall not exceed 1296 square inches (32 918 mm2) with no dimension greater than 54 inches (1372 mm). Such doors shall be positive latching, smoke gasketed and shall be automatic-closing by smoke detection.

425.8.8 Fences and gates. Grounds of a Residential Care Facility for the Elderly serving Alzheimer clients may be fenced and gates therein equipped with locks, provided safe dispersal areas are located not less than 50 feet (15 240 mm) from the buildings. Dispersal areas shall be sized to provide an area of not less than 3 square feet (0.28 m2) per occupant. Gates shall not be installed across corridors or passage-ways leading to such dispersal areas unless they comply with egress requirements.

425.8.9 Basement exits. One exit is required to grade level when the basement is accessible to clients.

425.8.10 Delayed egress locks. See Section 1008.1.8.6.

425.9 Request for alternate means of protection for facilities housing bedridden clients. Request for alternate means of protection shall apply to Sections 425 through 425.9. Request for approval to use an alternative material, assembly or materials, equipment, method of construction, method of installation of equipment, or means of protection shall be made in writing to the local fire authority having jurisdiction by the facility, client or the client's authorized representative. Sufficient evidence shall be submitted to substantiate the need for an alternate means of protection.

The facility, client or the client's representative or the local fire authority having jurisdiction may request a written opinion from the State Fire Marshal concerning the interpretation of the regulations promulgated by the State Fire Marshal for a particular factual dispute. The State Fire Marshal shall issue the written opinion within 45 days following the request.

Approval of a request for use of an alternative material, assembly or materials, equipment, method of construction, method of installation of equipment, or means of protection made pursuant to this section shall be limited to Group R, 3.1 occupancies housing a bedridden client.

Approvals made by the local fire authority having jurisdiction and the written opinion by the State Fire Marshal shall be applicable only to the requesting facility and shall not be construed as establishing any precedent for any future request by that facility or any other facility.

425.10 Temporarily bedridden clients. Clients who become temporarily bedridden as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 1569.72, as enforced by the Department of Social Services, may continue to be housed on any story in Group R-2.1, R-3.1 or R-4 occupancies classified as Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly (RCFE). Every Residential Care Facility for the Elderly (RCFE) admitting or retaining a bedridden resident shall, within 48 hours of the resident's admission or retention in the facility, notify the local fire authority with jurisdiction of the estimated length of time the resident will retain his or her bedridden status in the facility.

SECTION 426
GROUP I-4 [SFM]

426.1 Group I-4 special provisions. Rooms classified as Group I-4 shall not be located above or below the first story.

Exceptions:

  1. Basements or stories having floor levels located within 4 feet (1219 mm), measured vertically, from adjacent ground level at the level of exit discharge, 128 provided the basement or story has exterior exit doors at that level.
  2. In buildings equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout, rooms used for kindergarten, first-and second-grade children or for day-care purposes may be located on the second story, provided there are at least two exterior exit doors, or other egress systems complying with Section 1017 with two exits, for the exclusive use of such occupants. Egress systems for the exclusive use of such occupants shall be maintained until exit discharge at grade is attained.
  3. Group I-4 child-care facilities may be located above the first story in buildings of Type I construction and in Types II-A and III-A construction, subject to the limitation of Section 503 when:
    1. Group I-4 childcare facilities with children under the age of seven or containing more than 12 children per story shall not be located above the fourth floor; and
    2. The entire story in which the Group I-4 child-care facility is located is equipped with an approved manual fire alarm and smoke-detection system. (See the Fire Code.) Actuation of an initiating device shall sound an audible alarm throughout the entire story. When a building fire alarm system is required by other provisions of this code or the Fire Code, the alarm system shall be connected to the building alarm system. An approved alarm signal shall sound at an approved location in the Group I-4 child-care facility to indicate a fire alarm or sprinkler flow condition in other portions of the building; and
    3. Group I-4 child-care facilities, if more than 1,000 square feet (92.9 m2) in area, is divided into at least two compartments of approximately the same size by a smoke barrier with door openings protected by smoke- and draft-control assemblies having a fire-protection rating of not less than 20 minutes. Smoke barriers shall have a fire-resistive rating of not less than one hour. In addition to the requirements of Section 508.3.3, occupancy separations between Group I-4 child-care and other occupancies shall be constructed as smoke barriers. Door openings in the smoke barrier shall be tightfittinq, with gaskets installed as required by Section 710, and shall be automatic closing by actuation of the automatic sprinklers, fire alarm or smoke-detection system.
    4. Each compartment formed by the smoke barrier has not less than two exits or exit access doors, one of which is permitted to pass through the adjoining compartment; and
    5. Where two or more exits or exit access are required at least one shall not share a common path of travel.
    6. The building is equipped with an automatic sprinkler system throughout.

SECTION 427

Reserved

SECTION 428

Reserved

SECTION 429

Reserved

SECTION 430
HORSE RACING STABLES [SFM]

430.1 For automatic sprinkler and fire alarm system requirements applying to each building, barn or structure which is used by an association regulated by the California Horse Racing Board for the stabling of horses or human habitation, and the stable area grounds, including any additional location where any excess horses are stabled see Title 4, Division 4, Article 17, Section 1927.

SECTION 431
PET KENNELS [SFM]

431.1 These regulations shall apply to every building or fire area in which a pet dealer, as defined in Health and Safety Code Section 122125, maintains a kennel.

431.2 Automatic sprinkler system. An approved automatic sprinkler system complying with California Fire Code Section 903 shall be installed.

Exception: Where a fire alarm system that is connected to a central reporting station that alerts the local fire department in case of fire.

SECTION 432
COMBUSTION ENGINES AND GAS TURBINES
[SFM]

432.1 General. The installation of combustion engines and gas turbines shall be in accordance with NFPA-37 and this chapter.

432.2 Separation.

432.2.1 Construction. Every room in which is installed a combustion engine or gas turbine shall be separated from the remainder of the building by not less than a one-hour fire barrier.

432.2.2 Exterior openings. When doors, windows or louvered openings are located below openings in another story or less than 10 feet (3048 mm) from doors, windows or louvered openings of the same building, they shall be protected.

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by a fire assembly having a ¾-hour rating. Such fire assemblies shall be fixed, automatic or self-closing.

432.2.2.1 Interior openings. In other than buildings housing Group I and R-2.1 occupancies, interior openings shall be allowed in buildings protected by an automatic fire sprinkler system throughout.

432.2.3 Location. Combustion engines and gas turbines used for emergency power shall not be located in a room or area used for any other purpose other than equipment and controls related to the generation and distribution of emergency power.

432.2.4 Special hazards. The handling and use of flammable or combustible liquids shall comply with the California Fire Code.

SECTION 433
FIXED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT SYSTEMS [SFM]

433.1 General.

433.1.1 Scope. The provisions of this section shall apply to buildings or structures defined as stations for fixed guideway transit systems and shall supersede other similar requirements in other sections of this code.

433.1.2 Definitions. For the purpose of this section, certain terms are defined as follows:

AT-GRADE STATION. Any at-grade or unroofed station other than an elevated or underground station.

ELEVATED STATION. A station greater than one story not otherwise defined as an at-grade or underground station.

EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT PANEL (EMP). The location where all necessary on-site control and communication facilities are consolidated for effective response to emergency situations.

ENCLOSED STATION. A station or portion there of that does not meet the definition of an open station.

ENGINEERING ANALYSIS (FIRE HAZARD/FIRE RISK ASSESSMENT). An analysis that evaluates all various factors that affect the fire safety of the system or component. A written report of the analysis shall indicate the fire protection method(s) recommended that demonstrates a level of fire safety commensurate with this standard.

FIXED GUIDEWAY TRANSIT SYSTEM (the system). An automated driverless or manually controlled electrified transportation system, utilizing a fixed guideway, operating on right-of-way for the mass movement of passengers and consisting of its fixed guideways, transit vehicles and other rolling stock; power system; buildings; maintenance facilities; stations; transit vehicle yard; and other stationary and movable apparatus, equipment, appurtenances and structures.

GUIDEWAY. That portion of the system on which the transit vehicles operate.

OPEN STATION. A station that is constructed in such a manner that it is open to the atmosphere, and smoke and heat are allowed to disperse directly into the atmosphere. The following enclosed areas in open stations are permitted but limited to:

  1. Ticket/pass booths not exceeding 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area.
  2. Mechanical and electrical spaces typically not used for human occupancy and necessary for the operation of a fixed guideway transit system. Such spaces shall be limited to two per level.
  3. Restrooms not exceeding 150 square feet (13.9 m2) in area. A maximum of four restrooms are permitted per level.

OPERATIONS CONTROL CENTER (OCC) (CENTRAL CONTROL). The operation center where the authority controls and coordinates the system-wide movement of passengers and trains from which communication is maintained with supervisory and operating personnel of the authority, and with participating agencies when required.

POINT OF SAFETY. An enclosed fire exit that leads to a public way or safe location outside the structure, or an at-grade point beyond any enclosing structure, or other area that affords adequate protection for passengers.

POWER SUBSTATION. The location of electric equipment that does not generate electricity but receives and converts or transforms generated energy to usable electric energy.

STATION. A place designated for the purpose of loading and unloading passengers, including patron service areas and ancillary spaces associated with the same structure.

STATION PLATFORM. The area of a station used primarily for loading and unloading transit vehicle passengers.

UNDERGROUND STATION. A station or that part of a station located beneath the surface of the earth or of the water.

433.2 Types of Construction.

433.2.1 Unless otherwise specified in this section, buildings or portions of buildings classed as stations of fixed guideway transit systems shall be minimum Type IA, Type IB or Type II-A construction and shall not exceed in area or height the limits specified in Table 503.

Underground stations shall be a minimum Type I or Type I-B constructions.

Open stations may be of Type II-B construction and shall not exceed in area or height as required by Table 503 for Type II-A.

Exception: At-grade structures of open stations with an occupancy load not exceeding 300 persons may be of any construction type permitted by this code.

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433.2.2 Mixed occupancies.

433.2.2.1 Stations of fixed guideway transit systems shall be separated from other occupancies in accordance with Table 508.4 for Group A Occupancies.

433.2.2.2 The following areas shall be separated from public areas by a two-hour fire barrier:

  1. Electrical control rooms, auxiliary electrical rooms and associated battery rooms
  2. Trash rooms
  3. Train control rooms and associated battery rooms
  4. Fan rooms
  5. Emergency generator rooms

433.2.2.3 Within station structures, all power substations shall be separated from all other areas by a three-hour fire barrier with no openings to public areas.

433.3 Access and exit facilities.

433.3.1 Occupant load. The occupant load for a transit station shall be based on the emergency condition requiring evacuation of that station to a point of safety. The station occupant load shall be the sum of the number of persons in the calculated train load of trains entering a station plus the entraining load of persons awaiting train(s), during a specified time period. Notwithstanding, the minimum occupant load shall not be less than the maximum capacity load of a train which would occupy the entire length of the station platform on a single track. Exiting shall be provided for occupant loads recalculated upon increase in service and/or every five years.

433.3.1.1 Calculated train load. The calculated train load is the number of passengers on trains simultaneously entering the station on all tracks in normal traffic direction during the peak 15-minute period.

The following limitations to the calculated train load shall be applied:

  1. No more than one train will unload at any one track to a platform during an emergency.
  2. The load on any single train is limited to the maximum train capacity.

433.3.1.2 Entraining load (on platform awaiting train). The entraining load is equal to the number of passengers that would accumulate on the platform in the time period equivalent to two headways or 12 minutes during the peak 15-minute period, whichever time period is greater.

This entraining load is constrained as stated as follows:

  1. Special consideration shall be given to stations servicing areas where events occur that establish occupant loads not included in normal passenger loads. These would include such areas as civic centers, sports complexes and convention centers.
  2. At multiplatform stations, each platform shall be considered separately. Arrival of trains from all normal traffic directions, plus their entraining loads, shall be considered.
  3. At concourses, mezzanines or multilevel stations, simultaneous platform loads shall be considered for all exit lanes passing through that area.

433.3.2 Exits required.

433.3.2.1 Number of exits. Stations shall have at least two exits placed a distance apart equal to not less than one half of the length of the maximum overall diagonal dimension of the station. Enclosed station platforms shall have a minimum of one exit within 20 feet (6096 mm) from each end. Underground station platforms shall have a minimum of one enclosed exit within 20 feet (6096 mm) from each end. Routes from platform ends into the underground guideway shall not be considered as exits for calculating exiting requirements.

433.3.2.2 Capacity of exits and station evacuation time.

433.3.2.2.1 Exit capacities shall be calculated on the basis of 22-inch-wide (559 mm) exit lanes at the clear and narrowest point except that individual handrails may project into the required width as permitted by Chapter 10. Fractional lanes shall not be counted in measuring exit capacities except that 12 inches (305 mm) added to one or more lanes shall be counted as one-half a lane. Escalators 32 inches (813 mm) in width may be considered as 1½ lanes.

433.3.2.2.2 There shall be sufficient means of exit to evacuate the station occupant load from the station platforms in four minutes or less.

433.3.2.2.3 The station shall also be designed to permit evacuation from the most remote point on the platform to a point of safety in six minutes or less.

433.3.2.2.4 In at-grade or elevated structures so designed that the station platform is open to the elements and, when the concourse is below or protected from the platform by distance or materials as determined by an appropriate engineering analysis, that concourse may be defined as a point of safety, with Fire Code Official concurrence.

433.3.2.2.5 To calculate evacuation time, the walking travel time should be tabulated using the longest exit route and travel speeds. To this time should be added the following factors:

  1. The waiting time at the vertical elements at platform level minus the longest walking travel time at platform level.
  2. The waiting time at the fare collection barriers minus the waiting time at the platform vertical circulation elements.
  3. The waiting time at the vertical or horizontal circulation elements from mezzanine to grade minus the waiting time at the platform vertical circulation elements or fare collection barrier, whichever is greater. 131
  4. The waiting time, if any, at any additional constriction minus the greatest previous waiting time. (Repeat for all additional constrictions.)

Note: The total of any of the factors in Items 1 through 4 above cannot be less than zero.

433.3.3 Exit width and exit lanes.

433.3.3.1 The capacity in persons per minute (ppm), patron travel speeds in feet per minute (fpm) and requirements for exit lanes shall be as follows:

  1. Platforms, corridors and ramps of 1 foot vertical for 20 feet horizontal (5 percent slope) or less: Exit corridors, platforms and ramps shall be a minimum clear width of 5 feet (1524 mm). In computing the number of exit lanes available, 1 foot 6 inches (457 mm) shall be deducted at each platform edge and 1 foot (305 mm) at each side wall.
    Per exit lane:
    Capacity – 50 ppm
    Travel speed – 200 fpm
  2. Stairs, stopped escalators and ramps of over 1 foot vertical for 20 feet horizontal (5 percent slope): Exit ramps shall be a minimum clear width of 6 feet (1829 mm). Stopped escalators may be considered as a means of egress, provided they are of nominal 2 feet 8 inches (813 mm) width.
    Per exit lane “up” direction:
    Capacity – 35 ppm
    Travel speed – 50 fpm*
    Per exit lane “down” direction:
    Capacity – 40 ppm
    Travel speed – 60 fpm*
  3. Doors and gates: Gates fitted with approved panic hardware and opening in the direction of exit travel, with minimum nominal width of 3 feet (914 mm) shall be permitted in exit calculation.
    Per doors and gate:
    Capacity – 50 ppm per exit lane
  4. Fare collection gates: Fare collection gates, when deactivated, shall provide a minimum 20 inches (508 mm) clear unobstructed aisle. Console shall not exceed 40 inches (1016 mm) in height.
    Per gate:
    Capacity – 50 ppm

Note: Examples of exiting analysis may be found in Appendix C of NFPA 130, 1995 edition, Standard for Fixed Guideway Transit Systems.

*Indicates vertical component of travel speed.

433.3.4 Arrangement of exits.

433.3.4.1 Vertical circulation elements shall be comprised of stairs or stair/escalator combinations. Escalators shall not account for more than half of the units of exit at any one level in the public area. Escalators must be paired in combination with stairs to be included in exiting capacity calculations.

433.3.4.2 Because of the possibility of maintenance or malfunction, one escalator at each station shall be considered as being out of service in calculating egress requirements. The escalator chosen shall be that one having the most adverse effect on exiting capacities.

433.3.5 Distance to exits. No point of the station platform(s) or mezzanine(s) shall be more than 300 feet (91 440 mm) from a point of safety.

433.3.6 Other exits required/guideway access.

433.3.6.1 Access/egress between guideway and platforms shall be provided as follows:

  1. Stairs or ramps, 2 feet 10 inches (864 mm) in width minimum, or other arrangement having equivalent capacity, shall be provided at each end of the platform, arranged to provide access/egress to guideway level.
  2. Except in underground stations, the access points between the guideway and the platform, and the exit from the platform may be integrated.

433.3.6.2 In enclosed stations, escalator and stairway enclosures are not required in the public areas of multilevel transit stations among platform, mezzanine and concourse when the station is provided with an emergency ventilation system.

433.3.7 Emergency lighting and exit signs.

433.3.7.1 Emergency lighting and exit signs shall be provided in accordance with Chapter 10.

Exception: Open stations at grade need not provide emergency lighting or exit signs.

433.4 Special provisions.

433.4.1 Automatic sprinkler system. See Section 903.2.17.1.

433.4.2 Station guideway deluge system. See Section 903.2.17.1.

433.4.3 Standpipe systems. See Section 905.3.10.

433.4.4 Emergency management panel (EMP). An EMP shall be required for enclosed and underground stations. Location of the EMP shall be determined by the Fire Code Official. The EMP shall include but not be limited to the following:

  1. Indication of manual pull boxes and automatic smoke detectors
  2. Indication of alarm signals from all suppression systems
  3. Capabilities for using station paging system
  4. Emergency telephone
  5. Escalator controls
  6. Emergency ventilation controls
  7. Station schematics
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433.4.5 Emergency ventilation systems.

433.4.5.1 General. Emergency ventilation shall be provided for enclosed and underground stations for the protection of passengers, employees and emergency personnel.

433.4.5.2 These systems shall be designed as follows:

  1. A stream of noncontaminated air is provided to passengers in a path(s) of egress away from a train fire; and
  2. Airflow rates produced toward a train fire in a path of egress are sufficient to prevent back layering of smoke; and
  3. The temperature in a path of egress away from a train fire is limited to 140°F (60°C), or less; and
  4. The design heat release rate produced by a train fire shall be used to design the emergency ventilation system.

433.4.5.3 Ventilation shaft terminals at-grade shall be located to prevent recirculation as follows:

  1. Openings for blast relief shafts, and under platform and smoke exhaust shafts at-grade shall be separated by a minimum horizontal distance of 40 feet (12 192 mm) from any station entrance, elevator hoistway enclosure, surface emergency stair doorway, unprotected outside air intake or other opening, or from each other. Exhaust outlets that are not used for intakes may be adjacent to each other.
  2. Where this distance is not practical, the horizontal distance may be reduced to 15 feet (4572 mm) if the closest blast relief or under platform and smoke exhaust shaft terminal is raised a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above the station entrance, emergency stair doorway and unprotected outside air intake or other opening, or the underplatform and smoke exhaust shaft terminal is raised a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) above the blast relief shaft terminal.
  3. Ventilation of stations shall not terminate at grade on any vehicle roadway.

433.4.5.4 Emergency ventilation fans.

433.4.5.4.1 Ventilation fans used for emergency service, their motors, dampers and all related components exposed to the ventilation airflow shall be designed to operate in an ambient atmosphere of 482°F (250°C) for a period of at least one hour. Ventilation fans and related components shall be capable of withstanding the maximum anticipated plus/minus pressure transients induced by train operations.

433.4.5.4.2 Local fan motor starters and related operating control devices for emergency ventilation equipment shall be isolated from the ventilation airflow by a separation having a fire-resistance rating of at least one hour.

433.4.5.4.3 Thermal overload protective devices shall not be provided on motor controls of fans used for emergency ventilation.

433.4.5.4.4 The power supply for fans essential for emergency ventilation service shall consist of two separate electrical feeders. Each feeder shall originate from a different source (substation) and shall be separated physically to the extent possible. Automatic transfer shall be provided in the event the normal supply source fails.

433.4.5.4.5 Operation and fail-safe verification for proper operation of emergency fans shall be affected from the operation control center with indication provided for all modes of operation for each fan.

433.4.5.5 Emergency ventilation control.

433.4.5.5.1 Local controls shall override remote control. Local control shall be capable of operating the fans in all modes in the event the remote controls become inoperative.

433.4.5.5.2 Emergency ventilation systems shall be supervised and/or controlled in all operating modes locally (motor control center and/or fan unit) and remotely at both the OCC and the station EMP.

433.4.5.5.3 Fan running shall be provided by sensing devices for each fan for operation in both the supply and exhaust directions.

433.4.5.5.4 Trouble status signals shall be annunciated in the local control room. A summarized trouble signal shall be annunciated at OCC and EMP.

433.4.5.6 Ventilation systems and ancilary areas. Ancillary area ventilation systems shall be arranged so that air is not exhausted into station public occupancy areas.

433.5 Fire Alarm and Communication Systems. See Section 907.2.26.

SECTION 434
EXPLOSIVES [SFM]

434.1 General construction requirements. Magazines shall be constructed in conformity with the provisions of these regulations, or may be of substantially equivalent construction satisfactory to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction. Reasonable allowances shall be made for storage facilities in existence prior to the adoption of these regulations. No allowance, however, shall be made for storage facilities which constitute a distinct hazard to life and property.

434.2 Ventilation and weather resistance. Magazines for the storage of explosives shall be sufficiently ventilated and weather resistant and when used for the storage of Class A explosives (other than black powder, blasting agents, blasting caps and electric blasting caps), they shall also be of bullet-resistant construction unless deemed exempt by the enforcing agency having jurisdiction.

Note: The recommendation for ventilation as contained in Pamphlet No. 1, Institute of Makers of Explosives, 1965 edition, is evidence of good practice.

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434.3 Construction for separation between primers and flammable liquids. Primers shall be separated from flammable liquids by a one-hour fire-resistive occupancy separation.

Exception: A separation need not be provided for small arms ammunition primers when such primers are located a distance of not less than 25 feet (7620 mm) from flammable liquids.

434.4 Construction of Type I Magazine. Type I magazines shall be of bullet-resistant construction. Plans shall be submitted to the enforcing agency having jurisdiction for approval prior to construction.

434.4.1 General. Use of the following materials and methods of construction shall be evidence of compliance with this requirement:

  1. Masonry units not less than 8 inches (203 mm) in thickness with all hollow spaces filled with weak cement, well-tamped sand, or equivalent material; or
  2. Reinforced concrete not less than 6 inches (152 mm) in thickness; or
  3. Steel walls of minimum No. 14 manufacturers. Standard gage (0.0747 inch) (1.9 mm) to No. 6 manufacturers. Standard gage (0.1943 inch) (4.9 mm) may be used, provided there are two layers spaced at least 6 inches (152 mm) apart with all hollow spaces filled with weak cement, well-tamped sand or equivalent material; or
  4. One layer of No. 6 manufacturer's standard gage (0.1943 inch) (4.9 mm) or heavier; steel lined on the interior with a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) of wood; or
  5. Two layers of No. 6 manufacturer's standard gage (0.1943 inch) (4.9 mm) or heavier steel spaced a minimum ½ inch (12.7 mm) apart and lined on the interior with a minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) of wood; or
  6. Two layers of wood, at least 2 inches (51 mm) nominal thickness each, spaced a minimum 4 inches (102 mm) apart with the hollow space filled with weak cement, well-tamped sand or equivalent material.
  7. Wood used shall conform to the following:

Wood shall be of tongue-and-grooved lumber or plywood. Wood shall be covered, on the exterior side, with metal to provide protection against flying embers and sparks.

434.4.2 Doors. Doors shall be of bullet-resistant construction. Each door is to be equipped with:

  1. Two mortise locks;
  2. Two padlocks fastened in separate hasps and staples;
  3. A combination of a mortise lock and a padlock;
  4. A mortise lock that requires two keys to open; and
  5. A three-point lock.

Padlocks must have at least five tumblers and a case-hardened shackle of at least 3/8;-inch (9.5 mm) diameter. Padlocks must be protected with not less than ¼-inch (6.4 mm) steel hoods constructed so as to prevent sawing or lever action on the locks, hasps and staples. These requirements do not apply to magazine doors that are adequately secured on the inside by means of a bolt, lock or bar that cannot be actuated from the outside.

434.4.3 Floors. Floors of magazines shall be securely fastened in place and shall be capable of withstanding the loads imposed.

434.4.4 Roofs. Roofs shall be securely fastened in place and they shall be bullet resistant, if required by the fire chief having jurisdiction.

434.4.5 Ventilation openings. Ventilation openings shall be screened to prevent the entrance of sparks and they shall be protected in a manner that will maintain the bullet resistance of the magazine.

434.4.6 Interiors. Magazine interiors shall be of a smooth finish without cracks or crevices with all nails, screws, bolts and nuts countersunk. Exposed metal capable of emitting sparks shall be covered so as not to come in contact with packages of explosives.

434.4.7 Location. No Type I magazine, or portion thereof, shall be located under a high-voltage power line (750 volts or more). For the purposes of this section, “under” shall include an open space of not less than the height of the power line from the ground at right angles to the walls of the magazine.

434.5 Buildings used for mixing of blasting agents. Buildings used for the mixing of blasting agents shall conform to the requirements of Sections 434.5 and 434.6, unless otherwise specifically approved by the enforcing agency having jurisdiction.

434.5.1 Construction. Buildings shall be of all noncombustible construction or of sheet metal on wood studs.

434.5.2 Separation. The layout of the mixing building shall be such so as to provide physical separation between the finished product storage and the mixing and packaging operations.

434.5.3 Storage areas. Floors in storage areas and in the processing plant shall be of concrete or other noncombustible material. Isolated fuel storage shall be provided to avoid contact between molten ammonium nitrate and fuel in case of fire.

434.5.4 Ventilation. The building shall be well ventilated in accordance with Section 434.2.

434.5.5 Heat. Heat, if used, shall be provided exclusively from a unit outside of the building.

434.5.6 Venting. Explosion venting shall be provided when required by the enforcing agency having jurisdiction.

434.6 Building construction storage. Blasting agents may be stored in the manner set forth in Title 19, California Code of Regulations, Subchapter 10, Article 3, or in one-story warehouses (without basements), which shall be:

  1. Of noncombustible or one-hour fire-resistive construction;
  2. Constructed so as to eliminate floor drains and piping into which molten materials could flow and be confined in case of fire; 134
  3. Weather resistant;
  4. Well ventilated in accordance with Section 434.2; and
  5. Equipped with a substantially constructed and lockable door which shall be kept securely locked, except when the facility is open for business.

434.7 Electrical requirements for Type I magazines. Magazines shall not be provided with either heat or light, except upon the approval of the enforcing agency having jurisdiction. Electrical installation, when permitted, shall be in accordance with the California Electrical Code for Type II, Division I locations.

434.8 Mixing room blasting agents. All electrical switches, controls, motors and lights, if located in the mixing room, shall be installed in accordance with the California Electrical Code for Type II, Division I locations.

434.9 Storage of special effects materials. The storage of not more than 750 pounds (340 kg) of special effects materials shall be in a building or a room conforming to the requirements of Group H, Division I Occupancies as defined in this part. In addition, the following shall apply to every special effects materials storage building or room:

  1. The building shall be sprinklered as required in Chapter 9.
  2. It shall be deemed that the storage of special effects materials creates an atmosphere of flammable dust.
  3. Two or more permanent openings having an area of not less than 100 square inches (64 500 mm2) shall be located in the exterior wall to provide natural ventilation. These openings shall be protected by screens or louvers covered with ¼-inch (6.4 mm) wire mesh screen.
  4. Walls, floor ceiling, shelves and benches shall have a smooth nonmetallic surface which can be easily cleaned with a minimum of brushing or scrubbing.
  5. Each entrance door shall be posted on the outside with signs stating, “Authorized Personnel Only” and “No Smoking.”
  6. Assembling and manufacturing are prohibited in special effects storage rooms or buildings.
  7. The room shall be located above grade in a one-story building or on the top floor of a multistory building or may be a separate building.
  8. The room or building shall have a minimum floor area of 80 square feet (7.4 m2) with no dimension less than 8 feet (2438 mm).
  9. Electric wiring, lighting and heating shall be of a type approved for use in hazardous locations.

434.10 Mixing room or building. Buildings or rooms in which more than 50 pounds (22.7 kg) of special effects materials are present at any time shall be constructed with at least one wall of explosion-relief type. The relief wall should be placed so as to be of least hazard to persons in adjacent buildings.

434.10.1 Explosive venting. When explosive venting is required, the venting area will be calculated on 1 square foot (0.0929 m2) for each 35 cubic feet (0.99 m3) of building or roof area.

434.10.2 Egress. All rooms or buildings shall have adequate aisle space and at least two exits separated by a distance equal to at least one-fifth the perimeter of the room. Openings in fire walls shall be equipped with approved, self-closing fire doors. All exit doors shall open outward and be equipped with approved panic hardware.

Exception: Cubicles 100 square feet (9.3 m2) or less and occupied by not more than two persons working within 12 feet (3658 mm) of an unobstructed passageway may have one exit.

434.10.3 Room finishes. Floors, walls, interior surfaces and equipment shall be of a finish and color that will indicate the presence of dust and spilled material. They shall be smooth finished for easy cleaning.

434.10.4 HVAC. Heating and cooling shall be by the indirect method using water, steam, electric heaters or other indirect methods.

Note: Floor registers shall not be permitted.

434.10.5 Electrical. All electrical wiring and equipment shall be acceptable for the hazard involved and installed in accordance with Hazardous Locations, California Electrical Code.

434.10.6 Grounding. Effective bonding and grounding means shall be provided to prevent accumulation of static charges where static charges are a hazard, as set forth in the California Electrical Code.

434.10.7 Pressure relief valves. Hydraulic or air presses and hand jacks shall be provided with pressure-relief valves so arranged and set that the material being processed will not be subjected to pressure likely to cause it to explode. Dies and plugged press equipment shall not be cleared by striking blows that may detonate or start the material burning.

434.10.8 Dust control. Dust from special effects materials shall not be exhausted to the atmosphere. Where vacuum dust collections systems are used, they shall comply with the following requirements:

  1. Adequate filters must be installed between the source vacuum and the point of pickup to prevent explosive special effects materials from entering the vacuum pump or exhauster.
  2. The dust-collection system shall be designed to prevent pinch points threaded fittings exposed to the hazardous dust and sharp turns, dead ends, pockets, etc., in which special effects materials may lodge and accumulate outside the collecting chamber.
  3. The entire vacuum collection system shall be made electrically continuous and be grounded to a maximum resistance of 5 ohms.
  4. Chambers in which the dusts are collected shall not be located in the operating area unless adequate shields for the maximum quantity of material in the collector are furnished for personnel protection. 135
  5. No more than two rooms may be serviced by a common connection to a vacuum collection chamber. Where interconnections are used, means should be employed to prevent propagation of an incident via the collection piping.
  6. When collecting the more sensitive special effects materials, such as black powder, lead azide, etc., a “wet” collector which moistens the dust wet until removed for disposal shall be used. Wetting agents shall be compatible with the explosives.
  7. Dusts shall be removed from the collection chamber as often as necessary to prevent overloading. The entire system shall be cleaned at a frequency that will eliminate hazardous concentrations of dusts in pipes, tubing and/or ducts.

434.10.9 Fans. Squirrel cage blowers should not be used for exhausting hazardous fumes, vapors or gases. Only nonferrous fan blades are permitted for fans located within the ductwork and through which hazardous materials are exhausted. Motors shall be located outside the duct.

434.10.10 Work stations. Work stations for small amounts of special effects materials [less than 1 pound (0.454 kg)] shall be separated by distance, barrier or other means, so fire in one station will not ignite material in the next work station. When necessary, each operator shall be protected by a personnel shield located between the operator and the material being processed. This shield and its support shall be a test design to withstand a blast from the maximum amount of special effects materials allowed behind it.

434.10.11 Shielding. When shields or structures are needed to protect personnel, the following requirement shall be followed when specific weights of special effects materials in the amount of 1 pound (0.454 kg) or more are involved:

Weight of ExplosiveStructure of Shield Wall
1-15 pounds (0.454-6.8 kg)Shield wall constructed of concrete not less than 12 inches (305 mm) thick which is reinforced near both sides by rods not less than ½ inch (12.7 mm) in diameter located on maximum centers of 12 inches (305 mm) both horizontally and vertically. The rods must be staggered on opposite faces.
More than 15 pounds (6.8 kg)The shield wall for the protection of workers must be designed in such a manner to protect against the efforts of not less than 25 percent overload above the expected maximum charge to be processed.

Notes:

  1. One inch (25 mm) of mild steel is equivalent to 1 foot (305 mm) of reinforced concrete.
  2. Explosive shall be located not less than 36 inches (914 mm) from the wall and 24 inches (610 mm) above the floor.

If this personnel protection wall for the required operation involving large quantities of special effects materials becomes so large the it is impractical, the operator must perform the operations by remote control or be protected by a suitably constructed shelter designed with a safety factor of not less than 4 to withstand the overpressure from the maximum amount of explosives in process.

SECTION 435

RESERVED

SECTION 436
WINERY CAVES [SFM]

436.1 Scope. The use of subterranean space for winery facilities in natural or manmade caves shall be in accordance with this section.

436.2 Definitions.

436.3 General. For definitions of ASSEMBLY, FIRE APPLIANCE and NONCOMBUSTIBLE, see Chapter 2.

436.4 Limited application. For the purpose of Section 436, certain terms are defined as follows:

TYPE 1 WINERY CAVES are natural or manmade caves used solely for storage and/or processing of wine at a winery facility. Type 1 winery caves are not accessible to the public.

TYPE 2 WINERY CAVES are natural or manmade caves used for the storage and/or processing of wine at a winery facility. Type 2 winery caves are accessible to the public on guided tours only.

TYPE 3 WINERY CAVES are natural or manmade caves used for the storage and/or processing of wine at a winery facility. Type 3 winery caves are accessible to the public on guided tours and contain assembly use areas.

436.5 Permits. For permits to operate Type 2 and 3 winery caves, see Section 105.

436.6 Fire apparatus access roads. Fire apparatus access roads shall be constructed and maintained in accordance with the California Fire Code, Section 503.

436.7 Construction requirements.

436.7.1 Allowable area. The area of winery caves shall not be limited if constructed entirely of noncombustible materials. Winery caves constructed with combustible materials shall be limited in area so that no point is more than 150 feet (45 720 mm) from an exit.

436.7.2 Interior construction. The walls and ceilings of winery caves shall not contain hidden or concealed spaces.

436.8 General requirements.

436.8.1 Public tours. Tours for the public shall be continuously guided by staff knowledgeable in the location of exits and the use of emergency notification devices.

436.8.2 Standby personnel. Per the California Fire Code, Section 2404.20, when, in the opinion of the fire chief, it is essential for public safety, the owner, agent or lessee shall employ one or more qualified persons, as required and approved by the chief, to be on duty at such place. Such individuals shall be in uniform or otherwise easily identifiable.

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Standby personnel shall be subject to the fire chief's orders at all times when so employed and shall remain on duty during the times such places are open to the public or when such activity is being conducted.

Before the start of any activity requiring standby personnel, such individuals shall:

  1. Inspect the required fire appliances to ensure they are in the proper place and in good working order.
  2. Inspect all exits to verify accessibility and proper operation.

While on duty, such individuals shall not be required or permitted to perform any duties other than those specified by the fire chief.

436.8.3 Open-flame devices. The use of candles and other open-flame devices shall be in accordance with California Fire Code Section 308.1.7.

436.9 Portable fire extinguishers and other fire appliances. Portable fire extinguishers shall be located to be readily accessible. Its type, location and spacing throughout the facility shall be in accordance with the provisions of Title 19, Chapter 3 and California Fire Code Section 906.1. Other fire appliances shall be maintained at the site as required by the fire chief.

436.10 Fire alarm systems. An approved manual fire alarm system conforming with the provisions of the California Fire Code, Section 907.2.1 shall be provided in all Type 3 winery caves.

436.11 Exits.

436.11.1 Distribution. Exits shall be located remotely from each other and arranged to minimize any possibility that more than one may be blocked off by any one fire or other emergency condition.

436.11.2 Number. Winery caves shall be provided with a minimum of two exits.

Assembly areas of Type 3 winery caves shall be provided with exits as required by the California Building Code for Group A Occupancies.

436.12 Exit illumination.

436.12.1 General. Exits shall be illuminated to a minimum intensity of not less than 1 foot-candle (10.76 lx) at floor level whenever the winery cave is occupied. Fixtures providing exit illumination shall be supplied from a dedicated circuit or source of power used only for exit illumination.

436.12.2 Separate sources of power. The power supply for exit illumination may be provided by the premises' wiring system. In the event of its failure, illumination shall be automatically provided from an emergency system in Types 2 and 3 winery caves. Emergency systems shall be supplied from storage batteries or an on-site generator set, and the system shall be installed in accordance with the requirements of the California Electrical Code.

436.13 Exit signs. Exit signs shall be installed at required exits and where otherwise necessary to clearly indicate the exits from assembly areas in Type 3 winery caves.

436.14 Maximum occupant load. Occupant load requirements in the assembly areas of Type 3 winery caves shall be in accordance with Section 1004.

436.15 Seating arrangements. Seating arrangements in the assembly areas of Type 3 winery caves shall be in accordance with California Fire Code, Section 1028.9.

SECTION 437

RESERVED

SECTION 438

RESERVED

SECTION 439
PUBLIC LIBRARIES [SL AND SFM]

Public libraries funded from the California Library Construction and Renovation Act of 1988.

439.1 Automatic sprinkler system. Automatic sprinkler systems shall be installed in:

  1. New facilities, including additions;
  2. Existing facilities to which a project adds the lesser of 5,000 square feet (465m2) or 10 percent of the size of the existing facility, if the existing facility does not already have an automatic sprinkler system.

439.2 System monitoring requirement. All fire protection systems shall be monitored by a fire alarm supervising station in accordance with the NFPA 72.

439.3 Book return slots. Any interior book return with a slot piercing the exterior wall shall have a separate sprinkler head and be enclosed in fire-rated construction.

439.4 Automatic sprinkler and extinguishing systems. For public libraries constructed with funds awarded under the California Reading and Literacy Improvement and Public Library Construction and Renovation Bond Act of 2000:

  1. Fire sprinkler system requirement. All libraries funded for new construction, including additions, shall have automatic fire sprinkler systems installed.
  2. Fire sprinkler system requirement for renovations of existing facilities. If there is no automatic fire sprinkler system in the existing facility, grant recipients shall be required to install a fire sprinkler system throughout the existing facility.
  3. Fire sprinkler system types. The grant recipient may choose, on approval by the local fire authority, from wet-pipe, dry-pipe or pre-action systems, utilizing listed standard, early suppression fast response (ESFR), or on/off type sprinkler heads.
  4. Book return rooms and slots. Book return rooms with slots in exterior walls shall have an automatic sprinkler head and be of approved fire-resistive construction. Book return slots and book drops shall have an additional automatic sprinkler head when shielded from the room sprinkler head. 137
  5. System monitoring requirement. All fire protection systems shall be monitored by a fire alarm supervising station in accordance with the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 72.
  6. Alternate fire-extinguishing systems for specialized areas. When approved by the fire authority having jurisdiction, other types of approved automatic fire-extinguishing systems may be utilized as an alternate to sprinklers in the following areas: rare book rooms, central computer rooms and telecommunication rooms.
  7. Automatic sprinkler system plan requirement. Fire sprinkler system drawings shall use the furniture plan as a background for coordination with furniture and book stack location and height.

SECTION 440
GROUP C [SFM]

440.1 Group C Occupancies defined.

440.1.1 Organized camps. For the purposes of these regulations, Group C Occupancies shall mean “organized camps” as defined in Section 18897, Health and Safety Code.

440.1.1.1 Description. An organized camp is a site with programs and facilities established for the primary purpose of providing an outdoor group living experience with social, spiritual, educational or recreational objectives, for five days or more during one or more seasons of the year.

The term “organized camp” does not include a motel, tourist camp, trailer park, resort, hunting camp, auto court, labor camp, penal or correctional camp, child-care institution of home-finding agency nor does it include any charitable or recreational organization which complies with the rules and regulations for recreational trailer parks provided for by Section 18301 (b), Health and Safety Code.

440.1.2 Tents and tent structures. For the purpose of this chapter, a tent or tent structure is defined as any shelter of which 25 percent or more of the walls or roof, or both, are constructed of, or covered or protected by, a canvas or any other fabric material.

440.2 Purpose and intent. The provisions of this section are established to provide fire and life safety in organized camps, but at the same time preserve the basic concept of outdoor living. It is the intent of this section that organized camps shall be considered as a separate and distinct occupancy.

440.3 Basic building and structures.

440.3.1 Building classification. Every building or structure shall be classified into the occupancy group they most nearly resemble and be constructed in accordance with appropriate occupancy requirements specified in this part.

Exceptions:

  1. Tents, tent structures, and buildings and structures that do not exceed 25 feet (7620 mm) in any lateral dimension and where such building or structure is not more than one story.
  2. For fire safety, buildings or structures on the premises of an organized camp which are used for sleeping purposes, regardless of their similarity to other occupancy groups, shall conform to the provisions of Sections 440.4, 440.5, 440.6 and 440.7.
  3. For five safety, buildings and structures which are not used for sleeping purposes shall conform to the provisions of Section 440.7, which shall supersede any similar provisions contained in this part.

440.3.2 Occupant load. The living shelter whether a building, structure, tent and tent structure, or cabin, shall provide a minimum of 30 square feet (2.8 m2) of superficial floor area per person for single-tier bed units, and 20 square feet (1.9 m2) of superficial floor area per person for two-tier bed units. More than two tiers per bed unit are prohibited. There shall be at least 3 feet (914 mm) of lateral distance between beds.

Exception: Intermittent short-term organized campus are not required to provide shelter facilities but, if provided, they shall comply with this section.

440.4 General.

440.4.1 Buildings intended for sleeping. Buildings and structures used or intended for sleeping purposes which do not exceed any one of the limitations set forth below shall conform to the provisions of Sections 440.5 and 440.7.

  1. One story in height
  2. Twenty-five feet (7620 mm) in any lateral dimension

    Exception: This provision shall not apply to buildings or structures conforming to construction provisions of this section in effect prior to January 1, 1985.

  3. Maximum housing of 12 persons

440.4.2 Limitations. Buildings and structures used or intended for sleeping purposes, including those so used in whole or in part by staff personnel, and which exceed any one of the limitations set forth in Section 440.4.1, shall conform to the provisions of Sections 440.5 and 440.7.

Exception: Buildings or structures used exclusively for living and sleeping purposes by resident custodial or caretaker personnel only may be constructed in accordance with the provisions of these regulations for a Group R, 3 Occupancy.

440.5 Special buildings, tents and tent structures.

440.5.1 Special buildings. In addition to the provisions of Section 440.7, special buildings conforming to the limitations specified in Section 440.4.1 shall conform to the following:

  1. The flame-spread end-point rating of all interior finish materials shall not exceed 200.
  2. Every room or area housing more than eight persons shall be provided with not less than two approved exits, each of which shall be direct to the exterior and 138 shall not be less than 32 inches (813 mm) in clear width and 6 feet 8 inches (2032 mm) in height. Rooms or areas housing eight or less persons shall be provided with at least one such exit direct to the exterior.
  3. Every exit door shall be openable from the inside without the use of any key, special knowledge or effort.
  4. Exit doors need not be hung to swing in the direction of exit travel. Where exit doors are hung to swing in the direction of exit travel, a landing conforming to the provisions of Section 1008.1.5 shall be provided.
  5. When the distance (measured vertically) between the ground level and the floor level exceeds